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									ENERGY CONVERSIONS, CO2 EMMISSIONS & MEASUREMENTS
                                                                    Typical         Typical       Gross Energy      Gross Energy
                         Fuel                        Unit          Density         Density           MJ / kg          MJ / litre
                                                                   kg / litre      l / tonne
        Biomass Fuels:
        Fuelwood (5% mcwb)                     tonne                                                   18
                                     a
        Coconut residues (air dry)
        Shell (15% mcwb) harvested             tonne                                                  14.6
        Husk (30% mcwb harvested               tonne                                                   12
                            b
        Average (air dry)                      tonne                                                   14
        Coconut palm (air dry)                 tonne                                                  11.5
        Charcoal                               tonne                                                   30
        Bagasse                                tonne                                                   9.6
        Vegetable & Mineral Fuels:
        Crude oil                              tonne                                                  42.6
        Coconut oil                            tonne                 0.92           1,100             38.4
        LPG                                    tonne                 0.51           1,960             49.6                25.5
        Ethanol                                tonne                                                   27
        Gasoline (super)                       tonne                 0.73           1,370             46.5                 34
        Gasoline (unleaded)                    tonne                0.735           1,360             46.5                34.2
        Aviation gasoline (Avgas)              tonne                0.695           1,440             47.5                 33
        Lighting Kerosene                      tonne                 0.79           1,270             46.4                36.6
        Aviation turbine fuel (jet fuel)       tonne                0.795           1,260             46.4                36.9
        Automotive diesel (ADO)                tonne                 0.84           1,190              46                 38.6
        High sulphur fuel oil (IFO)            tonne                 0.98           1,020             42.9                 42
        Low sulphur fuel oil (IFO)             tonne                 0.9            1,110             44.5                40.1




        Diesel Conversion Efficiency:

        Actual efficiencies are used where known. Otherwise:
        Average efficiency for small diesel engine (< 100kW output)
        Average efficiency of large modern diesel engine (> 1000 kW output)
        Average efficiency of low speed, base load diesel (Pacific region)


        Area:               1.0 km2 = 100 hectares = 0.386 mile2 1.0 acre = 0.41 hectares
        Volume              1 US gallon = 0.833 Imperial (UK) gallons = 3.785 litres 1.0 Imperial gallon = 4.546 litres
        Mass:               1.0 long tons = 1.016 tonnes
        Energy:             1 kWh = 3.6 MJ = 860 kcal = 3,412 Btu = 0.86 kgoe (kg of oil equivalent)
                            1 toe = 11.83 MWh = 42.6 GJ = 10 million kcal = 39.68 million Btu
                            1 MJ = 238.8 kcal = 947.8 Btu = 0.024 kgoe = 0.28 kWh
        GHGs                1 Gg (one gigagramme) = 1000 million grammes (109 grammes) = one million kg = 1,000 tonnes
        CO2 equiv           CH4 has 21 times the GHG warming potential of the same amount of CO2; N2O 310 times



TABLE 1.1 - NATURAL DISASTERS IN PNG

            Table 1-1 – Natural Disasters in PNG
        Disaster                     Date           Killed
        Drought                    23-Sep-97         100
        Drought                    23-Sep-97       700,000
        Drought                      Mar-81         40,000
        Earthquake                 13-Oct-93          76
        Earthquake                 13-Oct-93        20,200
        Flood                        Mar-92         90,000
        Flood                      12-Jun-93        54,000
        Flood                      23-Apr-99        38,000
        Flood                        Sep-83         13,000
        Landslides                 26-Feb-91         200
        Landslides                 21-Mar-71         122
        Landslides                  6-Sep-88         114
        Volcano                    15-Jan-51        3,000
        Volcano                    29-May-37         506
        Volcano                    19-Sep-94       152,002
        Volcano                    15-Oct-83        25,000
        Wave/Surge                  17-Jul-98       2,182
        Wind Storm                 14-May-93        40,040

         Source: EM-DAT: International Disaster Database
        (www.em-dat.net - Université catholique de
        Louvain, Brussels, undated)


TABLE 1.2 - ISLAND TYPES OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA
                        Table 1-2 – Island Types of Papua New Guinea

          Island type                       Location within Papua New Guinea

         alluvial           e.g. many islands of Western & Gulf Provinces
         continental        e.g chains of islands off Milne Bay Province
         coral              Many atolls, e.g. North Solomons, Milne Bay, Manus
         raised coral       In Milne Bay and North Solomons Provinces
         volcanic           Islands off Madang Province & much of New Britain
        Source: A Factbook on Modern PNG (Rannells, 1990)


TABLE 1.3 - POPULATION OF PROVINCES AND ASSOCIATED ISLANDS OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA (2000)
                                                              Table 1-3 – Population of Provinces and Associated Islands of Papua New Guinea (2000)
                          Island                  Inhabited       Area                       No. of
                                                                            No. of persons
                      and Province                 islands       ( sq km)                    islands
        Mainland                                     n/a         396,452         4,033,598     n/a
        Sandaun Province                              3           2.54            1,763        6
         <1 sq km                                     3            2.54           1,763
         East Sepik                                  12          165.17           9,301        15
          10 - 99 sq km                               4          138.01           5,533
          1 - 9 sq km                                 7           26.58           3,680
          <1 sq km                                    1            0.58             88
        Madang                                        4          936.27           50,129       45
          100 - 999 sq km                             2           821.8           40,809
          10 - 99 sq km                               2          114.47           9,320
        Morobe                                        6          964.06           14,152       57
          100 - 999 sq km                             1           873.4           11,795
          10 - 99 sq km                               2           88.55           1,256
          1 - 9 sq km                                 1            1.01            333
          <1 sq km                                 2              1.1            768
          Oro                                      0              0              0                  8
         Milne Bay                                65           6,126.44       136,848             438
           >=1000 sq km                            1             1,332         23,184
          100 - 999 sq km                          8           4,224.90        87,501
          10 - 99 sq km                           13             452.7         12,802
          1 - 9 sq km                             30            110.65         10,999
          <1 sq km                                13             6.19           2,362
         Central                                   8             8.86          2,878              33
          1 - 9 sq km                              3             6.81            943
          <1 sq km                                 5             2.05           1,935
         Gulf                                      5            273.22         2,165              48
          10 - 99 sq km                            5            273.22          2,165
         Western                                   8            819.91         19,625             52
          100 - 999 sq km                          2             445.5          2,489
          10 - 99 sq km                            6            374.41         17,136
         Source: PNG 2000 Census: Final Figures (National Statistical Office, GoPNG; March 2002…           …..*Bougainville Island


TABLE 1.4 - 2000 POPULATION BY AGE & LOCATION
                        Table 1-4 – 2000 Population by Age & Location
                                               Male        Female              Total
         Urban                                  365,533        309,870        675,403
         Total PNG                             2,691,744      2,499,042      5,190,786
         Percent Urban                          13.60%         12.40%         13.00%
         Percent Rural                          86.40%         87.60%         87.00%
         Percent by age:
          0-4 years                              14.1             14            14.1
          5-14 years                             26.5            25.4            26
          15-17 years                            6.8             6.6            6.7
          18-64 years                             50             51.8           50.9
          65 and above                           2.6             2.2            2.4
         Source: 2000 Census: Final Figures (GoPNG, 2002)


TABLE 1.5 - STATUS OF RATIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TREATIES AND CONVENTIONS BY PNG
                    Table 1-5 – Status of Ratification of Environmental Treaties and Conventions by PNG


                                                                                                   Ozone
                              Protection of
                                              Conservation Hazardous Nuclear free                 depleting
                                 natural                                          GHG reductions
                                                of nature    wastes     Pacific                  substances
         Status in PNG         resources                                             (Kyoto
                                                  (Apia     (Waigani  (Rarotonga                  (Montreal
                                (SPREP                                              Protocol)
                                              Convention) Convention)   Treaty)                  Protocol, et
                              Convention)
                                                                                                     al.)
         Signed                 3-Nov-87       12-Jun-76      16-Sep-95      16-Sep-85        2-Mar-99             –
         Ratified              15-Sep-89          No          11-Dec-95      15-Sep-89       28-Mar-02          3-Mar-98
         Entered into force    22-Aug-90       26-Jun-90      21-Oct-01      15-Sep-89         n/a *            17-Jun-93

         Notes: Treaties & conventions are briefly described in Volume 1, the PIREP Regional Overview report.

          * The Kyoto Protocol is in force from 15 February 2004 for European Union members only.
         Sources: Websites for conventions, Forum Secretariat, and SPREP (January – March 2004)


TABLE 1.6 - REAL GDP FROM 1997 - 2002 IN 1983 KINA (MILLIONS)
                                               Table 1-6 – Real GDP from 1997-2002 in 1983 Kina (millions)
                                                                                         –––––– Preliminary Estimates –––––
                              Component                          1997     1998    1999           2000
         Real GDP                                                3,765    3,536   3,803           3,756
         Mineral                                                  636      743     817             784
         Non-mineral                                             3,039    2,794   2,986           2,971
          Of which: non agricultural                             1,865    1,752   1,899           1,785

         Agricultural, forestry, fishing                         1,174    1,042   1,087           1,186
         Mining & quarrying                                       636      743     817             784
         Manufacturing                                            331      340     344             316

         Electricity, gas & water                                 45      49       51               53
         Construction                                             164     159     151              143
         Wholesale & retail trade                                 405     396     426              368
         Transport, storage & communications                      187     188     192              162
         Finance, insurance, real estate, business services       136     141     148              154


           Less imputed bank service charges                      98      101     105              108
         Community, social & personal services                    512     421     513              505
         Import duties                                            146     161     181              193
           Less subsidies                                          1       1       1                1

         Annual Percentage changes:
         Real GDP                                                 -3.9    -3.8     7.6             -1.3
          Mineral                                                 -26     16.8     10               -4
          Non-mineral                                             2.5     -8.1     6.9             -0.5
         Source: PNG Country Report (IMF, 2003)


TABLE 1.7 - PNG AND REGIONAL ECONOMIC TREATIES
             Table 1-7 – PNG and Regional Economic Treaties

         Status                SPARTECA          PACER          PICTA
         Signed                 14-Jul-80        5-Mar-02      5-Mar-02
         Ratified               31-Dec-80        5-Aug-03      5-Aug-03
         Entered into
         force                   1-Jan-81        3-Oct-02     13-Apr-03
         Source: Note from Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (January
         2004)


TABLE 1.8 - BANKS & FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN PNG
                        Table 1-8 –
            Banks & Financial Institutions in PNG

                         Name of institution:
         AGC (Pacific) Ltd
         ANZ Banking Group (PNG) Ltd
         Bank of Hawaii (PNG) Ltd
         Bank of Papua New Guinea (BPNG)
         Bank of South Pacific
         Credit Corporation (PNG) Ltd
         Finance Corporation Ltd (Fincorp)
         First Investment Finance Limited
         Kina Finance Ltd
        Maybank (PNG) Ltd
        Papua New Guinea Banking Corporation
        Westpac Bank (PNG) Ltd
                  Source: ADB www.adb.org undated;
                 Updated by John Wilmot (April 2004)


TABLE 1.9 - SNAPSHOT OF BUSINESS CLIMATE IN PNG
                                          Table 1-9 – Snapshot of Business Climate in PNG
        Starting a Business (2003). The challenges of launching a business in PNG are shown below through 4 measures: procedures
        required to establish a business, the associated time and cost, and the minimum capital requirement. Entrepreneurs can expect to
        go through seven steps to launch a business over 69 days on average, at a cost equal to 26.4% of gross national income (GNI) per
        capita.
                                                       PNG                      Regional                               OECD
                        Indicator                                               Average                               Average
        Number of procedures                             7                          8                                     6
        Duration (days)                                 69                         66                                    30
        Cost (% of GNI per capita)                     26.4                       56.8                                  10.2


        Min. Capital (% of GNI per capita)               0                        646.8                                 61.2

        Hiring & Firing Workers (2003). The flexibility or rigidity of labour regulations and laws in PNG is shown below, using three
        indices:: availability of part-time and fixed-term contracts, working time requirements, minimum wage laws, and minimum
        conditions of employment. Each index assigns values between 0 and 100, with higher values representing more rigid regulations.
        The overall Employment Laws Index is an average of the three indices. For PNG, the overall index is 26, compared with the
        regional index of 45
                                                                                                   Regional                      OECD
        Indicator                                               PNG                                Average                      Average
        Flexibility of Hiring Index                              17                                    45                           49
        Conditions of Employment Index                           57                                    60                           58


        Flexibility of Firing Index                               4                                    30                           28
        Employment Laws Index                                    26                                    45                           45
        Enforcing Contracts (2003). The ease or difficulty of enforcing commercial contracts in PNG is measured using: the number of
        procedures counted from the moment the plaintiff files a lawsuit until actual payment, the associated time, and the cost (in court
        and attorney fees). An overall index of the procedural complexity of contract enforcement is calculated by averaging four sub-
        indices related to dispute resolution. The index varies from 0 to 100, with higher values indicating more complexity in enforcing a
        contract. The Procedural Complexity Index for PNG is 44, compared with the regional average of 55.



                                                                                                   Regional                      OECD
        Indicator                                               PNG                                Average                      Average
        Number of procedures                                     22                                    24                           18
        Duration (days)                                          270                                  193                          213
        Cost (% GNI per capita)                                 41.1                                  63.6                         7.1
        Procedural Complexity Index                              44                                    55                           49
        Source: slightly edited from World Bank, undated


FIGURE 1.5 - RESPONSIBILITIES FOR ENERGY MATTERS IN PNG (JANUARY 2004)
                                   Figure 1-5 – Responsibilities for Energy Matters in PNG (January 2004)
                                                National Level Energy Sector Responsibilities:
                         Department of               Department       Department of National   Department of
                                                                        Planning & Rural       Environment
                   Petroleum & Energy (DPE)          of Forestry      Development (DNPRD)            &
                                                         (DF)                                  Conservation
           Petroleum                                                                              (DEC)
                               Energy Division
            Division
                                                                                        Department of National            Department of
                                                                                          Planning & Rural                Environment
                                                                                        Development (DNPRD)                     &
                                                                                                                          Conservation
          Petroleum                                                                                                          (DEC)
                                    Energy Division
           Division

        Oil and gas       Energy policy, planning, data, etc. Biomass               Sectoral policies; National           Env. impact
        exploration &                                         assessment;           development policies                  assessments;
        development                                                                                                       Environmental
                                                                                                                          standards;
                                                                  Fuelwood                                                GHGs &
                                                                                                                          carbon credits
                 Note: Excludes some departments with energy sector responsibility such as Finance and Treasury (budgets and taxes), and several departments which
                deal with rural energy services for government complexes, e.g. Education, Health & Communications

                                                     Provincial and Local Energy Sector Responsibilities:
                                       Provincial governments                                             Local governments
                                    Rural energy planning & supply                                             Operation and management of most C-centres *
         Note: * PNG Power handles rural electrification through grid extensions within 10 km of generation facilities and runs 10 rural C centres.


TABLE 2.1 - PETROLEUM FUEL IMPORTS TO PAPUA NEW GUINEA, 1990-2002 (MILLIONS OF LITRES)
                                                 Table 2-1 – Petroleum Fuel Imports to Papua New Guinea, 1990 – 2002 (millions of litres)
                        Fuel                          1993              1994             1995               1996                1997
         Motor Spirit                                                                                                          58.854
         Aviation Gasoline                                                                                                      4.753
         Jet fuel (Jet A1)                                                                                                      53.42
         Kerosene                                                                                                               11.67
         Distillate Fuel *                                                                                                     275.25
         Heavy fuel oil                                                                                                         37.83
         LP Gas                                      11.26              9.36             12.49              11.43               14.33
         Other                                                                                                                  0.04
         Total (ML)                                                                                                            6,446


         Sources: Customs Dept (provided by J Wilmot, April 2004) except Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) is imports from DPE (2004) survey.                               Totals are r


TABLE 2.2 - PAPUA NEW GUINEA COMMERCIAL ENERGY BALANCE FOR 2001 (KTOE)
                                                                                  Table 2-2 – Papua New Guinea Commercial Energy Balance for 2001 (KTOE)
                                                                    Petroleum
                     Indicator                     Crude Oil                            Mogas             Jet Fuel              Kero
                                                                    Products
        Indigenous Production                        2532                -                  -                  -                   -
        Import                                         -                349                20                 29                  17
        Export                                       -2477               -                  -                  -                   -
        Stock Change                                  -55                -                  -                  -                   -
        Total Primary                                                   349                20                 29                  17
        Energy Supply                                   -
        Public Electricity                              -                -33                -                  -                   -
        Auto producers (Electricity)                    -               -169                -                  -                   -
        Loss & Own Use                                  -                 -                 -                  -                   -
        Discrepancy                                     -                 -                 -                  -                   -
        Total Final Energy Consumption                  -                147               20                 29                  17
        Industry Sector                                 -                58                 -                  -                   -
        Transport Sector                                -                61                20                 29                   -
        Other Sector                                    -                19                 -                  -                  17
         Agriculture                                    -                 0                 -                  -                   -
         Residential & Commercial                       -                19                 -                  -                  17
        Non-energy                                      -                 9                 -                  -                   -
         Source: Adapted from APEC Energy Data and Modelling Centre (Institute of Energy Economics) database: www.ieej.or.jp/egeda/database
TABLE 2.3 - PAPUA NEW GUINEA'S COMMERCIAL ENERGY SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION, 2001
                                                Table 2-3 – Papua New Guinea’s Commercial Energy Supply and Consumption, 2001


             Primary`Energy Supply                 ktoe           %          Final Energy Consumption     ktoe

        Indigenous production                     2,756           -        Industry Sector                 218
        Net imports & Other                       -2,184          -        Transport Sector                 61
        Total                                      573           100       Other Sectors                    86
         Oil                                       349           61        Total                           364
         Gas                                       144           25         Coal                             -
         Other                                      80           14         Oil                            147
                                                                            Gas                              -
                                                                            Electr & other                 217
        Source: Modified from Energy Overview for Papua New Guinea (APEC, 2003). Totals may ≠100% due to rounding errors


TABLE 2.4 - NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD ENERGY USE IN 1996/1997
        Table 2-4 – National Household Energy Use in 1996/1997

        Energy for                  %           Fuel for          %
        Lighting                                Cooking
        Electricity                11.8      Electricity         3.3
        Pressure lamp              3.6       LP Gas              2.8
        Kerosene lamp              56.7      Kerosene            6.5
        Candles                    0.3       Charcoal            0.1
        Open fire                  25.6      Fuelwood            87.1
        Other                      2.1       Other               0.3
                Total              100                           100
                      Source: Demographic & Health Survey, June 1996 -
                      July 1997 (GoPNG, 1997a)


TABLE 2.5 - PORT MORESBY HOUSEHOLD ENERGY USE IN 1996/1997
                            Table 2-5 –
           Port Moresby Household Energy Use in 1996/1997
          Energy for       %           Fuel for       %
           Lighting                    Cooking
        Electricity                75.8      Electricity         28.9
        Pressure lamp              3.6       LP Gas              18.7
        Kerosene lamp              18        Kerosene            38.9
        Candles                    2.1       Charcoal             0
        Open fire                   0        Fuelwood            13.5
        Other                      0.6       Other               0.1
              Total                100                           100
        Source: as for Table 2-4


TABLE 2.6 - OVERVIEW OF PNG ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR (2001)
           Table 2-6 – Overview of PNG Electric Power Sector
                                 (2001)
                                                Installed
                                                             Generation
                      Component                 Capacity
                                                 (MW) 1       (GWh / yr)
                                                        1
        PNG Power (PNGP)                          302           665 2
                                                        2             2
        Hanjung-Kanudi sales to PNGP              24           105
                                                        1                 3
        Mining & Industry self-generation         280         1,200


        C-centres                                 ~7             ??
        Individuals, church missions, other       ??             ??

                                                                          4
          Approximate total                       614         2,638
        Sources: 1) Issues Paper: Energy Sector Review (DPE, GoPNG,
        2004)
        2) PNG Power (2003
        3) PIREP mission estimates
        4) APEC 2003 (which, however, reports 451 MW capacity)

        Note: ~ = approximately


TABLE 2.7 - PNG HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY USE, 2002
                      Table 2-7 – PNG Household Electricity Use, 2002
                                                             Domestic         kWh
                      Province                  Location
                                                             customers        per m
        NCC/Central                           Port Moresby    26,509          201
        Western                               Daru             554            148
        Gulf                                  Kerema           383            133
        Milne Bay                             Alotau           817            207
                                              Samarai           70            80
        Oro                                   Popendetta       772            128
        S Highlands                           Mendi            829            146
        Enga                                  Wabang/Wape     1,037           69
                                              Porgera          367             1
        W Highlands                           Mt Hagen        4,670           92
        Chimbu                                Kundiawa        1,265           79
        E Highlands                           Goroka          2,759           134
                                              Kainantu        1,112           113
                                              Yonki            259            n/a
        Morobe                                Lae             6,534           198
                                              Wau              305            161
        Madang                                Madang          2,667           160
                                              Gusap             39            141
        East Sepic                            Wewak           1,519           140
                                              Maprik           405            74
        Sandaun                               Vanimo           561            182
                                              Aitape           210            115
        New Ireland                           Kavieng          772            146
        E New Britain                         Gazelle         4,084           123
        W New Britain                         Kimbe           1,190           163
                                              Biala            314            126
           Total                                              60,003          166
           Total excluding PM & Lae                           26,960          123
                        Source: calculated from data in PNG Power (2003)


TABLE 2.8 - PNG POWER MAXIMUM DEMAND, SALES & FORECASTS
            Table 2-8 – PNG Power Maximum Demand, Sales & Forecasts
                                                               Maximum Demand
                                 Energy Sales (GWh)
                                                                    (MW)
            System
            System              2003              2012              2003          2012
        Port Moresby /
        NCD                     331.7              338              76.5          88.3
        Ramu                    234.3             271.9             53.3          58.3
        Gazelle                  29                33.5             6.7           7.7

        Other provincial         65.1            122.8               15.9          18.8
        Total                   2,663            2,778              2,155         2,185
        Source: PNG Power, 2003            Totals are rounded off


TABLE 2.9 - PNG POWER GENERATION BY SOURCE (GWh)
                                                  Table 2-9 – PNG Power Generation by Source (GWh)
                                                 Heavy        Light      Gas         Power
               Year             Hydro            diesel       diesel   turbine      Purchase       Total
               1993              428               64                78            44                4                624
               2002              513                0                99            14               156               781
               2007              506                0                176            1               157               839
               2012              522                0                222            1               157               901
        Source: PNG Power (2003)               Note: GWh rounded to nearest whole number


TABLE 2.10 - PNG POWER TARIFF STRUCTURE, 2000 - JANUARY 2004 *
                                            Table 2-10 – PNG Power Tariff Structure, 2000 – January 2004 *
                               –––––––-––– Domestic ** ––––––––-                           General                      –-–––––– Industrial –-–––––
                               Credit         Credit       Easipay               Credit          Easipay
               Date
                              ≤ 30 KWh      > 30 KWh       t / kWh               t / kWh           t / kWh        toea per kWh
                               t / kWh       t / kWh
        2000                    14.89            21.43              17.87        27.86             27.18             14.81
         Jan-03                 19.66            32.52              27.13        41.82              40.8             22.78
         Aug-03                 22.12            36.59              30.52        47.05              45.9             25.63
         Jan-04                 24.13            39.92              33.3         51.33             50.08             27.96
        Source: PNG Power, 2004
        Notes: *      Includes VAT/GST of 10% through 2003 & 12% from January 2004
        ** For domestic credit consumers, there is a lifeline tariff for the first 30 kWh/month of consumption.


TABLE 2.11 - COMMERCIAL ENERGY DEMAND & GHG EMISSIONS, 2001 & PROJECTED FOR 2011
                         Table 2-11 – Commercial Energy Demand & GHG Emissions, 2001 & Projected for 2011
                                                2001                                                         2011
                              Actual Use         Share              GHGs       Projected           Share             AAGR
            Product
                                (ktoe)            (%)                (Gg)         Use               (%)               (%)
                                                                                 (ktoe)
         Petroleum               349              61%           1,040.70          478                62              3.20%
        products
         Natural gas             144              25%               429.4          211               27              3.90%
         Hydro                    80              14%                 0             80              < 11                0
             Total               573             100%               1,470          769             100%                3
        Source: 2001 use (consumption) from Tables 2.2 & 2.3 based on APC (2003).
        Notes: 1) CO2-equivalent emissions from Annex 2, petroleum fuels averaging 70 kg of CO2/GJ; natural gas 50 kg/GJ.

         2) This estimate does not take into account additional CO2 emissions from the refinery or from gas production.


TABLE 2.12 - INDICATIVE MAXIMUM ENERGY SAVINGS AND GHG SAVINGS FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY
                                                             Table 2-12 – Indicative Maximum Energy Savings
                                             and GHG Savings from Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in PNG, 2011

                                                        Potential fuel
                                                                                     GHG savings
                       Technology                                                                % of savings                                Comments
                                                     or energy savings                  (Gg)
                               1
          Hydro ( > 10 MW)                            196 ML of fuel oil                    666                    Increase from 220 MW to 400 MW of hydro
                                2
          Hydro (0.1-10 MW                             4.8 ML of diesel                     13                     6 MW of small hydro
                                3
          Hydro ( < 100 kW)                            4.6 ML of diesel                     12                     500 new systems, average of 22 kW
                       4
          Geothermal                                   98 ML of fuel oil                    333                    100 MW at mines
                    5
          Biodiesel                                    42 ML of diesel                      113                    10% of vegetable oil production as fuel
                       6
          Fuel ethanol                                175 ML of petrol                      430                    Less than potential from E Sepik & Purari Basin
                         7                                       3
          Other biomass                               ~12,000 m wood                       minor                   Very limited if most logs exported unprocessed
                    8
          Solar PV                                     3.5 ML of diesel                      9                     100,000 household PV systems
                9
          Wind                                         3.8 ML of diesel                     10                     50 x 250 kW systems

                                     10                                                                            5% of fuel used for electricity generation is saved but
          Efficiency (electricity)                     13.6 ktoe of fuel                     0           0
                                                                                                                   displaces RE so no GHG savings

                                                                                                                   5% of ground transport fuel use but this replaces biofuels so
          Efficiency (transport) 11                     4.3 ktoe of fuel                     0           0
                                                                                                                   no additional GHG savings
               Total                                                                       1586         100
                                          Notes: See Box 2–1 for explanation of the assumptions.   ~ = approximately     RE = renewable energy



BOX 2.1 - ASSUMPTIONS FOR ESTIMATING POTENTIAL FOR GHG REDUCTIONS
                              Box 2–1 – Assumptions for Estimating Potential for GHG reductions
          1) Large hydro . Economically viable large hydro conservatively estimated (Section 3.2) as 4,200 MW (36,800 GWh/year). Curre
          installed capacity is only 5% of this. Assume national installed large hydro capacity nearly doubles from 220 MW (Table 4-2) to 400
          MW producing 3.3 GWh/MW (PNG Power average, Table 4-1). Assume the additional 180 MW replaces heavy diesel fuel which
          (Annex 2) saves 666 Gg of CO2
          2) Small hydro . There is vast small hydro potential (section 3.2) including perhaps 45 sites near C-centres. Assume 6 MW of new
          capacity is developed but with some diesel back up & hydro produces only 2 GWh/MW installed. Assuming ADO & 0.4 litres per
          /kWh, savings are 12.96 Gg of CO2.
          3) Microhydro . Even for 500 microhydro of 22 kW producing 1,000 useable kWh/kW, & replacing diesel at 0.46 l / kWh (Annex
          2), CO2 reduction is only 12.4 Gg.

          4) Geothermal . At Lihir alone (sections 3.1 & 4.1) there is 70 MW of available capacity of which an additional 20 MW or more i
          already under development. Assume other mines with large demand & nearby geothermal potential. Assume 3.5 GWh/MW replacin
          fuel oil system using 0.28 l / kWh.

          5) Biodiesel . The GoPNG (Table 3-4) expects about 30 kilotonnes per year of coconut oil and 350KT of palm oil (at about the
          same value per tonne) from 2004-2008. This is about 418 ML. Assume only 10% of some vegetable oil is used as diesel replacemen
          CO2 reduction would be about 113 Gg.

          6) Ethanol . There is vast potential for ethanol from sago and nipa palm (latter part of section 3.6). Conservatively, assume 300 M
          of ethanol per year equivalent to about 175 ML of gasoline or diesel fuel. Ignoring CO2 produced during manufacture, savings woul
          be about 430 to 470 Gg depending on the fuel displaced.

          7) Other biomass . Although (section 3.6) every 100 m3 of logs produce about 45 m3 of processed wood & 55 m3 of potential
                                                       3
          biomass for fuel, nearly all the 2 million m of logs produced annually are exported unprocessed. If 10% were processed in PNG, an
          5% of that is available as fuel, this would provide 12,000 m3 of fuel. Assuming 400 kg/m3 and 14 MJ/kg, this is equivalent to 67,000
          gigajoules (Gj) or only 1.6 ktoe.
        8) Solar PV . There are over 1 million households in PNG of which at least 300,000 live in areas of high solar insolation. Assume
        100,000 rural households receive. PV systems of 100 Wp & 0.25 kWh/day. Assume 300 days/yr operation = 2.55 million kWh/year.
        At 0.46 l/kWh for small diesel systems, this would displace 3.45 ML of fuel, equivalent to only 9.3 Gg per year.

        9) Wind. Parts of PNG (section 3.4) could reportedly produce well over 2,000 kWh/kW of installed wind turbine capacity.
        Assuming a more conservative 1,000 kWh/kW and 50 sites of 250 kW each, this would displace 3.8 ML of diesel (assuming it
        replaced an efficient diesel plant using 0.3 l / kWh) or 10 Gg of CO2 reductions.

        10) Energy efficiency (electricity ). It appears from Table 2-2 that about 57% of petroleum products (excluding natural gas used for
        electricity production at a gold mine) was used for electricity generation. If the same proportion applied in 2011 electricity would
        account for 0.57 x 478 = 272.5 ktoe. If this is reduced by 5% through end-use efficiency efforts, savings would be 0.05 x 272.7 ktoe
        = 13.6 ktoe, equivalent tor 40.6 Gg. However, the GHG savings in Table 2-12 from hydro and geothermal energy development for
        power production add up to 1024 Gg, which is equivalent to 343.2 ktoe of petroleum use. As this is about 26% above the total
        assumed demand for petroleum fuel for electricity generation in 2011, (i.e. 343.2/272.5), then efficiency measures could save fuel
        only, not reduce GHGs further.
        11) Energy efficiency (transport). Transport accounts for about 18% of petroleum fuel use or 0.18 x 468 ktoe = 86 ktoe in 2011. If
        efficiency measures result in a 5% saving, this would reduce petroleum use by 55 x 86 = 4.3 ktoe reducing GHG emissions by 12.8
        Gg. However, transport petroleum use of 86 ktoe is equivalent to about 257 Gg of GHGs. Biodiesel and fuel ethanol production
        could potentially reduce GHGs by 876 Gg (equivalent to 293.6 ktoe of petroleum fuels) which is more than triple the projected fuel
        demand in 2011



TABLE 2.12 - REVISED INDICATIVE MAXIMUM ENERGY SAVINGS AND GHG SAVINGS FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY AND
                                               Table 2-12 – Revised Indicative Maximum Energy Savings
                                       and GHG Savings from Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in PNG, 2011

                                                  Potential fuel
                                                                      GHG savings
                     Technology                      or energy                    % of savings                                  Comments
                                                                         (Gg)
                                                      savings
        Hydro, geothermal & wind                     272.5 ktoe             813              80.3     Limited to 100% of projected electricity demand.
        Biofuels [1]                                  63 ktoe               188              18.6     Limited to 100% of projected transport fuel demand.
        Solar PV                                                              9              0.9      As in Table 2–11
                                                                                                      Measures reduce biofuel use and have little impact on GHG
        Efficiency [2]                                                       3               0.3      emissions
             Total                                                         1013              100
                                    Notes: See Box 2–1 for explanation of the assumptions.      ~ = approximately     RE = renewable energy




        [1] For transport, assume biofuels can replace 100% of diesel fuel (2/3 of 86 ktoe =57.3 ktoe) and 20% of motor spirit (0.2 x 1/3 x 86 ktoe = 5.7
        ktoe. The total is 63 ktoe.

        [2] Motor spirit, reducing the ethanol blended in, would be 0.8 x 1/3 x 86 ktoe = 22.9 ktoe. 5% saved through efficiency measures is 1.1 ktoe,
        equivalent to 3.3 Gg.

TABLE 3.1 - ESTIMATED ANNUAL WIND POTENTIAL IN 1979
                                Table 3-1 –
                   Estimated Annual Wind Potential in 1979

                                                                         Potential
                         Province                    Location
                                                                        kWh / kW
        Sandaum                                   Airape                  602
        East Seplk                                Wewak                     490
        Southern Highlands                        L. Kutubu                 688
         Western Highlands                   Kagamuga          730
         Simbu                               Kundiawa          341
         Eastern Highlands                   Kainantu          466
         Madang                              Bogia             32I
         Morobe                              Gizarum Ptn      1,076
         Manus                               Momote            915
         Western                             Daru             1,076
         Gulf                                Kikori            769
         Central                             Amazon bay       1,089
         National Capltal                    Port Moresby      964
         Oro                                 Dogura            555
         Milne Bay                           Misima            915
         North Solomons                      Kieta             993
         West New Britain                    Biala             816
         East New Britain                    Rabaul            779
         New Ireland                         Namatanai         902
           Average over all sites                              607
         Source: Kalma, 1980


TABLE 3.2 - FOREST COVER IN PNG ('000 ha)
                                    Table 3-2 – Forest Cover in PNG ('000 ha)
                                                                     Other                 Inland
                                        Forest
                                                                  wooded land               water
              Type
                                                              Shrubs       Other
                               Closed             Open
                                                              & trees       land
              Area             30,150                829        585        13,675              1,044
               %                65.1                 1.8        1.3         29.5                2.3
         Source: FAO website: www.fao.org/forestry/foris/


TABLE 3.3 - MAJOR TIMBER PROCESSING PLANTS IN PNG
                             Table 3-3 – Major Timber Processing Plants in PNG

                                       Facility                                     Location

          Sawmills
                       Steffin Bay Lumber Company                       West New Britain
                       Ulamona Sawmilling Company
                       Vudal Timbers                                    East New Britain
                       PNG Balsa Company                                East New Britain
                       G.S. Models (Teperoi Timbers)                    East New Britain
                       Mantua Timbers                                   East New Britain
                       Madang Timbers Limited
                       Vanimo Forest Products Limited
                       Milne Bay Industries Limited
                       Timber and Forestry Training College
          Plywood Factory
                       PNG Forest Products                              Bulolo, Morobe
          Veneer Mill
                       Rimbunan Hijau Timber                            Panakawa,
                       Processing Ltd.                                  Western Province
          Woodchips Mill
                       Jant Limited                                     Madang
          Furniture Factories
                         Pulumpa Limited                                     Port Moresby
                         Phillco Joinery Limited                             Lae, Morobe
                         PI Logging                                          Taraka, Lae, Morobe
                         Timbersaws                                          Lae, Morobe
                         Pryde Furniture                                     Port Moresby
         Source: National Policy on Downstream Processing of Forest Products

         (Draft; MoF; 28 August 2003).


TABLE 3.4 - PRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ('000 tonnes, except logs million m3)
                                                                                                                                                 3
                                             Table 3-4 – Production of Agricultural Commodities ('000 tonnes, except logs million m )
          Commodity             1999              2000         2001          2002        2003           2004
                               Actual            Actual       Actual        Actual       Proj           Proj
         Copra                    63.5               67.2         21.8            15.8              15             15.2
         Cocoa                     29                 38          36.5            34.9             35.7            38.4
         Coffee                   79.2               66.6         51.6            63.1             63.9             66
         Palm Oil                253.8              336.3        327.6           323.9             335.3           341.8
         Rubber                   3.7                3.7          3.6             3.8               4.2             4.8
         Tea                      8.2                8.5          8.8             5.2               5.4             5.5
         Copra Oil                50.3                48          27.1            28.2             29.7            30.2
         Logs (m m3)             1.31               1.405         1.21           1.83              1.75            1.82
                                         Source: 2004 Budget Volume 1 (GoPNG, Nov. 2003);      Note: Actual from Bank of PNG & projections from Treasury.


TABLE 4.1 - PNG POWER HYDRO CAPACITY AND GENERATION, 2000
                       Table 4-1 – PNG Power Hydro Capacity and Generation, 2000
             System                 Location            MW          GWh       Commissioned


         Rouna 1                          Central                 5.5             2.7        1957 & 1961
         Rouna 1                          Central                 30            108.2        1967 & 1969
         Rouna 3                          Central                 12             59.4           1975
         Rouna 4                          Central                13.5            41.2           1986
         Sirinumu                         Central                 1.6             1.4           1973
          Port Moresby System total                              62.6           212.9
         Ramu           Eastern Highlands                         75             248         1976 & 1989
         Pauanda        Southern/Western Highlands                12             40.3           1983
           Ramu System total                                      87            288.3
         Warangoi       East New Britain                          10             26.7              1983
         Ru Creek       West New Britain                          1.5             1.8              1982
         Lake Hargy     West New Britain                          0.9              2               1989
          Gazelle System Total                                   12.4            30.5

                   PNG Power Total                                162           531.7
         Source: PNG Power


TABLE 4.2 - ESTIMATED HYDRO AND THERMAL GENERATION CAPACITY IN 1998 (MW)
                       Table 4-2 – Estimated Hydro and Thermal Generation Capacity in 1998 (MW)
                                           PNG                             Self
                                                                                                           Total
             Energy                       Power                         production
                                 MW                  %            MW                 %             MW               %
         Hydro a                 162                 73           59                 27            221              32
         Thermal b               135                 29           335                71            470              68
        Total                    297                  43             394      57               691             100
        Source: PNG Power
        Notes: % refers to percent of total hydro + thermal
        a) self-produced hydro is incomplete
        b) PNG Power thermal includes Kanudi.


TABLE 4.3 - PROPOSED PNG POWER SMALL HYDRO SYSTEMS, 2004-2010
                                       Table 4-3 – Proposed PNG Power
                                       Small Hydro systems, 2004 - 2010
                                                                    KW per   Total            Date
                Scheme & Province                    Units
                                                                     unit     kW
         Luwini, Oro                                  2              2000    4000             2007
         Ru Creek, W. New Britain                     2               500    1000             2008
         Gumini, Milne Bay                            3              1200    3600             2008
         Kimadan, New Ireland                         4               400     100             2009
         Daundo, Sandaun                              3               350    1050             2010
         Source: PNG Power Development Plan, 2003


TABLE 4.4 - ADDITIONAL PV SYSTEMS IN PNG
                              Table: 4-4 –
                     Additional PV Systems in PNG
                           Output          No. of  Panel rating
            Location        (Wp)          panels      (Wp)
        Mt lusaka     9900            132         75
        Tsili tsili      1960                  56             35
        Mt Albert        5850                  78             75
        Edwards
        Gurney        7200                     96             75
        Kiriwina      5100                     68             75
        Mt Konokalang 2100                     28             75

        Mt Mission       1408                  22             64
        Mt Tangi         3300                  44             75
        Kikori           6150                  82             75
        Total            42968                 606            –
        Source: Kalimba, 2004


TABLE 4.5 - SOLAR PV POWERED PUMPING SCHEMES DESIGNED AND INSTALLED BY DME, 1983-1989
                            Table 4-5 – Solar PV Powered Pumping Schemes Designed and Installed by DME, 1983-1989



                             Number of
            Location                                         Pump                             Motor
                              panels


        Yule Island,     18 panels              Southern Cross 2X3 piston          1/2 hp Honeywell 48V DC motor
        Chiria Village                                    pump

        Geabada ,        18 panels              PM20 SPECK piston pump             1/2 hp Honeywell 48V DC motor
        Village,
        Aipeana Village: 28 panels              SPECK PM30 piston pump             1 hp Honeywell 48V DC motor


        Amoamoa          8 panels (Arco         PM20 SPECK piston pump       Baldour 59V, 1/2 hp motor with 300 Watt
        Village          M55)                                                               maximiser
        Jesuabaibua:       10 panels           PM20 SPECK piston pump           Baldour 59V, 1/2 hp motor with 300 Watt
                           (Arco M55)                                                          maximiser

        Bonecaina,         28 panels           PM40 SPECK piston pump           Baldour 96V, 1 hp motor with 1400 Watt
        Rigo:              (Arco M55)                                                         maximiser

        Veifa'a Village,       14 panels       PM40 SPECK piston pump           Baldour 96V, 1 hp motor with a 900 Watt
        Mekeo:                (Arco M55)                                                       maximiser


        Eboa Village,      15 panels           PM20 SPECK piston pump           Baldour 59V, 1/2 hp motor with 600 Watt
        Mekeo                                                                                 maximiser.

        Borea:             21 panels            direct coupled self priming             1 hp Honeywell DC motor
                                                          pump


        Kwalimarupu,       15 panels          a down bore mechanical pump Baldour 96V, 1hp motor with 600 Watt maximiser
        Rigo


        Kaparoka:          10 panels (Arco)     Southern Cross bore hole             1/2 hp Baldour 58V DC motor
                                                         pump

        Orepetana:         4 panels (Arco)     Chinese copy of a SPECK            1/3 hp motor and 300 W maximiser
                                                        pump

        Inawaia Village: 21 panels (BP           SP4-8 Grundfos pump
                         Solar 38 Watt)

        Source: Herbert Wade, pers com. March 2004
        Note: A CHOGRM funded solar PV pump in Babaga had yet to be installed at the time of the survey.
         The design of the solar PV pump in Geabada was not satisfactory and it never worked.


TABLE 4.6 - AN OVERVIEW OF PV PROJECTS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA
                                                              Table 4-6 – An Overview of PV Projects in Papua New Guinea
                                              Dept/Agency         No. of       No. of         Capacity         Installed
                      Location
                                              or Company         systems      PV panels       per panel       cap (kWp)
        Throughout PNG                          Energy?            >12          > 210
        Throughout PNG                          Missions?            9        606              about 70             43
        Throughout PNG                          Telecom            173     about 5000          about 53            205
        Health care facilities                   Energy              3         18
        Health care facilities                   Energy              9         54
        Schools, missions, etc                   Energy              8
        Demonstration                            Energy              2         10
        various                                    ???              12         60                75                4.5
        Primary schools                         Education          320     about 1600            80                128
        Health care facilities                   Health            296
        Health care facilities                   Health              7
        Nalogwam                                 ATCDI               1
        Gain aid post                            ATCDI               1
        Erop health facility                     ATCDI               1
        Health care facilities                  TE (PNG)           140        ???                75
        Health care facilities                  TE (PNG)       maybe>1000 maybe>1000             75
        New Britain                               RDS          1 compound
        New Britain                               RDS          2 compounds maybe 5000
        Moreguina sub-health                     Energy              1          2                75               0.15
        Throughout PNG                           Energy             50         50               small
          Source: missions estimates


TABLE 4.7 - CHARCOAL PRODUCTION, LAE 1968-1974 (tonnes)
                                                Table 4-7 – Charcoal Production, Lae 1968-1974 (tonnes)
                  Year               1968              1969         1970         1971         1972                     1973
         Amount              134.9                 379.7           629.8           600.6         704.1             401.9
         Source: Hermescec, 1981.           Note: production near desiccated coconut factory


Annex C – Solar PV Installations in PNG
                                 Output                 No. of          Panel          Panel             Panel         Panel
               location              size              panels           rating         rating        manuf.                type
                                     (kW)                                  (W)             (V)
         Mt lusaka                    9.9                  132             75              12        BP Solar         BP Solar
         Tsili tsili                 1.96                  56              35              12      SPC612-361       SPC612-361


         Mt Albert Edwards           5.85                  78              75              12      SPC612-362       SPC612-362
         Gurney                       7.2                  96              75              12        BP Solar         BP Solar
         Kiriwina                     0                    68                                       Solar Arco       Solar Arco
         Mt Konokalang                2.1                  28              75              12        BP Solar         BP Solar
         Mt Mission                  1.408                 22              64              12        BP Solar         BP Solar
         Mt Tangi                     3.3                  44              75              12        BP Solar         BP Solar
         Kikori                       0                    82                                       Solar Arco       Solar Arco
         Alupia                      0.675                 15              45              12        Solarex          LX100GT
         Alupia                      0.27                   6              45              12        Solarex          LX100GT
         Alupia                      0.81                  18              45              24        Solarex          LX100GT
         Alupia                      0.18                   4              45              12        Solarex          LX100GT
         Karoma                      0.27                   6              45              12            Philips       BPX47
         Karoma                       0                    80                              24       Tidelands
         Karoma                      0.192                  6              32              12        Solarex           SX45
         Kaimunga                    0.99                  22              45              24        Solarex          LX100GT
         Kaimunga                    0.96                  30              32              24        Solarex           SX45
         Kaimunga                    1.35                  30              45              24        Solarex          LX100GT
         Kerewa                       9                    120             75              24        BP Solar          BP275
         Kegum                       0.504                 12              42              36        Solarex          LX100GT
         Kegum                       0.588                 14              42              12            Philips       BPX47
         Burges                      0.168                  4              42              12            Philips       BPX47
         Burges                       0                     9                              36            ARCO
         Pumi                         4.5                  60              75              24        BP Solar          BP275
         Ogasumba                     0                     9                              36            Philips       BP47
         Ogasumba                     0                     6                              12            Philips       BPX47
         Ialibu                       9                    120             75              24        BP Solar          BP275
         Albowagi                    2.52                  56              45              24        Solarex          LX100GT
         Albowagi                    1.26                  28              45              25        Solarex          LX100GT
         Albowagi                    0.45                  10              45              12        Solarex          LX100GT
         Albowagi                     0                     6                              12            Philips       BPX47
         Albowagi                    0.81                  18              45              36        Solarex          LX100GT
         Ambunti                     3.15                  42              75              24        BP Solar          BP275
                                                                                                                       BP275/
         Ambunti                      0                    52                              24        BP Solar
Ambunti        0      52         24   BP Solar    LX100GT
Ambunti       0.54    12    45   36   Solarex     LX100GT
Ambunti       0.405    9    45   36   Solarex     LX100GT
Sapau          0       8         24   Tidelands
Sapau          0      124        24   Tidelands
Muse           0      136        24   Tidelands
Muse           0       4         12    Philips    BPX47
Opwin          0      112        24   Tidelands
Bewani         0      124        24   Tidelands
Imonda         0      124        24   Tidelands
Green river    0      124        24   Tidelands
Nuku           0      124        24   Tidelands
Takamanda      0      48         24    Lucas
Mission       1.35    30    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Mission       0.32    10    32   24   Solarex      SX45
Mission        0      10         12   Solarex
Mission       0.99    22    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Mission       0.09     2    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Mission       0.99    22    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Oomsis        0.32    10    32   12   Solarex      SX45
Oomsis         0      78         24     Arco
Oomsis         0      54         24    ARCO
Oomsis         0       6         12    Philips
Oomsis         0.9    20    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Oomsis        0.09     2    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Oomsis        0.18     4    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Nambamati      0.9    20    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Nambamati      0      44         24    Lucas       LG12
Nambamati     0.18     4    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Nambamati      0            45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Mutzing       2.25    50    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Wideru         0       9         36    ARCO
Menyamya      0.135    3    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Menyamya      0.405    9    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Aseki         0.384   12    32   12   Solarex      SX45
Lablab         0       9         36    ARCO
Tangi          0       9         36    ARCO
Tangi          0       6         12    Philips
Andewa        0.384   12    32   36   Solarex      SX45
Andewa        0.16     5    32   12   Solarex      SX45
Lokave         0       9         36     Arco
Liapo          0       9         36   Tidelands
Oto            0       6         12    Philips    BPX47
Oto            0       9         36     Arco
Kandrian      1.47    35    42   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Bialla       0.405    9    45   36   Solarex     LX100GT
Northson      0      18         36     Arco
Bainings      0      18         36     Arco       ARCO
Konokalang    0      88         24   Tidelands   TIDELAND
Ambitle       0      84         24   Tidelands
Nissan       0.45    10    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Nissan       0.72    16    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Nissan       7.05    94    75   24   Tidelands    BP275
Una pasaba    0       6         12    Philips      SX
Una pasaba    0      104        24   Tidelands
Lemeris       0      52         24   Tidelands
Maragu        0      12         12     Arco
Maragu        0       6         12    Philips      SX45
Maragu       0.448   14    32   24   Solarex       SX45
Maragu        0      80         24   Tidelands
Maragu       0.18     4    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Lihir         0       4         12    Philips
Lihir         0      10         12    Philips
Buyang       0.288    6    48   12    Philips     BPX47
Bogia        1.976   52    38   24   BP Solar
Tarite       2.604   62    42   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Tarite       0.45    10    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Dibun         0       6         12    Philips     BPX47
Dibun         0      58         24    Lucas
Dibun         0      50         24    Lucas
Hanseman      0       4         12    Lucas
Hanseman      0      48         24    Lucas
Hanseman     0.32    10    32   24   Solarex       SX45
Otto          0            45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Otto         0.18     4    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Otto         0.18     4    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Otto          0       9         36    ARCO
Otto          0.9    20    45   36   Solarex     LX100GT
Kerigomna     0
Kerigomna    1.35    30    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Kerigomna    0.99    22    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Kerigomna     0
Kulsimau     0.18     4    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Kulsimau     0.768   24    32   24   Solarex       SX45
Okapa        1.26    28    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Gosopomofc    0
Gosopomofc    0
Gosopomofc   2.43    54    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Yangutega    1.26    28    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Hoskins       1.8    24    75   48   BP Solar     BP275
Hoskins       1.8    24    75   48   BP Solar     BP275
Favenc       0       4         12    Philips     47CF
Favenc       0       4         12    Philips     47C4
Favenc       0      72         24   Tidelands
Favenc       0       8         12    Philips     BPX
Favenc       0       4         12    Philips     BPX
Favenc       0      72         24   Tidelands
Purari       0                      Tidelands
Kapeminga   0.405    9    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Kapeminga    0      136        24   Tidelands
Yule        0.27     6    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Yule         0       4         12    Philips     BPX47
Yule         0       4         12    Philips     BPX
Yule         0       4         12    Philips     BPX47
Yule        0.54    12    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Yule         0      168        24   Tidelands
Yule        0.27     6    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Yule        0.162   18    9    36     Arco
Yule         0       4         12    Philips     BPX47
Balimo      0.588   14    42   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Fala         0       6         12               PVM4000
Fala        0.36     8    45   24   Solarex      SX45
Fala        4.725   63    75   36   Tidelands    BP275
Fala         0       6         12    Philips    PVM4000
Fala         0       4         12     Arco
Fala         0       4         12     Arco
Strong       0            45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Strong      0.09     2    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Strong       1.8    40    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Scratchly   0.18     4    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Scratchly   2.25    30    75   24   BP Solar     BP274
Scratchly   0.09     2    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Boregoro     0       4         12    Philips     47CF
Boregoro     0      12         36     Arco       ARCO
Boregoro     0      12         36     Arco
Boregoro     0       4         12    Philips     47CF
Danio       0.18     4    45   12   Solarex     LX100GT
Danio       1.35    30    45   24   Solarex     LX100GT
Doigi        0      12         36     Arco
Doigi        0       4         12    Philips     47CF
Doigi        0      12         36     Arco
Wori oro     0      18         36     Arco
Naura        0                 36     Arco
Dimodimo     3.3    60    55   24   BP Solar     BP255
Donadona    0.675   15    45   24   Solarex      SX45
Donadona    0.675   15    45   24   Solarex      SX45
Sisa        0.765   17    45   32   Solarex      SX45
Sisa        0.135    3    45   12                SX45
         Sisa                         0                30                               24                            SX45
         Kikori                     0.42               10               42              24                Solarex    LX100GT
         Alotau                     0.032               1               32              12                 Arco
         Bobo                       0.27                6               45              12                Solarex    LX100GT
         Bobo                        3.6               80               45              24                Solarex    LX100GT
         Bobo                       0.27                6               45              24                Solarex    LX100GT
         Bobo                        3.6               80               45              24                Solarex    LX100GT
         Bobo                       0.09                2               45              24                Solarex    LX100GT
         Dimo dimo                   3.3               60               55              24                BP Solar    BP255
         Bereina                     0.6                8               75              12                BP Solar    BP275



Annex E - Barriers to Rural Electrification in PNG, 2003 World Bank Workshop
                                                Policies / National Priorities
                 Lack of policy direction from Government; there is no policy on rural electrification
                 Lack of political will
                 Government does not consider rural electrification as a priority
                 Developers are alienated from the community; there is no sense of ownership
                                                        Capital Financing
                 Lack of funding to start small electrification projects in community
                 Lack of project financing
                 Lack of capital funding for electricity generation
                                            Operation and Maintenance financing
                 Lack of funds for operation and maintenance (O&M)
                                                               Skills
                 Lack of technical skills for basic maintenance and repairs
                 Local level governments find it very hard to plan; lack of skills and experience
                 Lack of technical training to sustain and maintain facilities
                                                        Land Ownership
                 Acquiring land is difficult, time-consuming and costly
                 Crossing land boundaries with transmission lines requires compensation
                 Compensation demands can be ongoing; they never end
                                                           Awareness
                 Lack of awareness among all people of renewable energy resources
                 Human development neglected; therefore no demand for electricity
                 Lack knowledge / information about technology in communities
                 Lack of technical knowledge for solar and hydro development among villagers
                                                  Management and knowledge
                 Lack of ongoing management of assets and infrastructure
                 Limited management capacity (facilities, operation, generation, distribution)
                 Human factor (people who are responsible should be responsible)
                                                             Planning
                 Poor co-ordination of project funding, especially capital versus O&M costs
                 Inadequate project planning
                 Lack of data for planning (including lack of information on energy demand)
                                                     Logistics and High Cost
                 Transportation access to remote rural villages is difficult; cost is too high
                 Difficult to get spare parts; takes a long time
                 Physical isolation of many communities
                                                  Sustainability and Ownership
                 Difficult to identify who manages the project for sustainability purpose
                 Users do not pay for electricity (Willingness to Pay & Ability to Pay issues)
                                                             Security
             Vandalism of existing infrastructure

Annex G – PNG SWOT Workshop
                                                              Strengths
       General & miscellaneous              Very large potential resource of largely untapped hydro, wind, solar and other
                                            renewable energy sources.
                                            Fairly widespread interest within PNG in utilising RETs.
       Fiscal & financial
                                            A large amount of money is available for energy development through some private
                                            sector groups and donors.
       Institutional                        A large number of technical training institutions throughout PNG at secondary,
                                            vocational & tertiary level.
                                            A number of institutions with manpower, knowledge & experience of RE (PNG
                                            Power, GoPNG‟s Energy Division, ATCD, private sector).
                                            GoPNG has skilled (although unmotivated and under-resourced) staff.
                                            Strong NGO / CSO and quasi-government institutions in PNG.
       Legislative, Regulatory & Policy     None identified by participants.
       Technical                            Extensive past experience in PNG with RETs, particularly in 1980s.
       Market                               None identified by participants.
       Knowledge & Public Awareness         Reasonably good knowledge of the resource and RETs in PNG (e.g. at UNITECH,
                                            UNPG, private sector) and necessary skills to advise on RETs.
                                            Considerable onshore knowledge & skills generally within PNG.
                                                             Weaknesses
       General & miscellaneous              Serious lack of respect for the rule of law in general: „Law and order'.
                                            Poor governance and leadership at the political level.
                                            A high degree of indifference among public officials and the public about energy in
                                            general. big power set the agenda and they don‟t really care about RE.
                                            Big oil and
                                            The land tenure system (i.e. inability of planners to deal with land issues and
                                            tendency of some landowners to exploit land issues) are a serious weakness
                                            restricting RETs.
                                            Personal agendas may destroy RE (e.g. a new MP disavows good projects of his
                                            predecessor).
       Fiscal & financial                   Generally poor financial management within government.
                                            Widespread inability of the GoPNG to effectively tap existing sources of finance
                                            (donor and local) for RET development.
                                            Import duties and taxes are sometimes biased against RETs or inconsistent (e.g.
                                            same duties for efficient and inefficient equipment).

                                            Most rural people cannot afford the high initial costs of RETs (e.g. solar PV) and
                                            there are no mechanisms (e.g. rural banks, credit) to help them.

                                            Many government investments lack proper cost / benefit analysis so the financial
                                            and economic viability is not properly assessed.

                                            No financial incentives for government to provide rural electrification.
                                            RETs are too expensive.
                                            Rural landowners have no equity for RE investments which the banks will accept as
                                            they do not „own‟ the land (i.e. cannot sell it).
       Institutional                        Lack of clear responsibilities, and overlapping responsibilities, for energy within
                                            government.
                                            The Energy Division of DPE requires a better organisational structure, a clear role
                                            and financial support.
                                            Poor management skills in general and business management specifically.
                                            Lack of skills within government to prepare high quality proposals for RET technical
                                            assistance.
                                            No „vision‟ by government of what our energy goals are or should be.
                                   The CROP EWG does not effectively serve the countries but fights for their own
                                   narrow interests, e.g. getting funds from donors which does not benefit PNG. In
                                   general, PNG gets left out by the regional agencies..

                                   The donor community has inconsistent policies toward RE and a short time frame,
                                   then their priorities change.
Legislative, Regulatory & Policy   There is no national energy policy and this is needed before donors will support
                                   government officials‟ requests for RET support.
                                   Where there are policies (e.g. rural electrification), these are not implemented
                                   effectively.
                                   The DPE has no legal power or mandate to demand data on energy production (e.g.
                                   electricity generation by private companies) or consumption (e.g. sales by oil
                                   companies).

Technical                          Despite some knowledge of RETs, training is inadequate, insufficient numbers of
                                   people are trained, and curricula are very weak regarding RETs.
                                   Lack of up-to-date reliable data in general about energy resource: very little surveys
                                   or studies since mid-1980s.
                                   In PNG, we tend to be weak at impact assessments in general, including RE
                                   projects which should be assessed.
Market                             The PNG market is too small for local manufacture of RETs and too small to attract
                                   some suppliers
                                   Due to small market, suppliers will not establish local presence or back-up services
                                   or technical services
                                   Much of PNG is an informal non-cash economy and cannot afford RETs or modern
                                   energy services in general
Knowledge                          Young Papua New Guineans tend not to care for assistance and do not take care of
                                   equipment; they have a No Care Attitude.
& Public Awareness                 In general, very little public awareness about RETs.
                                   DPE does not have up-to-date knowledge on energy use (e.g. to consider
                                   substitution options) as most companies to not respond to requests fro data.
                                                 Opportunities
General & miscellaneous            Large number of prefeasability and feasibility studies have been undertaken on
                                   RETs and RE resources (although not all were completed and many are outdated).

                                   If PNG economy takes off, it will be due to rural economy and rural development
                                   requires rural energy services..
                                   The poor rural energy services in PNG at present mean we can „leapfrog‟ old
                                   technologies and make some wise decisions.
                                   Our RE potential is so vast that there are many opportunities if we just seek them.

                                   World Bank, ADB, AusAID and others are willing to provide advice or investment in
                                   RE, and we can build on that.
Fiscal & financial                 A large amount of money is available for energy development donors.
                                   There are numerous attractive opportunities to invest in RETs and energy efficiency
                                   in PNG which are technically viable, cost effective, can reduce capital investment
                                   needs and can benefit consumers.

                                   Better import duties and tariffs can nudge PNG toward more rational energy use and
                                   in favour of RETs.
                                   There are opportunities to tap financial resources (e.g. GEF and EU) if PNG puts
                                   some effort into it.
                                   The budgetary process is being reformed which may be an opportunity for funds to
                                   be used more wisely for energy and RE.
                                   There are investors willing to establish joint venture for RE (e.g. the Korean proposal
                                   for ethanol from cassava).
                                   Carbon credits could reduce the cost of some RE projects in PNG.
Institutional                      Potential (and actual) support from APEC EWG, SOPAC, UN system and others to
                                   understand & develop RETs.
                                   There may be an opportunity for DPE to take over „c‟ centres and provide better
                                   rural electrification services.
                                   The new regional energy programmes (e.g. PIREP, PIEPSAP, REEP) offer
                                   opportunities to us if we actively participate.

Legislative, Regulatory & Policy   A national energy policy, approved by Cabinet, may help us to obtain more donor
                                   support for RETs.
                                   Moves toward commercialisation and competition in energy sector may open new
                                   opportunities for RE companies, sales to the PNG Power grid, etc.
Technical                          Rapid changes and improvements in RE technologies

Market                             Relatively large rural population which wants better energy services
                                   Modest RET exports possible to other countries
Knowledge                          Aus AID has introduced education through national radio and renewable energy
                                   could easily be added to the curriculum

& Public Awareness                 Lots of good information is available through the Internet and from advisers.



                                                      Threats
General & miscellaneous            „Law and order‟ issues may not be resolved or may deteriorate further

                                   Poor governance, vested interests and bribery are common in PNG at all political
                                   levels and this could result in bad decisions regarding RE

                                   A large percentage of RET systems (e.g. Telecom PV) are stolen or damaged by the
                                   public.

                                   The government is not stable, ministers and policies are likely to change at any time
                                   Access to customary land at a cost fair to landowner and developer is increasingly
                                   difficult and compensation demands are serious obstacles.
                                   Our culture may reject RE or it may have a negative impact on our cultures
                                   The interests of developed countries differ from those of PNG that may reduce our
                                   chances of getting RETs at fair prices as conventional systems may have subsidised
                                   loans or pressure from rich countries to use them.
                                   Natural disasters are a very serious threat in PNG to any infrastructure
                                   Our economy or other forces could result in closure of large projects (e.g. mines)
                                   and less government revenue for RE
Fiscal & financial
                                   The high start up costs to set up an RE business or an energy efficiency services
                                   business or a RESCO can scare away those who may be interested and capable.
Institutional                      Our institutions may not be sustainable and projects they promote may fail
                                   If we pursue RETs, there could be a duplication of efforts within government rather
                                   than cooperation among agencies
Legislative, Regulatory & Policy   We may not implement the new policies and laws which we develop
Technical                          Failure of rich countries to approve Kyoto Protocol and further measures to reduce
                                   greenhouse gases and thus less incentive to develop RETs overseas
Market                             None identified by participants.
  Knowledge & Public Awareness
                                   None identified by participants.
                             Oil Equiv.:       Kg CO2 equivalent e
                             toe / unit
                                (net)        per GJ         per litre


                                0.42            94


                                0.34
                                0.28
                                0.33
                                0.27
                                0.7
                                               96.8


                                 1
                                0.9
                                1.17           59.4           1.6
                                0.63
                                1.09           73.9           2.5
                                1.09           73.9           2.5
                                1.12           69.5           2.3
                                1.09           77.4           2.8
                                1.09           70.4           2.6
                                1.08           70.4           2.7
                                1.01           81.5           3.4
                                1.04           81.5           3.4




                            litres / kWh:   Efficiency:
                                  0.46         22%
                                 0.284         36%
                             0.30 - 0.33    28% - 32%



 on = 4.546 litres

 )




million kg = 1,000 tonnes
O 2; N2O 310 times
OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA (2000)
inces and Associated Islands of Papua New Guinea (2000)
                                   Province         Inhabited    Area     No. of    No. of
                           and Associated Islands    Islands    (sq km)   persons   islands
                       Manus                          n/a        1,895    29,475      n/a
                       Islands                         35       226.69    13,912     208
                        10 - 99 sq km                  5        173.99     5,152
                        1 - 9 sq km                    11        44.5      4,212
                        <1 sq km                       19         8.2      4,548
                       New Ireland                     n/a       7066     66,108     n/a
                       Islands                         54       2556.59    52242     149
                         >=1000 sq km                  1         1220     15,729
                        100 – 999 sq km                4        830.52    16,200
                        10 - 99 sq km                  11       432.76    11,840
                        1 - 9 sq km                    21       67.11      6,873
                        <1 sq km                       17         6.2      1,600
                       West New Britain                n/a      20290     163,551    n/a
                       Islands                         19       200.42     20957     125
                            10 - 99 sq km      3    159.91    13176
                            1 - 9 sq km       13    36.32     5462
                            <1 sq km          3     4.19      2,319
                          East New Britain    n/a   15,270   207,613   n/a
                          Islands              8    79.29    12,520    46
                            10 - 99 sq km      2    66.64     8,857
                            1 - 9 sq km        3    11.31     2,380
                            <1 sq km           3     1.34     1,283
                          North Solomons *    n/a   8733     128,145   n/a
                          Islands              9    687.79    46478    168
                            100 - 999 sq km    1    611.3    36,676
                            10 - 99 sq km     2     56.8      6,735
                            1 - 9 sq km        4    18.13     2,576
                            <1 sq km          2     1.56      491




02…       …..*Bougainville Island




S AND CONVENTIONS BY PNG




83 Kina (millions)
–––––– Preliminary Estimates –––––
                       2001        2002
                      3,627       3,516
                       780         705
                      2,848       2,811
                      1,726       1,746

                      1,122       1,065
                       780         705
                       289         310

                       50          50
                       134         131
                       346         339
                       172         173
                       155         165


                       112         116
                       534         539
                       155         155
                        1           1



                       -3.4        -3.1
                       -0.6        -9.6
                       -4.2        -1.3
in PNG (January 2004)
nsibilities:
                        Independent Independent
                        Consumer &     Public
                        Competition Business
                        Commission Corporation
                           (ICCC)      (IPBC)
                                    Independent Independent
                                    Consumer &     Public
                                    Competition Business
                                    Commission Corporation
                                       (ICCC)      (IPBC)


                                   Electricity &    Owns PNG
                                   fuel price       Power (on
                                   control;         behalf of
                                   Electric power   GoPNG)
                                   licenses

 d Treasury (budgets and taxes), and several departments which
munications

 sponsibilities:
                    Local governments
    Operation and management of most C-centres *
 n facilities and runs 10 rural C centres.


90-2002 (MILLIONS OF LITRES)
 a New Guinea, 1990 – 2002 (millions of litres)
                                         1998          1999          2000           2001
                                        70.54          50.946        4.91
                                         8.29           5.97         1.69
                                        53.802         54.49        28.51
                                        10.41           4.88         9.49
                                        290.17         342.12       672.27
                                        31.71          87.49        50.96
                                         11.9          18.21        11.88           10.56
                                         0.5            0.02         0.04
                                        6,468          6,556        6,773


  (LPG) is imports from DPE (2004) survey.                       Totals are rounded off



New Guinea Commercial Energy Balance for 2001 (KTOE)

                                      Diesel Oil      Fuel Oil       LPG        Natural Gas   Hydro   Electricity   Total

                                             -           -             -             144       80          -        2756
                                             1          264           11              -         -          -         349
                                             -           -             -              -         -          -        -2477
                                             -           -             -              -         -          -         -55
                                             1          264           11             144       80          -         573

                                             -           -33           -              -        -47       96          16
                                             -          -169           -            -137       -33       131        -208
                                             -            -            -              -         -        -14         -14
                                             -            -            -              -         -         5           -2
                                             1           62           11              -         -        217         364
                                             0           49            9              -         -        160         218
                                             0           12            -              -         -         -          61
                                             0            -            2              -         -        58          77
                                             0            -            -              -         -         -            0
                                             0            -            2              -         -        58          77
                                             -            -            -              -         -         -            9
nergy Economics) database: www.ieej.or.jp/egeda/database
ND CONSUMPTION, 2001
cial Energy Supply and Consumption, 2001

                                         Electricity
                                  %                    GWh     %
                                         Generation

                                  60    Total          2,638   100
                                  17    Thermal        1,708   65
                                  24    Hydro           930    35
                                  100   Other            -

                                  40

                                  60
ay ≠100% due to rounding errors
Source (GWh)
                                 %         System
                               hydro       losses
                                69%        13.60%
                                66%         16.90%
                                60%         16.00%
                                58%         15.00%




000 – January 2004 *
                     –-–––––– Industrial –-–––––
                               Demand       Minimum
                              Kina / KVA Kina per KVA
                              per month
                                 ?           200
                               24.42         200
                               27.47         200
                               29.97         200


nsumption.


1 & PROJECTED FOR 2011
001 & Projected for 2011
         2011
                               GHGs
                                (Gg)

                                1426


                                629.5
                                  0
                               2055.5


O2/GJ; natural gas 50 kg/GJ.

from gas production.


NGS FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN PNG, 2011
um Energy Savings
d Energy Efficiency in PNG, 2011



                                      Comments


            Increase from 220 MW to 400 MW of hydro
            6 MW of small hydro
            500 new systems, average of 22 kW
            100 MW at mines
            10% of vegetable oil production as fuel
            Less than potential from E Sepik & Purari Basin
            Very limited if most logs exported unprocessed
            100,000 household PV systems
            50 x 250 kW systems
            5% of fuel used for electricity generation is saved but
            displaces RE so no GHG savings

            5% of ground transport fuel use but this replaces biofuels so
            no additional GHG savings


 pproximately     RE = renewable energy




Potential for GHG reductions
ated (Section 3.2) as 4,200 MW (36,800 GWh/year). Current
ro capacity nearly doubles from 220 MW (Table 4-2) to 400
e the additional 180 MW replaces heavy diesel fuel which


ding perhaps 45 sites near C-centres. Assume 6 MW of new
ly 2 GWh/MW installed. Assuming ADO & 0.4 litres per

seable kWh/kW, & replacing diesel at 0.46 l / kWh (Annex


available capacity of which an additional 20 MW or more is
earby geothermal potential. Assume 3.5 GWh/MW replacing


 year of coconut oil and 350KT of palm oil (at about the
 nly 10% of some vegetable oil is used as diesel replacement.


m (latter part of section 3.6). Conservatively, assume 300 ML
. Ignoring CO2 produced during manufacture, savings would


e about 45 m3 of processed wood & 55 m3 of potential
e exported unprocessed. If 10% were processed in PNG, and
uming 400 kg/m3 and 14 MJ/kg, this is equivalent to 67,000
least 300,000 live in areas of high solar insolation. Assume
ay. Assume 300 days/yr operation = 2.55 million kWh/year.
 uel, equivalent to only 9.3 Gg per year.

er 2,000 kWh/kW of installed wind turbine capacity.
ach, this would displace 3.8 ML of diesel (assuming it
uctions.

 57% of petroleum products (excluding natural gas used for
 If the same proportion applied in 2011 electricity would
d-use efficiency efforts, savings would be 0.05 x 272.7 ktoe
 2-12 from hydro and geothermal energy development for
 f petroleum use. As this is about 26% above the total
e. 343.2/272.5), then efficiency measures could save fuel


f petroleum fuel use or 0.18 x 468 ktoe = 86 ktoe in 2011. If
use by 55 x 86 = 4.3 ktoe reducing GHG emissions by 12.8
257 Gg of GHGs. Biodiesel and fuel ethanol production
etroleum fuels) which is more than triple the projected fuel




GHG SAVINGS FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN PNG, 2011
m Energy Savings
 gy Efficiency in PNG, 2011



                      Comments


 d to 100% of projected electricity demand.
 d to 100% of projected transport fuel demand.
 Table 2–11
 ures reduce biofuel use and have little impact on GHG
 ions

mately      RE = renewable energy




 ktoe) and 20% of motor spirit (0.2 x 1/3 x 86 ktoe = 5.7


 . 5% saved through efficiency measures is 1.1 ktoe,
 nes, except logs million m3)
                                                  3
odities ('000 tonnes, except logs million m )
                            2005         2006                2007   2008
                            Proj         Proj                Proj   Proj
                                 15.4           15.7         15.9    16.2
                                 38.6           42.6         45.1    47.7
                                 66.5           65.6         67.7    68.9
                                352.7          363.7         376    388.2
                                 6.2            6.7          8.2     8.6
                                 5.7            5.9           6      6.2
                                 30.7           31.2         31.8    32.5
                                  2            2.08          2.28    2.7
Note: Actual from Bank of PNG & projections from Treasury.
D INSTALLED BY DME, 1983-1989
and Installed by DME, 1983-1989

                        Funding or
                                       Installation
                         technical
                         support           date
                                         (& cost)
                            EC             1983


                            EC            1983


                            EC         1983; worked
                                        for 6 years
                          Forum             ?
                        Secretariat.
                            EC



                         Australian
                        High Comm.

                         Australian
                        High Comm.


                            EC


                             ??             1980
                                        (Kina 10,000)


                         C.P Gout ?        1988)
                                        (Kina 9,000)


                         C.P Gout ?         1986


                           Forum
                         Secretariat

                         CHOGRM          Dec. 1988



 the survey.




V Projects in Papua New Guinea
                                                             Year
                                  Application
                                                           Installed
                              water pumping               1983-1988
                                    various                unknown
                                   telecom                since 1978
                               vaccine fridges                1988
                               vaccine fridges                1988
                             lighting, pumping            1988-1992
                                 urban demo                  1994?
                                       ???
                                    lighting               1996-'98
                               vaccine fridges
                            examination lamps
                               water pumping                  2000
                              lighting; vaccine               2001
                              lighting; vaccine               2002
                               vaccine fridges            before 2003
                                   HF radio             ongoing in 2003
                                    lighting              before 2004
                                    lighting            starting in 2004
                               vaccine fridges                1999
                             focal point electr.         2002 onwards
4 (tonnes)
                   1974
             101




                   Date     No of      Battery   Battery
               installed   batteries    type     capacity        Remarks
                                                  (AH)
                              36                  3303             OCA
                              39                  1500       Unserviceable OCA

                              78                  1500             OCA
                              96                  4404             OCA
                              52                  2640             OCA
                              48                  4404      Decommissioned OCA
                              24                  2202             OCA
                              48                  4404             OCA
                              64                  2700       Unserviceable OCA
                    .         1        2G560       560            Telicom
                              1        2G560       560            Telicom
                              2        2G560       560            Telicom
                              1        2G225       225            Telicom
                              1        2G560       560            Telicom
                              2        2G560       560            Telicom
                              1        2G560       560            Telicom
                              3        2G560       560            Telicom
                              2        2G560       560            Telicom
                              3        2G560       560            Telicom
               5/25/1995      6        2P1101     1100            Telicom
                              4        P2425       225            Telicom
                              ?        2G560       560            Telicom
                              1        2G225       225            Telicom
                              1                    183            Telicom
               6/25/1994      3                     0             Telicom
                              1                    183            Telicom
                              1        2G560       560            Telicom
               6/25/1995      6        2P1101     1100            Telicom
                              3        BP779       799            Telicom
                              2        BP779       799            Telicom
                              1        BP779       799            Telicom
                              1        BP779       799            Telicom
                              3        BP779       799            Telicom
                              2        BP1101     1100            Telicom


                              2        BP1101     1100            Telicom
2   BP1101   1100   Telicom
1   BP425    425    Telicom
2   BP425    425    Telicom
1   2G560    560    Telicom
3   2G560    560    Telicom
6   PVST0R   1100   Telicom
1   2G225    225    Telicom
2   2G560    560    Telicom
2   2G560    560    Telicom
2   2G560    560    Telicom
2            430    Telicom
2            430    Telicom
3   2G560    560    Telicom
2   2G560    560    Telicom
1   2G560    560    Telicom
2   2G560    560    Telicom
3                   Telicom
1             90    Telicom
1   2G255    225    Telicom
1   2G560    560    Telicom
4   2G560    560    Telicom
3   2G560    560    Telicom
1   2G560    560    Telicom
3            500    Telicom
1             90    Telicom
1   2G225    225    Telicom
2            500    Telicom
2   2G560    560    Telicom
1   2G225    225    Telicom
              90    Telicom
2   2G560    560    Telicom
1            183    Telicom
1            183    Telicom
1             0     Telicom
2   2G560    560    Telicom
1   2G560    560    Telicom
1            183    Telicom
1            183    Telicom
2   2G560    560    Telicom
1            210    Telicom
1            120    Telicom
1            183    Telicom
1   NICAD    220    Telicom
1   2G560    560    Telicom
2            183    Telicom
          1   NICAD    566   Telicom
          1   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G560    425   Telicom
          1   BP 425   183   Telicom
          1   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   P2779     0    Telicom
          2   2G560    550   Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
          1             0    Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
          1   2G560    560   Telicom
          3   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
          1   2G560    560   Telicom
          1   2G560    500   Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
          1   2G560    560   Telicom
          1   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G225    225   Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G225    225   Telicom
          1   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
          3   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G561    560   Telicom
          2   2G90     90    Telicom
          2   2G225    225   Telicom
          1   2G225    225   Telicom
          1   NICAD     0    Telicom
          1            500   Telicom
          1             0    Telicom
              2G560    560   Telicom
          3   2G560    560   Telicom
                        0    Telicom
          1   2G225    225   Telicom
          3   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
              2G560    560   Telicom
                        0    Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
          2   2G560    560   Telicom
1.11.95   2   N120     120   Telicom
1.11.95   2   N120     120   Telicom
10.11.84   1   2G560   560   Telicom
10.11.84   1   2G560   560   Telicom
25.10.84                0    Telicom
06.01.88                0    Telicom
10.10.84   1           370   Telicom
10.01.84                0    Telicom
06.04.84                0    Telicom
18.06.87   3   2G225   225   Telicom
03.02.84   4   BP779   770   Telicom
23.01.88   1   2G560   560   Telicom
27.11.84   1           370   Telicom
10.11.84   1           370   Telicom
26.11.84   1   2G560   560   Telicom
30.05.88   1   2G560   560   Telicom
04.03.84   4            0    Telicom
27.05.88   1   2G560   560   Telicom
24.07.81   2   2G560   560   Telicom
                        0    Telicom
               2G560   560   Telicom
           1   2G560   560   Telicom
02.11.89   2                 Telicom
23.12.82   2   BP452   425   Telicom
           1   2G560   560   Telicom
                        0    Telicom
24.12.84   1   2G215   215   Telicom
06.06.88   1   2G225   225   Telicom
31.12.98   1           90    Telicom
06.06.88   2   2G560   560   Telicom
12.12.98   1   2G225   225   Telicom
20.04.97   4   BP425   425   Telicom
24.11.88   1           90    Telicom
02.01.88   1   2G560   560   Telicom
11.04.88   1   2G560   560   Telicom
11.01.88   1   2G560   560   Telicom
02.01.88   1   2G560   560   Telicom
05.01.88   1   2G560   560   Telicom
14.01.87   4   2G560   560   Telicom
23.11.89   1   2G560   560   Telicom
           1           120   Telicom
23.11.89   1   2G560   560   Telicom
09.08.89   2   2G560   560   Telicom
11.11.89   2   2G560   560   Telicom
           6   2G560   560   Telicom
06.10.88   3   2G560   560   Telicom
06.06.88   3   2G560   560   Telicom
06.06.88   2   2G560   560   Telicom
06.06.98   1   2G560   560   Telicom
08.06.88   6   2G560      560   Telicom
           1   BP779      779   Telicom
           1              100   Telicom
           1   2G560      560   Telicom
           5   2G560      560   Telicom
           2   2G560      560   Telicom
06.01.88   5   2G560      560   Telicom
06.01.88   1              100   Telicom
           6   2G560      560   Telicom
           2   Enrylite   50    Telicom
ENERGY CONVERSIONS, CO2 EMMISSIONS & MEASUREMENTS
                                                                               Typical         Typical     Gross Energy Gross Energy
                                 Fuel                            Unit
                                                                               Density         Density         MJ / kg    MJ / litre
                                                                               kg / litre      l / tonne
         Biomass Fuels:
         Fuel wood (5% mcwb)                                tonne                                                 18
                                        a
         Coconut residues (air dry)
         Shell (15% mcwb) harvested                         tonne                                                14.6
         Husk (30% mcwb harvested                           tonne                                                 12
                             b
         Average (air dry)                                  tonne                                                 14
         Coconut palm (air dry)                             tonne                                                11.5
         Charcoal                                           tonne                                                 30
         Bagasse                                            tonne                                                9.6
         Vegetable & Mineral Fuels:
         Crude oil                                          tonne                                                42.6
         Coconut oil                                        tonne                0.92           1,100            38.4
         LPG                                                tonne                0.51           1,960            49.6        25.5
         Ethanol                                            tonne                                                 27
         Gasoline (super)                                   tonne                0.73           1,370            46.5         34
         Gasoline (unleaded)                                tonne               0.735           1,360            46.5        34.2
         Aviation gasoline (Avgas)                          tonne               0.695           1,440            47.5         33
         Lighting Kerosene                                  tonne                0.79           1,270            46.4        36.6
         Aviation turbine fuel (jet fuel)                   tonne               0.795           1,260            46.4        36.9
         Automotive diesel (ADO)                            tonne                0.84           1,190             46         38.6
         High sulphur fuel oil (IFO)                        tonne                0.98           1,020            42.9         42
         Low sulphur fuel oil (IFO)                         tonne                0.9            1,110            44.5        40.1




         Diesel Conversion Efficiency:

         Actual efficiencies are used where known. Otherwise:                                                            litres / kWh:
         Average efficiency for small diesel engine (< 100kW output)                                                           0.46
         Average efficiency of large modern diesel engine(> 1000 kW output)                                                   0.284
         Average efficiency of low speed, base load diesel (Pacific region)                                               0.30 - 0.33


         Area:            1.0 km2 = 100 hectares = 0.386 mile2 1.0 acre = 0.41 hectares
         Volume           1 US gallon = 0.833 Imperial (UK) gallons = 3.785 liters 1.0 Imperial gallon = 4.546 litres
         Mass:            1.0 long tons = 1.016 tonnes
         Energy:          1 kWh = 3.6 MJ = 860 kcal = 3,412 Btu = 0.86 kgoe (kg of oil equivalent)
                          1 toe = 11.83 MWh = 42.6 GJ = 10 million kcal = 39.68 million Btu
                          1 MJ = 238.8 kcal = 947.8 Btu = 0.024 kgoe = 0.28 kWh
         GHGs             1 Gg (one gigagram) = 1000 million grams (109 grams) = one million kg = 1,000 tonnes
         CO2 equiv
                          CH4 has 21 times the GHG warming potential of the same amount of CO 2; N2O 310 times

TABLE 10.1 - RMI POPULATION , RALIK & RATAK CHAINS, 1920-1999
                     Table 10.1 - RMI Population, Ralik & Ratak Chains, 1920-1999
                         Total              Ralik Chain                      Ratak Chain
            Year       Population      Population    % total            Population   % total
        1920              9,693            4,919            50.7           4,774          49.3
        1925              9,538            4,778            50.1           4,760          49.9
        1930              10,130           5,308            52.4           4,822          47.6
        1935              10,126           5,292            52.3           4,834          47.7
        1958              14,163           6,644            46.9           7,519          53.1
        1967              18,578           8,732             47            9,758          52.5
        1970              22,888          12,159            53.1           10,729         46.9
        1973              25,045          10,692            42.7           14,334         57.2
        1980              30,873          13,684            44.3           17,189         55.7
        1988              43,380          17,502            40.3           25,878         59.7
        1999              50,840          19,915            39.2           30,925         60.8
              Source: GoRMI website www.rmiembassyus.org/statistics (Feb. 2004)

TABLE 10.2 - RMI LAND AREA AND POPULATION (1999)
                             Table 10.2 - RMI Land Area and Population (1999)
           Atoll or       Land         Lagoon                              Density                     HH


            Island        (km2)            (km2)            Pop.             HH      (people / km2 )   size
        Ailinglaplap       14.69           750.3            1,959            236          133          8.3
        Ailuk               5.36           177.3             513             88            96          5.8
        Arno               12.95           338.7            2,069            244          160          8.5
        Aur                 5.62           239.8             537             86            96          6.2
        Bikini              6.01           594.1              13                            2
        Ebon                5.75           103.8             902             122          157          7.4
        Enewetak            5.85         1,004.90            853             109          146          7.8
        Jabat Is.           0.57             0                95              15          167          6.3
        Jaluit             11.34           689.7            1,669            229          147          7.3
        Kili Is.            0.93             0               774              90          830          8.6
        Kwajalein          16.39         2,173.80          10,902           1,213         665           9
        Lae                 1.45           17.7              322              32          222          10.1
        Lib Is.             0.93             0               147              15          158          9.8
        Likiep             10.28            424              527              82           51          6.4
        Majuro              9.71           295.1           23,676           3,080        2,438         7.7
        Maloelap            9.82           972.7             856             138           87          6.2
        Mejit               1.86             0               416              60          223          6.9
        Mili               15.93           646.7            1,032            136           65          7.6
        Namdrik             2.77            8.4              722             118          261          6.1
        Namu                6.27           397.6             903             127          144          7.1
        Rongelap            7.95         1,004.30             19                            2
        Ujae                1.86           185.9             440             67           236          6.6
        Ujelang             1.74             66                0                            0
        Utrik               2.43           57.7              433              65          178          6.7
        Wotho               4.33           94.9              145              18           34          8.1
        Wotje               8.18           624.3             866             108          106           8
        Totals            181.48        10,867.90          50,840           6,478         280          7.8
        Source – 1999 Census;       Note: urban/urbanised atolls are in bold print


TABLE 10.3 - RATIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TREATIES & CONVENTIONS BY THE RMI
                Table 10.3 - Ratification of Environmental Treaties & Conventions by the RMI
          Status in        Protection      Conservation     Hazardous     Nuclear free      GHG        Ozone
                                                             wastes         Pacific      reductions   depleting
             RMI           of natural        of nature       (Waigani     (Rarotonga       (Kyoto     substances
                           resources                        Convention)
                            (SPREP            (Apia                         Treaty)       Protocol)    (Montreal
                           Convention)      Convention)                                               Protocol, et
                                                                                                          al.)

        Signed             25-Nov-86              -         16-Sep-95      6-Aug-85      16-Mar-98         –
        Ratified           23-Jul-90        20-Jul-90       23-May-01      20-Oct-86     15-Nov-00    21-Dec-92
        Entered    into    22-Aug-90        26-Jun-90       21-Oct-01      11-Dec-86       n/a *      17-Jun-93
        force
        Notes: Treaties & conventions are briefly described in Volume 1, the PIREP Regional Overview report

         * The Kyoto Protocol is in force from 15 February 2004 for European Union members only.
        Sources: Websites for conventions, PIFS & SPREP (Jan. – March 2004) and GoRMI 2002;
         (There are minor inconsistencies among sources)


TABLE 10.4 - RMI AND REGIONAL ECONOMIC TREATIES
         Table 10.4 - RMI and Regional Economic Treaties

        Status             SPARTECA          PACER            PICTA
        Signed            14-Jul-80       18-Aug-01        18-Aug-01
        Ratified          24-Feb-81       10-Oct-01        10-Oct-01
        Entered    into
        force             26-Mar-81       3-Oct-02         13-Apr-03

        Source: Note from Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS,
        January 2004)


TABLE 10.5 - MARSHALL ISLANDS, SELECTED ECONOMIC INDICATORS
                                                      Table 10.5 - Marshall Islands, Selected Economic Indicators
                                                                                                                     2002
                                      Indicator                              1999          2000          2001
                                                                                                                     (Est.)
        Real GDP (% change)                                                   0.6           0.9          -1.3          4
        Consumer prices (%change)                                             1.9           0.9          1.8          1.7
        Central government finances (% of GDP)
        Revenue and grants:                                                   67.6          75.2         82.5         76
         Of which: Grants                                                     40.1          50.4         58.7        49.8
         Expenditure                                                          57.1           66          72.8        79.5
         Overall balance                                                      10.6          9.2          9.7         -3.5

        Usable government financial assets:
         (US$ million.; end of period)                                        4.8           9.4           4.2        2.1
         Trust Funds (US$ mn.; end of period)                                 ...           ...           ...        16.3

        Commercial banks (US$ mn.; end-Dec.):
         Foreign assets                                                        25           30.6         31.7        40.1
         Private sector claims                                                23.5          26.6         30.3        35.6
         Total deposits                                                       54.3          58.5         60.2        69.4
        One-year time deposit rate (%)                                         5            6.2          4.1          4
        Average consumer loan rate (%)                                        20.5          19.2         16.5        16.5

        Balance of payments (US$ million):
         Trade balance                                                       -52.4         -41.9         -39.7       -41.1


          Net services                                                        -8.7          -2.2         -2.4         -3.3
          Net income                                                          22.6          26.3          19.7           25.1
          Private and official transfers                                      32.6          43.5          51.9           40.1

         Current account including official transfers                          -5.9         25.7           29.5           20.8
         Current account excluding official transfers                         -44.6         -24           -28.6          -31.4
         Overall balance                                                       -7.6         4.6            -5.2           14.2
         External debt (US$ mn.; end of period)                                98.5         91.9           76.8           85.4
          (%of GDP)                                                           101.8         93.3           77.5           81.5

         External debt service (US$ millions)                                  36.2          20.6          26.3          3.2
          (% of exports of goods & services)                                  327.1         130.4         150.6          16.8
         Sources: IMF, 2003 with data provided by RMI authorities & IMF staff estimates.


TABLE 10.6 - THE NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY OF 2003
                                               Table 10.6 - The National Energy Policy of 2003

                 Core areas                                             Key Policies & strategies

                                              Coordinate energy planning & programs
                                              Review & implement the policy as appropriate
         National coordination and            Promote public/private partnerships
         planning                             Investigate regional and international funding
                                              Update & standardize renewable energy equipment & ensure compliance
                                              Establish national energy supply & demand database
                                              Assess RMI’s RE potential
                                              Promote use of proven RETs in rural areas, especially PV
         Renewable energy / rural             Promote solar water heating in Majuro, Ebeye & hotels in cooperation with MEC
         electrification
                                            Establish financial, legal & institutional framework for rural electrification & RE


                                            Promote more efficient end-use of electricity
                                            Influence MEC through MRD’s board membership
         Electric power                     Ensure power development is based on least-cost development incorporating DSM
                                           and full cost recovery from consumers

                                              Secure reliable supply through competitive tendering
                                              Assure appropriate standards for products, storage & handling and disposal
         Petroleum                            Encourage fuel conservation and efficient use
                                              Ensure reliable, affordable petroleum fuels supply in rural areas
                                              Establish & enforce guidelines for fuel pricing in outer islands
         Energy Efficiency                    Develop energy efficiency programs for government & private sector
         and conservation                     Promote energy star rating for white goods (e.g. refrigerators)
                                              Develop & disseminate information on benefits of EE & conservation
                                              Develop emission control regulations & procedures
                                              Promote and enforce vehicle efficiency standards
         Transport                          Develop framework for energy efficient ground and sea transport
                                            Develop national capacity including strengthening EPD with adequate staff &
         Cross-cutting issues               Incorporate environmental considerations into energy planning (including safe
                                           disposal of waste & PV batteries
         Source: Marshall Islands National Energy Policy (GoRMI, 2003), with text edited and summarized
         Notes: RE = renewable energy; RET = RE technology; DSM = demand side management; EE = energy efficiency



TABLE 10.7 - RMI IMPORT DUTIES
              Table 10.7 - RMI Import Duties

                                                Rate
                     Product                ($ or % of CIF
                                                value)
                     Gasoline                    20%
              Distillate; Kerosene                5%
                                             $2,500, new
                  Motor vehicles
                                            $1,500, used
                  Public vehicles                 5%
         Source: Chutaro, 2004. Excl. drinks, tobacco,
         etc
         (Vehicle duty based on ‘Kelly’s Blue Book’
         rates but no less than specified above.)




TABLE 2.1 - PETROLEUM IMPORTS IN 2003 (MILLIONS)
            Table 2.1 - Petroleum Imports in 2003 (millions)

                    Product                     USG          Liters
         Petrol                                 1.55          5.87
         Kerosene / Jet A                       14.97         56.7
         Diesel                                 16.52         63.2
         Other Oils                              0.1          0.38
         LPG                                     0.2          0.74
         Total                                  33.34        126.89
                   Source: Chutaro, 2004;      USG = US gallons


TABLE 2.2 - PETROLEUM STORAGE, MAJURO (ML)
             Table 2.2-Petroleum Storage, Majuro (ML)
         Product            ADO DPK            Gasoline
         MEC                   22.7               –               –
         Mobil                  2.5              2.9              1
          total                24.2              2.9              1
         Source: Chutaro, 2004 from MEC


TABLE 2.3 - MEC GENERATION AND CUSTOMERS ON MAJURO
                                       Table 2.3 - MEC Generation and Customers on Majuro

                          Generation            –––––––––––––––– Number of Customers –––––––––––––––––
             Year          (GWh)            Commercial   Govt     Metered     Lifeline    Other      Total
         1990                  42.91              –            –               –            –      –   2,261
         1995                  61.67              –            –               –            –      –   2,327
         1996                  62.62             193          80              955         1,481   25   2,734
         1997                  62.12             203          87              905         1,604   39   2,838
         1998                  64.11             222          73              961         1,554   36   2,846
         1999                  62.93             258          70             1,621        1,067   18   3,034
         2000                  69.24             272          82             1,174        1,585   35   3,148
         2001                  73.52             389          124            1,125        1,525   39   3,202
         2002                  79.76             322          97             1,411        1,479   24   3,333
         2003                   81.3              –            –               –            –      –   3,528
         Source: RMI Statistical Yearbook 2002 & MEC, 2004            – = not available


TABLE 2.4 - POWER TARIFFS, 2003
              Table 2.4 - Power Tariffs, 2003
                                            Commercial
            Utility        Residential           &
                                            government
             MEC                 12              16
            KAJUR               15.5            18.5
         Source: Chutaro, 2004


TABLE 2.5 - ESTIMATED CONSUMPTION OF COMMERCIAL ENERGY IN RMI BY SECTOR (ToE; 2003)
                                       Table 2.5 - Estimated Consumption of Commercial Energy in RMI by Sector (ToE; 2003)
                                               Imports                        — Consumption in Thousand Tonnes of Oil Equivalent —
                      Source                    ML            '000                                    House-       Commercial
                                                                        Transport      Electricity
                                                            tonnes                                     holds        & industry
         Motor spirit                           5.87         4,300        4,670             0            0               0
         Kerosene/Jet fuel                      56.7        45,000        48,185            0           865              0
         Distillate (ADO)*                      30.5        25,600        3,180          24,500          0               0
         LPG                                    0.74           400           0              0           220             220
           Total                                93.8        75,300        56,035         24,500        1085             220
          % of total ToE                         –            –          68.50%         29.90%         1.30%         0.30%
         Sources: Table 2-1 and the assumptions indicated in the text.
         Notes: Tonnes, toe and GHG from conversions table; Excludes losses/transformations 1 Gg = 1,000 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent
         * ADO excludes 32.7 ML of re-exports. Excludes 0.38 ML of lube oils and other products


TABLE 2.6 - HOUSEHOLD LIGHTING, 1998 & 1999
                                Table 2.6 - Household Lighting, 1988 & 1999
                                 No                    -– % of households using –-
          Location             of HH           Elec         Kero        Solar            Other
         1999:00:00
          Majuro               3080             88.3          11            0.3            0.4
          Kwajalein            1213             89.8         9.6             0             0.6
          Rural                2185             13.4         70.8           15             0.7
          Total RMI            6478             63.3         30.9           5.2            0.5
         1988:00:00
          Majuro               2228             78.1         20.4           0.7            0.8
          Kwajalein             960             81.9          1.1           5.9            10
          Rural                1735             12.9          7.6            4             8.3
          Total RMI            4923              56          36.1           2.9             5
         Sources: Census of Households and Housing, 1988 & 1999
         Notes: Totals may not add to exactly 100%


TABLE 2.7 - HOUSEHOLD COOKING, 1998 & 1999
                                         Table 2.7 - Household Cooking, 1988 & 1999
                                No                       –-––– % of households using ––––-
           Location            of hh           Elec         Kero       LPG       Char                  Wood
         1999:00:00
         Majuro                3080             35.9         54.1           2.8           < 0.1         6.7
         Kwajalein             1213             38.4         59.4           0.3           < 0.1         1.1
         Rural                 2185              6           10.8           0.7            3.2          78.5
         Total RMI             6478             26.3         40.5           1.7            1.1          29.9
         1988:00:00
         Majuro                2228             49.4         46.8           1.1             –           2.4
         Kwajalein              960             64.1         33.1           1.3             –           0.4
         Rural                 1735              6.5         57.2            1              –           35.9
        Total RMI              4923          37.1             47.8            1.1              –             13.8
        Sources: Census of Households and Housing, 1988 & 1999
        Note: Totals may not add to exactly 100%          Char = charcoal


TABLE 2.8 - CRUDE ESTIMATES OF GROWTH IN COMMERCIAL ENERGY IN RMI, 2003-2013 (ToE; 2003)
          Table 2.8 – Crude Estimates of Growth in Commercial Energy in RMI, 2003-
                                       2013 (ToE; 2003)
                                       2003                           2013
                  Source
                                        KL       GHGs (Gg)      KL       GHGs (Gg)

        Motor spirit                         5,870            14.7           9,562           23.9
        Kerosene/Jet fuel                   56,700           147.5           92,364         240.1
        Distillate (ADO)*                   30,500            82.2           49,685         134.1
        LPG                                   740             1.2            1,205           1.9
          Total                             93,810           245.6          152,816          400
        Sources: Table 2-5 and assumed 5% growth in fuel use;        Notes: Excludes marine
        bunkering and lube oils


TABLE 2.9 - INDICATIVE ENERGY SAVINGS & GHG SAVINGS FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY, 2013
                               Table 2.9 - Indicative Energy Savings & GHG Savings from Renewable Energy, 2013


                                           Potential         GHG2
                  Technology                                             % of savings                    Comments & assumptions
                                          fuel savings   savings (Gg)


        Biodiesel                       2,800 KL ADO          7.6             34        Assume used for coconut oil fuel production
                                                                                        All coprathat nearly all unelectrified rural atoll homes receive
        Solar PV *                       130 KL ADO           0.4              2        solar PV instead of gensets
        Efficiency (electricity) [1]    4,420 KL ADO         11.9             53        10% of ADO used for power generation
        Efficiency (transport)          956 KL of gas         2.4             11        10% of 2013 gasoline use
        Hydro; geothermal                   Zero               0                        No hydro potential; no known geothermal resource
        Ocean                               Zero               0                        No commercial OTEC or sea wave systems yet available
        Other biomass                       Zero               0                        No likely viable biomass candidates
        Solar thermal **                  Very small           0                        Hotels have solar water heating; limited scope for more
        Wind                                Zero               0                        Unlikely to be viable near any appreciable load
              Total                                          22.3            100        Under 6% reduction of 2013 projected total
        Source: PIREP mission estimates              Assumptions:
        * In 1999, there were 6478 households of which about 31.5% or 2040 were unelectrified. Assume that all new Majuro and Ebeye households
        (and those of other islands now served by MEC or KAJUR) continue to be grid connected. If other rural households grow by 1% annually,
        there could be about 2,322 candidate households for solar PV by 2013. Assume that 2,300 are provided with 150 Wp solar home systems
        producing 0.37 kWh/day each for 300 days per year, a total of 255,000 kWh per year. If this is used in place of small gensets which use 0.5
        l/kWh, the savings are 128,000 liters of ADO, equivalent to reductions of 346,000 kg of CO 2 emissions. This is 0.35 Gg.


         ** Even if new hotels and businesses install SWH, GHG reductions would be minimal.



         [1] From Table 2.5, 95% of ADO (0.95 x 49,685 KL = 47,000 KL) is for electricity generation. 10% of this is = 4,700 KL. Renewable energy
                          displaces about 6% of this (3,000/47000) so 94% of fuel savings (4420 KL) have a GHG-reducing effect.



TABLE 3.1 - SOLAR RADIATION, HORIZONTAL AND TILTED RECEIVER VALUES
                                                                               Table 3.1 – Solar Radiation, horizontal and tilted receiver values
        Month                   Jan           Feb             Mar            Apr             May              Jun              Jul
                                                                                    Southern boundary of the Marshall Islands, 5°N 170°E (near Ebon)
        Horizontal              4.8           5.37            5.46           5.54            5.12            5.01             5.08
         Tilted                 5.45             5.8                    5.49         5.51                   5.3             5.3           5.31
                                                                                                   Central area of the Marshall Islands, 7°N 168°E, near Ailinglaplap
         Horizontal             5.09              5.7                   5.83         5.92                   5.53           5.27           5.26
         Tilted                 5.58             5.95                   5.7          5.65                   5.48           5.3            5.25
                                                                                                 Northern boundary of the Marshall Islands, 12°N 167° E, near Rongerik
         Horizontal             5.5              6.08                   6.59         6.84                   6.64           6.48           6.31
         Tilted                 7.01             7.09                   6.86         6.25                   6.62           6.67           6.39
         Source - http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/


TABLE 4.1 - PV INSTALLATIONS AS OF 2002 (NOT ALL OPERATIVE)
                                          Table 4.1 – PV installations as of 2002 (not all operative)




                                                                                     Comm-Hall




                                                                                                            Dispensary
                                                 HF Radio.




                                                                                                                         Individual
                              Fisheries
                              freezers




                                                                                                                           System
                                                                        School




                                                                                                                                           Total
             Atoll



         Majuro                                                                                                             10             10
         Kwajalein                                  2                                                                                       2
         Ailinglaplap             1                 2                     1             1                       2            2              9
         Jaluit                                     3                                   1                       1                           5
         Arno                                       3                     2             2                       1           18             26
         Mili                                       2                     2             1                                                   5
         Namorik                                    2                                   2                       1          133             138
         Namu                     1                 2                                   1                       2           1               7
         Maloelap                                   3                     3                                     2          20              28
         Ebon                                       2                                   3                                  11              16
         Enewetak                                   1                     1                                                                 2
         Wotje                                      2                     1                                     1                           4
         Ailuk                                      2                                   1                       1           10             14
         Ujae                                       1                     1             1                                                   3
         Likiep                   1                 1                     1                                     1                           4
         Mejit                                      2                     2             1                       1                           6
         Aur                                        1                     2             1                       1           10             15
         Utirik                                                                         1                                    2              3
         Lae                                        1                     1                                     1           18             21
         Lib                                        1                     1                                     1                           3
         Jabat                                      1                     2             1                       1           30             35
         Wotho                                      1                     1             1                                                   3
         Bikini                                                                                                            10              10
         TOTALS                   3               45                     21           17                     17            265             366
         Source – Outer Islands Electrification Study , ADB, April 1995 and Annexes to the Namdrik PREFACE Project Report Final
         Review , Jean-Michel Durand, 2003


TABLE 4.2 - NAMDRIK SOLAR PROJECT SUMMARY
                                          Table 4.2– Namdrik Solar Project Summary
                  Characteristics                            Detailed comments about the project characteristic

         Location of the project           Namdrik, Marshall Islands
         Commissioning date                October 2002 (initial commissioning, final in 2004 after turnover to MEC)
         Budget                            $600,000
         2004 operational status           Fully operational
                                           To meet the lighting and basic entertainment needs of the households on
         Primary objectives
                                           Namdrik
Population served               All households on Namdrik
Funding arrangements            Grant by Australia-France under the PREFACE project

                                SPC contracted with Pacific Energie (New Caledonia) for the provision of
Implementation arrangements
                                components and the supervision of installations

                                As of April 2004, the MEC took over operation and maintenance of the
Source of maintenance and       project. Households paid $200 for the initial installation and a continuing fee of
operation funds                 $12 per month for maintenance. If there is a shortfall in cash, MRD will
                                provide MEC with the difference between collections and cost.

                                It is intended to be the case that all inputs come from recipients but until more
What input comes from
                                experience is gained in the maintenance of the systems, the actual cost of
recipients
                                operation and maintenance will not be known.

Local involvement in project PREFACE trained business agents and technicians on Namdrik to manage
implementation, operation and the project. MEC has taken over that organization and will continue to use
maintenance                   local persons for basic technical and business services.


                                Technical training for technicians and hands on training by PREFACE during
Capacity building components
                                the installation. MEC will provide continuing training as needed.

                                Technical objectives appear to have been met for the short term though there
                                are concerns that the capacity of the systems is too low for the demands of
                                the Namdrik households. Future technical problems are expected with the
                                complex controllers and with the use of sealed batteries in a high temperature
                                environment.
Relative success at achieving
project objectives
                                Social objectives were partially met in that good quality lighting was provided
                                and power for small entertainment appliances was made available. However
                                there is an unmet demand for higher power appliances such as video systems
                                that requires more capacity than is available with the 80Wp systems.
               Kg CO2
Oil Equiv.:
              equivalent e
 toe / unit
   (net)        per GJ       per litre


   0.42           94


   0.34
   0.28
   0.33
   0.27
    0.7
                 96.8


     1
    0.9
   1.17          59.4          1.6
   0.63
   1.09          73.9          2.5
   1.09          73.9          2.5
   1.12          69.5          2.3
   1.09          77.4          2.8
   1.09          70.4          2.6
   1.08          70.4          2.7
   1.01          81.5          3.4
   1.04          81.5          3.4




Efficiency:
   22%
   36%
28% - 32%
mic Indicators
                 2003      2004
                 (Est.)   (Proj.)
                   2        1.5
                  -1.9      1.5

                 75.4      75.1
                  50       50.6
                 66.6      78.2
                 8.7       -3.1


                 3.4       0.8
                 32.6      41.6


                 48.4       ...
                 37.4       ...
                 72.2       ...
                 3.9        ...
                 16.1       ...


                 -47.1     -51.1

                  -4.3     -4.1
33.2    26.6
40.3    42.9

 22.2    14.4
-30.3   -40.2
 17.7   -27.3
 90.7    90.1
 86.5    83.3

4.1     4.1
20      18.1
BY SECTOR (ToE; 2003)
n RMI by Sector (ToE; 2003)
n Thousand Tonnes of Oil Equivalent —
                                   ‘000    GHGs
                                   TOE      (Gg)
                                  4,670    14.68
                                  49,050   147.42
                                  27,680   82.35
                                    440     1.18
                                  81,840   245.63
                                  100%       –


1,000 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent
RMI, 2003-2013 (ToE; 2003)




ABLE ENERGY, 2013
wable Energy, 2013



Comments & assumptions




r coconut oil fuel production homes receive
rly all unelectrified rural atoll
 of gensets
d for power generation
 oline use
al; no known geothermal resource
 TEC or sea wave systems yet available
 omass candidates
r water heating; limited scope for more
ble near any appreciable load
tion of 2013 projected total

 that all new Majuro and Ebeye households
 rural households grow by 1% annually,
vided with 150 Wp solar home systems
d in place of small gensets which use 0.5
sions. This is 0.35 Gg.




0% of this is = 4,700 KL. Renewable energy
ve a GHG-reducing effect.




iation, horizontal and tilted receiver values
                                  Aug           Sep    Oct   Nov    Dec    Avg
f the Marshall Islands, 5°N 170°E (near Ebon)
                                  5.53          5.53   5.6   4.94   4.82   5.23
                                   5.61           5.38   5.91   5.54   5.59   5.52
Marshall Islands, 7°N 168°E, near Ailinglaplap
                                   5.59           5.31   5.33   4.79   5.37
                                   5.42           5.06   5.43   5.14   5.46   5.45
he Marshall Islands, 12°N 167° E, near Rongerik
                                   6.08           5.73   5.57   5.11   5.21   6.01
                                   5.84           5.67   6.21   6.26   6.78   6.47
ENERGY CONVERSIONS, CO2 EMMISSIONS & MEASUREMENTS
                                                                                        Typical          Typical          Gross Energy
                                     Fuel                                Unit           Density          Density             MJ / kg
                                                                                        kg / litre      l / tonne
        Biomass Fuels:
        Fuelwood (5% mcwb)                                         tonne                                                        18
                                     a
        Coconut residues (air dry)
        Shell (15% mcwb) harvested                                 tonne                                                       14.6
        Husk (30% mcwb harvested                                   tonne                                                        12
                            b
        Average (air dry)                                          tonne                                                        14
        Coconut palm (air dry)                                     tonne                                                       11.5
        Charcoal                                                   tonne                                                        30
        Bagasse                                                    tonne                                                       9.6
        Vegetable & Mineral Fuels:
        Crude oil                                                  tonne                                                       42.6
        Coconut oil                                                tonne                  0.92            1,100                38.4
        LPG                                                        tonne                  0.51            1,960                49.6
        Ethanol                                                    tonne                                                        27
        Gasoline (super)                                           tonne                  0.73            1,370                46.5
        Gasoline (unleaded)                                        tonne                 0.735            1,360                46.5
        Aviation gasoline (Avgas)                                  tonne                 0.695            1,440                47.5
        Lighting Kerosene                                          tonne                  0.79            1,270                46.4
        Aviation turbine fuel (jet fuel)                           tonne                 0.795            1,260                46.4
        Automotive diesel (ADO)                                    tonne                  0.84            1,190                 46
        High sulphur fuel oil (IFO)                                tonne                  0.98            1,020                42.9
        Low sulphur fuel oil (IFO)                                 tonne                  0.9             1,110                44.5
        Electricity
                  c
        Hydro                                                      MWh
                      d
        Fuelwood                                                   MWh




        Diesel Conversion Efficiency:
        Actual efficiencies are used where known. Otherwise:                                                               litres / kWh:
        Average efficiency for small diesel engine (< 100kW output)                                                              0.46
        Average efficiency of large modern diesel engine(> 1000 kW output)                                                      0.284
        Average efficiency of low speed, base load diesel (Pacific region)                                                  0.30 - 0.33


        Area:               1.0 km2 = 100 hectares = 0.386 mile2 1.0 acre = 0.41 hectares
        Volume              1 US gallon = 0.833 Imperial (UK) gallons = 3.785 litres 1.0 Imperial gallon = 4.546 litres
        Mass:               1.0 long tons = 1.016 tonnes
        Energy:             1 kWh = 3.6 MJ = 860 kcal = 3,412 Btu = 0.86 kgoe (kg of oil equivalent)
                            1 toe = 11.83 MWh = 42.6 GJ = 10 million kcal = 39.68 million Btu
                            1 MJ = 238.8 kcal = 947.8 Btu = 0.024 kgoe = 0.28 kWh
        GHGs                1 Gg (one gigagramme) = 1000 million grammes (109 grammes) = one million kg = 1,000 tonnes
        CO2 equiv           CH4 has 21 times the GHG warming potential of the same amount of CO2; N2O 310 times

TABLE 1.1 - GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS AND RELATIONSHIP TO LANDSCAPE AND SOILS
                                   Table 1.1 - Geological Formations and Relationship to Landscape and Soils

                                              Dissection of        Average                   Soil                                  Soil
                 Geological formation
                                               landscape          soil depth                surface                              texture

         Fagaloa Volcanics                        Strong             > 100 cm
                                                                                            Boulders                          Clay, silty clay

         Salani Volcanics                       Moderate          50-100 cm
                                                                                     Stones & boulders                        Clay, silty clay


         Mulifanua and Lefaga Volcanics           Slight             15-50 cm
                                                                                     Boulders & stones               Clay, silty clay, silty clay loam

                                                                     15-50 cm         Boulders, stones
         Puapua volcanics                       Very slight
                                                                                            & rocks                Silty clay loam, silt loam, silty clay

                                                                                      Rock, boulders
         Aopo Volcanics                         Very slight          0-25 cm
                                                                                            & stones                    Sandy gravels, silt loam

         Vini Tuffs                             Moderate             > 100cm
                                                                                          Few stones                      Clay, silty clay loam
         Source: Land Resource Planning Study Western Samoa (GoS, 1990)


TABEL 1.2 - ISLAND AREAS, TYPES, POPULATION & POWER SUPPLY
                                 Table 1.2 - Island Areas, Types, Population & Power Supply

                                  Area                                           Population
                Island                                 Island type                                       Electricity supply
                                  (km2)                                             2001
                                                                                   42,824                Diesel-generated,
         Savai‟i                  1,708      Raised Volcano (several extinct)      0.49%                   grid connected
                                                                                  134,024                  Diesel & hydro,
         Upolu                    1,123      Raised volcanic (several extinct)     1.50%                   grid connected.
                                                                                                         Connected to Upolu
         Manono                   2.89        Raised, terraced coral islands        n/a                   via marine cable

         Apolima                  1.01               Raised Volcanic                n/a                    Diesel mini-grid

         All others             0.2-1.08             Raised volcanic               None                         None
         Source: GoS, 1990 & 2001


TABLE 1.3 - POPULATION OF SAMOA, 1911 - 2001
                      Table 1.3 -Population of Samoa, 1911 - 2001
         Census                                                      AAGR
         Year                   Samoan            Total               (%)
         1911                    33,554          38,084                0.51
         1917                    35,404          37,331               -0.33
         1921                    32,601          36,422               -0.61
         1926                    36,688          40,231                2.09
         1936                    52,232          55,946                3.91
         1945                    62,422          68,197                2.43
         1951                    80,153          84,909                4.08
         1956                    91,883          97,327                2.93
         1961                   113,101          114,427               3.51
         1966                   130,110          131,377               2.96
         1971                   144,111          146,627               2.31
         1976                     150,089            151,983            0.73
         1981                     153,920            156,349            0.57
         1986                     156,000            157,408            0.14
         1991                     158,212            161,298            0.49
         2001                       n/a              176,848            0.56
         Source: census reports


TABLE 1.4 - STATUS OF RATIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TREATIES AND CONVENTIONS BY SAMOA
                    Table 1.4 - Status of Ratification of Environmental Treaties and Conventions by Samoa

            Status in          Protection of      Conservation of    Hazardous        Nuclear free        GHG        Ozone depleting
             Samoa                natural              nature          wastes            Pacific       reductions      substances
                                resources        (Apia Convention)    (Waigani         (Rarotonga        (Kyoto
                                                                     Convention)         Treaty)        Protocol)
                                 (SPREP                                                                                (Montreal
                                Convention)                                                                          Protocol, et al.)


         Signed                  25-Nov-86                 -         16-Sep-95         6-Aug-85        16-Mar-98              –
         Ratified                23-Jul-90          20-Jul-90        23-May-01         20-Oct-86       15-Nov-00        21-Dec-92
         Entered into            22-Aug-90          26-Jun-90        21-Oct-01         11-Dec-86         n/a *          17-Jun-93
         force
                       Notes: Treaties & conventions are briefly described in Volume 1, the PIREP Regional Overview report.

                       * The Kyoto Protocol is in force from 15 February 2004 for European Union members only.
                       Sources: Websites for conventions, Pacific Island Forum Secretariat & SPREP (Jan-March 2004).



TABLE 1.5 - SAMOAN POLITICAL LEADERSHIP SINCE 1989

                         Table 1.5 - Samoan Political Leadership Since 1989

                Year                      Prime Minister                 Minister of Finance

                2000 -
                               Hon. Malielegaoi Tuilaepa Sailele          Hon. Misa Telefoni
             present
                1999 -                                                Hon. Malielegaoi Tuilaepa
                               Hon. Malielegaoi Tuilaepa Sailele
                                                                               Sailele
                2000
                1995 -                                                Hon. Malielegaoi Tuilaepa
                                    Hon. Tofilau Eti Alesana
                1999                                                           Sailele

                1992 -                                                Hon. Malielegaoi Tuilaepa
                                    Hon. Tofilau Eti Alesana
                1995                                                           Sailele

                1989 -                                                Hon. Malielegaoi Tuilaepa
                                    Hon. Tofilau Eti Alesana
                1992                                                           Sailele


TABLE 1.6 - SELECTED ECONOMIC INDICATORS, 1995-2002 (million tala, except where noted)
                                                     Table 1.6 - Selected Economic Indicators, 1995–2002 (million tala, except where noted)
                                                                               1995            1996          1997                 1998
         Real GDP (market prices)                                           685.2              744.2           738                755.6
         Real GDP/capita (tala; 2002 prices)                                4,153              4,499         4,427                4,498
         Nominal GDP (current prices)                                       496.1              556.1         625.9                659.4
         Annual Average Inflation Rate (%)                                      1                5.4           6.8                  2.2
         Total Exports                                                       13.9               24.8          26.4                 40.3
        Total Imports                                                        228        243.7          256.2              285.7
        Balance of Payments:
                        Trade Balance                                   -214.1         -218.9         -229.8              -215.9
                        Current Account Balance                          -49.4          -27.4          -32.7               -37.3
                        Capital Account Balance                           49.7           41.1           48.6                46.9
                        Overall Balance                                    0.3           13.7           15.9                 9.6
                        Trade Balance as % of GDP                        -43.2          -39.4          -36.7               -32.7
                        Overall Balance as % of GDP                       0.06            2.5            2.5                 1.5
        Exchange Rates: value of WS$1.00
                            USD (US $)                                  0.3957         0.4108         0.3615            0.3322
                            AUD (Australian $)                          0.5312         0.5166         0.5536            0.5429
        Gross Tourism Revenues                                             86.6             96           98.3            115.2
        Tourist Arrivals (thousands)                                       67.9           72.9              68            77.9
        Remittances from abroad                                            87.2           90.5         107.5             109.9
                            Remittances as % GDP                           17.6           16.3           17.2             16.7
        Net Foreign Assets                                               114.4          131.1             158            182.8
        Import Cover (months)                                               5.9            6.2             7.2             7.2
        Money Supply                                                     168.7          180.4          204.6             215.4
        Domestic Credit                                                    62.5           66.4           65.5             62.6
                            Government (net)                              -41.5          -56.4          -77.4           -106.2
                            Private Sector                               100.4          118.7          139.4             165.5
        Total External Debt                                              439.1          412.3          428.4             472.4
        Official Government Debt                                         385.1          372.1          393.3               443
                            Official GoS Debt,% of GDP                     77.6           66.9           62.8             67.2
        Petroleum Fuel Prices                                   –- Dec.1999 –-                –- Dec. 2000 –-                       –- Dec. 2001 –-
        (WS sene)                                                   Retail          FOB            Retail           FOB
                            Petrol                                       122.2          25.8           152.6               32.5
                            Kerosene                                     114.9          26.7           165.5               41.4
                            Diesel                                       120.2          24.1              165              36.6
                                                                      1997/98        1998/99        1999/00            2000/01
        Government Financial Statistics                                  Actual        Actual          Actual            Actual
                        Total Revenue & Grant                            234.4         267.9              251            262.5
                        Total Expenditure                                221.6         265.8           256.2             280.8
                        Current Expenditure                              142.1         163.9           169.7             163.7
                        Current Balance                                    31.9         19.8             24.7              33.6
                        Overall Balance                                    12.9           2.2             -5.2            -18.3
                        Overall Balance as % of GDP                           2           0.3             -0.7             -2.3
                        Current Expend. as % of GDP                        21.9         24.4             23.2              19.9
                        Total Expend. as % of GDP                          34.1         39.7             35.6              34.9


                          Population (thousands)                         164.5          165.4          166.7                  168
        Sources: Ministry of Finance & Central Bank of Samoa       Some data revised by national PIREP committee Sept. 2004


TABLE 1.7 - SAMOA AND REGIONAL ECONOMIC TREATIES
             Table 1.7 - Samoa and Regional Economic Treaties

             Status         SPARTECA               PACER            PICTA
        Signed               14-Jul-80          18-Aug-01         18-Aug-01
        Ratified             24-Feb-81          10-Oct-01         10-Oct-01
        Entered into
        force                26-Mar-81             3-Oct-02       13-Apr-03

        Source: Note from Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS, January
        2004)
TABLE 1.8 - STRUCTURE OF SAMOA'S FINANCIAL SYSTEM, 2002
                                           Table 1.8 -
                    Structure of Samoa’s Financial System, 2002
                                                                         Domestic
                        Institution                      Assets
                                                                           credit
           Commercial banks                                44               61.7
           NBFIs                                          41.2              49.1
           National Provident Fund                        25.3              30.3
           Development Bank of Samoa                      7.3               12.6
           Others                                         8.6                6.2
           Monetary Authorities                           14.9              -10.8
            Total                                        100%              100%
          Source: IMF, 2003;
          Note: NBFI = non-bank financial institutions


TABLE 1.9 - SAMOA INTEREST RATES (percent; end of period)
                       Table 1.9 - Samoa Interest Rates (percent; end of period)
                                                         1997               1998           1999            2000           2001
                       Institution                        -98                -99             0               -1             -2
          Commercial banks:
           Time deposit (24m)                              7.5               7.5            7.5             7.3            7.3
           Lending rate *                                 12.9              12.6            12.3            11.7           11.5
          Other lending rates:
           Provident Fund                                Dec-14            Dec-14         Dec-14           Dec-14        Dec-14
           Public Trust                                  Dec-15            Dec-15         Dec-15           Dec-15        Dec-15
           Life Assur. Corp                              Oct-14            Oct-14         Oct-14           Dec-15        Dec-15
          Source: IMF, 2003;         * to public enterprise, business & individuals


TABLE 1.10 - ENERGY RESPONSIBILITIES IN SAMOA (April 2004)
                          Table 1.10 - Energy Responsibilities in Samoa (April 2004)


                                       Ministry of Finance
                                                                                                                    Ministry of Natural Resources
                                                                                       Electric Power Corporation
                                                                                                                           & Environment
                       Energy Unit                 Ministry staff & Tenders Board

                                                                                                                    Environmental impact
                                                                                                                    assessments
          Energy policy, planning, data,
                                                  Petroleum Supply           Fuel
          coordination & projects.                                                    Electricity supply            Envir. standards
                                                  price Control
          Processing fuel price templates
                                                                                                                    GHGs & carbon credits
                                                                                                                    Piloting RE (e.g. biogas)
          Source: GoS


TABLE 2.1 - PETROLEUM PRODUCT SALES, 1999-2003 (million litres)
                                      Table 2.1 - Petroleum Product Sales, 1999-2003 (million litres)
                        Product                       1999          2000          2001           2002                      2003
          Petrol ULP                                      26.3              26.35          26.14           25.77          27.25
          Diesel ADO                                     25.47              28.75           33.7           37.65          36.04
          Kerosene DPK                                    8.28              12.91           12.3           12.63          13.55
           AvGas                                          0.68                0              0               0              0
          LPG                                             0.9          1.1           1.35           1.46         1.58
             Total                                       61.63        69.11          73.49          77.51       78.42
          Source: Shell Oil, 2004; LPG from BOC & Origin, 2004
          Notes: ULP = unleaded petrol; DPK = dual purpose kerosene; LPG converted at
          1960 litres/tonne; 1999-2000 LPG approximate


TABLE 2.2 - EPC SALES IN GWh, 2001-2003
                                                                    Table 2.2 - EPC Sales in GWh, 2001-2003
                              Year                      Schools      Religion     Industrial   Hotel        Govt
          2001                                           2.935        3.516          5.913          2.999        9.637
          2002                                           2.65         5.352          5.852          3.088        9.759
          2003                                           2.676        6.131          5.716          3.225        9.855
          % of sales 2001-03                              3.3          6.1            7.1            3.8         11.9
          No. Customers (2002)                            161          881             36            17          167

                                                         1,904         506           13,546         15,137       4,870
          KWh / customer per month in 2002
            Source: JICA, 2003 and national consultant spreadsheets from EPC, 2004       GWh = million kWh


TABLE 2.3 - EPC GENERATION AND SALES IN GWh
                            Table 2.3 - EPC Generation and Sales in GWh
                                                 ——— Generation ———                           ——— Sales ———
                    Year              Hydro             Diesel      Total            Total       Upolu      Savai’i
                    1992                  n/a             n/a          n/a           39.51          37.41         2.1
                    1993                  n/a             n/a          n/a           44.91          42.44        2.47
                    1994                 52.07           6.75         58.82          47.65          44.16        3.49
                    1995                 49.98           13.46        63.43          52.56          49.12        3.44
                    1996                 42.78           25.99        68.77          57.72           53.2         4.5
                    1997                 53.91           19.84        73.75          64.29          58.99        5.26
                    1998                 38.64           35.5         74.14          65.36          59.14        6.17
                    1999                 43.98           30.21        74.19          67.68          60.84         6.8
                    2000                 41.65           36.47        78.13          71.35           63.4        7.96
                    2001                 34.76           50.39        85.15          78.68           70.1        8.59
                    2002                 42.57           48.44          91           82.89          75.16        8.73
                    2003                 45.87           47.2         93.07          84.48           n/a          n/a
          Source: JICA, 2003 and national consultant from EPC, 2004           n/a = not available


TABLE 2.4 - EPC TARIFF IN 2004
                           Table 2.4 -
                 EPC Tariff in 2004
          kWh/m                      WS$/kWh
                 Jan-50                   0.5
                 51-200                   0.6
                 > 200                   0.72


TABLE 2.5 - MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR HOUSEHOLD COOKING IN 2001
                                               Table 2.5 - Main Source of Energy for Household Cooking in 2001
          Region                     Electricity           Gas        Kerosene       Firewood    Charcoal      Total hh
          Apia urban area                1,212           1,189        1,555          1,298           49          5,303

          NW Upolu                        667             959         1,121          4,174           48          6,969
          Rest of Upolu                   379             327          380           4,149           71          5,306
          Savai‟i                         348             194          235           4,700           24          5,501
           Total                 2,606              2,669             3,291           14,321      192    23,079
           % of hh using          11%               12%               14%                 62%     1%      1%
          Source: 2001 census report          Note: hh = households


TABLE 2.6 - MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR HOUSEHOLD LIGHTING IN 2001
                                                      Table 2.6 -
                           Main Source of Energy for Household Lighting in 2001
                                                   Benzine
          Region               Electricity         or kero            Other               Total    %
          Apia urban             5,126               154               23                 5,303    23
          NW Upolu               6,399               515               55                 6,969    30
          Rest of Upolu          4,802               478               26                 5,306    23
          Savai‟i                5,120               359               22                 5,501    24
           Total                21,447              1,506             126             23,079      100
          households
          using                   93%                7%                1%                 100%     –
          Source: 2001 census report


TABLE 2.7 - HOUSEHOLDS WITH APPLIANCES USING ELECTRICITY IN 1991 AND 2001

           Table 2.7 - Households with Appliances Using Electricity in 1991 and 2001
            Household                                                          % with
                                 1991               2001                      appliance
               Assets
                                                                      1991                2001
            Refrigerator          n/a              12,118              n/a                 53
             Television          4936              14,443              22                  63
               Radio            18643              20,434              84                  89
               Video             4480               9,804              20                  42
             Computer             n/a               1,217              n/a                  5
              Internet            n/a                696               n/a                  3
               Phone              n/a               5,189              n/a                 22
              Total hh          22,195             23,079
          Sources: census reports of 1991 & 2001


TABLE 2.8 - REGISTERED VEHICLES 1998-2002
                             Table 2.8 - Registered Vehicles 1998 - 2002
                                                    1998              1999                2000    2001   2002
          Deletions:
           Private Cars                              69                78                  9       93     13
           Vans                                      80               188                  15      63     11
           Pick Ups                                 108               111                 291      17     30
           Trucks                                     9                13                  10      10      5
           Heavy Equipment                           10                18                  9       21      5
           Public Transport                          42                20                 320     604     174
           Other                                     20                25                  11     953     21
           Total                                    338               453                 665     1761    259
          New Registrations:
           Private Cars                             2010              2088                2097    2190   2203
           Vans                                     895               1083                1098    1161   1172
           Pick Ups                                 1771              1882                2173    2190   2220
           Trucks                                   899               912                 922     932     937
           Heavy Equipment                           76                94                 103     124     129
         Public Transport                             712              732             1052            1656               1830
         Other                                       1427             1452             1463            2416               2437
         Total                                       7,790            8,243           8,908           10,669            10,928
        Growth Rate                                                    6%               8%             20%                2%
        Source: National consultant from Police Department records (March 2004)


TABLE 2.9 - CONSUMPTION OF COMMERCIAL ENERGY IN SAMOA BY SECTOR (ToE; 2003)
                                                                      Table 2.9 -
                                             Consumption of Commercial Energy in Samoa by Sector (ToE; 2003)
                                           Sales                              — Consumption by Sector in Thousand Tonnes of Oil Equivalent —
              Source                                  '000                                            House-         Commercial
                                    ML                             Transport        Electricity
                                                    tonnes                                             holds          & industry
        Motor spirit               25.1              18.32            15.98                                               3.99
        Jet fuel / DPK             12.4               9.76            9.58                              1.06                0
        Distillate                 33.2               27.9            7.23             10.85                             12.05
        LPG                         1.6               0.81                                              0.62              0.33
          Fuel total               72.3              56.79            32.79           10.85             0.62             16.37
        Hydro (GWh)                45.87                –                             11.47
          Total                                                       32.79           22.32            1.68             16.37

          % of total ToE                              n/a             44.8             30.5             2.3               22.4

        Source: Estimates of petroleum fuel end use are from interviews by national consultant, Tala Tevita, in April 2004 with Peter Ripley,
         Operations Manager of Petroleum Products Supplies/Shell for petroleum fuels. For LPG, she interviewed Maurice Fisher
        (General Manager of BOC), and Nerony Lam Sam (Manager of Origin) in March 2004. Hydro data are from EPC.

        Notes: Tonnes, toe, hydro and GHG converted from data provided. Excludes losses and transformations          n/a = not applicable


TABLE 2.10 - COMMERCIAL ENERGY DEMAND & GHG EMISSIONS IN 2003 AND PROJECTIONS FOR 2013
                                  Table 2.10 - Commercial Energy Demand & GHG Emissions in 2003 and Projections for 2013
                                                                    2003                                                          2013

                        Product                                                                   Consumption
                                              Consumption 1                           GHGs
                                                                   Share (%)                          (ML;            Share (%)
                                               (ML; actual)                         (Gg CO2)
                                                                                                   projected)
        Motor spirit                                 25.1              35              62.75            46.4               35
        Jet fuel /DPK                                12.4              17              32.24            20.2               15
        ADO for electricity                           12               17              32.4             21.5               16
        ADO for other use                            21.2              29              57.24            41.7               31
        LPG                                           1.6              48              2.52             3.8                3
         Fuel total                                  34.8              48             92.16            133.6              100
        Hydroelectricity                           45.87 GWh            –                –            56 GWh               –
        Notes: 1) Consumption in 2003 from Table 2.9. AAGR rates of fuel use are estimates by the PIREP team.
        2) The Afulilo hydro augmentation project (section 4.2) is under construction and will produce about 10 GWh/yr.
         At EPC’s 2002 use of 0.27 l/kWh (JICA, 2003), this would displace 2.7 ML of ADO, reducing AAGR for ADO
         from 6.0% to 4.6%.


TABLE 2.11 - INDICATIVE ENERGY SAVINS & GHG SAVINGS FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY, 2013
                              Table 2.11 - Indicative Energy Savings & GHG Savings from Renewable Energy, 2013

                                               Potential fuel
                                                                 Potential CO2
                                                 savings,
                       Technology            energy or power                                                   Comments
                                                                    savings
                                               production
                      Technology                                                                                  Comments


                                                                      (Gg / year)
          Hydro, Savai‟i                        7.32 ML of ADO          19.76                     Sili phases 1 & 2 are developed by 2013
          Hydro, Upolu                          7.56 ML of ADO             20.41                All schemes studied by JICA are developed
          Geothermal, Savai‟i                     4.725 of ADO             12.76               5 MW resource; perhaps with undersea cable
          Bio-diesel                            10.0 ML of ADO               27                All copra & oil (1997/98 exports) used as fuel.
          Fuel ethanol                                  ?                     0                 Not assessed but possible from many crops
          Other biomass                         0.085 ML of ADO             0.25                Considered minor by London/SOPAC study
          Solar PV                              0.021 ML of ADO             0.06                               600 PV systems
          Wind                                  0.39 ML of ADO              1.05                             5 x 250 kW systems
          Total                                                            81.29
          Savai’i hydro . It is assumed that all of the hydro potential considered by JICA (Section 3.2) is developed by 2013, which is optimistic. This
          would provide (if 2013 were an ‘average’ year), 23.6 GWh. At 0.31 l/kWh, this would displace 7.32 ML of distillate.


          Upolu hydro . Excluding a hydro augmentation scheme under construction (which is already included in the GHG projections of Table 2.10
          for 2013), and assuming all of the potential identified by JICA (2003) is developed (Table 3.3), there would be about 28 GWh from new
          hydro. It is optimistically assumed that Alaoa, estimated by JICA to close in 2009, remains operating. At the Upolu fuel use of 0.27 l/kWh,
          this would displace 7.56 ML of ADO.
          Geothermal . It is assumed (see Section 3.1) that 5 MW is available and developed on Savai’i. Assume 3.5 GWh of generation per MW per
          year replacing ADO generation at Savai’i consumption of 0.31 l/kWh, or 5.425 ML displaced. If geothermal & hydro together produce more
          than the Savai’i demand, it is assumed that there is a power cable linking the islands.


          Bio-diesel. Assume (Section 3.6) that 10.5 ML of coconut oil are used as ‘biodiesel’ fuel, displacing 10 ML of ADO for either
          transportation use or power generation or a combination of both.

          Other biomass . Assume (Section 3.6) every 100 m3 of logs produce about 45 m3 of processed wood & 55 m3 of potential biomass for fuel.
          FAO suggests that all wood exports will end by 2005 and not resume until 2015. Nonetheless assume 10,000 m 3 of logs produced in 2013,
          producing 4,500 m3 of waste of which 10%, or 550 m3, is available for energy use. . Assuming 400 kg/m3 and 14 MJ/kg, this is equivalent to
          2.5 million MJ, about enough to for a 110 kW plant producing 275,000 kWh per year. If this replaced small inefficient diesel plants using
          0.31 l/kWh, it would displace 85,000 litres of ADO per year.


          Solar PV . Assume half of the 1,200 or so families without electricity use individual solar PV systems of 150 Wp & 0.375 kWh/day. Assume
          300 days/yr operation. This would be about 67,500 kWh/year. Assuming this replaced small inefficient diesel plants using 0.31 l/kWh, this
          would displace 21,000 litres of ADO per year.

          Wind . Assume that NW Upolu does have reasonable wind speeds and 5 systems of 250 kW each are developed. Assume 1,000 kWh/kW
          installed, replacing small diesel sets using 0.31 l/kWh. This would replace 0.39 ML of ADO per year.




TABLE 3.1 - HYDRO FEASIBILITY STUDIES IN SAVAI'I
                      Table 3.1 - Hydro Feasibility Studies in Savai’i
                                                                                         Power           Energy
               Study             Option                     Location
                                                                                           (kW)         (GWh/yr)
          Bechtel, 1985                                 Violla & Lata rivers              1,500           6.6
          HEC, 1995              Option 1                 Vaita‟i stream                  4,500            13.2
                                 Option 2                 Vaita‟i stream                  5,000            15.2
                                 Option 3               Violla & Lata rivers              1,800            5.5
          EPDC, 1996         No.1, 1st Stage            Violla & Lata rivers              1,800            5.1
                             No.1, 2nd Stage        Lata river & Vaita‟i stream           3,600            8.6
                                   No.2                   Vaita‟i stream                  2,300             ?
          Sources: See Annex C for names of studies indicated



                            Table 3.2 - JICA Recommendations for Savai’i Hydro Development
                                Installed
                                                    Average                Firm              Construction             Proposed Date
                                capacity
              Project                                                                                                      of
                                                                                                                      Commissioning
                                                                                                                         Proposed Date
               Project                                                                                                        of
                                      (kW)            Output              Output                  Cost in US$
                                                                                                                         Commissioning
                                                      (GWh)             (GWh)                 $m          $/kW
          Sili 1 phase 1      1,180            5.97                 1.36             9.85               8,350           2007
          Sili 1 phase 2      1,800            9.38                 2.4              12.94              7,190           2010
          Sili 2              1,600            8.29                 3.49             12.36              7,720           2013
          Source: JICA, 2003


TABLE 3.3 - JICA RECOMMENDATIONS FOR UPOLU HYDRO DEVELOPMENT
                        Table 3.3 - JICA Recommendations for Upolu Hydro Development

                                               Installed capacity         Average           Firm                    Construction
                           Project
                                                       (MW)               Output         Output                  Cost in US$
                                                                          (GWh)          (GWh)                 $m         $/kW
                   1
          Namo 3 Upolu North                            880                4.47           1.32              6.78            7,710


          Lotofaga Upolu South                          910                4.58               1             8.21               9,020


          Namo 1 Upolu North                            860                4.37              1.35           8.24               9,580


          Namo 4 Upolu North                            500                2.61              0.77           5.28               10,550

          Namo 2 Upolu North                            550                2.82              0.86           6.11               11,10


          Tafitoala Upolu South                        1,450               7.38              1.55           17.5               12,030


          Faelaseela Upolu South                        390                1.74              0.42           4.56               11,700


           Total                                      5,540                27.97            7.27            56.68                –
          Source: JICA, 2003
          Notes 1) Namo development proposed as a cascade of four hydro plants
          2) Faelaseela not to be developed as this would disrupt water supply to village & power station site is occupied.


TABLE 3.4 - ESTIMATE OF FOREST COVER IN SAMOA, 2000
                                 Table 3.4 –
           Estimate of Forest Cover in Samoa, 2000

                                    Area               % of
          Type of forest         (hectares)           all land
          Productive                 15,923             5.4
          Non-productive             87,396            29.8
          Plantation                  3,277             1.1
           Total                     106,596           36.3
          Source: Leavasa & Pouli (2000) in SOPAC (Dec. 2003)



TABLE 3.5 - REMAINING AVAILABLE INDIGENOUS FOREST AREAS OF SAW MILLERS LOGGING CONCESSION AT THE E
                                          Table 3.5 -
               Remaining Available Indigenous Forest Areas of Saw millers Logging
                                Concession at the end of 2001
                                                     Remaining
                                                                    Est. Time to Log Remaining
                                                  Available Area to
              Sawmilling Company *                                   Area at Current Logging
                                                        Log **
                                                                           Rate*** (Years)
                                                     (Hectares)

        Bluebird                                          938                             2
        Strickland Brothers                               341                            2.5
        Savai‟i Sawmillers                                329                             5
        Samoa Forest / TVC                                973                            ****
                 Source: Report for April to December 2001 Period of the Government of Samoa‟s
                     Indigenous Forest Monitoring Unit, Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture
                                                       Notes:
                                    * All sawmilling companies operate in Savai‟i.
              ** Areas of merchantable forests concession under the sawmilling companies‟ licenses.
               *** Rate of logging varies with the respective capacities of the sawmilling companies.
         **** Cannot be adequately determined as this company also operates outsides its license in other
                village of Savai‟i (Letui/Sasina) which have had forest conservation programmes).




TABLE 3.6 - AGE DISTRIBUTION OF COCONUT TREES IN 1999
            Table 3.6 - Age Distribution of Coconut
                          Trees in 1999
                                                          % of
                   Tree Age in Years                      total
                      Not Stated                           10
                   Less than 8 years                       11
                      8-14 years                           14
                      15-39 years                          37
                      40-59 years                          20
                   60 years and over                        8
                           Total                          100
                     Source: 1999 Agricultural Census


TABLE 3. 7 - PROMISING BIOMASS SOURCES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAMOA
                                    Table 3.7 - Promising Biomass Sources and Technologies for Samoa

                                                  Tech. / Process &
                      Resource                                                                                Remarks
                                                      Product
        Agricultural residues                    Combustion              Various crop residues (coconut, copra waste, cocoa) offer some additional
                                                                         potential, both for domestic and small industrial applications
        Forestry residues                        Combustion              80% of forest is economically unproductive. About 70,000 m3 of fuel wood (FAO
                                                                         estimate) used annually. Forests are not expected to play a major role in energy
                                                                         supply . (Italic emphasis added)

        Sawmill waste                            Combustion              With better management, offers good possibilities. Currently it partly wasted.

        Coconut                                  Biodiesel, charcoal Good possibilities for small applications


        MSW & other waste                        Biogas                  Innovative anaerobic digester has been installed in Apia. Unfortunately, it appears
                                                                         to have run into management problems and is currently stalled.

        Source: SOPAC (2003);              Note: MSW = municipal solid waste


TABLE 4.1 - EXISTING HYDROPOWER IN UPOLU, 2003
                                         Table 4.1 -    Existing Hydropower in Upolu, 2003
                                                                           ––––––- Capacity in kW –––––
         Station                   Type          Commissioned *           No.           Installed         Derated     Retirement
                                                                           1              2,000            2,000
         Taelefaga            Dam-reservoir            1992                2              2,000            2,000         2042
                                                                           1              1,850            1,700
         Lalomauga             Run of river            1984                2              1,850            1,600         2033
                                                                           1               950              640
         Samasoni              Run of river            1981                2               950              720          2032
         Fale-ole-Fee          Run of river            1985                1              1,600            1,400         2031
         Alaoa                 Run of river            1959                1              1,000            1,000         2009
         Total                 Run of river             –                  8             12,200            11,060         –
         Source: JICA, 2003             Note: * These dates differ in some sections of the JICA report.


Annex C – EPC Generation Units (EPC 2003)
                                                                                                          De-Rated
                                                   Generator                          Nameplate           Capacity    Dry Season
                     Power Station                Designation            Type         Rating (kW)           (kW)     Capacity (kW)
         UPOLU ISLAND:
                                                      No. 12             Diesel           3620              3200
                                                      No. 4A             Diesel           2200              2000
                                                      No. 7B             Diesel           4200              4000
                                                      No. 5A             Diesel           4200              4200
         Tanugamanono                                 No. 9A             Diesel           4200              4200
                                               Sub-Total                                  18420            17600        17600
                           Total of Diesel generation                                     18420            17600        17600
                                                     No. 1               Hydro            2000             2000         1000
                           Taelefaga                 No. 2               Hydro            2000             2000         1000
                                               Sub-Total                                  4000              4000         2000
                                                                         Hydro            1750              1700         600
                           Lalomauga                                     Hydro            1750              1700         600
                                               Sub-Total                                  3500              3400         1200
                           Fale-Ole-Fee                                  Hydro            1740              1700         400
                                               Sub-Total                                  1740              1700         400
                           Alaoa                                         Hydro            1045              1000         200
                                               Sub-Total                                  1045              1000         200
                                                                         Hydro             950              700          200
                           Samasoni                                      Hydro             950              700          200
                                               Sub-Total                                  1900              1400         400
                           Total of Hydro type                                            12185            11500         4200
                           TOTAL, UPOLU SYSTEM                                            30605            29100        21800
         SAVAI’I ISLAND:
                                                      No. 1A             Diesel            800              800
                                                      No. 2              Diesel            450              350
                                                      No. 3A             Diesel            800              800
                                                      No. 4              Diesel            450              350
                                                      No. 5A             Diesel            960              960
                                                      No. 6              Diesel            450              350
                           Salelologa
                             Salelologa               No. 7A              Diesel        800               400
                                                Sub-Total                               4710              4010
                                                       No. 1              Diesel        140               120
                                                       No. 2              Diesel        200               190
                             Vaipouli                  No. 3              Diesel        260               150
                                                Sub-Total                               600               460
                             Total of Diesel generation Savai‟i                         5310              4470
                             TOTAL OF SAVAI‟I SYSTEM                                    5310              4470             4470
         MANONO ISLAND:
                                                       No. 1              Diesel         42                36
                             Manono                    No. 2              Diesel         42                36
                             TOTAL MANONO                                                84                72               72
         APOLIMA ISLAND:
                             Apolima                   No. 1              Diesel         25                22
         GRAND TOTAL                                                                   36024             33664            26364


Annex D – 1998 and 2008 ADB Energy Balance Estimates for Samoa
                                                                                                                           Original Units 1998
                                                                                       Coconut            Total
                                                                        Fuelwood*     Residues*         Biomass*     Hydro Electricity

                                                                         (tonnes)     (tonnes)          (tonnes)          (GWh)

         Primary Supplies:
                             Production                                      37,321       152,276          189,597                36.1
                             Imports


         GROSS AVAILABLE                                                     37,321       152,276          189,597                36.1
         Conversions:
                             Power Generation                       -                               -                             -36.1

                             Transmission/Distribution Losses****


                              NET SUPPLIED                                   37,321       152,276          189,597                   0
         Final Consumption:
                             Domestic                                        23,992        96,138          120,129
                             Transport (including fishing)
                             Government/Commercial
                             Industrial
                             Agro-industries                                 13,330        56,138           69,468
                             Others
         TOTAL                                                               37,321       152,276          189,597                   0




                                                                                                                                      '000 TOE 1998
                                                                                       Coconut            Total
                                                                        Fuelwood*     Residues*         Biomass*     Hydro Electricity


         Primary Supplies:
                    Production                             15.67            50.25         65.93          9.03

                    Imports


GROSS AVAILABLE                                            15.67            50.25         65.93          9.03
Conversions:
                    Power Generation                       -                              -              -9.03

                    Transmission/Distribution Losses****
NET SUPPLIED                                               15.67            50.25         65.93          -
Final Consumption:
                    Domestic                               10.08            31.73         41.8

                    Transport (including fishing)
                    Government/Commercial
                    Industrial
                    Agro-industries                        5.6              18.53         24.13

                    Others
TOTAL                                                      15.67            50.25         65.93              -
*   No direct measures of biomass consumption have been made. These figures are extrapolated from the 1989 values, using the population growth rate.
** Either Premium Motor Spirit or Unleaded Premium




                                                                                                                 Original Units 2008
                                                                               Coconut          Total
                                                               Fuelwood*      Residues*       Biomass*   Hydro Electricity


                                                                 (tonnes)      (tonnes)       (tonnes)           (GWh)

Primary Supplies:
                                 Production                39,191           159,904       199,095                        57.52

                                   Imports

      GROSS AVAILABLE                                      39,191           159,904       199,095                        57.52
Conversions:

                    Power Generation                                                                                 -57.52

                    Transmission/Distribution Losses****

NET SUPPLIED                                               39,191           159,904       99,095                            0

Final Consumption:
                    Domestic                               25,193           92,000        117,193

                    Transport (including fishing)
                    Government/Commercial
                    Industrial
                    Agro-industries                        13,997           53,722        67,719

                    Others
TOTAL                                                      39,191           145,722       184,913                           0
                                                                                                                                 '000 TOE 2008
                                                                                     Coconut         Total
                                                                Fuelwood*           Residues*      Biomass*     Hydro Electricity



Primary Supplies:
                    Production                                       16.46            52.77      69.23                  14.39
                    Imports

GROSS AVAILABLE                                               16.46               52.77          69.23          14.39
Conversions:

                    Power Generation                                                                                    -14.39


                    Transmission/Distribution Losses****
NET SUPPLIED                                                  16.46               52.77          69.23            -

       Final Consumption:
                    Domestic                                  10.58               33.31          43.9

                    Transport (including fishing)
                    Government/Commercial
                    Industrial
                    Agro-industries                           5.88                19.46          25.33

                    Others
TOTAL                                                         16.46               52.77          69.23            -

                                                       *No direct measures of biomass consumption have been made. These figures are extrapolated from the 1989 valu
                                                                             **Either Premium Motor Spirit or Unleaded Premium                        ***Assumed consta
                                 ****Includes station use. Distribution losses including station use are assumed to decline from about 20 percent of gross generation in 1
                                                 Kg CO2
                    Gross Energy Oil Equiv.:
                                                equivalent e
                     MJ / litre    toe / unit
                                     (net)        per GJ       per litre


                                     0.42           94


                                     0.34
                                     0.28
                                     0.33
                                     0.27
                                      0.7
                                                   96.8


                                       1
                                      0.9
                        25.5         1.17          59.4          1.6
                                     0.63
                         34          1.09          73.9          2.5
                        34.2         1.09          73.9          2.5
                         33          1.12          69.5          2.3
                        36.6         1.09          77.4          2.8
                        36.9         1.09          70.4          2.6
                        38.6         1.08          70.4          2.7
                         42          1.01          81.5          3.4
                        40.1         1.04          81.5          3.4


                                                                 0.25
                                                                 0.93




                     Efficiency:
                        22%
                        36%
                     28% - 32%



4.546 litres




kg = 1,000 tonnes
2O310 times
dscape and Soils

                          Soil
                        texture

                    Clay, silty clay


                    Clay, silty clay



            Clay, silty clay, silty clay loam


          Silty clay loam, silt loam, silty clay


               Sandy gravels, silt loam


                 Clay, silty clay loam
ND CONVENTIONS BY SAMOA




5–2002 (million tala, except where noted)
                                1999        2000    2001    2002
                                772.5       819.4   874.7   885.3
                                4,560       4,800   4,950   4,965
                                691.5       761.3     834   885.3
                                  0.3           1     3.8     8.1
                                 48.7        45.1    52.6    46.3
                                   348.5        348.7           448.8       454.2


                                  -299.8        -303.1         -396.2      -407.9
                                   -64.1         -19.6          -95.5       -65.3
                                    58.1          23.1           84.4        66.3
                                      -6           3.5          -11.1         0.9
                                   -43.4         -39.9          -47.5       -46.1
                                    -0.9           0.5           -1.3         0.1


                                  0.3313       0.2993          0.2816      0.3109
                                  0.5051       0.5355          0.5501      0.5524
                                   125.8           134          139.6       152.6
                                     85.1         87.7            88.3        88.9
                                   125.2        149.3           147.9       188.1
                                     18.1         19.6            17.7        21.2
                                   182.8           186          174.8       175.8
                                       6.3         5.3              4.1        4.7
                                   249.2        289.9           307.6          336
                                   108.1        154.1           186.7          219
                                  -100.1         -97.6           -96.7       -94.3
                                   194.6           233          266.6       294.7
                                   446.7           483          503.2          n/a
                                   443.6        480.1           503.2       481.2
                                     64.2         63.1            60.3        54.4
                          –- Dec. 2001 –-              –- Dec. 2002 –-
                               Retail        FOB            Retail        FOB
                                   123.2         21.6           142.6        28.9
                                   132.8         24.9           132.2        30.8
                                   120.8         24.8           146.1        31.3
                                2001/02       2002/03         Jul-Dec     2003/04
                                   Actual       Actual        02 Prov      Budget
                                   290.8        303.5           150.4       318.4
                                   308.6        309.1           146.9       332.4
                                   183.3        202.2             89.1        208
                                     15.4        27.2             22.3       43.3
                                    -17.8         -5.5             -3.5     -14.1
                                      -2.1        -0.6             -0.8      -1.5
                                     21.2        21.9             19.4       21.4
                                        36       33.8                32      34.2


                                   169.4        170.7           176.7       178.3
EP committee Sept. 2004
pril 2004)



        Ministry of Natural Resources
               & Environment


        Environmental impact
        assessments

        Envir. standards

        GHGs & carbon credits
        Piloting RE (e.g. biogas)
h, 2001-2003
               Domestic      Commercial   Total
                 30.276        23.581     78.857
                 21.859        32.98      81.54
                 22.089        34.787     84.479
                  30.3          38.5       100
                 17,467        1,726      20.445

                  104          1,592        –

n kWh




ing in 2001
               % of all hh
                  23%

                  30%
                  23%
                  24%
100%
 –
 Sector (ToE; 2003)
or in Thousand Tonnes of Oil Equivalent —
                                      ‘000     GHGs
                                      TOE       (Gg)
                                     19.97      62.75
                                     10.64      32.24
                                     30.13      89.64
                                      0.95       2.52
                                     61.69     187.15
                                     11.47         –
                                     73.16     187.15

                                      100        –

vita, in April 2004 with Peter Ripley,
terviewed Maurice Fisher
ata are from EPC.

mations       n/a = not applicable


AND PROJECTIONS FOR 2013
n 2003 and Projections for 2013
                         2013

                                                GHGs
                                AAGR (%)
                                              (Gg CO2)

                                      8%        116
                                      5%       52.52
                                     4.6% 2    58.05
                                      7%       112.59
                                      9%        6.08
                                      6.3      345.24
                                      2%         -
IREP team.
bout 10 GWh/yr.
AAGR for ADO



ABLE ENERGY, 2013
newable Energy, 2013




     Comments
     Comments



 s 1 & 2 are developed by 2013
 s studied by JICA are developed
 rce; perhaps with undersea cable
oil (1997/98 exports) used as fuel.
 ed but possible from many crops
d minor by London/SOPAC study
    600 PV systems
  5 x 250 kW systems

developed by 2013, which is optimistic. This
 .32 ML of distillate.


luded in the GHG projections of Table 2.10
here would be about 28 GWh from new
ting. At the Upolu fuel use of 0.27 l/kWh,


ssume 3.5 GWh of generation per MW per
geothermal & hydro together produce more



cing 10 ML of ADO for either


ood & 55 m3 of potential biomass for fuel.
 ume 10,000 m 3 of logs produced in 2013,
00 kg/m3 and 14 MJ/kg, this is equivalent to
aced small inefficient diesel plants using



stems of 150 Wp & 0.375 kWh/day. Assume
ficient diesel plants using 0.31 l/kWh, this


 are developed. Assume 1,000 kWh/kW
year.
 Development

                     Date of
                   Commissioni
                       ng

                      2007


                      2010


                      2013


                      2016

                      2019


                      2022

                           2
                       –




 te is occupied.




W MILLERS LOGGING CONCESSION AT THE END OF 2001
gies for Samoa

emarks

waste, cocoa) offer some additional
ndustrial applications
ctive. About 70,000 m3 of fuel wood (FAO
ot expected to play a major role in energy


possibilities. Currently it partly wasted.

s


n installed in Apia. Unfortunately, it appears
s and is currently stalled.
  Year
Installed


  1991
  1996
  1999
  2002
  2002



  1993
  1993


  1985
  1985


  1981


  1959


  1982
  1982




  2001
  1992
  2001
  1992
  1998
  1992
              1997


              1990
              1990
              1994




              1994
              1994




              1996




Original Units 1998
                                                        DPK-                                                   Total
           Electricity       Petrol**     DPK-Jet      Domestic     ADO          Avgas***       LPG          Petroleum

             (GWh)             (kl)         (kl)         (kl)       (kl)           (kl)         (kl)            (kl)




                                 28,200        7,000        1,820     33,370              300          600        71,290


                         0       28,200        7,000        1,820     33,370              300          600        71,290


                  82.95                                              -11,729                                     -11,729

                  -15.9


                  67.05          28,200        7,000        1,820     21,641              300          600        59,561


                  25.41                                     1,820                                      600         2,420
                                 28,200        7,000                  21,541              300                     57,041
                  26.49
                     5.95                                                  100                                         100


                     9.12
                  66.98          28,200        7,000        1,820     21,641              300          600        59,561




        '000 TOE 1998
                                                        DPK-
           Electricity       Petrol**     DPK-Jet      Domestic     ADO          Avgas***       LPG            Total         Total Energy
                                                                                                             Petroleum
                                                                                                                                                 74.96
                                              22.78         6.15          1.56          29.75         0.23          0.26          60.73          60.73


                                              22.78         6.15          1.56          29.75         0.23          0.26          60.73          135.68


                             20.75                                                      -11.72                                    -11.72         -
                             -3.98                                                                                                               -3.98
                             16.77            22.78         6.15          1.56          18.03         0.23          0.26          49.01          131.71


                             6.36                                         1.56                                      0.26          1.82           49.98
                                              22.78         6.15                        17.94         0.23                        47.09          47.09
                             6.63                                                                                                                6.63
                             1.49                                                       0.09                                      0.09           1.58
                                                                                                                                                 24.13
                             2.28                                                                                                                2.28
                             16.75            22.78         6.15          1.56          18.03         0.23          0.26          49.01          131.69
from the 1989 values, using the population growth rate.
                                                                                                                    *** Assumed constant.




                Original Units 2008
                                                                             DPK-
                               Electricity       Petrol**     DPK-Jet       Domestic           ADO      Avgas***      LPG***             Total
                                                                                                                                    Petroleum
                                (GWh)              (kl)            (kl)          (kl)          (kl)          (kl)          (kl)          (kl)




                                              36,872        7,000         1,815         53,619        300           600           100,206

                                             0 36,872       7,000         1,815         53,619        300           600           100,206



                                     148.56                                             -24,711                                   -24,711
                                      -20.8

                                     127.76 36,872          7,000         1,815         28,907        300           600           75,494



                                      48.47                               1,815                                     600           2,415
                                              36,872        7,000                       28,744        300                         72,916
                                      50.53
                                      11.35                                             163                                       163


                                      17.41
                                     127.76 36,872          7,000         1,815         28,907        300           600           75,494
                           '000 TOE 2008
                                                                               DPK-
                               Electricity     Petrol**        DPK-Jet        Domestic            ADO       Avgas***      LPG***             Total       Total Energy
                                                                                                                                        Petroleum



                                                                                                                                                     83.62
                                                 29.78             6.15           1.59            47.8           0.23          0.26   85.81          85.81
                               -             29.78          6.15           1.59            47.8           0.23          0.26          85.81          169.43


                             37.16                                                              -22.77                                -22.77         -


                             -5.2                                                                                                                    -5.2
                             31.96           29.78          6.15           1.59            25.03          0.23          0.26          63.04          164.23



                                    12.12                                         1.59                                         0.26   1.85           57.87
                                                 29.78             6.15                           24.88          0.23                 61.04          61.04
                                    12.64                                                                                                            12.64
                                    2.84                                                          0.15                                0.15           2.98
                                                                                                                                                     25.33
                                    4.35                                                                                                             4.35
                             31.96           29.78          6.15           1.59            25.03          0.23          0.26          63.04          164.23

have been made. These figures are extrapolated from the 1989 values, using the population growth rate.
irit or Unleaded Premium                       ***Assumed constant.
e assumed to decline from about 20 percent of gross generation in 1998 to 14 percent by 2008.
ENERGY CONVERSIONS, CO2 EMMISSIONS & MEASUREMENTS
                                                                  Unit          Typical         Typical     Gross Energy Gross Energy
                                Fuel                                            Density         Density         MJ / kg       MJ / litre
                                                                               kg / litre      l / tonne
        Biomass Fuels:
        Fuelwood (5% mcwb)                                  tonne                                                  18
                                       a
        Coconut residues (air dry)
        Shell (15% mcwb) harvested                          tonne                                                 14.6
        Husk (30% mcwb harvested                            tonne                                                  12
                            b
        Average (air dry)                                   tonne                                                  14
        Coconut palm (air dry)                              tonne                                                 11.5
        Charcoal                                            tonne                                                  30
        Bagasse                                             tonne                                                 9.6
        Vegetable & Mineral Fuels:
        Crude oil                                           tonne                                                 42.6
        Coconut oil                                         tonne                 0.92           1,100            38.4
        LPG                                                 tonne                 0.51           1,960            49.6           25.5
        Ethanol                                             tonne                                                  27
        Gasoline (super)                                    tonne                 0.73           1,370            46.5            34
        Gasoline (unleaded)                                 tonne                0.735           1,360            46.5           34.2
        Aviation gasoline (Avgas)                           tonne                0.695           1,440            47.5            33
        Lighting Kerosene                                   tonne                 0.79           1,270            46.4           36.6
        Aviation turbine fuel (jet fuel)                    tonne                0.795           1,260            46.4           36.9
        Automotive diesel (ADO)                             tonne                 0.84           1,190             46            38.6
        High sulphur fuel oil (IFO)                         tonne                 0.98           1,020            42.9            42
        Low sulphur fuel oil (IFO)                          tonne                 0.9            1,110            44.5           40.1




                                  Diesel Conversion Efficiency:

        Actual efficiencies are used where known. Otherwise:                                                  litres / kWh:   Efficiency:
        Average efficiency for small diesel engine (< 100kW output)                                                 0.46         22%
        Average efficiency of large modern diesel engine(> 1000 kW output)                                         0.284         36%
        Average efficiency of low speed, base load diesel (Pacific region)                                     0.30 - 0.33    28% - 32%


        Area:               1.0 km2 = 100 hectares = 0.386 mile2 1.0 acre = 0.41 hectares
        Volume              1 US gallon = 0.833 Imperial (UK) gallons = 3.785 litres 1.0 Imperial gallon = 4.546 litres
        Mass:               1.0 long tons = 1.016 tonnes
        Energy:             1 kWh = 3.6 MJ = 860 kcal = 3,412 Btu = 0.86 kgoe (kg of oil equivalent)
                            1 toe = 11.83 MWh = 42.6 GJ = 10 million kcal = 39.68 million Btu
                            1 MJ = 238.8 kcal = 947.8 Btu = 0.024 kgoe = 0.28 kWh
        GHGs                1 Gg (one gigagramme) = 1000 million grammes (109 grammes) = one million kg = 1,000 tonnes
        CO2 equiv           CH4 has 21 times the GHG warming potential of the same amount of CO2; N2O 310 times

TABLE 1.1 - PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS

                                   Table 1-1 – Physical Features of the Solomon Islands
                            Land area &
                            agricultural
             Island          utilisation              Landforms                                 Soil type

                                              Ridge volcanic mountains,
                                            karst, moderately, narrow and Mixture of volcanic and sedimentary rocks,
          Guadalcanal        5,320 km
                                        2
                                             lightly dissected ridges, low humus-rich, base- poor, shallow loams and
                                               terraces, flood plains and    clays at high altitudes and young loams,
                              8.50%                   colluvial fans       clays and peats in valleys and coastal plains


                                                Volcanic cones, steep,
             Malaita                    2
                                               dissected narrow ridges,        Strongly weathered and leached soils with
                             4,200 km        fluvial plains, karst, valleys,   low base status to slightly and moderately
                                                 swamps and coastal              weathered leached soils, organic with
                                n/a                    landforms                          decomposed peat.
                                        2
              Santa          4,121 km        Low amplitude rounded hills          Moderately to strongly weathered and
         Isabel (Bugotu)                     and ridges with steep sides
                                              and crests, small areas of       leached soils with low base status, organic
                              2.30%            karst and some cuestas                 with well decomposed peat

                                                                                  Moderately to strongly weathered and
                             3,090 km2        High to irregular rounded        leached soils with low base status, slightly
             Makira
                                              ridges, rolling hills, fluvial    weathered with little horizon development
                              2.50%           plains, fans and beaches           and organic with well decomposed peat

                                            Hills and mountains with steep
                                        2
                                               sided ridges and stable to
            Choiseul         3,837 km         unstable slopes and stable Slightly to strongly weathered leached soils
                                              narrow crests, some being    with little horizon development to leached
                                n/a             former volcanic centres                 with low base status


              New                             Volcanic centres, out wash
                                        2     fans, ridge plateaux, karst,
                             2,145 km
                                            fluvial plains and swamps and   Organic, young and slightly to strongly
            Georgia                              extensive reef lagoon     weathered and leached soils with low base
                              3.10%                     complexes                           status
        Notes: Source is Hansell & Wall, 1970 except agricultural utilisation is Cheatle, 1987. n/a is not available




TABLE 1.2 - POPULATION OF SOLOMON ISLANDS (1999)
                              Table 1-2 –
                  Population of Solomon Islands (1999)
         Island or group       Total            Urban              Rural
         Choiseul              20,008            440              19,568
         Western               62,739           6,442             56,277
         Isabel                20,421            451              19,970
         Central               21,577           1,333             20,244
         Rennell-Belona        2,377              0               2,377
         Guadalcanal *         60,275           3,013             57,262
            Honiara            49,107          49,107                0
         Malaita              122,620           1,606            212,014
         Makira                31,006            979              30,027
         Temotu                18,912            361              18,551
           National Total     409,042          63,732            345,310
         Note: * Excluding city of Honiara
         Source: 1999 Census of Population & Housing
        -2001


TABLE 1.3 - GROWTH OF URBAN POPULATION, 1976-1999
                                        Table 1-3 –
                           Growth of Urban Population, 1976-1999

        Province             Urban centre               1976         1986           1999
        Western              Gizo                      2,707        3,710           6,882
        Isabel               Buala                     1,414        1,901           451
        Central              Tulagi                     808         1,622           1,333
        Malaita              Auki                      1,926        3,252           1,606
        Honiara              –                         14,942       30,413         49,107
        Makira               Kirakira                  1,767        2,588           979
        Temotu               Lata                       795         1,295           361
        Total                                          24,359       44,781         63,732
        Source: SI Statistic Office, 1988 & SI Census, 2001


TABLE 1.4 - HONIARA POPULATION, GROWTH AND PERSONS PER HOUSEHOLD, 1970-1999
                           Table 1-4 – Honiara Population, Growth
                            and Persons per Household, 1970-1999
        Year                        1970                1976         1986           1999
        Population                 12,006           14,942          30,413         49,107
        AAGR, %                                       3.7            6.8            3.8
        (years)                        -          (1970-76)       (1976-86)      (1986-99)
        Persons / hh                  5.4             5.5              7            7.1
          Source: As for Table 1-3


TABLE 1.5 - STATUS OF RATIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TREATIES AND CONVENTIONS BY SOLOMON ISLANDS
          Table 1-5 – Status of Ratification of Environmental Treaties and Conventions by Solomon
                                                    Islands

                                               Conservation      Hazardous     Nuclear free       GHG                Ozone
            Status in                ? ?
                                                 of nature        wastes         Pacific       reductions           depleting
            Solomon
                                                                                                                   substances
             Islands
                                                                                                                    (Montreal
                                  (SPREP          (Apia            (Waigani      (Rarotonga       (Kyoto           Protocol, et
                                 Convention)    Convention)      Convention)       Treaty)       Protocol)             al.)
                Signed               –             No             16-Sep-95      29-May-87      29-Sep-98          Acceded to
                                                                                                                     Vienna
                                                                                                                   Convention,
                Ratified         10-Aug-89           No           7-Oct-98       27-Jan-89      13-Mar-03          17-Jun-93
        Entered into force       22-Aug-90        26-Jun-90       21-Oct-01      27-Jan-89        n/a *

        Notes: Treaties & conventions are briefly described in Volume 1, the PIREP Regional Overview report

         * The Kyoto Protocol is in force from 15 February 2004 for European Union members only.
        Sources: Websites for conventions, Forum Secretariat, and SPREP (January – March 2004)


TABLE 1.6 - CHANGES IN SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT FORM 1989-EARLY 2004
                                        Table 1-6 – Changes in Solomon Islands Government from 1989 – early 2004
                             Mamaloni          Hilly            Mamaloni       Ulufa’alu                  Sogavare                            Kemakeza


        Term in Office       1989 - 1993       1993 - 1994      1994 - 1996    1997 - 2000               2000 - 2001                      Dec. 2001 - 2004
                         Sir Moses             Sir Moses        Sir George     Sir George
        Governor General                                                                      Sir John Ini Lapli                  Sir John Ini Lapli
                         Pitakaka                               Lepping        Lepping
                            Sir Moses                           Sir George        Sir George
         Governor General                                                                          Sir John Ini Lapli                 Sir John Ini Lapli
                            Pitakaka         Pitakaka           Lepping           Lepping
         Prime              Solomon          Francis            Solomon           Batholomew
                                                                                                   Manaseh Sogavare                   Sir Allan Kemakeza
         Minister           Mamaloni         Billy Hilly        Mamaloni          Ulufa‟alu

                                                                                 Solomon
                            Peoples                             Solomon                           Solomon Islands government for
         Ruling party or                     National                            Islands Alliance                                National Coalition Partnership
                            Alliance Party                      Islands Govt for                  National Unity, Reconciliation
         Parties                                                                 for Change                                      (NCP)
                            (PAP)                               National Unity                    and Peace (SIGNUR)
                                                                                 (SIAC)
                                             Coalition
                                                                Eric Seri; then                                                       Walton Naezon (2002)
         Minister
         responsible for    Allan Paul       Hilda Kari         David Vouza       Walton Naezon Walton Naezon                         Stephen Paeni
         Energy
                                                                                                                                      (2003-present)

                                             Coalition of                       Coalition of       Unscheduled election after the
                            PAP won                             Mamaloni took
                                             several parties;                   small political                                       Coalition between PAP and
                            majority seats                      over from Hilly                    SIAC was overthrew by MEF /
         Comments                            was taken over                     parties (i.e.                                         Association of Independent
                            and form the                        in vote of no                      joint paramilitary group in June
                                             by an opposition                   Liberal, Labour,                                      Members
                            government                          confidence                         5th 2000 coup
                                             group                              independents)

         Note: MEF = Malaita Eagle Force


TABLE 1.7 - REAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, 1990-2002 (indexed; 1985 = 100)
                                                                                                            Table 1-7 – Real Gross Domestic Product, 1990-2002 (indexed;
                                                                     1990              1991              1992             1993              1994
         Agriculture                                                 103.8             97.1             113.7             113.1            116.5
         Forestry, Logging, Sawmilling                               113.3             82.7             142.4             156.7            170.6
         Fishing                                                     101.8            165.9             150.6             125.9            148.2
         Mining & Exploration                                        118.3             78.1              57.6              53.9             53.1
         Manufacturing                                               134.6            135.1              146              156.8            215.3
         Electricity and Water                                       157.4            168.6             178.6             192.2            211.8
         Construction                                                 96               75.7              77.9              80.2             90.7
         Retail and Wholesale Trade                                  103.4            109.2             120.4             127.1            129.5
         Transport and Communications                                109.6            111.6             119.3              137             155.9
         Finance                                                     157.5            174.7             184.4             201.8             227
         Other Services                                               136             141.9             153.5             155.6            169.6

         Index of Monetary GDP Production                             117             120.5             133.8             138.4            151.9
         Annual % movement                                            1.5               3                11.1              3.4              9.3
         Index of Primary Production                                 105.4            109.4              128              125.2            135.1
         Annual % movement                                            1.5              3.8                17               -2.2             7.7

         Non-Monetary: Food                                          113.5            116.5             119.6             122.8             126
         Non-Monetary: Construction                                  114.8             117              119.3             121.5            123.9
         Non-Monetary GDP Index                                      113.6            116.5             119.6             122.7            125.8

         Index of Total GDP Production                               118.5             122              133.6            135.3             146.7
         Annual % movement                                            1.9               3                9.5              1.3               8.1
                                                                                          Source: CBSI Annual Reports; Quarterly Reports & Economic Overviews


TABLE 1.8 - PRODUCTION BY MAJOR COMMODITY, 1990-2003 (METRIC TONNES EXCEPT LOGS)
                                                                                    Table 1-8 – Production by Major Commodity, 1990-2003 (metric tonnes except l


         Commodity              1990                1991            1992              1993              1994             1995              1996
         Copra                  34306              25133            29073             29057             22500            26148             21989
        Oil                   2693             2717           3879            4286             2827           4372           3520
        Palm Oil              22104           22518           30854           30986            29737          29562          28680
        Palm Kernel           5051             4992           6781            7043             7183           6861           6834
        Cocoa                 3895             4615           4159            3297             3337           2482           2464
        Fish *                25986           50859           39996           32486            39005          56133          41199
        Logs ('ooo m3)         442             336             640             547              267             --            791
         Source: CBSI Quarterly Reviews (March 2001 - June 2003)        -- = data unavailable or unreliable; 2003 is for January - June
         Notes: * Fish catches are those of Solomon Taiyo Ltd. and National Fisheries Development only.
         ** Since 1997, there are no log production data so log exports are used as a proxy.


TABLE 1.9 - HOUSEHOLD INCOME & EXPENDITURE (1993 & 1998)
                            Table 1-9 –
           Household Income & Expenditure (1993 & 1998)
                        Average    Ave. monthly earning 1998
                       gross rural      SI $        US$
                           expenditure
        Province              1993
        Choiseul              $88.70           $560            $115
        Western              $150.60           $572            $119
        Isabel               $122.00           $611            $127
        Central               $87.70           $322             $67
        Guadalcanal          $184.90           $491            $102
        Malaita              $178.50           $545            $113
        Rennelll–Bellona       n/a             $540            $112

        Makira–Ulawa          $70.90           $627            $130
        Temotu                $79.70           $686            $142
        Honiara                 –             $1,129           $234
        Source: Solomon Islands Human Development Report (UNDP,
        2002)


TABLE 1.10 - THE SOLOMON ISLANDS & REGIONAL ECONOMIC TREATIES
             Table 1-10 –The Solomon Islands & Regional
                          Economic Treaties
        Status          SPARTECA      PACER        PICTA
        Signed              14-Jul-80       18-Aug-01        6-Aug-02
        Ratified            24-Feb-81        2-Jun-03        2-Jun-03
        Entered into
        force               26-Mar-81        3-Oct-02       13-Apr-03
        Source: Note from Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (January
        2004)


TABLE 1.11 - COMMERCIAL BAND INTEREST REATES ON LOANS & OVERDRAFTS
                                  Table 1-11 –
               Commercial Bank Interest Rates on Loans & Overdrafts
                            Personal        Other                    Weighted
               Year                                     Overdraft
                             loans         loans *                   average **
        1990               16.32 - 18.00 14.00 - 18.00 15.00 - 18.00    16.39
        1991               16.32 - 19.75   14.00 - 19.75   15.00 - 19.75       17.25
        1992               16.32 - 21.00   14.00 - 21.00   16.50 - 21.00       18.32
        1993               14.75 - 21.00   12.50 - 21.00   14.50 - 21.00        17.5
        1994               14.75 - 19.00   12.50 - 18.75   14.50 - 18.25       16.23
        1995               14.50 - 20.00   12.50 - 20.00   14.50 - 20.00       16.94
        1996               14.50 - 20.00   11.00 - 20.00   14.50 - 20.00       16.66
        1997              15.00 - 19.50    10.00 - 18.50   14.00 - 18.70   15.71
        1998              14.00 - 15.00    10.00 - 16.25   14.00 - 15.75   14.12
        1999              14.00 - 15.00    10.00 - 16.25   14.00 - 15.75   14.12
        2000              14.00 - 17.50    10.00 - 21.50   10.00 - 18.00   15.09
        Sources: CBSI Quarterly Review December 1999, Vol. 11. No.4 and CBS

          Quarterly Review March 2001, Vol. 13, No.1
        Notes: * includes business loans      ** of loans and overdrafts


TABLE 1.12 - DISTRIBUTION OF OUTSTANDING LOWANS (DEVELOPMENT BANK OF SOLOMON ISLANDS; $'000)
                                                 Table 1-12 – Distribution of Outstanding Loans (Development Bank of Sol Islands; $'000)
        Sector                   1990          1991            1992         1993          1994        1995           1996
        Agriculture             5,968         7,501           5,016        5,669         6,088        6,294         7,116
        Industry                2,000         2,372           4,570        2,697         2,846        4,088         3,462
        Commerce                3,311         3,323           5,643        6,455         4,283        4,557         6,521
        Services                2,990         4,613           4,409        8,167         10,108      12,970         16,516
        RTC *                     26            19              7            13               51        -            407
        Others **                945           1252            3105         3490         2,853        3,585         4,879
        Total                   15,240       19,080          22,750        26,491        26,229      31,494         38,901
        Notes: * RTC = Rural Training Centres: ** Includes micro loans and DBSI staff loans
        Source: CBSI Quarterly Review December 1999, Vol. 11. No. 4 and CBSI Quarterly Review March 2001, Vol. 13, No .1


BOX 1.1 - INFORMAL ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ENERGY DIVISION
                                                         Box 1-1 – Informal Roles and Responsibilities of the Energy Division
        The roles of the Energy Divisions are to:
         formulate and implement national energy policy, and monitor and evaluate its impact;
         plan, coordinate and assist in the implementation of energy projects and programme across the energy sector and between ministries and related ag
         provide the government and energy related agencies with expert advise and analysis on energy matters;
         act as the focal point for all petroleum matters (including price control supply, storage and distribution); and
         act as the convener and facilitator of the national energy coordinating committee
        The responsibilities are to:
         develop, implement and monitor a national energy work programme(s) by which energy policies will be achieved;
         coordinate activities and programmes (including the rural electrification programme) of the energy sector participants;
         develop and maintain a comprehensive energy sector database for policy formulation, planning and monitoring, through the collection and collatio
         monitor, review and provide recommendations on fuel pricing electricity tariffs, and government charges and subsidies, to ensure that the full and
         develop and maintain the capacity to monitor and evaluate the landed price of petroleum, the petroleum company cost elements, the pricing formu
        charges so as to negotiate and maintain equitable pricing and proper contractual arrangement for petroleum products
          monitor, review and provide recommendations on future developments in public and private energy sector infrastructure. In particular, encourage
         to adopt a list cost, financially and environmentally sustainable strategy to meeting energy demand
          formulate and secure proposals for donor assistance where appropriate, and screen out those lucking in technical maturity economic viability or en
         sustainability
          provide advise to government and its agencies concerning energy investment budgets and / or specific project funding
          in conjunction with other ministries and agencies, develop, implement and monitor regulations and standards governing the energy sector, particu
         safety of petroleum handling/storage facilities and environmental guidelines for the petroleum sector, such as oil spill contingency plans and waste o

          work closely with the relevant government and non-government organisations on the environmental aspects of energy projects and programmes
          develop and assist in implementing energy conservation and efficiency programmes for the government, commercial sector and the public, includi
         campaigns and the evaluation of energy efficient appliances and technology
          develop and facilitate education/awareness programmes to highlight fuel substitution options
          monitor and review the development of new and renewable energy resources and technologies particularly with regard to photovoltaics, solar therm
         biomass, and
          train local staff.
        Source: Energy Policy and Guidelines (GoSI, 1994); informal as these were never endorsed by Cabinet


FIGURE 1.5 - DE-FACTO RESPONSIBILITIES FOR ENERGY MATTERS IN THE SOLOMON ISLANDS (JANUARY 2004)
                      Figure 1-5 – De Facto Responsibilities for Energy Matters in the Solomon islands (January 2004)


           Ministry
                                                                                             Ministry of National      Solomon Islands
                                       Ministry of Natural Resources
         of Commerce                                                                              Planning          Meteorological Services
              &
         Employment


                               Department of Mines          Department of Forests
                                   and Energy                 and Environmental
                                                                Conservation

        Price Control            Energy                         Environment
             Unit               Division                          Division
         Fuel price  Energy studies,                     Environmental impact  Overall policy                       Climate change policy
        control       legislation and policies            assessments            coordination

         Petroleum  Rural electrification               (including energy sector)          Reform Programme      (including greenhouse
        storage &   through RETs                                                                                    gases)
        handling
                             Reviewing fuel and
                            electricity pricing
                             Solomon Islands
                            Electricity Authority

         Source: mission discussions


TABLE 2.1 - PETROLEUM FUEL IMPORTS TO THE SOLOMON ISLANDS, 1990-2002 (THOUSAND LITRES)
                                                          Table 2-1 – Petroleum Fuel Imports to the Solomon islands, 1990 – 2002 (thousand litres)
                      Fuel                     1990            1991           1992            1993         1994          1995
        Aviation Gasoline                       486            610            2,237            887           841         2,082
        Jet fuel                                846           1,443           1,579           1,742         1025         1,452
        Motor Spirit                          12,215          12,258          11,976          11,974       14,803        17,061
        Kerosene                               1,586          2,723           2,213           2,877        2,825         2,883
        Distillate Fuel                       49,780          48,385          51,287          47,646       46,545        48,142
        Lubricating oil                        1,291          1,093           1,425           1,736        1,609         1,465
        LP Gas                                   82            504             583             783           533          665
        Total (KL)                            72,269         73,000          77,285          73,631       74,168        79,738
        Value (SI$ millions)                  144,538        146,000         154,570         147,262      148,336       159,476
         Source: SI Statistics Office, 2003         Note: Data are not available for 1999 and 2000


TABLE 2.2 - CONSUMPTION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS BY SECTOR (ToE; 2001/2002)
                                   Table 2-2 – Consumption of Petroleum Products by Sector (ToE; 2001/2002)
                                            Imports                  ——— Consumption by Sector in Tonnes of Oil Equivalent ———
                                              KL        tonnes                                House     Commercial
                    Product                                         Transport   Electricity    holds     & industry
        Motor spirit                          17,600          12,847         14,003
        Aviation gasoline                       347            241            270
        Jet fuel                               4,081          3,239          3,531
        Other kerosene                         3,356          2,643                                        576          2,305
         LPG                                   975             497                                          290             291
         Distillate                           51,835          43,559          20,000           19,400                      7,644
          Total                               78,194          63,026          20,000           19,400       866           10,240
          % of total ToE                        n/a            n/a             56%              28%         1%             15%
         Source: Imports are from GoSI as reported in Table 2-1 omitting ‘lubricating oils’

         Notes: Imports in KL are average of 2001 & 2002 data of Table 2-1. Tonnes & ToE calculated from data of conversions table.
          Total adds up to 101% due to rounding errors;    n/a = not applicable


TABLE 2.3 - COOKING FUEL MOST COMMONLY USED, BY HOUSEHOLDS AND BY PROVICE (1999)
                            Table 2-3 – Cooking Fuel Most Commonly Used, by Households and by Province (1999)
                           Households                      –––––––––––––––––– Most Commonly Used Fuel ––––-–––––––––
                             (Number)               Fuel wood
         Location                                 HH         %         Electricity    LPG      Kerosene       Other
         Choiseul              3,142           3,072        97.80%          1          29          31            3
         Western               9,992           8,961        89.70%         42         489         373           90
         Isabel                3,556           3,353        94.30%          0         112          78            4
         Central               3,625           3,313        91.40%         10         193         106            0
         Ren-Bellona            432             408         94.40%          0          16           6            0
         Guadalcanal          10,399           9,737        93.60%         19         564          53            1
         Malaita              18,606          17,993        96.70%         13         384         144            9
         Makira                4,926           4,798        97.40%          5          68          43            0
         Temotu                3,415           3,346        98.00%          5          31          30            1
         Honiara               6,921           1,755        25.40%        106        4,614        401           26
         Sol Islands          65,014          56,736        88.80%        201        6,500       1,265         134
         Source: Report of the 1999 Census


TABLE 2.4 - HOUSEHOLDS BY SOURCE OF ELECTRICITY AND BY PROVINCE (1999)
                                              Table 2-4 – Households by Source of Electricity and by Province (1999)
                              Total               Households
                            number of            with electricity                             –––––––––   Source of Electricity –––––––––––
                           Households                                          From            Private      Own          Other
         Location                            Number          Percent           SIEA           Company      Source       Source
         Choiseul              3,142            249             8%                 1             85          77             86
         Western               9,992           1,993           20%                877            531        481            104
         Isabel                3,556            423            12%                 86            106        142             89
         Central               3,625            524            14%                113            322         89                 0
         Ren-Bellona            432              6            0.10%                0              0           0                 6
         Guadalcanal          10,399            862             8%                369            50         386             57
         Malaita              18,606            778             4%                441            40         152            145
         Makira                4,926            247             5%                140            43          19             45
         Temotu                3,415            110             3%                 80             4          26                 0
           Honiara             6,921           5,018           73%             4,897              9         100             12
         Sol Islands          65,014          10,210           16%            7,004             1,190      1,478           538
         Source: report of the 1999 census (GoSI, 2001)    Note: rounded off to nearest whole number (except Rennell-Bellona)


TABLE 2.5 - SIEA CUSTOEMRS BY TYPE, 1990 TO 2002
                                  Table 2-.5 – SIEA Customers by Type, 1990 to 2002
         Year                Domestic         Comm.           Indust.             Govt.         Other       Total
         1990                  4,941            335             149               737            137        6,299
         1991                  5,034            871             225               197            136        6,463
         1992                  5,181           954              212               182             123             6,652
         1993                  5,463           924              158               233             115             6,893
         1994                  5,523          1,061             160               204             119             7,067
         1995                  5,854          1,196             128               194             124             7,496
         1996                  6,114          1,295             191               212             132             7,944
         1997                  6,198          1,256             171               187             141             7,953
         1998                  6,313          1,282             174               186             149             8,104
         1999                  7,012          1,284             152               209             168             8,825
         2000                  6,823          1,409             141               194             142             8,709
         2001                  6,896          1,475             147               226             181             8,925
         2002                  7,029          1,598             153               274             191             9,245
          2002 (%)             76%            17%               2%                3%              2%              100%
         Source: SIEA


TABLE 2.6 SIEA TARIFF (EARLY 2004)
                          Table 2-6 –
                     SIEA Tariff (early 2004)
                                            Charge
                    Category                (SI$/kWh)
         Domestic                             1.3175
         Commercial & Industrial               1.585
         High Voltage Tariffs                  1.485
         Minimum Charge ($/m)                 $20.00
             Note: Costs incl. AFPA, SI$ 0.76/KWh


TABLE 2.7 - SIEA CONSUMPTION BY CONSUMERS, 2002 (MWh)
                                                                             Table 2-7 – SIEA Consumption by Consumers, 2002 (MWh)
         Category             Honiara         Noro            Munda            Gizo         Auki      Malu’u      Buala
         Domestic             8,938,           511              128              487              455              18        109
         Commercial           15,454           921              230              468              515              10         57
         Industrial            3,988          3,208             802                9              230               0          1
         Govt                  2,830            66               17              273              228               4         57
         Min. Charge             36             7                 2               11                9               7          3
         Others                 348             35                9              149               61               0         13
         Total                31,594          4,748            1,187            1,397            1,498             40        338
          % of total           76%            11%               3%               3%               4%              <<1%       1%
          Source: Historical Consumption by Category (SIEA 2004)
         Notes: MWh = '000 KWh            Totals rounded;             < = less than;        << = much less than


TABLE 2.8 - SIEA SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS AND DEMAND FORECASTS
                                                Table 2-8 – SIEA System Characteristics and Demand Forecasts

                                                            Capacity KW        Peak KW            Forecast Demand              Forecast Peak
             System          Location         Type
                                                             (Oct. 1999)      (Oct. 1999)                 (MWh)                      (kW)
                                                                                                  2002             2018     2002
         Honiara -
         Lungga            Guadalcanal        diesel          18,000            10,550           56,289           125,000   12,477

         Noro – Munda *    Western            diesel           2,700             1790            14,513           54,600    2,673
         Gizo              Western            diesel            510               280            2,939             4900      571
         Auki              Malaita            diesel            624               280
         Malu‟u            Malaita            hydro              30               33             11,499           33,900    2,387
                                              hydro             150
         Buala             Santa Isabel                                           70              458              1700      108
        Buala               Santa Isabel        diesel          62               70          458             1700         108
        Kirakira            San Cristobel       diesel          170              61          413             1500         92
        Lata                Temotu              diesel          160              65          387              900         80
        Tulagi              Florida Isl         diesel           ?                ?          255              560         71
                            Choiseul                                                         101              390         25
                            R-Bellona                                                         31              76           6
        Total                                                                               86,887          223,500        -
        Source: Master Plan Study of Power Development in Solomon Islands: Draft Final Report; Volume 1, Summary (JICA, Aug. 2000)
        Notes: * Munda connected by 11kV line to Noro in 1996 ** Taken over by SIEA in 1998


TABLE 2.9 - CO2 EMISSIONS FROM PETROLEUM FUELS 91994)
                         Table 2-9 – CO2 Emissions from Petroleum Fuels (1994)

                                   Fuel        Apparent      Apparent       Actual CO2   Percent of total
                              Imported        Consumption   Consumption     Emissions          (%)
         Fuel Type            (Kilotons)       (Kilotons)   (Terajoules)    (Gg CO2)
         Gasoline               16.25            16.25          728           49.95           15.48
         Jet A1                    4.8            3.3         147.15          10.42           3.23
         Other Kero                3.62          3.62           162           11.53           3.57
         Diesel Oil                76             76          3293.08        241.47           74.86
         Lubricants                2.2            2.2          88.42          6.45              2
         LP Gas                    0.94          0.94          44.47          2.78            0.86
         Total                 103.81           102.31        4463.12         322.6           100
        Source: First Solomon Islands Communication to UNFCCC
          (draft; to be submitted, undated)
        Notes: Based on UNFCCC top down approach Gg = gigagramme = 1,000 t


TABLE 2.10 - PETROLEUM DEMAND & GHG EMISSIONS IN 2001/02 AND PROJECTIONS FOR 2011/12
                      Table 2-10 – Petroleum Demand & GHG Emissions in 2001/02 and Projections for 2011/12
                                  –––––––- 2001/2002 ––––––                       ––––––––––– 2011/2012 ––––––––––––
                            KL imports      Share       GHGs                 KL sold      Share       AAGR        GHGs
        Product              (estimate)      (%)       (Gg CO2)            (projected))    (%)          (%)      (Gg CO2)
        Gasoline (Motor        17,600            21.3           44           25,050           21.2             4          62.6
        spirit)
        Jet fuel                4,081             5.1          10.6           6,040            5.1             4          15.7
        Kerosene                3,356             4.6           9.4           4,970            4.2             4          13.9
        Distillate (ADO        51,835            67.8           140          80,880           68.4           4.55        218.4
        Aviation                   347            0.4           0.8            364             0.3             4          0.8
        gasoline
        Liquid Petroleum           975            0.8           1.6           1,022            0.8             4          1.6
        Gas
         Total                 78,194                         206.4         118,326                          4.23         313
        Source: 2001/02 imports from Table 2-2 (Statistics Office, GoSI, 2003); 2011/12 imports are mission estimates

        Notes: CO2-equivalent emissions for various fuels & conversion of LPG from T to KL are from data of conversion table.

         Distillate growth (45% for electric power; 55% other) is 4.55% growth
        GHG emissions assume that all fuels imported during a year were consumed during the year; ignores lubes.


TABLE 2.11 - INDICATIVE ENERGY PRODUCTION IN SOLOMON ISLANDS FROM RENEWABLE TECHNOLOGIES
                                   Table 2-11 – Indicative Energy Production in Solomon Islands from Renewable Technologies


                                                                             GHG
                                                Potential power or                        % of total
                      Technology                                                                                                Comments
                                                  energy savings                           savings
                                                  Potential power or                         % of total
                   Technology                                                  reductions                                         Comments
                                                    energy savings                            savings
                                                                                         1
                                                                                 (Gg)
                           2                                                     31 Gg           25
         Hydro (>1 MW)                        About 25 MW                                                  Less than 10% of hydro potential. See note 2
         Hydro (0.1-1.0 MW
                               3
                                              About 6 MW                          for all                  See note 3
         Hydro (< 100kW)                      About 0.6 MW                        hydro                    See note 3
         Geothermal                           Over 10 MW                           n/a            0        Potential is far from centres of demand
         Biofuel                              28 ML diesel equivalent              75            61        Coconut oil (assumed to be for transport)
         Other biomass 4                      Assume 1 MW                         <2            <2         Could be much higher
                   5
         Solar PV                             30,000 SHS; 500 others               ≈3           ≈2         Generally good solar resource
                6
         Wind                                 1 x 250 kW minimum                  << 1          << 1       Wind speeds appear to be low in Solomon Isl
                                 7
         Efficiency (electrical)              2,350 KL of ADO                      6.3            5        10% of ADO used for electricity
                                              1,250 KL of motor spirit & 465
                                   8
         Efficiency (transport)               KL of ADO                            4.4            4        5% of ground transport fuel use by 2013
            Total                                                                ≈ 122          100
         Notes on assumptions used:
         1) General. 1 Gg of GHG emissions = 1,000 tonnes.         < = ‘less than’ << = ‘much less than’   ≈ = approximately
         2) Hydro. Honiara peak demand (Figure 2-7) is unlikely to exceed 16 MW in next decade. Assumes SIEA & others can absorb 25 MW
         3) Small hydro. Assumes about half of mini potential identified by JICA (Table 3-2) is developed and all of the micro potential. Assumes hydro (not base load
         except Komarindi) replaces 60% of fuel currently used for power generation for electricity generation: 60% of 19.4 ML = 11.6 ML or 31 Gg of CO 2.


         4) Biomass. Assumes), 0.93 kg CO2 / MWh. At 2,000 MWh/yr, this is 1.86 t of CO2 equiv. Most is CO2 reduction.
         5) PV. About 60,000 rural households. Assume 30,000 systems of 100 Wp & 0.25 kWh/day plus 500 larger (school, health, etc.) systems at 1.0 kWh/day.
         Assume 300 days/yr operation = 2.55 million kWh/year. At 0.5 l/kWh for small diesel systems, this would displace 1.28 ML of fuel, equivalent to only 3.4 Gg
         per year.

         6) Wind. Assume average output of 50 kW for 2,000 hour/year or 100,000 kWh. If this replaced small diesel system (0.5 l/kWh), fuel savings are 50,000 l/year
         or 135 tonnes of CO2 displacement, less than 0.14 Gg per year.

         7) Efficiency (elec.). There are large supply side inefficiencies in electricity production & some demand-side opportunities. From Table 2-2, 44% of ADO is
         for electricity: 44% x 80,880 = 35,588 KL so 10% is 3,559 KL. However, hydro & biomass displaces 34% of ADO used for electricity (33 Gg /[44 x 218.4]) so
         only 66% of this fuel saving will reduce GHGs. 66% of 3,559 = 2,350 KL
         8) Efficiency (transport). Vehicles in the Sol Islands are badly maintained and inefficient to operate. 5% of motor spirit = 0.05 x 25,050 = 1250 KL,
         equivalent to 3.1 Gg Transport accounts for 46% of ADO use. 46% x 80,800 = 37,200 KL. If all biofuel (28,000 KL) is used for transport, then only 25% of
         the fuel savings would result in GHG reductions. ). The fuel savings are 5% x 37,200 KL = 1860 KL of ADO. 25% of this, or 465 KL, would result in
         reduced GHGs of 1.3 Gg. Total GHG reductions are 3.1 (motor spirit) + 1.3 (distillate) = 4.4 Gg



TABLE 3.1 - GoSI HYDRO DATABSE (1990)
         Table 3-1 – GoSI Hydro Database (1990)

                               Number          Estimated
                                                capacity
         Province                  Of sites       (kW)
         Malaita                     24           4,300
         Western                      8            200
         Temotu                       2            n/a
         Makira                       7            750
         Central Islands              1            n/a
         Choiseul                     3            n/a
         Guadacanal                  10          > 5,000
         Isabel                       7            800
         Total                       62         > 11,050
         Source: Paul Fairbairn, SOPAC, March 2004



TABLE 3.2 - POTENTIAL HYDROELECTRONIC POWER IDENTIFIED BY JICA (2000)
                         Table 3-2 – Potential Hydroelectric Power Identified by JICA (2000)
                              Number              Output in kilowatts:                Total       % of
        Island                of Sites       Micro       Mini          Small          (kW)        total
        Guadalcanal              49                           1,210         236,100   237,310      73%
        Malaita                  23            90            2,700           28,000    30,813      9%
        Santa Isabel              6                           610            4,100     4,710       1%
        New Georgia              23            320           4,840                     5,183       2%
        San Cristobal            12             20            371            25,500    25,903      8%
        Choiseul                 15            140           2,030           20,030    22,215      7%
        Santa Cruz                2             50            260                       310       << 1%
        Total                    130           620           12,021          45,530   326,444      100
        Source: Table 5-1: Result of Hydropower Map Study (JICA, 2000)
        Note: Micro <100 kW; Mini 100-1,000 kW; Small > 1,000 kW; << = ‘much less than’


TABLE 3.3 - ESTIMATED SEA WAVE POTENTIAL IN MELANESIA (kW/m)
         Table 3-3 – Estimated Sea wave Potential
                   in Melanesia (kW/m)
         Technique      Fiji        Vanuatu
         Buoy             22.9                14.4
         Satellite        Jun-24             Sep-20


TABLE 3.4 - HOUSEHOLDS TRADING IN COCONUTS (1999)
                          Table 3-4 –

         Households trading in Coconuts (1999)
                     Province                   %
        Choisel                                65
        Western                                56
        Isabel                                 55
        Central                                47
        Rennell-Bellona                        40
        Guadalcanal                            46
        Malaita                                35
        Makira-Ulawa                           59
        Temotu                                 56
        Solomon Islands:
          including Honiara                    43
          excluding Honiara                    47
        Source: report of 1999 census


TABLE 3.5 - COPRA AND COCONUT OIL PRODUCTION, 1990-2000 (tonnes)
                                                             Table 3-.5 – Copra and Coconut Oil Production, 1990-2000 (tonnes)
         Product                1990          1991            1992           1993     1994        1995        1996
        Copra                   34,306       25,133          29,073          29,057   22,500      26,148      21,989
        Oil                     2,693         2,717           3,879          4,286     2,827      4,372        3,520
        Source: National Economic Recovery, Reform and Development Plan
        Note: Copra production apparently additional to that used to produce oil


TABLE 4.1 - SEIA HYDRO PROJECTS UNDER CONSIDERATION
                              Table 4-1 –
                 SEIA Hydro Projects Under Consideration
        Island                Makira        Choiseul        Malaita
        River                   Huro         Sorave            Rori
        Capacity              120 kW         70 kW           300 kW
         Source: Morgan Wairiu discussions with SIEA, 2004


TABLE 4.2 - APACE - SUPPORTED HYDRO DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOLOMON ISLANDS
                            Table 4-2 – APACE-Supported Hydro Development in the Solomon Islands
                                Year         Turbine                        Funded
            Location                                       Generation                                     Comments
                              Installed      capacity                          by

                                                                                         Currently (April 2004) being upgraded and
         Iriri settlement                                                                extended. Power remains off until upgrade is
         (Kolombangara)         1983             10 kW       3-4 kW          UNIDO       completed


         Vavanga                                                           AusAID + Currently (April 2004) being upgraded and
         (Kolombangara)         1994             12 kVA      4-5 kW      Austr. Citizens extended. Generation will double.

                                                                                         Not properly installed. Wiring damaged in
         Ghatere                                                           AusAID + tsunami . Completion awaits local fund
         (Kolombangara)         1997             12 kW                   Austr. Citizens raising

         Manawai
         Harbour                                                                         Various economic and rural development
         (Malaita)              1997             50 kW      15-25 kW          ROC        spin-offs
         Bulelavata                                                                      Only 4 days of downtime during first 4 year.
         (New Georgia)          1999             29 kW        14 kW          AusAID      Power supply extended to Beulah PSS
         Raeao (Malaita)        2002             25 kW        14 kW           ROC
         Nariaoa              Feb. 2004          25 kW                        ROC        Not completed
         (Malaita)
         Source:       Note: ROC is Republic of China (Taiwan)


TABLE 4.3 - MICRO-HYDRO PROJECTS UNDER CONSIDERATION
                 Table 4-3 – Micro-hydro
               Projects Under Consideration
         Province                      Location
         Malaita            Ladeabu
         Malaita            Henbotasi
         Choiseul           Kuma
         Choiseul           Sorana
         Choiseul           Panarui
         Choiseul           Bangaraseqa
         Choiseul           Lute
         Choiseul           Boe
         Choiseul           Papara
         Choiseul           Posarae
         Choiseul           Katurasele
         Guadacanal         Komuvaoiu
         Guadacanal         Auvavu
         Guadacanal         Manekaraku I Kofiu
         Guadacanal         Belanimanu
         Guadacanal         Vatukulau
         Guadacanal         Duidui
         Guadacanal         Talise


Annex C – Report on Solomon Islands SWOT Workshop
                            Category                                                                      Strengths
         General & miscellaneous                          Abundant natural resources: hydro, solar and copra (as a source for coconut oil).
General & miscellaneous
                                   There are also opportunities for geothermal and wind energy
                                   By using solar PV lights, the number of available working hours increases.
                                   There is considerable enthusiasm for RE and optimism in post-conflict Solomons.
Fiscal, Financial and Economic     Micro-hydro is more cost-effective than diesel generation in rural areas
Institutional                      NGOs such as SIVEC have considerable expertise at village level and in developing sustainable energy
                                   projects.
                                   Although GEF can be very slow, it also offers a facility for quick support for prefeasability studies
                                   (maximum. budget of about US$25,000).
                                   Donors complain about the lack of local absorption capacity for donor money
                                   Donors themselves and the regional organisations are part of the problem
Technical                          Considerable human resources are available
Knowledge & Public Awareness       Family-based RE units tend to have a high degree of ownership and can be effective (compared to
                                   community-based systems)




                 Category                                                          Weaknesses
General & miscellaneous            The land tenure system (i.e. tendency of some landowners to exploit land issues) is a serious weakness
                                   restricting RETs

Fiscal, Financial and Economic     Processes and procedures of the aid system are too long and too cumbersome; we need help now, not
                                   (e.g. GEF) in several years time.
                                   Feasibility studies sometimes show that a project is technically and financially feasible but when there are
                                   no immediate customers, the project is still put off.
                                    Serious GoSI budgetary constraints affect the implementation of planned RE projects
                                   Banks and donors insist on feasibility studies. We do not need funding for another feasibility study that is
                                   just talk-talk, we need soft loans “where the rubber hits the road”.

Institutional                      Weak institutions at all levels in the Solomon Islands
                                   Government institutions do not have the expertise to develop RE projects
                                   There is no proper national coordination of energy matters; departments do not share information.
                                   The Department of Energy has not initiated any micro hydro projects; these are all carried out by NGOs.
                                   Co-operation with the Government is a problem.

                                   The donors have good ideas sometimes but are far too slow. We need action now (e.g. one entrepreneur
                                   had 5 meetings with the EU which has abundant funds and expressed interest in coconut oil but he claims
                                   he cannot tap into EU funds).

Legislative, Regulatory & Policy   There are no appropriate policies and guidelines regarding RE
                                   Power sector legislation and regulation are inadequate.
                                   Labour and immigration legislation restrict RE development
                                   The power utility, SIEA, is monopolist in areas that are close to the grid so others cannot generate
                                   electricity even if SIEA does not provide it.

Technical                          There is a serious lack of technical skills
Market                             There is too much protection for diesel power generation (e.g. SIEA has no incentive to improve so how
                                   can REs compete)
                                   We cannot develop markets (i.e coconut oil in Honiara) unless more shipping is dedicated to transport
                                   copra. Shipping and infrastructure is a problem. There are no exports whatsoever and there is no industry
                                   in SI outside of Honiara & Noro. Downstream processing is absent, largely due to poor shipping.

Knowledge & Public Awareness       A large share of donor support funds for RE go to expatriate consultants; very little is spent within the
                                   country towards building-up local expertise
                                   Limited knowledge within government (civil servants and ministers) on energy
                                   In general, very little public awareness of RE technologies and programmes in rural areas
Knowledge & Public Awareness




                                   Even where there is a government policy, it is not followed up by appropriate training so our knowledge is
                                   low.




                 Category                                                         Opportunities
General & miscellaneous            There are lots of opportunities for socio-economic development of the country and these will provide RE
                                   opportunities
                                   RE can help create employment at the village level
                                   RE can improve welfare at the village level
                                   Something has to be achieved in 2004 that we can show the donors (who can then assist us) when they
                                   come back in November 2004
                                   We can set up a lobby group to influence the international community regarding RE
                                    Although Government is suspicious about private enterprises, in the last twelve months some of the
                                   barriers have been removed. For example, the Manufacturers‟ Association has now established a good
                                   relationship with the Department of Commerce.
Fiscal, Financial and Economic     The existing aid systems and willingness to assist the Solomons means that aid funds are available
                                   With community owned electricity, generation can be low cost so there are friendly tariff rates
Legislative, Regulatory & Policy   If the Kyoto protocol is approved, there will be more resources to help meet Solomon Islands‟ obligations
                                   under the climate change convention
Technical                          Quality design can be achieved locally if funding is available
Market                             Private enterprise is optimistic and will be the driving force to make things work.
                                   There are business opportunities now for RETs
                                   RETs can reduce import of fossil fuel
Knowledge & Public Awareness       Through media and schools and training, there are opportunities to raise the level of knowledge of the
                                   public and government



                 Category                                                             Threats
General & miscellaneous            Land tenure and ownership can be a serious threat to RETs
                                   The SI Government is suspicious about private enterprises and see business people as a threat.
                                   Safety of facilities are threatened by cyclones and other natural disasters
                                   Many RETs are poorly managed and there is a threat of low sustainability
                                   The attitude of “give me money” has become part of the culture and needs to change.
Institutional                      Government may not develop good policies to open up to renewable energy
                                   Government has a monopolistic approach
Legislative, Regulatory & Policy   There is over-protection of fossil fuel because of the power of the oil companies. Deregulation is needed.
Knowledge & Public Awareness       Some water supply projects do not look at electric power generation, missing an opportunity (e.g. Kogulae)
Oil Equiv.:
              Kg CO2 equivalent e
 toe / unit
   (net)      per GJ      per litre


   0.42        94


   0.34
   0.28
   0.33
   0.27
    0.7
               96.8


     1
    0.9
   1.17        59.4          1.6
   0.63
   1.09        73.9          2.5
   1.09        73.9          2.5
   1.12        69.5          2.3
   1.09        77.4          2.8
   1.09        70.4          2.6
   1.08        70.4          2.7
   1.01        81.5          3.4
   1.04        81.5          3.4
D CONVENTIONS BY SOLOMON ISLANDS




89 – early 2004
                       Kemakeza


                   Dec. 2001 - 2004

           Sir John Ini Lapli
             Sir John Ini Lapli


             Sir Allan Kemakeza



             National Coalition Partnership
             (NCP)



             Walton Naezon (2002)

             Stephen Paeni

             (2003-present)



             Coalition between PAP and
             Association of Independent
             Members




-7 – Real Gross Domestic Product, 1990-2002 (indexed; 1985 = 100)
                                    1995         1996    1997             1998             1999    2000     2001    2002    2003*
                                   125.5         125.1    138            132.7           103.5       83      70.9    77.3
                                   196.1         209.9   195.8           134.9            153      132.2    131.7   135.6
                                   205.1         151.4   156.7           176.6           170.9      85.3     72.3    76.8
                                    58.1          74.9    11.5           -449.7        -1,262.50   -613.1    38.2    36.7
                                   227.7         235.1   237.8           245.7            246      197.2    158.1   149.8
                                   235.2         232.4   249.7           263.4           276.4      231     183.4   214.4
                                   218.3         289.8   189.5           103.9            75.1      40.1     21.8    26.1
                                   135.9         146.9   146.6           159.8           149.7     134.5    119.9   131.7
                                   163.8          164     152            170.7           179.3     143.4    114.7   129.8
                                   249.5         303.2   281.6           243.9           247.6     239.4    231.4   228.3
                                   169.6         170.7   171.2           182.2           175.9     172.8    172.4   138.5

                                   169.4         171.8   167.3            170.9            169.2   139.1     122    118
                                    11.5          1.4     -1.6             1.2               -1    -17.8    -12.3   -3.6
                                   158.5          149    154.5             143             129.1    94       84.1   89.6
                                    17.3           -6     3.7              -7.4             -9.7   -27.2    -10.4   6.4

                                   129.4         132.8   136.3            139.9            143.6   147.4    151.9   155.9
                                   126.3         128.7   131.1            133.7            136.2   141.6    147.2   150.1
                                   129.1         132.4   135.9            139.4             143     147     151.5   155.4

                                   161.5         164.1   161.8           164.7             163.9   140.5    127.9   125.3
                                    10.1          1.6     -0.8            1.3               -0.5   -14.3     -9      -2.4   3.8
eports; Quarterly Reports & Economic Overviews                  Note: * 2003 provisional


NES EXCEPT LOGS)
y Major Commodity, 1990-2003 (metric tonnes except logs)
                                                                                                            2003
                                   1997          1998    1999            2000              2001    2002     (6m)
                                   28679         26971   23242           19004             1701    1702     4344
                             5399    8339    10345   8553     117      --      --
                             28863   29077   12877     --      --      --      --
                             7005    6821    3182      --      --      --      --
                             3907     844    2395    2316    2038    2907    1800
                             40654   49390   47961   21163   17699   18508   13856
                             650**   604**   622**   536**   534**   550**   403**
2003 is for January - June
 ANK OF SOLOMON ISLANDS; $'000)
 (Development Bank of Sol Islands; $'000)
                                    1997       1998          1999           2000
                                8,071         8,004         10,106          8,118
                                4,714         4,452          4,984          5,093
                                10,259        10,061        14,632         13,935
                                21,149        21,012        25,763         28,074
                                    422        396            845           1,102
                                3,843         11,683         4,310          5,220
                                48,458        55,608        60,640         61,542


 h 2001, Vol. 13, No .1



 sibilities of the Energy Division



 ross the energy sector and between ministries and related agencies;
  energy matters;
 and distribution); and



 y policies will be achieved;
 f the energy sector participants;
planning and monitoring, through the collection and collation of information on
overnment charges and subsidies, to ensure that the full and correct price signals
m, the petroleum company cost elements, the pricing formula, and Government
ment for petroleum products
rivate energy sector infrastructure. In particular, encourage public sector agencies
y demand
 those lucking in technical maturity economic viability or environmental

 nd / or specific project funding
 ulations and standards governing the energy sector, particularly concerning the
 leum sector, such as oil spill contingency plans and waste oil disposal

nvironmental aspects of energy projects and programmes
r the government, commercial sector and the public, including education


 ptions
 ologies particularly with regard to photovoltaics, solar thermal technology and
 binet


  SOLOMON ISLANDS (JANUARY 2004)
 on islands (January 2004)




                 Solomon Islands
              Meteorological Services




                 Climate change policy


             (including greenhouse
             gases)




 -2002 (THOUSAND LITRES)
 e Solomon islands, 1990 – 2002 (thousand litres)
                                1996       1997      1998      2001      2002
                                884         578       224       211       483
                               2,881       3,059     2,465     4,190     3,972
                               21,153      15,799    15,069    20,400    14,799
                               2,751       3,442     2,481     3,397     3,315
                               54,730      51,995    62,435    55,974    47,696
                                953         952      1,025     1,006     1,021
                                803         898       945      1,079      870
                              90,144      82,713    90,635    92,251    78,151
                              180,288     165,426   181,270   184,502   156,302




ToE; 2001/2002)
ctor in Tonnes of Oil Equivalent ———
                                 Total
                                 ToE
                               14,003
                                270
                               3,531
                               2,881
                                    581
                                   47,044
                                   68,310
                                   100%



m data of conversions table.



ND BY PROVICE (1999)
 d by Province (1999)
ed Fuel ––––-–––––––––


                                  Not stated
                                       6
                                      37
                                       9
                                       3
                                       2
                                      25
                                      63
                                      12
                                       2
                                      19
                                     178




  by Province (1999)


 Source of Electricity         –––––––––––
                                     No         Not
                                 Electricity   Stated
                                    2,884        9
                                    7,961       38
                                    3,127        6
                                    3,095        6
                                     423         3
                                    9,501       36
                                   17,695       133
                                    4,662       17
                                    3,302        3
                                    1,887       16
                                   54,537       267
 ept Rennell-Bellona)
ption by Consumers, 2002 (MWh)
                           Kira      Lata    Tulagi   Total    % of total
                             202      128     125     11,101     27%
                             117      30      231     18,033     43%
                               3       8       58     8,307      20%
                              62       4        1     3,542      9%
                               6       3        4       88      <<1%
                               2      26       23      666       2%
                             393     199      443     41,837    100%
                             1%      <1%      1%      100%         -


n



mand Forecasts

                 Forecast Peak
                                     Began
                     (kW)
                            2018

                            27,400

                            11,330   1987
                            1,030    1991
                                     1991
                            5,950    1984


                             360     1996
                                 360    1996
                                 330    1992
                                 190    1993
                                 143   1998**
                                 86
                                 17
                                  -
e 1, Summary (JICA, Aug. 2000)




JECTIONS FOR 2011/12




OM RENEWABLE TECHNOLOGIES
from Renewable Technologies



                     Comments
                        Comments


 ess than 10% of hydro potential. See note 2
 ee note 3
 ee note 3
 otential is far from centres of demand
 oconut oil (assumed to be for transport)
 ould be much higher
 enerally good solar resource
Wind speeds appear to be low in Solomon Isl
 0% of ADO used for electricity


 % of ground transport fuel use by 2013



≈ = approximately
 s SIEA & others can absorb 25 MW
 and all of the micro potential. Assumes hydro (not base load
 on: 60% of 19.4 ML = 11.6 ML or 31 Gg of CO 2.


 CO2 reduction.
500 larger (school, health, etc.) systems at 1.0 kWh/day.
  would displace 1.28 ML of fuel, equivalent to only 3.4 Gg


mall diesel system (0.5 l/kWh), fuel savings are 50,000 l/year


 mand-side opportunities. From Table 2-2, 44% of ADO is
 es 34% of ADO used for electricity (33 Gg /[44 x 218.4]) so


  e. 5% of motor spirit = 0.05 x 25,050 = 1250 KL,
 biofuel (28,000 KL) is used for transport, then only 25% of
 KL of ADO. 25% of this, or 465 KL, would result in
Production, 1990-2000 (tonnes)
                           1997     1998     1999     2000
                           28,679   26,971   23,242   19,004
                           5,399    8,339    10,345   8,553
Strengths
pra (as a source for coconut oil).
  wind energy
e working hours increases.
  timism in post-conflict Solomons.
eneration in rural areas
 ise at village level and in developing sustainable energy

 acility for quick support for prefeasability studies


 on capacity for donor money
 ns are part of the problem

 ee of ownership and can be effective (compared to




Weaknesses
 andowners to exploit land issues) is a serious weakness


e too long and too cumbersome; we need help now, not

 t is technically and financially feasible but when there are
 ff.
mplementation of planned RE projects
 e do not need funding for another feasibility study that is
ber hits the road”.

ands
se to develop RE projects
gy matters; departments do not share information.
 micro hydro projects; these are all carried out by NGOs.


 far too slow. We need action now (e.g. one entrepreneur
  funds and expressed interest in coconut oil but he claims


 regarding RE
equate.
evelopment
hat are close to the grid so others cannot generate



eneration (e.g. SIEA has no incentive to improve so how

 oniara) unless more shipping is dedicated to transport
  There are no exports whatsoever and there is no industry
 ocessing is absent, largely due to poor shipping.

 o expatriate consultants; very little is spent within the


ants and ministers) on energy
 hnologies and programmes in rural areas
ot followed up by appropriate training so our knowledge is




pportunities
ic development of the country and these will provide RE


vel


an show the donors (who can then assist us) when they


ernational community regarding RE
te enterprises, in the last twelve months some of the
Manufacturers‟ Association has now established a good


st the Solomons means that aid funds are available
 n be low cost so there are friendly tariff rates
 ore resources to help meet Solomon Islands‟ obligations


is available
ving force to make things work.



are opportunities to raise the level of knowledge of the




 Threats
eat to RETs
enterprises and see business people as a threat.
nd other natural disasters
 hreat of low sustainability
rt of the culture and needs to change.
pen up to renewable energy

 the power of the oil companies. Deregulation is needed.
ic power generation, missing an opportunity (e.g. Kogulae)

								
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