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									journal of lightconstruction

                                                                                        Solar Hot
                                                                                        Water 101
                                                                                        solar water
                                                                                        heating has a
                                                                                        proven record of
                                                                                        cutting energy
                                                                                        costs. Here’s what
                                                                                        you need to know
                                                                                        to help customers
                                                                                        choose the
                                   By gary gerBer
                                                                                        right system.

                                               y company has been designing and         late 5 percent per year, then it will save almost
                                               installing alternative energy systems    $17,000 over 30 years. If the homeowner is
                                               since 1975; to date, we’ve installed     currently using an electric water heater, the
                                               more than 1,000 solar water heat-        savings may top $40,000.
                                   ing systems. Lately, as energy prices rise at           On the environmental side, heating water
                                   an ever-accelerating rate, we’ve seen renewed        with the sun will typically reduce a home’s
                                   interest in solar hot water.                         greenhouse gas emissions by 18 tons over the
                                      A simple solar hot-water system can be            life of the system. With an extra 60 to 120 gal-
                                   installed for as little as $4,000, while a larger    lons of hot water at their disposal, homeown-
                                   and more complicated freeze protected system         ers can take long, guilt-free showers. We often
                                   can cost as much as $10,000. Thanks to the           equip our solar hot-water systems with valves
                                   recently signed energy bill, the customer’s cost     that allow the customer to completely shut off
                                   is about to fall; the bill grants a 30 percent       the backup heater and use only solar-heated
                                   federal tax credit to property owners who            water in the summer.
                                   install solar energy systems in 2006 and 2007
                                   (see “Incentives Sweeten Energy Bill for Build-      Solar Water Heating BaSicS
                                   ers and Homeowners,” In the News, in this            All solar water heating systems contain col-
                                   issue). Homeowners can claim a credit of up          lection, storage, and transfer components;
                                   to $2,000; for business owners, there is no cap      some systems combine all three into a single
Figure 1. Flat-plate collectors    on the credit. In areas where natural-gas water      element. Most systems are designed to preheat
range in size from 3 by 6 feet     heaters are the norm, the payback period for a       water that goes to a backup heater — typically
to 4 by 12 feet and are light      residential solar water heating system will be 9     a conventional gas or electric water heater. A
enough to be carried by hand       to 12 years if the value of the credit is includ-    tankless heater will also work as a backup, as
(above). because the tubing in-    ed. Because a well-designed system will last 20      long as it is designed to accept hot-water input
side is of small diameter, even    to 30 years, it should pay for itself two to three   (not all of them are).
a large collector might contain    times over. If the system saves $250 worth of
only a gallon or two of fluid.     natural gas the first year and gas prices esca-

42   MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER september/october 2007                                                                   september/october 2007MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER   43
journal of lightconstruction

                                      Although there are some systems in which           In an integral collector storage — or ICS —
                                   the preheated water flows directly to the           unit, water is heated and stored in a series of
                                   backup, it’s more common for the preheated          interconnecting tubes in a roof-mounted box.
                                   water to be stored in a separate storage tank       Sometimes called batch heaters, ICS systems are
                                   upstream from the backup. In hot, sunny             simple and inexpensive because they require no
                                   weather, the backup is rarely if ever needed,       pumps or controls. However, since they store
                                   but during cloudy periods it may have to pro-       water in an exposed location, they are subject to
                                   vide virtually all the domestic hot water.          high heat loss and freezing (Figure 2). A 42-gal-
                                      collection. The most visible part of any         lon ICS unit costs about $2,100 uninstalled.
                                   solar hot-water system is the collector. There        Storage. Solar energy is available only
                                   are three main types of collectors, but all basi-   for the six to 10 hours that the sun is out,
                                   cally consist of a black collecting surface that    so heated water must be stored for later use.
                                   transfers heat to a fluid. The collecting surface   While ICS systems store hot water right in the
                                   is typically enclosed in an insulated aluminum      collector, most other systems keep it in a sepa-
                                   box with clear glazing to trap the heat.            rate storage tank located upstream from the
                                      A flat-plate collector — which is about 3        backup heater. Because the tank has to hold an
                                   inches thick — contains a grid of copper tub-       entire day’s worth of hot water, it is larger than
                                   ing attached to an aluminum or copper plate         a conventional heater.
                                   (see Figure 1, page 42). Both components have a       There are some systems that send solar-heat-
                                   black surface coating; when sunlight hits the       ed water directly to the backup, but I’m not a
                                   plate, heat is conducted to the fluid inside the    fan of doing this with a conventional backup
                                   tubing. Sensors measure the temperature in the      heater. Because it’s too small to hold an entire
                                   collector and when it’s hotter than the fluid in    day’s worth of water, this kind of heater will
                                   the system’s storage tank, an electronic control-   short-cycle and heat the water before the sun
                                   ler activates a pump to move the heated fluid to    has a chance to do its job.
                                   the tank. The uninstalled cost of a 4-by-8-foot       In pumped systems, storage takes place in
                                   flat-plate collector is approximately $750.         a pressurized steel tank that resembles an
                                      An evacuated tube collector is similar to a      electric hot-water heater. Usually located near
                                   flat-plate collector except that the heat-absorb-   the backup heater, this storage tank connects
                                   ing tubes are housed in a series of evacuated       to the collectors with copper pipes (Figure 3,
                                   glass cylinders. The vacuum insulates against       next page).
                                   heat loss in the same way that a thermos bottle       ICS and thermosiphon systems are
                                   does. Evacuated tube collectors are extremely       pumpless. Water moves through the ICS unit
                                   efficient but cost about twice as much as con-      but does not circulate within it. Within ther-
                                   ventional flat-plate collectors.                    mosiphon systems, which rely on the principle
Figure 2. Integral collector                                                           that hot water rises, water circulates between
storage — or Ics — units                                                               the collector and a tank above.
contain 4-inch-diameter pipes
in which water is heated and
stored (top). because of their
weight, they are typically
craned into place (middle).
potable water enters through a
pipe at the lower end, is heated
by the sun and exits through
the upper end (bottom) when a
hot-water tap is turned on.

44   MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER september/october 2007                                                               
   transfer. Solar hot-water systems can be           With a capacity ranging from 20 to 50 gal-
categorized according to their method of heat      lons, these collectors can be quite heavy. They
transfer and freeze protection. In open-loop —     are also subject to freezing, because the water
or direct — systems, potable water flows           is stored on the roof.
through the collector and is heated there. In
closed-loop — or indirect — systems, the           tHermoSipHon SyStemS
liquid in the collector is isolated from the po-   Like an ICS system, a thermosiphon system
table water and transfers heat to it with a heat   has no pump, but it’s more efficient because it
exchanger next to or inside the storage tank.      separates heating and storage functions. When
   Closed-loop systems provide the best freeze     sunlight hits the collector, the liquid inside
protection because the liquid in the collec-       heats up and becomes buoyant, then flows up
tor is chemically or mechanically protected        to the storage tank, which is located above the
from freezing. Open-loop systems, on the           collector. It’s replaced by cooler liquid that
other hand, are subject to freezing because        flows down from a separate line on the bottom
the collector contains potable water. While it’s   of the storage tank (Figure 5, next page). While a
possible to provide some freeze-protection to      pump would certainly speed up the recircula-         Figure 3. An installer plumbs
open-loop systems, I don’t recommend install-      tion process, the convective flow is more than       an 80-gallon storage tank for
ing them in climate zones where there are hard     adequate to move the entire contents of the          a pumped system (top). the
freezes more than once every five years.           tank through the collector several times per         tank has taps for supply and
   On the following pages, I’ll describe the       day in sunny weather.                                return lines to and from the
most common system designs, ranging from                                                                collector, plus a cold-water
simpler passive systems to more complex ac-                                                             supply inlet and a hot-water
tive systems.                                                                                           outlet to the home.

integral collector Storage
In an ICS system, potable cold water is piped
into a roof-mounted unit and preheated by
the sun on its way to the backup heater. Water
moves through this system only when a hot-
water tap is opened (Figure 4). An ICS system                                                           Integral Collector
is simple and relatively inexpensive, but a lot
of heat can be lost through the glass, so the                                                           Storage (ICS)
backup has to run if the client wants hot water                                                         System
first thing in the morning.
   Early manufacturers of ICS systems sim-                                                              Figure 4. since Ics heaters
ply placed a single bulk storage tank within                                                            both heat and store water in
a glass-covered insulated enclosure aimed at                                                            the rooftop collector, they
the sun. Newer designs typically consist of an                                                          can be quite heavy, requiring
interconnected series of 4-inch-diameter cop-                                                           reinforced roof framing. they
per tubes in an 8-inch-deep insulated box with                                                          are not well-suited for cold
glazing on top.                                                                                         climates (left).                                                                   september/october 2007MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER    45
journal of lightconstruction

                                       Thermosiphon systems are available in both      open-loop recirculation
                                    open-loop and closed-loop configurations. In       In an open-loop recirculation system, pressur-
                                    the open-loop version, the collector contains      ized potable water is actively pumped between
                                    potable water, whereas the closed-loop ver-        the collectors mounted on the roof and a stor-
                                    sion contains a glycol mix that flows to a heat    age tank installed inside the house (Figure 8,
                                    exchanger surrounding the tank.                    next page). Heat sensors wired to an electronic
                                       Two mechanisms provide freeze protec-           controller activate the electric recirculating
                                    tion in an open-loop thermosiphon system.          pump — typically whenever the collectors are
                                    Water gets lighter just before it turns to ice,    5°F warmer than the tank. This “differential”
Figure 6. the author’s crew al-     creating a “reverse thermosiphon” that pulls       control causes the pump to run continuously
ways installs a freeze drip valve   warm water down from the tank. I don’t rely        as long as the sun is out (Figure 9, next page).
on the outlet side of the collec-   on this phenomenon alone, however; we also           If the weather gets cold enough, the collector
tors on open-loop systems. If       install a freeze drip valve, which opens when      could freeze and burst, so when the controller
the temperature drops below         the collector temperature reaches 35°F (Figure     senses an imminent freeze the pump comes
35°F, the valve drains enough       6). This bleeds water from the collector and       on and brings warm water up from the indoor
water from the collectors to        brings warm replacement water from the tank.       tank. It shuts off once the collectors reach
bring warm replacement water        Normally, the freeze valve won’t open unless       40°F. While this is a simple method of freeze
up from the house.                  the primary protection fails.                      protection, it’s not particularly energy-efficient,
                                       Since they don’t involve any pumps or           and there are several ways it might fail: Power
                                    controllers, thermosiphon systems are simple       may go out, the pump can stop working or a
                                    and extremely reliable. But, because the tank      sensor or controller might malfunction. So,
                                    is outside, they have low flow rates and high      again, we always install a freeze drip valve just
                                    storage losses, making them less efficient than    in case.
                                    pumped systems. Also, the tank in these sys-         Although more expensive than such passive
                                    tems is typically mounted on the roof, which       systems as thermosiphon and ICS, open-loop
                                    means there are aesthetic and structural issues    recirculation costs less than other types of
                                    to deal with, too (Figure 7).                      pumped systems.

Figure 7. because it’s located
in a warm climate, this thermo-
siphon unit contains potable
water. closed-loop thermosi-
phon systems containing glycol
are also available for areas
where freezing temperatures
are common.

                                    Thermosiphon System
                                    Figure 5. thermosiphon units rely on convec-
                                    tion to move hot water from the collector to the
                                    storage tank which is mounted right above the
                                    collector. As hot water rises into the storage
                                    tank, cool replacement water enters at the bot-
                                    tom of the collector.

46   MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER september/october 2007                                                                
cloSed-loop                                          Because the liquid in the collectors contains
antifreeze SyStem                                 a mixture of propylene glycol and water, it
A closed-loop antifreeze system is designed       won’t freeze. Unlike the ethylene glycol used
for areas with moderate to frequent freezing.     in automobile radiators, this antifreeze is a
These systems resemble pumped open-loop           nontoxic food grade additive, so if a leak in the
systems, except they have additional compo-       heat exchanger did occur, the worst that would
nents like a heat exchanger, two independent      happen to the homeowner is that the water
sets of pipes and sometimes a second circulat-    might taste sweet. Good-quality antifreeze in
ing pump. One pump circulates antifreeze          a well-designed system should last at least 10
between the collectors and a heat exchanger,      years. But because antifreeze can degrade and
while the other circulates potable water be-      become acidic enough to damage the system, it
tween the heat exchanger and the storage tank     should be periodically replaced.
(Figure 10, next page).                              This type of system is virtually immune to
   A typical heat exchanger consists of a pair    freezing, but the heat exchanger, additional
of concentric copper pipes; liquid from the       pump and antifreeze increase the cost of the
collectors flows through one pipe and potable     system.
water flows through the other. The liquids
don’t mix but heat transfers easily though the
conductive wall of the inner pipe. It’s also
possible to exchange heat by running heated
fluid through a coil inside the storage tank or
backup heater, but an external heat exchanger
is usually less expensive and easier to repair.

                                                                                                      Figure 9. An the installer
                                                                                                      inserts a heat sensor into a
                                                                                                      flat-plate collector (top); this
                                                                                                      sensor and another one on the
                                                                                                      storage tank connect to an
                                                                                                      electronic controller (middle)
                                                                                                      that activates the pump
                                                                                                      (bottom) whenever the
                                                                                                      collector is 5°F hotter than
                                                                                                      the tank.

                                                  Recirculation System
                                                  Figure 8. In an open-loop recirculating system,
                                                  a sensor-activated pump moves water between
                                                  the collector and the storage tank whenever
                                                  the collector’s temperature is warmer than
                                                  the tank’s. When the temperature drops, the
                                                  sensor activates the pump to bring warm water
                                                  from the tank back into the collector to protect
                                                  against freezing.                                                                 september/october 2007MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER   47
journal of lightconstruction
Anti-Freeze System
Figure 10 (left). Designed
for cold climates, closed-loop
antifreeze systems use glycol
to protect the collector. this
requires a heat exchanger to
transfer heat to the potable
water and a second pump to
circulate domestic water be-
tween the heat exchanger and
storage tank.

Drain-Back System
Figure 11 (right). A drain-back
system uses distilled water as
the collector fluid, pumped
from a nonpressurized indoor
holding tank. the circula-
tor pump runs continuously
while heating conditions are
good, then shuts off when the
temperature drops, allowing
the water in the collector to          in the early 1980s, hefty tax credits and
drain back to the tank, thereby        high energy prices led to a boom in the
preventing freeze damage.              installation of solar water heaters. a lot of   Old solar systems, like the one on this origi-
                                       people entered the business and installed       nal wood roof, may no longer be operable
                                       all kinds of equipment, then went under         but can often be put back into service for a
                                       after the tax credits expired and energy        reasonable cost.
                                       prices fell in 1986.
                                          Whereas some of these systems were
                                       quite good, others were experimental            frozen, there’s a reasonable chance it can
                                       and with so many solar companies out of         be saved.
                                       business, there were few qualified people          Inexpensive repairs. our repair crews
                                       around to maintain and repair them. as          have revived any number of systems by
                                       a result, many of the older systems failed      making a few inexpensive repairs. Some-
                                       and gave a black eye to a legitimate            times it’s a matter of spending $450
                                       technology. our company runs into these         (including labor) to replace a pump. a
                                       orphaned systems all the time; some are         leaking storage tank can be replaced for
                                       still going strong while others have been       just over $1,000, which may seem like a
                                       “broken” for many years.                        lot, but it’s a small price to pay to repair a
                                          Bad advice. When homeowners move             system that would cost $6,000 new.
                                       into a house with a nonfunctioning system,         the most common problem with a
                                       they’re almost always advised to tear it        pumped system is a failed sensor or loose
                                       out. unfortunately, most of the people          wire. these repairs may cost only $100,
                                       giving this advice — plumbers, roofers,         but most plumbers don’t know how to
                                       and gcs — don’t know anything about             make them.
Figure 12. A pumped system             solar water heating.                               Sometimes the problem is simply that
typically contains more than              an experienced solar hot-water in-           the homeowner doesn’t know how to turn
one flat-plate collector (top). to     staller can tell you which systems should       on the system.
allow for easy installation and        be torn out and which can be repaired.
repair, the author joins the col-      if the system was built with high-quality
lectors with unions (bottom).          components and the collectors have never

48   MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER september/october 2007                                                               
drain-Back SyStem                                    would install two 4-by-8-foot collectors (Figure
A drain-back system is a closed-loop system          12, previous page).
that relies on a pump to lift distilled water          The relationship between collector and
from a non-pressurized indoor reservoir              tank varies by climate. In the Sun Belt, the
and move it through the collector. When the          rule of thumb is 1 square foot of collector per
outdoor temperature is high enough and the           2 gallons of tank capacity (daily use). In the
collector is warmer than the reservoir, the          Southeast and Mountain states, this ratio is
pump comes on and circulates water between           1-to-1.5, in the Midwest and Atlantic states it’s
the reservoir and collector. When the pump           1-to-1, and in the Northeast and Northwest it’s
is off, gravity causes the water to drain out of     1-to-.75.
the collectors and into the reservoir below. The
controller won’t activate the pump when the          orientation
outdoor temperature is close to freezing; this       It’s generally best to face the collectors due
keeps water out of the collector, which protects     south, though in some cases it’s wise to ac-
the system (Figure 11, previous page).               count for local weather patterns. For example,
   Solar-heated water is stored in the reservoir     in the San Francisco Bay area there are a lot of
and transferred to the potable water with an         overcast mornings, so we prefer to orient col-
internal or external heat exchanger. In some         lectors slightly more to the west.
designs, a second pump moves water between              For optimal annual collection, collectors
the heat exchanger and the storage tank. In          should not face straight up, but should be tilt-
others, the reservoir is the tank, so there’s no     ed above horizontal to an angle 5 to 10 degrees
need for a second pump.                              higher than the latitude at which they are
   Drain-back systems provide troublefree, reli-     located. Our latitude is 38 degrees, so ideally
able freeze protection because the closed side       the collectors would be tilted 43 to 48 degrees.
of the loop contains distilled water, which,         The steeper angle makes for better wintertime
unlike glycol, doesn’t require periodic replace-     solar collection, when the sun is lower in the
ment. On the other hand, drain-back systems          sky. In cases where aesthetic concerns trump
require greater pump power to lift fluid to the      efficiency, we’ll install the collectors at the
collectors.                                          same pitch as the roof.
                                                        temperature rise. When an actively
deSigning tHe SyStem                                 pumped system has been properly sized, each
Because there are bound to be periods when           exchange of water will increase the tempera-        Figure 13. When this sys-
the sun doesn’t shine for several days in a row,     ture in the storage tank 10°F. On an average        tem is up and running, the
there’s no point in trying to design a solar hot-    day, there might be eight exchanges, creating       gauges (top) will show how
water heating system that provides 100 percent       a total temperature rise of 80°F; in hot, sunny     much heat the water gains as
of the total yearly hot-water demand. We typi-       weather it could be more. Our systems rou-          it passes through the collec-
cally aim for 60 percent to 80 percent capacity,     tinely reach 180°F in the summer, especially        tors. because the water may
with the backup heater providing the rest.           when water usage is low. This water would be        become too hot to safely use,
   As a rule of thumb, we assume that each           too hot to use safely, so to prevent scalding we    the author always installs a
person in a household uses 20 gallons of hot         install a tempering valve downstream from the       tempering valve to prevent
water per day, so a family of four would need        backup heater.                                      scalding (middle). A pressure
an 80-gallon storage tank. In our mild San                                                               relief valve (bottom) opens if
Francisco Bay–area climate, 1 square foot of                                                             the collector itself gets too hot;
collector will produce about 1.5 gallons of hot                                                          the cylindrical valve at the top
water per day, so a system with an 80-gal-                                                               automatically bleeds air from
lon tank requires 53 square feet of collector.                                                           the system.
Since collectors aren’t available in that size, we                                                                    september/october 2007MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER    49
journal of lightconstruction

                                     Excessive pressure can build up in the col-            Structural issues. To install the collectors,
                                   lectors if they get too hot, so as a matter of        we use the same mounting hardware we use to
                                   course we install a pressurerelief valve on the       install the roofmounted portions of a photo-
                                   pipe where fluid exits the collector or group         voltaic system (see “Installing Solar Electric
                                   of collectors. A closed-loop system will have         Power,” 3/05). The best approach is to install
                                   a pressurerelief valve on the roof and, if the        post mounts before the roofing material goes
                                   loop contains glycol, an expansion tank in the        on, but it’s also possible to retrofit various
                                   building (Figure 13, previous page).                  mounting brackets over the shingles.
                                                                                            Weight is rarely a concern with flatplate
                                   inStallation                                          collectors, the largest of which weigh less than
                                   The lines to the roof are usually 3⁄4-inch cop-       175 pounds even when full of water. However,
                                   per. We don’t use PEX because in California           a full ICS unit might weigh 500 pounds, and
                                   it’s illegal to use it for potable water — plus the   the system might require more than one unit.
                                   high temperatures found in the closed loop of         In such a case, it’s important to find out if the
                                   a glycol system could easily be too hot for it.       roof can carry the load.
                                      On new work, we run the lines up through              power needs. Most pumps will run on less
Figure 14. the author’s crew       the house. Because we work in a mild climate,         than one amp of electricity, so inspectors often
insulates every pipe that          on retrofits we usually run pipes down the            allow us to tie into an existing circuit or share
contains hot or warm water.        exterior of the house. We insulate all the pipes      a circuit with another load in new construc-
Here, an installer protects the    that carry hot or recirculated liquid with 3⁄4-       tion. A few inspectors require us to install
neoprene insulation with an        inch neoprene, which handles high tempera-            a separate circuit. In some jurisdictions, it’s
aluminum jacket.                   tures better than plastic foam insulation does.       legal to plug pumps and controllers into wall
                                   Without UV protection, the sun will destroy           receptacles, which we do whenever possible to
                                   this insulation in less than five years, so we        reduce wiring costs. n
                                   jacket it with aluminum (Figure 14).
                                      Another option is to protect the insulation
                                   with a painted coating, but a metal jacket            Gary Gerber is the owner of Sun Light & Power in
                                   looks better.                                         Berkeley, Calif. He has been in the solar business
                                                                                         since 1975.

50   MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER september/october 2007                                                                    
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54     MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER september/october 2007                                                                                                 
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Melissa Clark                       11433 Cronridge Drive                37 S Main Street                  Westminster, MD 21157
1993 Barley Road                    Suite A                              Bel Air, MD 21014                 Phone: 410-857-1164
Marriottsville, MD 21104            Owings Mills, MD 21117               Phone: 410-638-2168     
Phone: 410-549-3377                 Phone: (443)334-1300                           Builder – Custom                      Professional Services –
Professional Services –             Professional Services –              Banking & Mortgage
Architecture & Drafting             Advertising & Marketing                                                DEVELoPERS
                                                                         Enterprise Community              Craftsmen Developers
Custom Decorative Mouldings         Stormwater Maintenance, LLC          Investment, InC.                  Dennis Gilligan
Nicole Nickerson                    Theodore Scott                       Daniel P McGrain                  7524 WB + A Road
12136 Sussex Highway                128 Cockeysville Road                10227 Wincopin Circle             Suite 101
Greenwood, DE 19950                 Suite 300                            Columbia, MD 21044                Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Phone: 800-543-0553                 Hunt Valley, MD 21030                Phone: 410-772-2624               Phone: 410-766-6565             Phone: 410-459-2651         
Supplier – Decorative                         Sponsor: Bobby Cantor –
Trim & Accents                      Subcontractor – Excavating,          Koren Development                 WDB Development
                                    Grading & Utilities                  Professional Services –           Brett Boettner
Kitchens By Design, LLC                                                  Financial Services                1030 Liberty Road
Michelle Mutert                     United Marble & Granite                                                Eldersburg, MD 21784
3500 Boston Street                  Stephanie Seger                      Melco Painting, Inc.              Phone: 410-781-7533
Baltimore, MD 21224                 1581 Sulphur Spring Road             Aaron Himes                       Sponsor: Shawnn Bittorie –
Phone: 410-332-4444                 Suite 101                            22610 Gateway Center Drive        William Douglas Associates                 Baltimore, MD 21227                  Suite 200
Supplier – Cabinets & Countertops   Phone: 443-543-0139                  Clarksburg, MD 20871
                                    Supplier – Stone, Marble & Granite   Phone: 301-972-3300               REMoDELERS
Questron, Inc.                                                    ALC Contractors
Mark Bradshaw                       White Hall Plumbing +                Sponsor: Sue Mayo –               Andrew Lohmeyer
6725 Santa Barbara Court            Hydronics                            Duron Paints and Wallcoverings    124 Pleasant Mill Road
Suite 114                           Chris Newcomer                       Subcontractor –                   Owings Mills, MD 21117
Elkridge, MD 21075                  4532 A Norrisville Road              Paint & Wallcoverings             Phone: 410-356-7300
Phone: 877-909-7070                 White Hall, MD 21161                                                         Phone: 410-557-9648                  BUILDERS
Sponsor: Chris Rachuba –            Sponsor: Mark Kappus –               American Dream                    Basement Builders/
Rachuba Home Builders               Kappus Construction                  Design & Build                    Division of Brentwood Builders
Subcontractor –                     Subcontractor – Plumbing             TeEasha Brown                     Brent Johnson
Electrical & Structural Wiring                                           12805 Old Fort Road               17116 Spring Hollow Court
                                                                         Suite 301                         Mt Airy, MD 21771
                                                                         Ft. Washington, MD 20744          Phone: 410-489-0500
                                                                         Phone: 301-839-7893               Remodeler – Specialty
                                                                         Builder – Custom

56   MID-ATLANTIC BUILDER september/october 2007                                                                
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