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									UB Career
 Guide
UB Career Services Office
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Services for Students and Alumni

CHOOSING A MAJOR/CAREER
Prepare for Your Future
Road to Choosing a Major or Career
More Help with Career Decisions
Reach Out with an Information Interview
Gain an Edge in your Job Search – Do an Internship

GETTING A JOB/INTERNSHIP
Be a Success at Getting a Job or Internship
The Resume: Does Yours Measure Up?
Resume Samples
Letters of Correspondence
Employment Portfolios
Key Skills Employers Want
Could Facebook or MySpace Cost You Your Dream Job?
Researching Employers
Networking
Don’t Get Screened Out – The Online Application
Dress for Success
Improve Your Job Interview
Interview Questions
Behavioral Interview
Illegal Interview Questions
Illegal Interview Questions Reference Cart
The Site Visit Interview
On-Campus Interviewing
Make the Most of a Job Fair
Evaluating a Job Offer
Part-time and Summer Employment

THINKING ABOUT GRADUATE SCHOOL
About Graduate School
Preparing for Graduate School
The Graduate School Timetable

     Stop by Career Services today and meet our staff of helpful professionals
                                                                       259 Capen Hall
            Division of Student Affairs                            Buffalo, NY 14260-1635
               University at Buffalo                             www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu
         The State University of New York                             jobs@buffalo.edu


    For an appointment with a Career Counselor call: (716) 645-2231
    Do you have a “Quick Question?” Stop in the Brent D. Arcangel Career Resource Library 8:30 am – 5:00
     pm- Monday – Friday
    Instant Message (IM) -Career Advice at “ubcareeradvice” 1:00 – 5:00 pm Monday – Friday
Services for Our Students and Alumni
People Who Can Help

Counseling: Let us help with career planning, graduate school or job-related concerns. Call 645-2231 or visit 259 Capen
Hall for an individual appointment with our counselors.

“IM” Career Advice: Instant Messaging is a quick way to ask questions pertaining to your career. “IM” the Career
Services staff at “ubcareeradvice” (compatible with AOL Instant Messenger, Yahoo, and MSN).

Places to Visit

Career Services Website (www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu): Our website can be an important tool in career decision-making
and in your job search. BullsEye, our state-of-the-art web-based system, can bring you together with hundreds of
employers and many job and internship vacancies.

The Brent D. Arcangel Career Resource Library: Visit our library in 259 Capen Hall to use the large selection of print
and electronic resources available to explore careers, jobs, and graduate/professional schools. Our staff works regularly
in the library to help.

Testing Center: Our state-of-the-art testing facility offers a variety of computerized tests including the CLEP, GRE,
TOEFL, MAT, and PRAXIS. Visit www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/testing to learn about all the standardized exams offered at
the University at Buffalo including paper-based tests: LSAT, PCAT, MCAT and the GRE subject exam. Call 645-2232 x
115 to schedule your appointment.

Things to Do

Workshops: We can provide valuable information throughout the stages of your job search through workshops such as
Career Decision-Making, Resume Writing, and Interviewing. View our video workshop series on our website at www.ub-
careers.buffalo.edu/stutools.shtml.

Self-Assessment/Vocational Interest Inventories: Explore possible career paths using a variety of assessment tools.
Contact Career Services for passwords so that you can access the instruments.

UBE 202 Career Planning Course: Freshmen and Sophomores! Our counselors offer a three-credit course to help with
choosing a major/career. The course involves self-assessments, decision-making strategies, industry exploration, and
internship search techniques. Stop by Career Services to register.

Job Fairs and Graduate/Professional School Fairs: Don’t miss these special events. They are great opportunities to
meet directly with employers and graduate admissions staff from colleges and institutions. Check our website for dates
and more information (www.student-affairs.buffalo.edu/career/calendar.shtml).

Practice Interview: We offer video recorded practice interviews geared toward the job interview and
graduate/professional school interview. Sign up by calling 645-2231 or visiting 259 Capen Hall.


Additional Services
Reference Files/Letters of Recommendation: Career Services maintains reference files including letters of
recommendation for students and alumni who are applying to graduate school or seeking jobs/internships. To get more
information, go to www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/references.shtml.

Career Peer Program: Career Peers are undergraduate students who intern in the Career Services office for academic
credit. The Peers give presentations to the campus community, assist students with resumes and cover letters, participate
in special events, and much more. Interested in learning more? Visit 259 Capen Hall.
Prepare for Your Future
FRESHMAN and SOPHOMORE YEARS
Get to know yourself and begin exploring career options.
   Meet with a career counselor.
   Consider completing career assessments to learn more about yourself.
   Tentatively select a major and explore related career options.
   Take UBE 101 University Experience course to get to know the campus.
   Participate in campus activities.
   Get to know faculty, counselors, and administrators.
   Sign up for UBE 202 Career Planning course.
   Use our career resource library and website to explore occupations.
   Log in to BullsEye at www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu to look for on/off campus jobs.

Summer: Get a summer job or internship to gain exposure to the world of work, develop interpersonal skills, help finance
your education, and build responsible work habits.

JUNIOR YEAR
Gain experience and get to know people in your prospective career field.
   Have your resume critiqued by a career counselor.
   Do an internship. Become a research/teaching assistant or volunteer.
   Attend part-time/summer job and internship fairs.
   Join organizations in your chosen field.
   Seek leadership opportunities.
   Use class projects to practice career related skills.
   Use the Meet-a-Mentor program to get career advice and network.
   Go to BullsEye at www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu to search for internships and part-time jobs.
   Investigate the role of graduate/professional school in your chosen field.
   Check into graduate/professional school admission deadlines and requirements.
   Start to identify faculty/staff and employers to use as references.

Summer: Secure an internship or position related to your career goals. Use the experience to evaluate your career
decision, network and practice career relevant skills.

SENIOR YEAR
Carry out your job search or graduate/professional school plan.
   Meet with a career counselor in the fall to discuss post-graduate plans.
   Take graduate or professional school entrance exams early in the year.
   Seek out unadvertised jobs by networking with professionals in your field.
   Attend Career Services workshops on resumes, cover letters and interviewing.
   Use BullsEye at www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu to look for jobs, internships and mentors.
   Take advantage of On-Campus Interviewing.
   Attend Employer Group Information Sessions.
   Conduct a practice interview with a career counselor.
   Start a reference file at Career Services for letters of recommendation.
   Attend various job and graduate/professional school fairs, both on- and off-campus.
   Choose faculty, administrators, and employers to write letters of recommendation.

Summer: New employees/job-seekers: Transition to the workplace or continue to seek employment.
Students admitted to graduate/professional school: Secure an internship, job or volunteer opportunity with an organization
related to your advanced educational goals.

GRADUATE/PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL
Gain experience and prepare for your job search.
   Seek out graduate assistantships, internships and research opportunities.
   Choose class projects/papers that are of interest to organizations for which you hope to work.
   Keep your resume or curriculum vita updated with projects, publications, and presentations.
   Use the Meet-a-Mentor program to network with professionals in your career field.
   Discuss your job search with a career counselor, faculty members and past employers.
   Attend job fairs, both on- and off-campus.
   Use BullsEye at www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu to look for jobs, internships and mentors.

Summer: Secure an internship, job or volunteer opportunity with an organization related to your career goals.


                         The Road to Choosing a Major and Career
Assess Yourself
The more you understand yourself, the clearer your life goals and the way to reach them will become.
 What do you truly enjoy? Consider the classes and activities you have liked the best. What did they involve? Why did
   you enjoy them? There are careers related to every interest you have!
 What types of things do you seem to do well? Identify your skills and abilities. Are they technical, adventurous, or
   intellectual?
 What values are really important to you? Is enjoying your work more important than prestige? Is creativity more
   important than security?
 What is the coolest job you can imagine? Try to contact one or two people working in this field and ask them how they
   got there.
 Ask Career Services staff what self-assessment tools would be most appropriate for you. These can help you
   discover more about yourself.

Gather Information and Explore Options
The more information you find, the more informed your final decision will be.
 Get information about specific careers and discover how they relate to majors.
 Examine the majors available to you in UB’s undergraduate or graduate college catalog. Eliminate those that don’t
   interest you. Read about the remaining majors on your short list.
 Visit the short-listed departments’ websites or read their print materials. Talk with an academic advisor, students in
   these majors, and faculty members.
 Visit the “Explore Major and Career Options” section on the Career Services website at www.ub-
   careers.buffalo.edu/stuexplore.shtml. Check out the resources available in the Brent D. Arcangel Career Library (259
   Capen Hall).
 Talk with a career counselor. Consider enrolling in UBE 202 Career Planning Course.

Evaluate and Select Your Major
It’s time to put together the information you have collected.
 Consider what you have learned. Weigh the pros and cons of each option. Narrow your list down to two or three
      majors.
 Consider the feasibility of a second major or making one of your options your minor. Consider an interdisciplinary or
      special major.
 If you are still having difficulty deciding, talk with an advisor or career counselor who can help you evaluate the
      information you have collected, suggest additional resources, and guide you through the decision-making process.

Take Action Toward Your Career Choice
Now you are ready to make plans and put them in motion.
 Choose student activities, leadership roles, internships, volunteer work, and part-time employment that can help you
   further develop your skills.
 Talk to people who work in the career fields you are considering. Alumni network programs can be excellent
   resources for learning more about the realities of specific career fields.
 Meet with your academic advisor to select the most appropriate courses to help you meet your goals.

                                    More Help with Career Decisions
Meet a Mentor!

Need help with education, career, graduate/professional school or relocation issues? Want to interview people for
information about their careers? The Meet-a-Mentor Program is a network of professionals in a variety of career fields and
geographic locations who are willing to share their expertise. More than 550 UB alumni, employers, parents, faculty and
staff have volunteered to help and the number is growing!

Finding a mentor is easy! Log in to the BullsEye (www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu) to find the right mentor for you - learn more
about them and how they can help.

Contact Mentors

Each mentor may wish to be contacted a certain way, such as by email or telephone. The mentor will probably suggest a
meeting place, date, and time for you to get together. Only one meeting is expected, so make the most of your time with
a mentor volunteer. Please keep in mind that you are asking the mentors to share information with you, not provide you
with a job.

Prepare for Your Meeting

Think about what you hope to gain from your communication with a mentor. Prepare a list of questions in advance, and
research the career field and the organization at which they work. If you are meeting with a mentor in person, you may
want to bring a copy of your resume to help communicate information about your background.

UBE 202 Career Planning Course

Are you having a difficult time choosing a major? Are you unclear how your major relates to careers? If you said YES to
these questions, consider taking a three-credit course entitled Career Planning (UBE 202). This course is designed to
help you:

       Assess interests, values, skills and personality characteristics and to understand how these factors impact the career
        development process.
       Learn about the world of work and how to use a variety of information resources to explore academic and career
        options.
       Develop an individualized career plan of action in a supportive environment.

“When I first came to UB I had no idea what I wanted to do. This class taught me a lot about myself. It prepared me for
the real world. I really recommend it!”
Juanita Hong, 2007 graduate

    Attend our Career Decision–Making Events

        Alumni Networking Nights
        Career Panels
        Networking Workshops
        Majors and Careers Night

    Alumni Career Reality Videos

    View our online videos highlighting UB graduates in real workplaces providing insightful information about their
    careers (www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/alumvideos.shtml).


    Visit www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu for more about these helpful services!



                              Reach Out With an Information Interview

What is an Information Interview?

An information interview is an interview with someone working in an organization or career field which interests you. It is
not a job interview and your goal should not be to ask for employment. Information interviews allow you to gain realistic
information about careers, expand your knowledge of the job market, learn about additional career paths, and build your
professional network by talking to individuals working in your career area.

How do you find people to interview?

     Utilize Career Services Meet-a-Mentor Program:
      www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/experienced.shtml.
     Do you know someone who works in your field of interest? Do you know someone who knows someone in that area?
     Become active in professional organizations related to your field; attend conferences and workshops.
     Journals and newsletters specific to your interest area identify people visible in the field.
     Professors may have helpful literature or names of people to contact.
     Use directories in the Brent D. Arcangel Career Resource Library (259 Capen Hall), other written materials, and our
      website to identify names of potential contacts.

Sample Questions for Your Information Interview

    1. What are your responsibilities and what skills are particularly useful to you in fulfilling them?

    2. What does your work day consist of? Your work year?

    3. What are some problems you must face and decisions you must make?

    4. What do you find challenging in your work?

    5. How do most people get started in this field?

    6. What academic preparation do you recommend to qualify for this position?

    7. Do you belong to any professional organizations? Do they have student chapters?

    8. What is the salary range for work in this profession?

    9. Is relocation a factor in your job?

10. Is this field growing, with opportunities for employment?

11. What was your career path from college to the present?

12. Can you suggest other people who might be valuable sources of information?


Can you think of any other questions to which you might want answers?

For more information, visit our website at www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/networking.shtml.


           GAIN AN EDGE IN YOUR JOB SEARCH! DO AN INTERNSHIP!
Put your academic learning to “real world” use with an internship. Internships may be full or part-time, paid or unpaid, for
credit or not and vary in length from a summer to a semester or even an academic year. Many academic departments
require their students participate in an internship. If your department does not require an internship, you should still
consider one.

Internships are beneficial in numerous ways. They can provide you with:
 Career exploration opportunities – Explore how your interests, skills, personality, and values fit in a particular
    setting.
 Practical work experience – Develop needed skills, self-confidence, and an understanding of a particular position.
 A network of contacts – Establish relationships with people working in your field.
 References – Obtain written and verbal recommendations from your supervisors.
Learn About Internship Opportunities
   Career Services website at www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/stufind.shtml has internship postings, on-campus interviewing
    opportunities, and online “Staff Picks” links to resources.
   The Engineering Career Institute has technical elective opportunities.
   Some academic departments also have internship listings and programs.
   Cora P. Maloney College coordinates the Public Service Internship Program.
   Directories, friends and family may be sources of leads. Contact employers directly and ask if they would be willing to
    take on an intern.
   Meet employers at a job/career fair.

So, How Do You Prepare Yourself?

   Prepare a cover letter and resume for potential internships.
   Have your cover letter and resume critiqued or reviewed by a Career Services counselor.
   Sharpen your interviewing skills. How? Use this Career Guide, attend one of our workshops, view the interviewing
    video on the Career Services website
    (www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/olworkshops.shtml).
   Conduct a practice interview with a Career Services staff member.
   Consult with your department’s internship coordinator to complete the appropriate University registration procedures.
    If your department does not have an internship coordinator, you should see your academic advisor or the Cora P.
    Maloney College (255 Capen Hall).
Many organizations consider internship applications throughout the year. If you’ve missed a deadline, apply now for the
next cycle and ask to be considered if something becomes available sooner.


A Note About UB Co-ops

A co-op is a work experience for UB Engineering and Computer Science students, usually taken after the junior year.
Typically, co-ops are paid positions in which the student works full time for an organization while simultaneously earning
academic credit. Co-op assignments generally begin in the summer and may potentially continue for a total of ten months.
The duration of assignments varies by employer and project (for example, opportunities for a second term, two summer
contracts). Contact the Career Services Engineering Career Counselor or the Engineering Career Institute at www.eng-
intern.buffalo.edu for more information.

            For more information, visit our website at www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/internsearch/shtml.



                       Be a Success at Getting a Job or Internship!
   Get organized – develop a job/internship search plan. Stay organized!
   Know yourself – decide what types of positions you are going to seek.
   Select people to act as references. Consider opening a reference file at Career Services.
   Attend Career Services’ many job/internship search-related workshops and events.
   Develop resumes and cover letters. Target them to positions sought.
   Visit Career Services to have your resumes and cover letters critiqued.
   Log in to Career Services BullsEye to upload your resume for employers to review and for on-campus interviewing
    opportunities.
   Create your employment portfolio for your interviews.
   Locate job/internship opportunities:
                • Hidden Jobs/Internships: Conduct information interviews, network, use the UB
                Meet-a- Mentor Program.
                • Listed Opportunities: Such as Internet job sites (e.g. Career Services site), job fairs, on-campus
                interviewing, newspapers, magazines, professional association journals/websites, job boards.
   Research potential employers thoroughly. They expect you to know about them.
   Apply only for jobs/internships for which you are qualified and in which you are interested.
   Purchase appropriate interview attire.
   Practice your interviewing skills; do a practice interview at UB Career Services.
   Prepare a thank you letter to send immediately after interviewing.
   Get ready to negotiate salary and benefits. Research cost of living and salary ranges.
   Accept the offer that is best for you! Politely decline other offers or withdraw your candidacy from other positions.
   Inform Career Services of the offer you accepted at
    www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/naceform.shtm.


Additional Resources for Your Job/Internship Search

Fall Fairs: Tech Fair, Health Related Job Fair, Government Fair, CareerFest Fall (all majors fair), Graduate &
Professional School Fair, Western New York Law School Fair, Part-Time Job Fair.

Spring Fairs: Jobsapalooza (for WNY opportunities), Human Services Fair, CareerFest Spring (all majors fair), Summer
Jobs & Internships Fair, Teacher Recruitment Days.

Workshops: On topics such as career decision-making, job searching, resume writing, interviewing, preparing for job
fairs, applying to graduate school and much more. For a workshop schedule (www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/calendar.shtml)
or to watch streaming video, see UB Career Services website for details: www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu.

Special Events: Such as Alumni Networking Night, Dining Etiquette, Career Panels, Employer-in-Residence Program.

Senior Celebration Workshop Series: Watch for special senior year programs and activities:
www.ubsenior.buffalo.edu.

Clubs and Organizations: Contact UB Career Services if you are interested in having our staff offer a workshop for your
group: www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/wshopreg.shtml.

            For more information on the job search process: www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/searchpro.shtml
            For more information on the internship search process:
            www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/internsearch.shtml
            Watch our job search video at: http://www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/olworkshops.shtml#job



                           The Resume: Does Yours Measure Up?
The Resume: First Impressions Count!
A resume is a concise, but complete document which outlines your unique work-related education and experience. Its
purpose is to generate the interest of a potential employer to secure you an interview.

An employer spends an average of 15 to 20 seconds reviewing a resume. Make your first impression a good one. A
one to two page resume is usually sufficient, especially for someone just starting out. Lengthier resumes are more
common for someone with a Ph.D., with a considerable amount of clinical, internship or work experience or for a higher
education setting.

Resume Content
Contact Information
Include your name, address, phone number, and email address. Students often include two addresses: “Current
Address” and “Permanent Address.” Make it as easy as possible for an employer to reach you. (Remember to have
professional voice mail messages and email addresses!)

Objective
This section is used by many students to target the resume to a specific position/employer as well as to summarize how
they can benefit the employer. Tell potential employers the type of work you seek and what you have to offer.
        Be specific about the job you want. For example: To obtain an analyst position within
        __________ financial institution requiring strong analytical and organizational skills.
        Tailor your objective to each employer and job you seek.
Education
Begin with your most recent educational experience. Name the degree you have earned or are working toward. If you
have a degree from another college or university, list that after your UB degree.
Example                 University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
                        Bachelor of Arts, Psychology, May 200X
                        Minor: Spanish
                        GPA 3.1/4.0

Including your GPA on your resume is optional. Only include your GPA if it is 3.0 or higher. If your overall GPA is under a
3.0/4.0, the general rule is not to include it on your resume, but you can consider listing a major GPA if that is over a
3.0/4.0.

The Education section can also include Academic/Latin Honors/Awards, Study Abroad, Relevant Coursework, Class
Projects, Thesis Titles, and other formal training. This information can also be highlighted under separate sections.

Experience
Experience can include employment, internships, campus leadership, volunteer work or military experience. Include title,
name of organization, location, and dates for each position. Use phrases rather than sentences (omit the personal
pronoun “I”). Use action verbs to describe specific skills, responsibilities, and accomplishments and don’t forget to
incorporate the current “buzz words” of your field.

Example     Marketing Intern, ABC Corporation, Buffalo, NY, September – December, 200X
            • Updated and maintained customer database on PC network using Access
              and Excel.
            • Researched demographics for targeted mass mailings.
            • Organized all aspects of a marketing seminar, including scheduling presenters.
            • Developed publicity and planned events for prospective local business customers.
Target your resume to employers by dividing your experience into more than one resume section to highlight
particularly related experience. Examples are “Related Experience” or “Clinical Experience” or “Leadership”. Entries within
a section should be placed in reverse chronological order. How far back should you go? The goal is to offer the employer
your most recent and relevant experience.

Don’t Forget the Extras
Anything you have done above and beyond employment and school needs to be emphasized. Employers look for
candidates who have prepared themselves far more than the person sitting next to them in the classroom. These “extras”
may be listed within the experience sections or can be highlighted by creating additional sections. Check out the list below
for ideas.

Make Your Resume Sections Unique

Objective                                       Projects                            Community Service
Career Summary                                  Design Projects                     Professional Affiliations
Education                                       ______Experience                    Travel
Academic Preparation                            Related Employment                  Achievements
Study Abroad                                    Work History                        Relevant Coursework
Honors/Awards                                   Internships                         Skills
Citizenship                                     Language Proficiency                Computer Skills
Activities                                      Volunteer Work                      Co-operative Education
Certifications                                  Leadership                          References
Licenses                                        Campus Involvement                  Availability

Resume Layout

The way you order your information and how you place it on the page can make the resume more effective in showing the
employer what you have to offer.
 • Resume sections should be placed in order of importance, based on what the employer
    would find most relevant. Always target your resume to the employer and position.
 • Within a resume section, list most recent information first (reverse chronological order).
 • Carefully use tools such as bold, italics, underlining and font size to draw the reader to
     information you wish to emphasize.

The Look

The appearance of your resume is as important as the content to entice the reader to review it.
    • Margins should be uniform and approximately one inch wide.
    • Your resume should not contain spelling or grammatical errors. Don’t rely on spell-check!
    • Use quality bond paper in a neutral color; a common font that’s easy to read and a quality printer.

                          For more information on resume writing visit:
                           www.ub-careers.buffalo. edu/writ eres.shtml
                          or watch our resume writing video at:
                           www.ub-careers.buffalo. edu/olworkshops.shtml#res



HOW TO INCORPORATE YOUR SKILLS IN RESUMES/COVER LETTERS

Employers are interested in knowing which skills you can bring to their organization. Did you know you have transferable
skills? Those are skills you gained from one experience that can be applied to another. Examine your jobs, both paid and
unpaid, as well as your academic and personal activities to determine your skills.

Examples: oral/written communication through essay and report writing, presentations, and seminars; organization of
time by having to meet deadlines and of ideas in order to present material logically; research by searching and locating
information; problem-solving by analyzing and finding alternative solutions to a problem. This is an important step in
writing your resume.

                                                     ACTION WORDS
Use of action words can bring your resume and cover letter to life by helping to convey the message that you are
someone who gets things done. Use a thesaurus for more ideas.

Abstracted                                  Classified                                   Devised
Achieved                                    Coached                                      Diagnosed
Acquired                                    Collaborated Collected                       Directed
Acted                                       Comforted                                    Discovered
Adapted                                     Communicated                                 Discriminated
Addressed                                   Compared                                     Dispatched
Administered                                Compiled                                     Displayed
Advertised                                  Completed                                    Dissected
Advocated                                   Composed                                     Distributed
Aided                                       Computed                                     Documented
Allocated                                   Conceived                                    Drafted
Analyzed                                    Conducted                                    Drove
Answered                                    Conserved                                    Edited
Anticipated                                 Constructed                                  Eliminated
Applied                                     Consulted                                    Empathized
Appraised                                   Contracted                                   Enabled
Approved                                    Contributed                                  Enforced
Arranged                                    Controlled                                   Enlightened
Ascertained                                 Converted                                    Enlisted
Assembled                                   Cooperated                                   Ensured
Assessed                                    Coordinated                                  Established
Assisted                                    Copied                                       Estimated
Attained                                    Correlated                                   Evaluated
Audited                                     Counseled                                    Examined
Augmented                                   Created                                      Exceeded
Authored                                    Critiqued                                    Excelled
Bolstered                                   Cultivated                                   Expanded
Briefed                                     Dealt                                        Expedited
Brought                                     Debated                                      Experimented
Budgeted                                    Decided                                      Explained
Built                                       Defined                                      Explored
Calculated                                  Delegated                                    Expressed
Cared                                       Delivered                                    Extracted
Charged                                     Designed                                     Facilitated
Chartered                                   Detected                                     Fashioned
Checked                                     Determined                                   Financed
Clarified                                   Developed                                    Fixed
Followed                                     Modeled                                      Responded
Formulated                                   Modified                                     Restored
Fostered                                     Monitored                                    Revamped
Founded Gained                               Motivated                                    Reviewed
Gathered                                     Narrated                                     Scanned
Gave                                         Negotiated                                   Scheduled
Generated                                    Observed                                     Screened
Governed                                     Obtained                                     Selected
Guided                                       Offered                                      Served
Handled                                      Operated                                     Set goals
Headed                                       Ordered                                      Shaped
Helped                                       Organized                                    Sketched
Identified                                   Originated                                   Sold
Illustrated                                  Overcame                                     Solicited
Imagined                                     Oversaw                                      Solved
Implemented                                  Participated                                 Spearheaded
Improved                                     Perceived                                    Specialized
Improvised                                   Perfected                                    Spoke
Inaugurated                                  Performed                                    Stimulated
Increased                                    Persuaded                                    Strategized
Indexed                                      Planned                                      Streamlined
Indicated                                    Practiced                                    Strengthened
Influenced                                   Predicted                                    Stressed
Informed                                     Prepared                                     Studied
Initiated                                    Presented                                    Substantiated
Inspected                                    Prioritized                                  Succeeded
Instituted                                   Produced                                     Suggested
Instructed                                   Programmed                                   Summarized
Integrated                                   Projected                                    Supervised
Interpreted                                  Promoted                                     Supported
Interviewed                                  Proposed                                     Surveyed
Introduced                                   Protected                                    Sustained
Invented                                     Proved                                       Symbolized
Inventoried                                  Provided                                     Synthesized
Investigated                                 Publicized                                   Tabulated
Judged                                       Published                                    Talked
Kept                                         Purchased                                    Taught
Launched                                     Queried                                      Tended
Learned                                      Questioned                                   Tested
Lectured                                     Raised                                       Theorized
Led                                          Ran                                          Trained
Lifted                                       Ranked                                       Translated
Listed                                       Rationalized                                 Tutored
Listened                                     Read                                         Undertook
Located                                      Reasoned                                     United
Logged                                       Received                                     Updated
Made                                         Recommended                                  Upgraded
Maintained                                   Reconciled                                   Utilized
Managed                                      Recorded                                     Validated
Manipulated                                  Reduced                                      Verified
Mapped                                       Referred                                     Visualized
Mastered                                     Related                                      Weighed
Maximized                                    Relied                                       Won
Meditated                                    Repaired                                     Wrote
Memorized                                    Reported
Mentored                                     Represented
Met                                          Researched
Minimized                                    Resolved
Email and Your Job Search: Helpful Tips
 Never send a generic mass email. Individually email each contact with a targeted cover letter and resume.
 When applying via email, use your formal cover letter as the text of your email. Refer the reader to your attached
  resume file (consider using PDF file format). Below the cover letter, also include a left-justified text version of your
  resume in case the employer is unable to open your attached formatted resume.
 Be professional and formal in your email. No abbreviations (i.e. lol, thnx). Employers complain about informal e-
  correspondence.
 Always use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
Resume Sample #1

                                                         Name
                                                     Phone Number(s)
                                                          Email
Current Address (until date)                                                      Permanent Address
Your Temporary Address                                                            Your Permanent Address
City, State Zip Code                                                              City, State Zip Code

OBJECTIVE
       This section is used by many students to target the resume to a specific position/employer as well as to
       summarize how they can benefit that employer.

EDUCATION
       School (University at Buffalo, The State University of New York)
       Degree (Bachelor of Arts/Science), Major, May 200x
       Include minors and concentrations here
       GPA if above a 3.0/4.0 (If below a 3.0/4.0 consider GPA in major); Include Latin honors here
       List most recent first, if you have attended more than one school. Don’t list high school unless you are a freshman
       or sophomore and you have had high school experience that enhances your candidacy.
       Study abroad experience can be included here or highlighted in a separate section.

RELEVANT COURSEWORK
       If your degree includes a unique combination of courses and projects in areas relevant to the position for which
       you are applying, indicate these course titles.

PROJECTS
       Identify team/classroom/individual noteworthy projects, their outcomes, and your participation in them.

INTERNSHIPS
       Organization Name, City, State
       Position Title, Dates                                                                                     Date Range
        Include quantifiable accomplishments. Prospective employers are interested in how well you
         performed at your internship, not just the tasks you completed.
        Use action words to describe your skills and accomplishments.
        Whenever possible, use numbers and give specific examples of results and achievements.

EXPERIENCE
       Organization Name, City, State                                                                    Date Range
       Position Title, Dates
        Description/amount of responsibilities, number of people supervised and special accomplishments can be
         listed (can be paid or unpaid experience).
        Use action words to describe your skills and accomplishments.
        List most recent experience first, in reverse chronological order.
        Freshmen/sophomores: only list high school experiences if they enhance your candidacy.

SKILLS
       Foreign languages
       Computer languages and skills
       Other special abilities that are relevant

ACTIVITIES/LEADERSHIP
       This optional section can be used for activities, leadership, campus involvement, and community service. List
       name of organization, dates, responsibilities, and office held (if any).

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS
       List membership in professional affiliations, including contributions or offices held.

HONORS AND AWARDS
       List noteworthy academic, athletic, community, club, and employer recognition here.
Resume Sample #2
                                                                Name
                                                               Your Address
                                                            City, State Zip Code
                                                                    Email
                                                             Phone Number(s)

OBJECTIVE
Target your objective to a specific position/employer. Entice the employer to continue reading your resume by indicating how you can
be of value.

EDUCATION
School (University at Buffalo, The State University of New York)
Degree (Master of Science/Arts/Education), Major, May 200x
GPA 3.9/4.0
Thesis: "Title Goes Here" (Include name of advisor)

Prior School Attended (Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois)
Degree (Bachelor of Science/Arts), Major, May 200x
GPA 3.5/4.0

SKILLS
Use this section to highlight skills that are specifically related to the type of employment you seek. Examples include nurs ing skills,
laboratory skills, or technical skills. Remember to include the "buzzwords" of your profession.

HONORS AND AWARDS
Graduate Assistant Excellence in Teaching Award, Spring 200x
National Discipline-Specific Honor Society, Inducted Fall 200x

PROJECTS
Project Title, Fall 200x
   Describe each project concisely in order to demonstrate your technical skills and know ledge. (Created 3-D renderings of critical
    components using AutoCad).
   Integrate the use of soft skills when indicating specific accomplishments. (Presented findings to more than 30 students enhancing
    communication and presentation skills).

RELATED EXPERIENCE (SUCH AS “MECHANICAL ENGINEERING EXPERIENCE”)
Position Title                                                                                            Date Range
Organization Name, City, State, Country
   Use strong action verbs such as "created" rather than soft verbs such as "assisted." Never use first person pronouns.
   Avoid passive phrasing such as "duties include" or "project was completed by using _____." Focus on selling your
    accomplishments.
   Quantify your information by including numbers, percentages, and dollar amounts.
   Demonstrate a high level of achievement. Illustrate these achievements by showing how you saved an employer money, time or
    materials.

You may wish to separate experience into different resume sections such as "Teaching Experience," "Clinical Experience" "Rese arch
Experience," or "Industry Experience."

PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS
“Title of Paper,” Presented at National Meeting, Name of Organization, City, State, Country, March 200x.

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS
Member, National Organization
Letters of Correspondence
COVER LETTER                                                             THANK YOU LETTER
Your Present Address
City, State, Zip Code                                                    Your Present Address
                                                                         City, State, Zip Code
Date of Writing
                                                                         Date of Writing
Name of Employer
Title of Employer                                                        Name of Interviewer
Name of Organization                                                     Title of Interviewer
Street Address                                                           Name of Organization
City, State, Zip Code                                                    Street Address
                                                                         City, State, Zip Code
Dear Mr./Ms./Dr. Last name only: If you have done your
research but cannot find the person’s name, do not write Dear            Dear Mr./Ms./Dr. Last name of interviewer:
“Sir” or “Gentlemen.” “Dear (name of company)
Representative” is more appropriate.                                     Paragraph 1: Thank the interviewer and express your
                                                                         appreciation for the courtesy and consideration extended to
Paragraph 1: Tell why you are writing. Name the position, or             you. Mention the position for which you interviewed, the date
field or general vocational area about which you are asking.             and the place of the interview, and include some reference to
Tell how you learned of the opening or organization and why              your conversation which will help the employer remember you.
you are interested in the organization or in the industry or field.
                                                                         Paragraph 2: Reaffirm your interest in the position. Mention
Paragraph 2: Refer the reader to the enclosed resume, giving             anything you have done since the interview which shows your
additional information concerning your background and                    interest in the position. You could also comment on something
interests. Demonstrate to the employer how your interests,               specific about the position which came up during the interview.
education, and experience fit the job requirements. Describe
one or two qualifications you think would be of greatest interest        Paragraph 3: Express your willingness to provide additional
to the employer, keeping in mind the employer’s point of view.           information. Include here or enclose with the letter any
If you have related experience or specialized training, be sure          information requested at the interview. End with a simple,
to point it out. Don’t make the common mistake of saying, “I’d           positive closing.
like the position so I can gain experience in my field.” Show
the employer what you will be able to do for the organization.
                                                                         Sincerely yours,
Paragraph 3: Close by making a specific request for an
interview and indicate you would appreciate hearing from them            (Your handwritten signature)
(via phone number/e-mail) to arrange an interview and learn
more about the position. Make sure your closing is not vague.            Type your name here

Sincerely yours,                                                         Enc. (If you enclose a resume or other materials)

(Your handwritten signature)

Type your name here
                                                                         For typed letters, use high quality 8 ½” X 11” paper.
Enc. (If you enclose a resume or other materials)                        Recommended
                                                                         margins are 1 inch.



                                                      Cover Letter Tips

The cover letter is a necessary business letter that accompanies your resume whether you mail, email or fax your resume. Its purpose
is to introduce your resume, express your personality and enthusiasm for the position, and provide support for your candidacy that is
not covered by your resume. Take the time to customize your cover letter for each organization.

        Type each letter using the same font and high quality paper (8 ½ ” X 11”) as the resume.

        Use 1” margins.

        Proof your letter for grammar and spelling errors.

        Target each cover letter to the position you seek; recruiters can spot a mass produced or generic letter.
       Market yourself. Explain what you can offer the organization, not what they can do for you.

       Remember to sign the cover letter.

       Three standard ways to close your cover letter:

        1. Reserved Approach – Express your desire for the employer to contact you. Feel free to contact the employer after a week
            to express your continued interest in the organization, and to see where they are in the review process.

        2. Active Approach – A popular method when exploring any advertised opportunities or in response to job listings requiring a
            candidate to demonstrate assertiveness. Indicate to the employer that you will be calling within a certain period of time
            (usually 7 days). See if you can arrange a convenient time for an interview. Use tact, otherwise this approach may appear
            presumptuous.

        3. Out-of-Town Approach – Mention the fact that you will be in the area during a certain time period and will call to see if you
            can arrange interview before/after you arrive. You may request a specific time and date for an interview or indicate your
            availability at any time during a given period.

                                             ADDITIONAL TYPES OF LETTERS
Networking Letter: This letter is used when you are requesting a meeting (not an interview) with an
employer/professional for the purposes of research or information gathering. You are attempting to make contact with that
person. It is a letter similar to the cover letter in style and tone but shorter in details about your experience.
Prospecting Letter: This letter is similar to the networking letter, but is more general in nature. You are writing to
determine if there are vacancies within the organization.
Acceptance Letter: This letter is used to accept a job offer. It should be relatively short and used to confirm details (e.g.
start date, salary) and to positively reinforce the employer’s decision to hire you.
Withdrawal Letter: It is your ethical obligation to inform other prospective employees you have accepted a position with
another organization and you are removing your name from consideration for their position. Be brief but be sure to
express thanks for their interest in you. Do not mention you obtained a “better job,” but indicate the position you accepted
fits better with your personal and career needs.
Rejection Letter: This letter is written if an employer has offered you a position and you are not going to accept it. Be
brief but be sure to express your thanks for their interest in you. Remember, you may want a job with this employer at
some point later in your career.


                                             Employment Portfolios
A professional employment portfolio could be just the thing that sets you apart from other job candidates.

A Well-Prepared Portfolio…
   Shows your achievements.
   Documents the scope and quality of your experience and training and shows your skills and abilities.

Organizing Your Portfolio:
   Determine the skills necessary for the job for which you will be interviewing.
   Choose items that will document, for the employer, how you have used those skills.
   Use a loose-leaf portfolio notebook.
   Use plastic page covers to protect your materials and to make rearranging your portfolio easy.
   Arrange your portfolio to show how your abilities relate to the employer’s needs.
   Label the different sections for ease of finding information in the portfolio.

What to Include:
   Your resume, including a list of references.
   An official copy of your transcript.
   A fact sheet, in list form, that displays your skills and interests.
   A list of experiences that do not fit into your resume.
   Certificates of awards and honors; certifications for special training.
   A program from an event you planned or in which you participated as part of a class project or campus organization.
   A list of conferences and workshops you have attended and a description of each.
   Samples of your writing.
   Documentation of technical or computer skills.
   Letters of commendation or thanks.
   Letters of nomination to honors and academic organizations.
   Newspaper articles that address some achievement.
   Internship or co-op summary reports.

If you are seeking a teaching position, you may want to add:
   Student teaching evaluation materials.
   Sample lesson/unit plans or syllabi.
   A videotape of your teaching.
   Pictures of bulletin boards you designed.
   Descriptions of teaching tools you have created.
   Information about a field trip or other event you organized.
   Pictures of yourself working with students (Be aware of privacy issues).

Electronic Portfolios:
You may also want to create an electronic portfolio, available to employers as a supplement to your resume. It can be on
the Internet or on a CD-ROM. You can set it up as a PowerPoint presentation or include a PowerPoint slideshow as part
of your e-portfolio. However, e-portfolios are best if they do not need to be opened with a particular software application.

E-portfolios are easy for employers to access and use, especially if they are on the Internet. If you include an “email” link
in your portfolio, employers can easily contact you. Having an electronic portfolio also shows employers you are familiar
with various types of computer technology and programs.

First, create your traditional portfolio. When creating the electronic version include items from your traditional portfolio.
For example, include the word processed files for your writing samples and your resume, scans of appropriate photos and
certificates, and Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files of graphics such as brochures that you have designed. Contact UB’s CIT for
information about equipment available on campus to assist you.

Other items you might include in your e-portfolio are an expanded version of your resume, audio and video clips, an email
link, a link to UB’s website as well as one to your major department’s pages, a link to the curriculum for your major, and
other appropriate links. Avoid personal information and inappropriate links anywhere on your web site. Remember that
anyone with web experience can explore more of your web pages quite easily beyond your online portfolio. Keep your
personal files well separated from your employment portfolio.
                                           Adapted from Ball State University’s Career Office



                                        Key Skills Employers Want
Communication
Employers seek candidates who can carry on professional conversations in all environments. They also look for someone
who can listen attentively, persuade others, and express creative thoughts.

Energy, Drive, and Enthusiasm
When have you taken the initiative to learn something new, developed a new method for doing something, or volunteered
when others would not? If you were going to hire someone, wouldn’t you look for candidates with a “can-do” attitude who
have proven their results at a past job?

Teamwork
Almost every employment situation calls for teamwork. Your ability to collaborate well with others and demonstrate to an
employer that you have done so successfully in club projects, class assignments, and work situations will benefit you
greatly.

Leadership
Leaders need to be organized, pay attention to detail, accept and handle responsibilities, and be active and results-
oriented. Leaders need to demonstrate how they have motivated others and how they can be a team player as well.

Adaptability
When you start your first professional position, your daily life will be drastically different than your collegial experience. Be
ready to demonstrate that you can hit the ground running. When have you easily and quickly adjusted to a challenging
situation in your past?
Technical Skills
Candidates from all disciplines will be expected to utilize the technological tools needed to complete daily tasks. These
skills will vary depending on your field. You will need to demonstrate how you can learn new technical skills independently
to keep current and competitive.

Problem-Solving Skills
Have you ever solved a problem that others couldn’t by using your creativity and logic to devise solutions? Be able to tell
a story about that accomplishment.

Future-Focused and Growth-Oriented
You will be hired based not only on your past experiences and your current capabilities, but on your potential. Your entry-
level job might be less involved than you are able to handle, but your ability to complete tasks with enthusiasm is the only
way to move up into those more challenging positions.

How Do I Get These Skills?
Where can you learn these skills and develop these characteristics? Join clubs, volunteer, get involved in
undergraduate/graduate research, and find internships and summer jobs. Keep a journal of your accomplishments and
the things you have learned so recalling them for the job search will be easier.


            Could Facebook or MySpace Cost You Your Dream Job?
50% of employers who recruit college students and recent graduates say they take information posted on social
networking sites into consideration when hiring (according to Aftercollege.com). 63% of those employers who used social
networking sites to research students, did not hire candidates researched, based on what they found.

Use the Internet and Social Networking to Your Advantage

   Make and maintain connections – Keep in contact with friends, professors, and others who might be able to help
    you with your job search in the future.
   Create a positive image that will impress employers – Showcase your unique talents and interests for employers.
    Convey a professional image and highlight your communication skills and creativity.

Tips to Safeguard Your Online Image

   Be careful – Do you want a prospective employer to see those revealing photos or questionable jokes? Are you
    advertising your participation in inappropriate behaviors or events? Once something is posted, it can never be truly
    erased.
   Be discreet – Consider setting your profile to “private” so that a limited number of people have access to it. Don’t
    accept someone as your friend unless you really know them.
   Be aware – Check your profile regularly and search out information about yourself on the Internet so that you know
    what employers might be encountering.

Personal Information and the Internet
Employers are not able to ask you about certain information but might be able to easily find it online. Be aware of what
employers might be able to see about your:
 Age
 Affiliations (religious, political)
 Physical characteristics
 Disabilities
 Marital/family status


                                       Researching Employers
Do Your Hom ew ork
Researching potential employers will give you an edge in the competitive job market. Doing your homework will help you
find a job that’s the right fit for you and employers will be impressed that you’ve taken the time to find out about them.
Remember, you are trying to create a positive impression by appearing informed and goal-directed. One way to
demonstrate your value is to indicate during the interview what interested you in that specific organization and how your
goals, qualifications, and personality fit that employer’s opportunities.
Information to Look For
               Size of organization in            Geographic locations              Typical career path in
                industry                           Location of corporate              your field
               Style of management                 headquarters                      History of organization
               Potential growth                   Number of plants,                 Funding (for non-profit
               Annual sales growth,                stores, and outlets                organizations)
                long term and short                Organizational                    Customers and/or
                term                                structure                          clients
               Complete product line              Type of training                  Attitudes toward
                or services                         program                            employees
               Potential new products             Promotional path                  Competition
                or services                        Recent developments
               Age of top                          reported in news
                management and their                stories
                backgrounds                        Relocation policies


                                          Information Sources Available

   A good starting place for information is the organization’s website, annual reports and written employment literature.
    Keep in mind this information is prepared by the organization and includes predominately positive information.
   CareerSearch – Found through the UB Career Services BullsEye (www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu), this resource is an
    extensive database that includes over one million companies along with contact names, addresses, phone numbers,
    and company background information. The database can be searched according to industry type, location, and
    keywords.
   International Students – Check out the H-1b Database Analysis found through the UB Career Services BullsEye
    (www.ub-careeers.buffalo.edu). You can search a database of employers who have petitioned for H-1b status within
    the last 3 years.
   The Brent D. Arcangel Career Resource Library – Visit 259 Capen to access online and written resources such as
    business directories, magazines and newspapers.

                                                   Networking
What is Networking?
Get inside information and gain a competitive edge in your job search by networking! Take advantage of the chance to
speak with people who work in, or have knowledge about, a particular field in which you are interested. You can obtain
up-to-date information as well as make professional acquaintances. These contacts can keep you posted regarding any
job openings which may develop or direct you to individuals who may know of openings.

Getting Started...
   Begin with a list of family, friends, neighbors and teachers. Consider everyone you encounter!
   Keep an organized list of people you contact.
   Consider all organizations in which you are interested. Even if there are no current openings, there may be
    opportunities in the future!
   Use resources such as chambers of commerce or local newspapers to identify growing organizations or to learn of
    organizations moving into the area.
   Create an opening statement such as: “Good afternoon, Mr./Ms. Jones. I’ve recently graduated with a degree in
    business and am beginning a job search. I was hoping to speak with you regarding some advice about the service
    industry. Would you have some time this week for a short conversation?”
Meeting With Contacts...
   Introduce yourself and your area of interest clearly.
   Be polite. If your contacts are busy, say you’ll call/come back at their convenience.
   State that you are not seeking a job interview, but rather looking for guidance.
   If you have been referred by someone, be sure to use their name in your introduction.
   Ask your contacts if they can suggest someone else you could meet. Ask if you can use their names in further
    networking activities.
     Ask your contacts what advice they would give themselves if they were just starting out. Take notes!
     Bring a resume with you. If it seems appropriate, ask if you can leave your resume or send it with a thank you note.
     Ask for a business card. Record the date of the meeting on the back and what you discussed. Know when to leave.
      Make them sad to see you go, not sorry you stayed.
Afterwards...
     Process the experience. What did you learn from this person? Find three important things. How did you impress
      them?
     Always send a thank you note - this is a must! Include in your note the date of your meeting and a little about what
      you discussed. Use the contact’s business card for correct spelling and address.
     Stay in touch with your contacts every 4-6 weeks. (Be sure that this is acceptable with the contact). A short note
      updating your progress will keep you in their active file.
     You may want to investigate a professional association by utilizing one of these resources:
                  - Hoover’s Handbook of Emerging Companies
                  - State and Regional Associations of the United States
          (Available, with others, in the Brent D. Arcangel Career Resource Library)


    A survey of more than 1,500 successful job hunters showed that 63% found new positions by using their networks of
    friends, family members, and acquaintances. In comparison, only 11% found jobs by answering advertisements, and
    just 2% found positions by sending unsolicited resumes.
                                                                                              Adapted from Managing Your Career




Meet-a-Mentor Program
Meet-a-Mentor is a great way to network with alumni and other friends of the University. It allows you the opportunity to
meet with caring volunteers in a field of work that interests you. Login to Career Services BullsEye at www.ub-
careers.buffalo.edu.

                For more information about networking visit www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/networking.shtml.




                    Don’t Get Screened Out - The On-Line Application
Making the most of today’s high tech conveniences, many employers have moved to online applications as part of the
process of being considered for employment. This creates new challenges for job seekers hoping to stand out among the
ever growing sea of fellow online applicants.

Employers’ online application forms and their methods of screening vary but there are some general guidelines that will
help you stand out in the online application crowd.

         Research the employer. Know what you have to offer them.

         Read and follow the employer’s directions carefully. Candidates are eliminated from consideration for not reading
          or following instructions.

         Be sure you have no errors in grammar or spelling on your application. Don’t rely on spell check or grammar
          check!

         Complete the entire application, including non-required fields.

         Some employers select candidates to interview based solely upon the online application and not the resume or
          other attachments. You still need an effective resume, but be sure your application can stand alone in
          representing what you have to offer an employer.

         Employers may spend only 15 seconds reviewing the information you provide to make an initial determination
          about your candidacy. Target your information to the organization/position and to the employer’s needs.
       Employers may use keywords to search their systems for candidates who they feel are the best fit for the
        opportunity they have. Know and use the key words and phrases of your field/industry. Be sure your application
        form and resume contain industry or job specific keywords so the employer’s “electronic eye” sees your
        application. Keywords are more likely to be nouns than verbs.

       If there is a comments section, use that to your best advantage. Include information such as a list of your skills
        and other information about you that may make you a unique candidate or shows you are a good fit for that
        employer and position.

       Whether you submit your resume electronically or use a paper copy, chances are it will become part of that
        employer’s electronic applicant system. A resume targeted to the position/employer which demonstrates
        quantified results (where possible) and that includes keywords/skills should be created to maximize your chances
        of being included after an initial database search.

       Be sure your resume is in a simple format with common fonts that will convert well into other electronic formats
        such as PDF. It is so important, if possible, to check the resume once uploaded to be sure it appears correctly to
        the reader!

       If you must cut and paste your resume into an online application system, use simple text and be sure it is easy to
        read and formatted properly once pasted.

       If submitting a paper resume, the employer may scan it into their electronic system. Keep font style and size
        simple, use white 8 ½” by 11” paper printed on one side only (avoid stapling multiple pages). Use generous
        margins, avoid graphics, shading, and boxes.

                                                Dress for Success
Micro-miniskirt girl? Bright orange tie guy? Don’t let an interviewer remember you for the wrong reasons. Choose
conservative and professional clothes that allow the interviewer to focus on what you’re saying, not on what you’re
wearing. Make a great first impression!

Tips for Men and Women

Wear a dark-colored suit (with matching pants or skirt) that is fitted properly

Select a matching dress blouse with a conservative neckline (for women) or a pressed white or ivory long-sleeved shirt
(for men) that complements your suit

Choose matching closed-toe dress shoes that are scuff-free and polished

Make sure clothing is clean, lint-free and tag-free; no wrinkles, stains, rips or holes

Don’t have any tattoos or body piercings visible

Be freshly showered/bathed

Keep nails neat, clean, trimmed and use a conservative colored fingernail polish (for women)

No heavy cologne/perfume

Fresh breath is a must (but don’t chew on gum/mints during the interview)

Women

Skirts should be knee-length and cover your thighs when you are seated

Choose neutral or skin-toned hosiery (no patterns)

If hair is shoulder length or longer, pull back neatly

If hair is dyed, use a conservative color and be sure roots are not showing

Wear minimal, conservative jewelry (e.g., a dress watch and one pair of earrings)
Keep makeup light, fresh and natural

Your purse should be small and the color of your shoes

Men

Wear dark dress socks

Limit jewelry to a wedding ring or class ring and a dress watch

Choose a conservative belt that matches your shoes

Wear a conservative tie (no loud colors or patterns)

Trim facial hair and long sideburns

          An employer evaluates candidates based on non-verbal information such as a
        handshake, eye contact, posture, body language, grooming, and of course, dress!

Common Reasons Applicants Get Rejected

   Poor appearance
   Poor voice, diction, grammar
   Little enthusiasm, passive or indifferent
   Evades, hedges unfavorable factors
   Late for an interview, disrespectful
   Talks too much, rambles
   Unable to handle silence
   Negative attitude
   Lack of extracurricular involvement
   Couldn’t sell him/herself to employer
   Overbearing or aggressive
   Lack of purpose or career goals
   Unwilling to start at the bottom
   Lack of courtesy or proper etiquette
   Poor eye contact, extreme nervousness
   Lack of poise or lack of confidence
   Complaining about previous employer
   Lack of leadership skills
   Didn’t ask for the job
   Talked about salary prematurely


For additional information about dressing for success, visit our website: www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/intvdress.shtml.


                                      Improve Your Job Interviews
The employment interview is often the key and final hurdle in the job campaign. Letters, applications, references,
resumes, and other resources are designed with one goal: to secure an interview. Remember, the best candidate does
not always get the job – many times the person who best prepares for the interview is hired.

   Practice Interviewing
    Learn the kinds of questions you may be asked and develop your best answers. If your qualifications are weak in
    some areas, determine how to express them as positively as possible.
   Research the Organization
    Look at websites and written materials or talk with customers/clients to familiarize yourself with the organization.
    Incorporate facts based upon your research into your interviews.
   Express Qualifications
    Know three good reasons why you are an outstanding candidate and subtly work them into your responses.
   Listen to the Interviewer
    Adjust to the interviewer’s style and think about why particular questions are being asked. Respond completely to all
    aspects of a question.
   Don’t Monopolize the Conversation
    While interviewers usually want more than a simple “Yes” or “No” answer, avoid long responses. Make your answers
    accurate, brief, and as interesting as possible.
   Be Positive
    This is not the place to criticize your school, past employers, or professors. An optimist is more useful in an
    organization than a pessimist. If you can be enthusiastic about past experiences, you are likely to be positive about
    future employers.
   People Hire, Not Organizations
    Remember, people make hiring decisions. Your goal is to make effective contact with the interviewer. Hopefully, he or
    she will end up liking/respecting you.
   Ask Questions
    Reflect your self-esteem by asking questions about the organization and the job. This is another place to demonstrate
    that you researched the organization.
   Point Out Why You Like the Organization
    Are there factors which led you to single out the organization? If so, citing those factors can help build a link between
    you and the employer.
   Express Interest
    Assuming the job/organization interests you, take time near the end of the interview to express that interest. Unless
    you say you like the job/organization, the employer has no way of knowing this.
   Learn What Happens Next
    Is your file complete? Is additional information needed? Are your references complete? What are the next stages in
    the employment process and when might they occur?
   Express Thanks
    Thank the interviewer for his or her time and interest in you. If appropriate, thank the
    receptionist and anyone else who has also helped you.
Source: Career Opportunities News, Garrett Park Press, Garrett Park, MD
Sharpen Your Interviewing Skills
Sign up for a practice interview at UB Career Services. We will videotape an interview between you and a career
counselor. Together, you will watch the tape and discuss how you might improve your interviewing skills.


                            Interview Questions Employers May Ask
Personal
 Tell me about yourself.
 What are your greatest strengths?
 Can you name some weaknesses?
 Define success. Define failure.
 Have you ever had any failures? What did you learn from them?
 What motivates you most in a job?
 What can you offer us?
 Describe your ideal job.
 Why did you choose to interview with us?
 Why should we hire you?

Education
   Why did you choose to attend UB?
   What led you to choose your major?
   How has college prepared you for a career?
   In which campus activities did you participate?
   If you were to start over, what would you change about your education?
      Do your grades accurately reflect your ability? Why or why not?
      How do you think a professor who knows you well would describe you?

Experience
 What job-related skills have you developed?
 In what work environment are you most comfortable?
 What experiences have you had and skills have you developed that would help you in this job?
 Describe a major problem you have encountered and how you have dealt with it.
 Give an example of a time when you worked under deadline pressure.
 What did you enjoy most about your last employment? Least?
 How do you think a former supervisor would describe your work?
 Why are you interested in this position?

Career Goals
 Do you prefer to work under supervision or on your own?
 What kind of boss do you prefer?
 Would you be successful working with a team?
 Do you prefer large or small organizations? Why?
 How do you feel about working in a structured environment?
 Can you work on several assignments at once?
 How do you feel about the possibility of relocating?

Questions You May Ask
Employers will typically ask if you have any questions about the position or the organization. Don’t pass up this
opportunity to gather more information to show your interest and help decide if you want the job.
                                             ASK A PROSPECTIVE CO-WORKER:
     What do you like best/least about working for this department/organization?
     Can you describe a typical workday in the department?
     Do you feel free to express your ideas and concerns here?
     What are the possibilities for professional growth and promotion?
     Do you have much of an opportunity to work independently? With superiors, colleagues, customers?
     How long have you been with the organization? Does your future here seem secure?
                                      ASK YOUR PROSPECTIVE SUPERVISOR:
     What would be my primary responsibilities?
     What would I be expected to accomplish in the first six months on the job? In the first year?
     What are some of the department’s ongoing and anticipated special projects?
     How much contact or exposure does the department and staff have with management?
                                          ASK THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGER:
     Are employees encouraged and given the opportunity to express their ideas and concerns?
     What do employees seem to like best and least about the company?
     What is the rate of employee turnover? Why is this position open?
     How large is the department where the opening exists?
     What type of orientation or training do new employees receive?
     How often are performance reviews given?

    For more information on interviewing, visit www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/intv.shtml or watch streaming video at www.ub-
    careers.buffalo.edu/olworkshops.shtml#intv




                                           Behavioral Interviewing
Behavioral interviewing is an interviewing technique where the interviewer predicts future performance by how you
handled various situations in the past. Behavioral questions ask you to focus on a specific situation, describe what
happened, what you did, and what the outcome was. Past performance examples may come from work experience,
internships, activities, volunteer work, hobbies, or independent studies, for example.
Suggestions for Preparing for a Behavioral Interview:
 Analyze the position. What skills are required?
 Identify your skills and experiences that are related to the position.
 Prepare examples/stories that illustrate your skills and experiences. Your resume will serve as a guide to refresh your
   memory and help to generate examples of experience from your past.
 Be prepared to provide examples of times when things didn’t go the way you expected. What did you do? What did
   you learn? Make sure you change a negative experience into a positive one by explaining what you learned!
   Remember that mistakes help us to learn and can be used to our advantage.
 Make sure your answers are honest representations of your past experiences.
 Your responses need to be specific and detailed. Frame your story in three steps: Describe the situation. What did
   you do? What was the result/outcome?
 Listen carefully to the question and ask for clarification if necessary.
 Answer the question completely.

Examples of Behavioral Interviewing Questions:
 Give me an example of an important goal you set in the past and tell me how you achieved it.
 Describe a time when your over-enthusiasm for something got you involved way over your head.
 Tell me about a time when you had a personality conflict with a co-worker. Explain how you handled it.
 Give me an example of an instance when you had to act immediately and make a decision.
 Describe a situation where you had to prioritize various tasks to complete a major project.
 Tell me about a situation where you had to use written communication to get your point across.
 Describe a situation where you made a decision and it was the wrong one.
 Tell me about a specific day when you had too many tasks to complete.
 Describe a time when you acted as leader to complete a team project.

Remember, the basic difference between traditional interviews and behavioral interviews is that the traditional interviewer
may allow you to project what you might do in a given situation, whereas the behavioral interviewer is looking for past
actions only. Practice behavioral interviewing with a Career Counselor.

For more information on behavioral interviewing visit:
www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/behavintv.shtml



Handling Illegal Interview Questions
Have you ever been asked a question in an interview that made you uncomfortable? If so, the question may have been
inappropriate or even illegal. Know your rights as a candidate!


According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, there are three primary strategies for handling illegal
inquiries:

1. You can answer the question – you are free to do so, if you wish. However, if you choose to answer an illegal
   question, you give information that is not related to the position, which may ultimately work against you.

2. You can refuse to answer the question, which is well within your rights. Depending on how you word your response,
   you run the risk of being perceived as uncooperative and confrontational – hardly words an employer would use to
   describe the “ideal” candidate. Remember, it is important to maintain your professional demeanor.

3. You can examine the question for its intent and respond with an answer as it might apply to the job. For example, if an
   interviewer asks, “Are you a US citizen?” you have been asked an illegal question. You can respond, however, with “I
   am authorized to work in the United States.”
Inquiry Area                  Illegal Questions                       Legal Questions
National Origin/Citizenship      Are you a U.S. citizen?                Are you authorized to work in
                                 Where were you/your parents             the U.S. on a permanent
                                  born?                                   basis?
                                 What is your “native tongue?”          What languages do you
                                                                          read/speak/write fluently?
                                                                          (Okay only if this ability is
                                                                          relevant to the performance
                                                                          of the job).
Age                              How old are you?                       Are you over the age of 18?
                                 When did you graduate?
                                 What’s your birth date?
Marital/Family Status            What is your marital status?           Would you be willing to
                                 With whom do you live?                  relocate if necessary?
                                 Do you plan to have a family?          Would you be able and
                                  When?                                   willing to travel as needed for
                                 How many kids do you have?              the job? (Only if it is asked of
                                 What are your childcare                 all applicants for the job).
                                  arrangements?
Affiliations                     What clubs or social                   List professional, trade
                                  organizations do you belong             groups, or other
                                  to?                                     organizations to which you
                                                                          belong that you consider
                                                                          relevant to performing this
                                                                          job.
Personal                         How tall are you? How much             Are you able to lift a 50-
                                  do you weigh? (These                    pound weight and carry it 100
                                  questions are not acceptable            yards, as this is part of the
                                  unless minimum standards are            job?
                                  essential for the safe
                                  performance of the job).
Disabilities                     Do you have any disabilities?          Are you able to perform the
                                 Please complete the following           essential functions of the job?
                                  medical history. Have you had           (Okay if the interviewer has
                                  any recent or past illnesses or         thoroughly described the job).
                                  operations? If yes, list them          Can you demonstrate how
                                  and give dates of when these            you would perform the
                                  occurred.                               following job-related
                                 What was the date of your last          functions?
                                  physical exam?                         As part of the hiring process,
                                 How’s your family’s health?             after a job offer has been
                                 When did you lose your                  made, you will be required to
                                  eyesight? How?                          undergo a medical exam.
                                 Do you need an                          (Exam results must be kept
                                  accommodation to perform the            strictly confidential, except
                                  job? (Can be asked only after a         medical/safety personnel
                                  job offer has been made).               may be informed if
                                                                          emergency medical treatment
                                                                          is required, and supervisors
                                                                          may be informed about
                                                                          necessary job
                                                                          accommodations, based on
                                                                          exam results).
Arrest Record                    Have you ever been arrested?           Have you ever been
                                                                          convicted of _______?
                                                                          (Crime named should be
                                                                          reasonably related to the
                                                                          performance of the job in
                                                                          question).
Military                         If you have been in the military,      In what branch of the armed
                                  were you honorably                      forces did you serve?
                                  discharged?                            What type of training or
                                                                          education did you receive in
                                                                          the military?
                                              The Site Interview
The site visit is generally a second interview and your chance to sell your skills and potential to the management team.
This may be the final stage of the selection process. Remember, the organization is also trying to make a favorable
impression on you. If traveling by air, don’t be surprised if you are not met at the airport by the organization
representative, although they will usually make hotel accommodations for you and arrange your flight.

Timetable
The site visit generally consumes a whole day - sometimes more - and may include pre-employment testing. Some
organizations use paper-and-pencil tests while others simulate on-the-job situations in order to assess your decision-
making abilities. In a sense, even interviews are a test of your poise, stamina, enthusiasm, and knowledge. Typically,
you’ll be interviewed all day by various supervisors, managers, and officials, be taken to lunch and on a tour. Some
employers may test you for drug usage.

T he Interviews
In some organizations, all people who participate in interviewing have been trained. Some will conduct interviews better
than others, of course. You should be able to help establish the rapport necessary for a productive interview session. Be
natural, candid, and relaxed. Initiate relevant questions and concerns as appropriate.

Expenses - The Third Impression
    1. Seek reimbursement only for the actual expenses of your trip. Do not include entertainment, personal items such
       as toiletries and cosmetics or alcohol. Be prudent; how you spend a company’s funds on a visit is a good
       indication of how you might spend funds as an employee.
    2. Get receipts for all hotel and transportation costs. These are usually required (for auditing purposes) before
       employers can issue reimbursement checks. If you drive your own car to a visit, indicate your route and the
       round-trip mileage.


Interview on Campus for Full-Time & Part-Time Jobs and Internships!
Career Services gives you the opportunity to interview on campus with some of the world’s most well-known employers as
well as some hidden gems you may never have contacted on your own.

Important Things to Remember About On-Campus Interviewing:
   1. It’s for everyone. Many opportunities are available for all majors. You can find internships and part-time jobs as
       well! Meet employers located in Western New York, across New York State, and nationwide.
   2. Be ready! Weekly deadlines begin early in the semester; you need to be on the employers’ timeline, not your
       own. Check our website and your email for announcements and deadlines.
   3. Explore new opportunities! Remember that interviewing is a two-way street. You may just find an excellent fit for
       you – but you won’t discover this if you don’t apply.
   4. Be sure your resume is targeted and effective. Have your resume critiqued by a Career Counselor prior to
       submitting it for on-campus interviewing!
   5. Be aware of our cancellation policy and appropriate professional conduct. You are representing UB.
       Candidate misbehavior (such as missing an interview appointment) jeopardizes our relationships with employers
       for the future.

        Important Note: Students who need to cancel an on-campus interview may do so up to three business days
        before the interview date. On-campus interviewing privileges will be suspended for failure to do so.

                                   Log in to BullsEye (www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu)
                                     for On-Campus Interviewing Opportunities!

Group Employer Information Sessions
Many employers conducting on-campus interviews have information sessions, usually the night before their interview
date. If you are selected for an interview, you must attend this session. These sessions offer valuable information about
the organizations and provide the opportunity to meet the recruiters.
Which Employers Interview On-Campus?
Here is a sampling of the kinds of opportunities you’ll find in the On-Campus Interviewing program:

            Employers                                             Positions
            AXA Advisors                                          Account Executive
            Bloomberg                                             Application Engineer
            BMP America                                           Architect
            ConEdison                                             Community Training Specialist
            Curbell                                               Construction Engineer
            Frito-Lay                                             Engineering Intern
            Geico Direct                                          Finance Leadership Development Program
            General Electric Company                              Geographer
            GunnAllen Financial                                   Management Development Trainee
            HSBC                                                  Management Trainee Intern
            IBM                                                   Mathematical Statistician
            Lockheed Martin                                       Project Engineer
            Macy’s East                                           Quality Engineer
            Microsoft Corporation                                 Resident Counselor
            Moog                                                  Retail Management Trainee
            National Grid                                         Sales Engineer
            Norfolk Southern                                      Software Support Engineer
            Praxair                                               Stockbroker Trainee
            Procter & Gamble – Gillette                           Territory Manager
            Turner Construction
            US Census Bureau
            YAI/National Institute for People with
            Disabilities


                                     Make the Most of a Job Fair
Job fairs are an opportunity for you to meet with employers promoting their organizations and positions. Job fairs come in
all shapes and sizes, from small community sponsored events to large regional expositions held at major convention
centers. Check out the many job and career fairs sponsored by UB Career Services!

Take advantage of the opportunity to attend the many job and career fairs sponsored by UB Career Services including:
               Tech Far                                             Human Services Fair
               CareerFest (all majors fair)                         Teacher Recruitment Days
               Health Related Job Fair                              Government Career Fair
               Summer Jobs and Internships Fair                     Part-time Job Fair

What to Expect
Most job fairs consist of booths and/or tables manned by representatives from each organization. For on-campus events,
some employers also send alumni representatives.
An employer’s display area could be a simple table with stacks of brochures and business cards and a lone representative
or an elaborate multimedia extravaganza with interactive displays and a team of recruiters.
Fashions and Accessories
If you’re unsure of the dress code, it would be wise to wear a suit - you’ll make a better impression if you appear
professional. Jeans, flip flops and sneakers are not appropriate.
Bring copies of your resume(s), pens, a folder or portfolio, and paper or electronic pad. Keep track of the recruiters with
whom you speak and send follow-up notes to the ones that interest you. Don’t bring your backpack; it’s cumbersome and
screams “student” instead of “candidate.”
Stop, Look and Listen – Make Your Move!
Keep your eyes and ears open - there’s nothing wrong with subtly eavesdropping on the questions asked and answered.
You might pick up some valuable information.
Be an active participant to maximize your experience. Chat with organization representatives and ask meaningful
questions. If all you do is stroll around, take company literature and load up on give-aways, you really haven’t
accomplished anything worthwhile.
Create a brief “commercial” to sell yourself to an employer. The goal, in one minute or less, is to introduce yourself,
demonstrate your knowledge of the organization, express enthusiasm and interest, and relate your background to the
organization’s needs.
The questions you ask at a job fair depend upon your goals. If you’re seeking career opportunities with a specific
employer, focus your questions on the application and interview process and ask for specific information about the
employer and industry.


A Few Words About Job Fair Strategy
Research employers who will be attending the fair – they will expect you to know about them. As lines are sometimes long
at employer tables, make the most of your time by prioritizing which employers you would like to meet.

If you have a real interest in an employer, find out the procedures required to secure an interview. At some fairs, initial
screening interviews occur on the spot. Other times, the fair is used to pre-screen applicants for interviews to be
conducted later.

Some employers will not accept resumes at their tables. You may be referred to their websites to formally apply. If so, use
this opportunity to learn more about the organization, make contacts, and get tips on how to make yourself stand out on
an online application.
Don’t just drop your resume on employers’ tables. Try to get it into a person’s hands and say a few words. If the employer
is too busy, jot a note on your resume indicating your interest in the organization. Look around the display for the
recruiter’s business card (or write down his or her name) and get some literature with the organization’s address. Then,
send a follow-up note with another copy of your resume.

For more information on job fairs visit www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/fairstrategy.shtml

                                           Evaluating a Job Offer
Congratulations! You have worked hard to receive a job offer and now you are faced with evaluating the offer and
deciding whether or not to take it.

Important items to consider regarding this offer will include the following:
 Salary
 Benefits including health insurance, retirement plan, vacation time
 Corporate perks
 Tuition reimbursement
 Stock options

Questions to ask yourself when considering an offer:
 Is the organization a place you want to work?
 Does the organization’s activity/business match your interests and beliefs?
 Will you enjoy the day-to-day job responsibilities?
 Is the geographic location of the job acceptable and affordable?
 Where would you fit into the organization?
 Can you work with the person who will be your boss?
 Will you fit into the culture of the work environment?
 How long do most people stay at the organization?
 Will there be opportunities for training and promotion?
 How much can you expect to earn over 2, 3, or 5 years?


Negotiating Salary and Benefits

Most employers will not discuss salary and benefits until they have decided to make an offer. Let the employer bring up
the topic. If asked on an application form for salary requirements, avoid listing a specific amount. List a salary range only
if you know what range the employer may offer. You can choose words such as “negotiable” or “competitive” instead of a
dollar amount.
Keep in mind the monetary worth of benefits such as health, vacation, and retirement contribution levels which can greatly
increase the base value of the offer. It is important to understand what items can be negotiated. Employers will usually
not negotiate health insurance, sick time, or retirement contribution matching levels. Other items that are negotiable
include salary, vacation time, bonuses, timing of performance review, tuition reimbursement, relocation expenses, and
perks such as parking costs or mileage.

Be prepared by:
 Knowing your personal financial needs.
 Determining your worth to the employer by researching salaries in your career field, experience level, geographic
   location of the position, and type of employer.
 Reading more about negotiating.
 Meeting with a career counselor to practice negotiation skills.


     For more information on evaluating a job offer visit:

     www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/trends.shtml
     Salary and Economic/Industry Trends – includes information on average salaries by discipline/degree/geographic
     location, cost of living calculators and more.

     www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/negotiate.shtml
     Negotiating Job Offers – includes information on how to evaluate and negotiate offers including multiple offers and
     early offers.



                                  Part-Time & Summer Employment

Use Part-Time and Summer Jobs to:

     Earn extra money
     Build employment references and professional contacts
     Gain work experience
     Learn more about yourself and careers

Find the Right Job for You

While you may be tempted to take the first job that offers you a little cash, you might want to look for positions that will
allow you to explore career fields of interest. But, even taking a job that is not related to your career goals demonstrates
your initiative and dependability and begins to establish your work record.

How to Find a Part-time or Summer Job

UB Career Services provides online listings of part-time on- and off-campus, summer, and work study positions. This is a
great place to begin your job search! Log in to the UB Career Services BullsEye at www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu. You can
also meet with our Part-Time Employment Program Counselor to help with your search.

Jobs On Campus: There are many opportunities to work on campus in many departments.

    Student Assistants perform a variety of functions from clerical and reception work, to cooking and serving food, to
    officiating at sports events. Virtually every department has at least one Student Assistant.

    Work study positions are funded by a federal grant awarded to students with financial need.
    Graduate, research, and teaching assistantships are available for graduate students.

Jobs Off Campus: There are many opportunities to work off campus for local employers. If you need transportation,
there is good public transit from both UB campuses.

Unadvertised Openings: The majority of part-time and summer jobs never get advertised! One of the best ways to find
employment is to identify employers that interest you and approach them directly. Submit targeted cover letters and
resumes to places you would like to work. One way to identify potential employers is by using directories (the phone book,
for example) that list local and national organizations. Career Services has resources in the Brent D. Arcangel Career
Resource Library (259 Capen Hall) to aid in your search.

Often, unadvertised openings are found through friends, family, and acquaintances, so don’t hesitate to go to them for
help. Tell everyone you are looking for a position; you may be surprised at the leads you get simply because you asked!

Job Fairs: A Summer Job and Internship Fair is held every spring. Also, employers looking for part-time student help
can be found at information tables in the Student Union (usually during lunch hours).


    For more information about finding a part–time or summer job, check out our website at www.ub-
    careers.buffalo.edu/stufind.shtml or watch streaming video about how to find a job on campus www.ub-
    careers.buffalo.edu/olworkshops.shtml#oncampus.


                       Education Beyond Your Undergraduate Degree
Thinking About Applying to Graduate or Professional School?
The decision to continue your studies is important and should not be taken lightly. It is a serious commitment, requiring
careful thought and planning. Start the process early and take advantage of the resources in Career Services!

What is Advanced Education?
     It is generally more focused on a specific area of interest and on acquiring specialized skills to practice a profession or
      do advanced research.
     The curriculum is generally a combination of coursework and internships or research (to practice professional skills).
     A master’s degree usually takes 1 or 2 years of study, a doctorate generally 5 years, professional school from 2 to 6+
      years.
     A research master’s degree may involve writing a thesis or taking a comprehensive examination.
     The research doctoral degree (the Ph.D.) involves training in research, which provides the skills to discover new
      knowledge.
     The first years of a Ph.D. involve coursework, while the final component usually consists of research to create original
      work (dissertation) to add to the body of knowledge in the field.
     The final stages of professional education may involve several years of post-graduate training such as internships and
      medical residency.

Some of the “Right” Reasons to Go to Graduate/Professional School
     You need an advanced degree in order to practice your chosen profession (e.g., teaching, clinical psychology, law).
     You absolutely love what you’re studying and want to explore further.
     You want to make a contribution to the body of knowledge in your field through research.
     You need an advanced degree to advance in your profession.

Some of the “Wrong” Reasons to Go to Graduate/Professional School
     You don’t think you can get a job or don’t want to start looking.
     You haven’t found your true calling yet, so you figure you’ll stay in school until you do.
     Everybody else is doing it, so you think you should, too.
     You can’t figure out what to do with your undergraduate major.

Making the Decision to Attend
You should be able to answer, or at least begin to answer, the following questions:
 What are your long- and short-term goals and is more education a way to attain them?
 Are you intellectually curious? Do you have interests and abilities in your field of choice?
 Will the time and money spent get you more mobility and financial possibilities?
 Do you like to teach or do research? Do you succeed through hard work and attention to detail?
Although there is no ideal profile for a graduate or professional school student, intelligence, initiative, and self-discipline
are crucial qualities for success. You must be motivated and persistent. Also, you should have the ability to establish good
working relationships with other people, since a large number of programs depend upon working with faculty mentors and
other students in your program.
    It’s crucial to examine your interests, values, and abilities and how they match the career fields to which the program
    might lead. To research the fields, talk with alumni and graduate program faculty. Also, visit UB’s Career Services Meet-a-
    Mentor program for more information.

    An Advanced Degree Can Mean Increased Salary
    2006 data from the U.S. Census Bureau indicates that annual income is strongly related to degree attainment.

             Undergraduate Degree recipients earn an average of $40,166 annually
             Master’s Degree recipients earn an average of $51,509 annually
             Doctoral Degree recipients earn an average of $70,165 annually

    Choosing a Graduate/Professional School
    Research carefully to choose the program that will best suit your needs and talents. There are more than 1,800
    institutions in the United States that offer advanced degrees and the variety of programs is enormous.
    Things to consider when choosing a program:
 Reputation       Faculty research areas                  Library holdings
 Geography      Interest, abilities, values             Research facilities
 Cost/funding      Size of institution/program           Placement rates

    In many disciplines such as education and the health related professions, the amount of practical, hands-on experience
    offered through the program can vary. Quality and quantity of opportunities are factors to be considered. 
      Identify the programs that interest you by using:
                   www.gradschools.com
 The Peterson’s Guide books or www.petersons.com
 The College Blue Book
U.S. News and World Report rankings of graduate programs
Resources in the Brent D. Arcangel Career Resource Library (259 Capen Hall)
      For more information on advanced degrees, visit www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/continue.shtml
    Meet with a Career Services Counselor to review these resources and more!



    APPLICATION PROCESS FOR GRADUATE/PROFFESSIONAL SCHOOL
What Admissions Committees Expect – Factors in the Equation

Professors who sit on admissions committees for advanced degree programs are looking for the best candidates – those who
are the most likely to persist and complete the program. Most committees consider the following factors, though they may
rank them differently.

   A bachelor’s degree with a solid GPA: Not all programs require the undergraduate degree to be from the same
    academic discipline. Transcripts of all college-level coursework will be required.
   Positive letters of recommendation from faculty and employers: Because admissions committees are made up of
    people who teach graduate or professional students, they want recommendations from individuals who can assess your
    potential for advanced study.
   Work experience in a field that pertains to the graduate program: Consider seeking part time
    employment/internships/volunteer work to show you have knowledge of the field.
   Your score on a standardized test such as the LSAT, MCAT, GMAT, or GRE (most exams are offered through UB
    Career Services): Most programs require at least one test as a predictor of your potential.
   Involvement in activities, especially those showing leadership: Since many programs require extensive group work,
    these skills are desired assets.
   Good written communication skills as demonstrated by a well-written application: Make sure your application is neat
    and complete. Proofread it carefully.
   Statement of Purpose/Personal Statement: This is your opportunity to explain why you would be a good candidate this
    particular program and how advanced studies fit into your career goals. Again, proofread carefully and have them
    critiqued by a Career Services counselor.
It is your responsibility to make sure your applications and all supporting documents are delivered to the committees befor e
the deadlines, so it’s important that you start early and keep track of all parts of your applications. If you are applying for
funding from the program, your deadlines may be earlier than the regular admissions deadlines.

You might consider a three-tiered approach when selecting programs for which to apply. Select some from the best programs
in your field, some which you likely to be accepted by, and some for which you are probably guaranteed admission. The
Career Services’ staff has useful resources to help you with your choice of programs and the application process. Check out
www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/continue.shtml.


Financing Graduate/Professional Education

How to pay for advanced education is a major question for most people. There are five basic forms of financing your
education:

   Fellowships and Scholarships are grants that are generally awarded on the basis of academic merit and intended to
    attract the most qualifies candidates. They can be offered by a university, department, organization, or agency.
   Research/Teaching/Graduate Assistantships are usually supported by stipends to conduct research, teach, or perform
    administrative functions. Many assistantships also provide a full or partial tuition waiver.
   Loans and Grants may come from the university, a state or federal government, organizations, or lending institutions.
    Loans usually need to be paid back while grants do not.
   Employer Contributions are benefits provided by your employer to help you enhance your skills and education needed
    on the job.
   Savings are your personal contribution to your continued education.

Look at websites linked to www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/gradabout.shtml#funding and the print resources in the career
resource library and at your prospective schools for more information.

                           The Graduate/Professional School Timetable
    Planning ahead is key in the graduate/professional school application process. Begin the summer before your senior year
    or at least a year before you plan to begin your advanced studies. No generalized timetable provides the specifics you will
    need to meet the deadlines of the programs to which you are applying, but the timetable below may be used as a guide.

    The summer before your senior year:
     Start browsing through websites and program catalogs/guides to identify potential programs.
    August/September:
     Meet with faculty members you know to discuss your ideas about advanced studies. Ask for advice on specific
       programs which might match your interests.
     Sign up for standardized tests (www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/testing.shtml).
     Develop your personal timeline for applying.
     Open a reference file (www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/references.shtml). Begin thinking about which professors you will
       ask for letters of recommendations.
    October:
     Take standardized tests.
     Use the Career Services website (www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/continue.shtml) to determine the schools to which you
       plan to apply and request application materials.
     Draft your personal statements for each program and have them reviewed by a counselor in Career Services.
     Ask for letters of recommendation. Provide a list of programs to which you are applying and a draft copy of your
       personal statements. Ask that the letters be sent to your reference file.
     Investigate funding sources.
     Record deadlines for each program and possible funding sources.
     Order transcripts from all post-secondary institutions. If fall grades are expected, check with the Student Response
       Center to see if a transcript including fall grades can be sent in time to meet your deadlines.
    November:
     Complete applications and continue working on your personal statements.
     Check your reference file to see that all your letters of recommendation have been received. Follow up as necessary.
     Complete and mail applications to funding sources.
    December/January:
     Mail applications or submit online. Even if deadlines are later, it is good to submit applications early.
February:
 Contact programs about the possibility of on-site visits. It is very helpful to visit the campuses.
 Make sure all your applications and supporting materials have been received. Follow up as necessary.
April:
 If you are filing for need-based financial aid programs, you may have to file a copy of your tax return.
May/June:
 Make a decision about which program you will attend.
 Request registration materials and contact your program advisor to register for fall courses.

           The Personal Statement for Graduate/Professional School
Also called the statement of intent or purpose, this is one of the most difficult parts of the application to complete. Give
yourself plenty of time as this is also a very important writing sample and you will want to do your very best. Check your
application for special instructions on what topics to cover and what, if any, restrictions there are on length. A general rule
on length, if no other guidelines are given, is two to three pages typed, double-spaced. Be sure your name and any other
identifying information the department requests are at the top of the first page. It is advisable to number your pages.

The Admissions Committee will want to know if you can clearly articulate your career goals and reasons for wanting to be
admitted to their particular program. To substantiate your career goals, it is generally necessary to give a brief history of
how you became interested in this particular field of study or career. You may also want to comment on any people or
circumstances that influenced your career development. Influential factors could include (but are not limited to) selected
coursework, internships or volunteer work, research you have conducted, and professionals by whom you have been
mentored. Many programs require you to comment on both long- and short-term goals.

Some programs may require other writing samples, such as a copy of a paper you think demonstrates your analytical and
writing skills. Others may require an additional essay on a topic they supply.

Above all else, this must be a well-written, error-free document. Mistakes in grammar and spelling tell the committee you
have not taken the time to proofread.

Some schools will allow you to attach a statement that explains any academic problems or any other difficulties you may
have had in the past. It is probably best to keep this in the form of explanation rather than excuse. Look for ways to point
out areas of improvement over time. For example, you may have had a semester that was particularly difficult, or your
upper level classes may reflect a higher GPA than your introductory courses.

There are places and people on campus to help:
 Sample personal statements are available for review in the Brent D. Arcangel Career Resource Library (259 Capen
   Hall).
 Career Services will review your statement upon request. Make an appointment to meet with a counselor.
 The Writing Place on the 2nd floor of Baldy Hall is a great resource. Call (716) 645-2394 for more information.
 Your advisor or other faculty could offer valuable feedback as well.

 For more information on writing the personal statement visit www.ub-careers.buffalo.edu/gradabout.shtml#letters

								
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