knowledge management tools and techniques

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					knowledge management
tools and techniques




            selected examples
                March 2007
contents

communities of practice (CoP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 4
knowledge exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 6
peer assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 8
after action review          . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 10
retrospective review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 12
knowledge café . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 14
knowledge marketplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 16
online services for local government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 18
appendix one:
IDeA Knowledge Exchange: relationship map for key contacts . . . . . .page 23
appendix two:
IDeA Knowledge Exchange: areas to cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 24




                                   knowledge management tools and techniques
knowledge management
tools and techniques
Knowledge Management (KM)                      We have an ongoing programme
is about enabling people and                   working with local government
organisations to improve the way               colleagues to test out KM tools
they work through capturing,                   for their relevance to the local
sharing, and using know-how.                   government sector.
Selected examples of KM tools and              There is a wide range of online
techniques to support you in making            services to support local government
effective use of your resources are            improvement which provide an
included in this handbook. Most of             evidence base for practice. For a
these tools are easy to apply in your          list of these email the KM Strategy
everyday work.                                 team on the email address below.
                                               For details on the training available
                                               through IDeA please contact
                                               kmteam@idea.gov.uk




                         knowledge management tools and techniques                     page 3
         communities of practice (CoP)

         context                                        what is a CoP?
         Online collaborative environments              A Community of Practice is
         provide new opportunities for staff            a network of individuals with
         to network, share and develop                  common problems or interests who
         practice, and overcome the                     get together to explore ways of
         challenges of geographical                     working, identify common solutions,
         boundaries. They enable existing               and share good practice and ideas.
         communities to work more                       Typically they would share a specific
         effectively. CoPs encourage an                 area of knowledge.
         effective flow of knowledge across
                                                        The benefits of a CoP lie in
         local government and can enable
                                                        providing an environment (virtual
         sustainable self-improvement.
                                                        and/or face-to-face) that connects
                                                        people – individuals, their
                                                        organisations and the community
                                                        itself – and encourages the
                                                        development and sharing of
                                                        new ideas and strategies. This
                                                        environment supports faster problem
                                                        solving, cuts down on duplication of
                                                        effort, and provides potentially
                                                        endless access to expertise.
                                                        Informal communities exist in
                                                        some form in every organisation,
                                                        whether or not they have been
                                                        named as such. The challenge is
                                                        to support them in such a way that
                                                        they make a positive contribution to
                                                        creating and sharing organisational
                                                        knowledge. CoPs are organic and
                                                        self-organising, and should ideally
                                                        emerge naturally. Communities
                                                        usually evolve from the recognition
                                                        of a specific need or problem.


page 4                            knowledge management tools and techniques
how to run a CoP                             Communities can have a limited
A wide range of approaches can be            shelf-life and this is not always a bad
used when creating and developing            thing. Sometimes a natural ending is
Communities of Practice. Before              reached - for instance when a group
setting up a community, here are a           of people or a practice reach a
few key points to consider:                  conclusion. As long as the learning
                                             is captured and redistributed to the
• scope                                      user, the success of the collaboration
  What do you want to achieve?               can inform others in the future.
  Who is your audience?
  What are the boundaries?                   If you would like to see the
                                             CoP platform and find out more
• participants
                                             information about joining or creating
  Who can make a major
                                             a Community of Practice, please log
  contribution? Do they share
                                             on to communities@idea.gov.uk.
  common needs and interests?
• roles and responsibilities
  Who are the experts, leaders,
  champions, facilitators?
• interest and involvement
  How will you attract interest?
  How will you engage participants?
  How will you develop your
  community?
• creating and sharing
  knowledge
  How will you interact, learn
  and share?
• moving forward
  How will you add value?
  How will you evolve?




                       knowledge management tools and techniques                       page 5
         knowledge exchange

         context                                      what is a knowledge
         When staff leave an organisation             exchange?
         they take with them the vital                A Knowledge Exchange takes place
         knowledge, experience and contacts           between a knowledge holder and a
         they have built. These losses in             facilitator. The knowledge holder is
         efficiency can be minimised by the           the person who is departing – this
         systematic capture of people's               could be a permanent move, a
         knowledge and experience before              secondment, or maternity leave,
         they move on through a structured            for example – while the facilitator
         Knowledge Exchange process.                  will typically be a line manager or
                                                      trusted team member. As the
                                                      interpersonal skills needed to capture
                                                      information are key, it is good to
                                                      have a facilitator who has a good
                                                      relationship with the knowledge
                                                      holder and who can ensure the
                                                      questioning is of sufficient depth
                                                      and relevance.
                                                      Ideally, the Knowledge Exchange
                                                      will involve a direct transfer of
                                                      knowledge to the knowledge
                                                      recipient. This is the person who
                                                      is replacing the knowledge holder,
                                                      or carrying out the tasks they leave
                                                      behind, and will benefit from any
                                                      useful tips and key knowledge.
                                                      The knowledge recipient will also
                                                      benefit from asking their own
                                                      questions.




page 6                          knowledge management tools and techniques
how to run a knowledge                         Once the facilitator feels the
exchange                                       knowledge identified as unique
                                               and at risk of being lost has been
The methodology that the Agency
                                               captured, the next step is to work
uses is based on work developed in
                                               out the best way to package this
the public and private sectors by
                                               knowledge for access within the
knowledge management experts.
                                               organisation. This may include the
The knowledge holder receives                  creation of instructional guidelines,
the Knowledge Exchange pack                    mapping business processes, or a list
two days in advance. This consists             of useful contacts' e-mail addresses.
of a context sheet, explaining the             You may prefer to have a tape
purpose of the exercise, and the               recording or a filmed record of the
questions to be asked (see appendix            knowledge holder recounting how
two to this document). The facilitator         they navigated a common problem,
follows these questions as a                   or simply spelling out a process. You
guideline, but they are best used as           may then choose to upload this on
a means to drill down further on the           to your team intranet, or save as a
four areas of work that the questions          standalone file for future reference.
are grouped around: General, Key               This process can also be included in
operational information, People and            the performance appraisal process to
people skills and Lessons learnt and           eliminate risk of loss of knowledge
'pattern recognition'. Mapping the             to the organisation.
relationship between the knowledge
holder and key contacts supports the
capture of information (see appendix
one to this document).




                         knowledge management tools and techniques                     page 7
         peer assist

         context                                      what is a peer assist?
         Through experience we know that              A Peer Assist can be organised
         talking to our peers about the best          in a workshop or meeting form
         way to approach new projects, is             to gain knowledge and insight
         effective. This saves valuable time          from people in other teams before
         and money for the local government           embarking on a project or activity.
         sector and avoids repetition of              Essentially it seeks to encourage a
         mistakes. Learning from our                  flow of knowledge and experience,
         colleagues' past experience also             and consists of a receiver(s) – those
         allows us to re-use existing                 seeking assistance – and a group
         knowledge, promote the sharing of            of peers – those sharing their
         learning between teams and can               knowledge and expertise. The
         help develop strong networks                 time-frame of this activity depends
         among people.                                on the subject matter and number
                                                      of attendees in proportion to the
                                                      project, so can be anything from
                                                      two hours to a full day.




page 8                          knowledge management tools and techniques
how to run a peer assist                       3. Share information – divide the
There is no right or wrong way                    meeting time into four parts:
to hold a peer assist. However, a              • clarify purpose – during the first
recommended and simple method                    part, the receiver(s) presents the
that works well involves a number                context, history and future plans
of steps:                                        regarding the problem. They
1. Appoint a facilitator – someone               should be clear about what they
   from outside the team who                     hope to achieve (eg we are setting
   ensures that the meeting                      up a project on xx and want to
   participants reach their desired              check what has been done
   outcome.                                      already in this area).
                                               • encourage the peers to ask
2. Select the participants – select
                                                 questions and give feedback –
   participants who have diverse
                                                 in the second part the peers
   knowledge, skills, and experience.
                                                 discuss the receiver's situation
   There is no hard and fast rule
                                                 and share ideas and experiences.
   about minimum or maximum
                                                 The receiver should simply listen.
   numbers but the right participants
                                               • analyse what you have heard –
   are particularly important.
                                                 See After Action Review (AAR)




                         knowledge management tools and techniques                    page 9
          after action review (AAR)

          context                                         how to run an after action
          In the local government sector much             review
          of our work results in the creation of          An AAR involves key team members
          new knowledge and experiences for               and is conducted as soon as possible
          the wider benefit of the sector as a            after the specified stage/event. It is
          whole.                                          important to create an atmosphere
          An After Action Review is a                     of trust and openness, and to
          Knowledge Management tool that                  emphasise that this is a learning
          can assist in capturing lessons learnt.         event, not a performance evaluation.
                                                          An independent facilitator can
          what is an after action review?                 be appointed to help to draw out
          An After Action Review (AAR) is a               answers, insights and issues, and
          discussion at a key stage within a              to ensure that everyone contributes.
          project or activity that enables the            This could be facilitated within your
          individuals involved to review what             team.
          has happened, summarise new
          knowledge, and decide what action
          should be taken next. This discussion
          covers what actually happened and
          why, what went well, what needs
          improvement, and what lessons can
          be learned from the experience.




page 10                             knowledge management tools and techniques
questions asked                                questions used to probe


What was supposed to happen?                   What did we set out to do? What
                                               were our objectives and deliverables?

What actually happened?
                                               What did we actually achieve? What
                                               went well? What could have gone
                                               better?


Why were there differences?                    Why did it happen like that? What
                                               did we do?


What did we learn?                             What would we do differently next
                                               time? How does this affect the next
                                               stage?


What are the lessons for next time?            What needs to be disseminated to
                                               whom and how




You can refer to any project planning          By recording and storing the
documents to help your discussions             outcomes of the AAR on your
while you capture your learning. It is         intranet or website, those involved
important to focus on improvement              can refer back to what they have
and to ensure that any mistakes                learned, and they can also be shared
made or poor practice identified               with those who can benefit from
can be turned into a learning                  your learning, particularly those
opportunity.                                   who are working on a similar
                                               project or activity.




                         knowledge management tools and techniques                     page 11
          retrospective review

          context                                       what is a retrospective review?
          Systematic reflection and learning            A Retrospective Review is an in-
          allows for greater understanding of           depth discussion that takes place
          working practices and can improve             after the completion of a project,
          business performance. By effectively          event, or activity. The process
          evaluating the processes and lessons          enables the individuals involved
          learnt, an organisation can capture           to reflect systematically upon the
          learning across the sector, to help           overall activity in some detail. This
          inform others in an objective way             review ensures that you capture
          and improve the way they work.                learning from what has happened,
                                                        understand why it happened, look
                                                        at what went well, what needs
                                                        improvement, and what lessons
                                                        inform future work.




page 12                           knowledge management tools and techniques
how to run a retrospective                     2. during a retrospective review
review                                         • identify and review objectives
A retrospective review can be run in             and deliverables of the activity
various formats. A recommended                 • identify and review the project
simple method that works well                    plan and planned process
involves the following steps:                  • discuss how success and lessons
1. preparation for a retrospective               learnt can be applied in the future
   review                                      • discuss what could have gone
                                                 better, and why
• appoint a facilitator - someone
                                               • relay short summaries of key
  who can help create an open
                                                 learning points to clarify
  environment and encourage
                                                 understandings
  discussion
                                               • formally close the retrospective
• invite all members of the relevant
                                                 review
  team to participate
• collate and distribute relevant
  documents relating to the activity           3. post-retrospective review
  being discussed
                                               • record findings in an appropriate
                                                 format and circulate to all
                                                 participants
                                               • publish or store the key learning
                                                 points and recommendations for
                                                 future use
                                               • revisit the documented outcomes
                                                 regularly so to inform future work
                                               Throughout the retrospective
                                               review process, invite comments and
                                               feedback. This will help you learn as
                                               much as possible before the team
                                               disbands, and can provide formal
                                               closure on a project, event, or
                                               activity.



                         knowledge management tools and techniques                     page 13
          knowledge café

          context                                        what is a knowledge café?
          Working in complex and changeable              A Knowledge Café can be organised
          environments is common within the              in a meeting or workshop format,
          local government sector. As a result,          and allows participants the
          keeping up with relevant issues, as            opportunity to have an open,
          well as keeping in tune with our               creative conversation on a topic of
          colleagues' and peers' perspectives,           mutual interest. The emphasis of a
          can be a challenge. In this ever-              Knowledge Café is on flowing
          changing sector, how can we better             dialogue, and the process should
          understand the knowledge that we               bring people together to share ideas
          do have?                                       and learn from each other, in order
                                                         to make more informed decisions,
                                                         validate ways of working, or simply
                                                         create new ideas. It encourages
                                                         people to explore issues which
                                                         require debating to help build
                                                         consensus.




page 14                            knowledge management tools and techniques
how to run a knowledge café                   2. during a knowledge café
There are several ways to run a               • the facilitator should introduce
Knowledge Café, depending on the                the Knowledge Café concept,
number of people involved, the                  any codes of conduct, and finally
questions for discussion, and time              pose the question
available. A recommended and                  • the participants should arrange
simple method that works well                   themselves into groups and
involves the following steps:                   discuss the question
1. preparation for a knowledge café           • the various groups should
                                                eventually reconvene to exchange
• appoint a facilitator - someone
                                                ideas and findings
  who can encourage participation
• identify a question relevant to             3. post-knowledge café
  those who are participating                 The real outcomes of a Knowledge
• invite the required participants            Café are what people take away
• arrange the room layout as                  with them in their heads, and the
  appropriate such as…create a                new connections they have made
  comfortable environment – you               with people. If you do record the
  may choose to adopt a 'café'                Knowledge Café - making sure to
  layout, with a number of small              avoid disrupting or influencing the
  tables supplied with tea and                conversation - you may wish to
  coffee                                      distribute outcomes to participants
                                              after the session.
                                              And remember, a Knowledge Café
                                              is not a talking shop! Turn taking is
                                              important. If everyone is encouraged
                                              to have their say, a natural and
                                              stimulating group of discussions
                                              should evolve and grow, and
                                              good ideas won't be far behind.




                        knowledge management tools and techniques                     page 15
          knowledge marketplace

          context                                        what is a knowledge
          Finding people with knowledge,                 marketplace?
          skills and experiences who can help            A Knowledge Marketplace can
          you with specific aspects of your              be seen as a dating service for
          work is difficult, whether they are in         knowledge. This tool is used to
          the organisation or across the sector.         identify and connect people's needs
          People with specific knowledge will            and wants on a particular subject.
          always be beneficial to an
          organisation, and organisations will           Success depends on the willingness
          always have people with different              of participants to both contribute
          knowledge needs. If an organisation            and benefit in equal measure from
          could match that knowledge to                  exchanging knowledge. It is highly
          those needs, the benefits would be             dependent on a degree of trust
          even greater.                                  between individuals.
                                                         It can be used in many situations,
                                                         but may be particularly useful when
                                                         delegating roles and responsibilities
                                                         within a new project team.




page 16                            knowledge management tools and techniques
how to run a knowledge                        You will also need to collect some
marketplace                                   basic information to start the
                                              connection and collection process.
Within the participating team or
                                              For example:
group, each person should take
the following steps:                          •   name
1. identify your knowledge                    •   job title
   requirements – these could be              •   organisation
   areas where you feel there are             •   email address
   gaps in your knowledge                     •   topic
2. identify your knowledge offers –           These responses can be captured in
   these would be areas where you             many ways: in a form, in an excel
   have knowledge and experience              spreadsheet, by email, or on a flip
   that can be shared with others             chart on the day of the session. This
                                              information is then used to connect
                                              people to people, and the sharing
                                              process can begin.




                        knowledge management tools and techniques                     page 17
          online services for local government
          www.idea.gov.uk/lgservices

          A guide to online information,                Local Government Association
          learning and support for local                www.lga.gov.uk
          government: giving you the power
                                                        Promoting the interests of some
          to improve your council
                                                        500 English and Welsh local
                                                        authorities, the Local Government
          IDeA Knowledge                                Association (LGA) supports its
          www.idea.gov.uk                               members through its role as a
          As the Improvement and                        national voice for the sector. Sign
          Development Agency's (IDeA)                   up for the LGA's e-bulletins service:
          online hub for local government               www.lga.gov.uk/emailLogon.asp.
          improvement and good practice,
          IDeA Knowledge provides news,                 Local Government Employers
          guidance and toolkits for more than           www.lge.gov.uk
          50 areas of local government. Sign
                                                        Representing local government
          up for a weekly news e-bulletin and
                                                        employer interests on pay, pensions
          a monthly discussion forums e-
                                                        and employment issues to central
          bulletin: www.idea.gov.uk/register.
                                                        government, Local Government
                                                        Employers (LGE) seeks to modernise
          Improvement Network                           the pay and conditions agreements
          www.improvementnetwork.gov.uk                 in England and Wales. Access the
          Access management tools for local             LGE monthly newsletter and sign
          government practitioners and start            up for e-alerts.
          planning your improvement journey
          through following a structured
          approach developed by experts from
          a collaborative partnership between
          Audit Commission, IDeA, Leadership
          Centre, CIPFA.




page 18                           knowledge management tools and techniques
Local Authorities Coordinators                esd-toolkit www.esd.org.uk
of Regulatory Services                        Enabling all local authorities to
www.lacors.gov.uk                             work as a community, sharing
                                              and recording their performance
Coordinating regulatory services
                                              improvement measures for
delivered by local government, Local
                                              public facing services against a
Authorities Coordinators of
                                              comprehensive list of services,
Regulatory Services (LACORS) helps
                                              processes and interactions. The
enforce trading standards activities
                                              esd-toolkit helps councils monitor,
and promotes quality regulation.
                                              manage and report on their progress
Councillors can sign up for the
                                              towards the improvement challenges
LACORS e-alert for those with
                                              of the transformational government
regulatory responsibilities.
                                              and efficiency agenda.

LGA: European and
                                              Planning Advisory Service
International Unit
                                              (PAS) www.pas.gov.uk
www.lga.gov.uk/international
                                              Helping the English local authority
The LGA's new European and
                                              planning sector to achieve better
International Unit works to promote
                                              planning services and outcomes,
UK local government interests in
                                              the Planning Advisory Service (PAS)
European legislation, funding, and
                                              works with elected members, chief
policy, as well as international
                                              executives and senior managers. Sign
development. It connects UK
                                              up for the PAS monthly newsletter
councillors with international
                                              and access news, events, case
networks and supports democratic
                                              studies, toolkits, and discussion
government overseas.
                                              forums. (PAS is an IDeA Special
                                              Project.)




                        knowledge management tools and techniques                    page 19
          Public Private Partnerships                     Centre for Public Scrutiny
          Programme (4ps)                                 (CfPS) www.cfps.org.uk
          www.4ps.gov.uk                                  The Centre for Public Scrutiny
          4ps is local government's project               promotes the value of scrutiny in
          delivery specialist. 4ps works in               modern and effective government –
          partnership with all local authorities          not only to hold executives to
          to secure funding and accelerate the            account but also to create a
          development, procurement and                    constructive dialogue between the
          implementation of PFI schemes,                  public and its elected representatives
          public private partnerships, complex            – to improve the quality of public
          projects and programmes. 4ps'                   services. Get access to over1,000
          multidisciplinary team provides                 reports, news and discussion forums.
          hands-on project support, gateway               (CfPS is hosted by IDeA.)
          reviews, skills development and
          best-practice know-how. Sign up                 Directgov www.directgov.uk
          for the 4ps newsletter, and access              Providing citizens with access
          information on procurement                      to online public services and all
          guidance, case studies and events.              public service information from UK
                                                          Government departments, Directgov
          SkillsPlus                                      covers topics ranging from travel
          www.skillsplus.gov.uk                           safety and parental leave to special
          Improving skills training and                   educational needs and local NHS
          development in local government,                services.
          SkillsPlus is a strategic skills
          partnership between local
          government employers in the UK
          and Sector Skills Councils. It supports
          local government and its need to
          develop a highly skilled and flexible
          workforce to meet the requirements
          of effective service delivery.




page 20                             knowledge management tools and techniques
Info4local                                      Social Care Institute of
www.info4local.gov.uk                           Excellence www.scie.org.uk
Providing easy access to all local              SCIE's aim is to improve the
government-related information                  experience of people who use
from central government, Info4local             social care by developing and
covers the latest publications, related         promoting knowledge about
links and news releases by subject              good practice in the sector. Using
from 65 government departments,                 knowledge gathered from diverse
agencies and public bodies. Sign up             sources and a broad range of people
to receive personalised email alerts:           and organisations, it develops
www.info4local.gov.uk/emailalert.asp            resources to support service users
                                                and those working in social care.
Education evidence portal
www.eep.ac.uk
This portal is supported by all
the national organisations with
an educational brief. It provides the
opportunity to search across key sites
holding high quality research and
evidence. It is an example of specialist
portals that are being developed for
key service areas. Other examples are
the Teacher Training Resource Bank
(www.ttrb.ac.uk), which holds
research and evidence-based materials
underpinning educational practice and
TeacherNet (www.teachernet.gov.uk)
which contains a wide range of
supporting material for the education
sector.




                          knowledge management tools and techniques                   page 21
          inspectorates


          Commission for Social Care                      education and care through effective
          Inspection (CSCI)                               inspection and regulation. A range
                                                          of inspection reports and services,
          www.csci.org.uk
                                                          including e-newsletters, can be
          The CSCI is the independent                     accessed through its web pages.
          inspectorate for social care in
          England. It works across the public,
          private, and voluntary sectors. It              Audit Commission
          collates the information it holds               www.audit-commission.gov.uk
          around the regulation, review and               An independent, non-governmental
          inspection of all social care services          public body, the Audit commission
          in adult and children's services to             is responsible for ensuring that
          provide evidence of the quantity                public money is spent efficiently,
          and quality of social care services.            economically, and effectively. It carries
                                                          out research nationally on delivery
          The Office for Standards in                     performance within the public sector,
                                                          and is responsible for a range of
          Education, Children's Services
                                                          inspection processes. A range of
          and Skills (OfSECSS)                            inspection reports and services can
          www.ofsted.gov.uk                               be accessed through its web pages.
          From April, the new, single
                                                          Note: IDeA is working to make
          inspectorate comes into being:the
                                                          online services for local government
          Office for Standards in Education,
                                                          searchable through one portal for
          Children's Services and Skills
                                                          local government.
          (OfSECSS), it will take on the
          responsibilities from four existing
          directorates - the Adult Learning
          Inspectorate (ALI); the work relating
          to children of the Commission for
          Social Care Inspection (CSCI); the
          work relating to the children and
          family courts of HM Inspectorate of
          Court Administration (HMICA); and
          the work of the current Ofsted, who
          contribute to the provision of better


page 22                             knowledge management tools and techniques
appendix one
relationship map for key contacts
To create a relationship map, please                         The closer to the centre of the page,
use an A4 plain piece of paper.                              the closer the relationship is.
In the centre of the paper draw a                            By drawing lines with different
small circle or oval and write your                          thickness you can demonstrate the
name in the centre.                                          amount of dialogue between the
                                                             relationships. The thicker the line,
Start mapping from the centre to the
                                                             the more regular the dialogue.
people, teams and organisations that
you have relationships with in your
working life. Please use full names
and team titles.
                                                   Fabrizi
                                                                          Rani
                               Sophia



                  Dept of                                                          Trevor
                  Health
                                                your name
                                                   here

                                                                                  Healthcare
                         Eva                                                     Commission



                                                                    Jim
                                         Karen
key
general contact
occasional but relevant contact
one-way information interchange
two-way information interchange
difficult relationship

NB. For all the above:
Line thickness = volume of information (thicker = greater)
Line length = frequency of contact (shorter = more frequent)


                                    knowledge management tools and techniques                        page 23
          appendix two:
          IDeA knowledge exchange: areas to cover
          Name:
          Position:
          Organisation:
          Department:
          Manager:
          Leaving date:

          1.    general information
          1.1   What do you consider to be the most valuable and/or unique
                knowledge that you hold in your current role?
                Do you have any specialisms?
                Do you hold any knowledge that you would consider hard to replace
                Do you hold any knowledge that no one else in your organisation has?
          1.2   What aspects have made the largest contribution to you learning
                what you know? Training, work assignments, previous jobs,
                educational background, mentors?


          2.    people and people skills
          2.1   Who are the people you interact with most frequently? Is there
                anybody for whom you are the main or only point of contact in
                your team? – You may like to use the Relationship Map to illustrate
                this (attached).
          2.2   Who do you consider are your key contacts, both inside and
                outside the organisation? Do others on your team know about these?
                Do you have any useful 'short-cut' contacts who can help you get
                things done?
                Do you have a relationship with specific vendors?
                Is there anyone you can go to for expert advice, decisions, or
                permissions?
                Was anyone particularly helpful/difficult?


page 24                           knowledge management tools and techniques
attendees:




                           knowledge item (response)
valuable knowledge
skills / specialisms




pre-job
on-the-job
training
people
                           knowledge item (response)

team
internal
external


vendors
contractors




                       knowledge management tools and techniques   page 25
          3.   key operational information
          3.1 What are the key factors contributing to the successful carrying
              out of your job?




          3.2 Is there any key documentation that you find particularly useful
              to your role? Is this readily available to others? Is there anything
              you feel was missing and would have made your life easier if you
              had access to?
               Procedures, manuals, software, reference materials, websites,
               e-newsletters, magazine subscriptions?




          3.3 Are there any immediate issues specific to your role that in your
              view need to be urgently resolved?
               Decisions, threats, opportunities?




          3.4 Are there any dormant issues specific to your role that in your
              view need to be resolved in the longer term?
               Decisions, threats, opportunities?




page 26                            knowledge management tools and techniques
                    knowledge item (response)




procedures

documentation

online

subscriptions




decisions
threats
opportunities




decisions
threats
opportunities




                knowledge management tools and techniques   page 27
          4.   lessons learnt and parttern recognition
          4.1 In your position, what is generally likely to go wrong, and how do
              you usually respond to or resolve problems?
              Do you have any specific skills you use for troubleshooting or diagnosis
              shortcuts - rapid ways of finding the cause for a fault?




          4.2 How have you identified and managed potential risks or
              problems in the past?
              Do you have special knowledge for spotting deteriorating performance
              or imminent problems and failure?




          4.3 What mistakes do you think have been made in the past that you
              think could be avoided in the future?




          4.4 Are there any unexploited ideas or potential
              improvements/innovations that you want to mention?
              This could apply to the organisation itself, or the whole sector.




          4.5 Are there other roles that you perform (officially or unofficially)
              in the organisation?
              Is there anything else generally of which you think we should be aware?




page 28                            knowledge management tools and techniques
                    knowledge item (response)


problems
diagnosis




organisation
sector




               knowledge management tools and techniques   page 29
page 30   knowledge management tools and techniques
about the IDeA
Improvement and Development Agency for local government (IDeA)



The IDeA works for local government           The IDeA also promotes the
improvement so councils can serve             development of local government's
people and places better.                     management and workforce. We
                                              advise councils on improving
We use experienced councillors and
                                              customer service and value for
senior officers, known as peers, who
                                              money. And we help councils work
support and challenge councils to
                                              through local partnerships to tackle
improve themselves.
                                              difficult problems such as crime and
We enable councils to share good              poor public health.
practice through the national
                                              The IDeA is owned by the Local
Beacons scheme and regional local
                                              Government Association and belongs
government networks. The best
                                              to local government. Together we
ideas are put on the IDeA
                                              lead local government improvement.
Knowledge website
(www.idea.gov.uk).
Our Leadership Academy
programmes help councillors become
better leaders so they can balance
the diverse demands of people living
in the same community.




                        knowledge management tools and techniques
Improvement and Development Agency
Layden House
76-86 Turnmill Street
London EC1M 5LG
www.idea.gov.uk
tel 020 7296 6600
email ihelp@idea.gov.uk
IDeA IDT 1959