Biology the study of life cavity by benbenzhou


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									                            Chapter 1
             An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
Biology-the study of _________
   ____________ (living things) are very___________, but they
    perform the same basic___________:
    1. They ____________to changes in their immediate environment.
       o examples:
              you move your hand from a hot stove
              dog barks at strangers
              fish scared by loud noises
              amoebas glide toward prey
    2. They show_____________________.
       o example:
              skin adapts to increases sunlight by producing pigments
                that absorb damaging solar radiation.
    3. They________________& ____________________.
       o create subsequent generations of similar organisms
    4. They are capable of producing__________________________.
       o examples:
              internal = ____________________food, blood, or other
                materials inside the body
              external = moving through the ___________________t
    5. They _________ __________________from the environment.
       o use some for growth & break down the rest for energy
    6. They usually absorb & consume oxygen-__________________.
    7. They have the process of ________________to get rid of harmful
   Additional functions are found in_________________:
    1. __________________-breaks down food
    2. _________________________-internal transportation system
    3. _________________________ & _____________________more
       complicated-humans have lungs & kidneys.

The Sciences of Anatomy & Physiology
   _______________________-Greek-to cut open-the study of internal
    & external _____________& the physical relationships between body
   _______________________the study of _______________________-
    considers the ways living organisms perform vital activities.

                              Chapter 1
            An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
 ____________ANATOMY or macroscopic anatomy-considers
  features visible without a__________________________.
              1. _______________anatomy—refers to the study of
                 general form & superficial markings.
              2. ______________anatomy-examines all the superficial
                 & internal features in a specific area of the body.
              3. ______________anatomy-considers the structure of
                 major organ systems.
              4. ____________anatomy-focuses on anatomical features
                 that may undergo characteristic changes during illness.
              5. _____________________anatomy- study of
                 anatomical structures as they are visualized by X-rays,
                 ultrasound scans, or other specialized procedures.
              6. ______________________anatomy-studies anatomical
                 landmarks important for surgical procedures.

    ___________________ _____________-examines the changes in
     form that occur during the period between conception & physical
             1. _____________________-involves a detailed
                examination of these early developmental processes.
             2. ______________________ _____________-when
                these abnormalities are severe enough to produce
                clinical symptoms.

    _______________________ _______________-the boundaries are
     established by the limits of the equipment used.
             1. ________________-analyzes internal structure of cells.
             2. _________________- examines groups of cells-tissues.

    HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY-study of the functions of the human
           1. cell physiology-study of the functions of living cells.
           2. histophysiology-examines tissue function
           3. special physiology- studies physiology of specific
           4. system physiology- considers all aspects of the
              function of specific organ systems.
           5. pathological physiology-studies the effects of diseases on organ
                  or system functions.

                            Chapter 1
          An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION-anatomical structures & physiological
mechanisms are arranged in a series of interacting levels.
   Starts at chemical level & ends with organismic level
        o Smallest level is the __________________

       o to ___________________________level

       o to ____________________level

       o to ___________________level

       o to ______________________________level

       o to __________________ ___ _ ________________level

       o last would be the _________________________

                    Chapter 1
     An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

                       Chapter 1
      An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
    o ________________________-the tendency for
      physiological conditions to stabilize internal conditions
          example-blood glucose level is kept within narrow
            range of 70-110/100mL
          homeostasis is continually being disrupted by :
                external stimuli-intense heat, cold, lack of
                internal stimuli-psychological stresses &
                disruptions are usually mild & temporary
                if homeostasis is not maintained, death may
       1. homeostatic _______________refers to the
          adjustments in physiological systems that are
          responsible for the preservation of homeostasis
             involves a ____________sensitive to a particular
               stimulus & an _________________whose activity
               affects the same stimulus.
             ________________feedback is a corrective
               mechanism involving an action that directly
                 opposes a variation from normal limits.
                  most homeostatic mechanisms involve negative
                       o examples:
                              Body temperature above
                               normal(98.6 degrees F), so blood
                               flow to skin is increased & sweat
                               glands are stimulated. Skin loses
                               heat to the environment &
                               evaporation of sweat cools body.
                              body temp. drops below normal-
                               shift blood away from skin to
                               reduce heat loss to outside world
                               & muscular contractions of
                               shivering -generates heat -body
                               temperature returns to normal.

               Chapter 1
An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
     _______________ feedback- the initial stimulus
       produces a response that exaggerates the stimulus.
          o _________________occur very often
          o example:
                 blood clotting-once the clot forms it
                    releases chemicals that speed up the
                    clotting process until the vessel wall is

                   _________________________-occurs
                    when the activities of a cell, tissue,
                    organ, or system change automatically
                    in response to an environmental

                   ___________________regulation-
                    results from the activities of the
                    nervous or endocrine systems-control
                    or adjust the activities of many different
                    systems simultaneously-usually occurs
                    when autoregulation fails.
                        causes more extensive &
                           effective adjustments in system
                        ______________system
                           performs crisis management-
                           rapid, short term, & very specific
                        ______________system-
                           releases chemical messengers
                           called hormones -affect tissues
                           & organs throughout the body &
                           responses may not be
                           immediately apparent but will
                           persist for days or weeks

                   symptoms of
                    when failure of homeostatic regulation
                    causes organ systems to malfunction.

               Chapter 1
An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
        Anatomical Landmarks

               Chapter 1
An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions

                            Chapter 1
             An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

 _________________ _______________-the hands are at the
  sides with ____________ facing forward
 ______________-a person lying face up in the anatomical
 ____________-a person lying face down in the anatomical
              Regional and Directional References
  o _________________ (cranial, cephalic, rostral-refers to nose)
         -towards the head
         -The eyes are superior to the mouth.
  o _______________________ (caudal-tail)
         -away from the head
         -The stomach is inferior to the heart
  o _________________ or ____________________
         -at the back of the body
         -The brain is posterior to the forehead.
  o _________________ or _____________________
         -at the front of the body
         - The sternum is anterior to the heart.
         -The navel is on the ventral surface of the trunk.
  o ____________________________
        - nearer to the midline (long axis) of the body
        - The heart lies medial to the lungs.
  o ______________________
     -Farther away from the midline (long axis) of the body
     -The eye is lateral to the nose.
  o ________________________
     -nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk or toward an
     attached base
     -The knee is proximal to the ankle & the wrist is proximal to the
  o _______________________
     - farther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk or away
     from an attached base
    -The wrist is distal to the elbow.
   -The fingers are distal to the wrist

               Chapter 1
An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

  Directional References Diagram

                               Chapter 1
                An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
Sectional Anatomy
   3 Sectional Planes

    1.                              plane-or horizontal plane-lies at right

         angles (perpendicular) to the long axis of the body, dividing it

         into                             &                         sections.

         o a cut in this plane is called a transverse section or cross


    2. frontal or                               plane- parallels the long

         axis of the body, extending from side to side, dividing it into

         _______________&___________________ sections.

            o coronal refers to sections passing through the _________

    3. ___________________plane- parallels the long axis of the body

         extending from front to back & divides it into _____________

         & _______________________sections.

            o ________________________ -the plane passes through

                the midline & divides the body into ______________ left

                & right sections.

            o __________________________- the plane misses the

                ___________________, separating the right & left

                portions of ________________ size-(a cut

                ____________________ to the midsaggital line)

                              Chapter 1
               An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
            Planes of Section Diagram

Serial Reconstruction- choosing one sectional plane & making a series

of sections at small intervals- permits the analysis of complex


                         Chapter 1
          An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
o Body Cavities-internal                   -2 functions:
  1.                             delicate organs
  2. permit significant _______________________________ of
     visceral organs.

   2 body cavities form during embryonic development:
    1.                  body cavity-surrounds brain & spinal cord
        subdivided into the :
             o ___________________ cavity-encloses the brain
             o _______________ cavity-surrounds the spinal cord

     2. ______________ body cavity or _________- surrounds
        developing organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular,
        digestive, & reproductive systems.

        subdivided into the :
            o _______________ cavity-enclosed by the chest wall
                  separated from the abdominopelvic cavity by
                     a flat, muscular sheet-the ________________
                  thoracic cavity further subdivided into:
                          2 ________________ cavities – each
                            containing a lung-
                          a ____________________ cavity-
                            surrounds the heart
                          _________________________-a large
                            central mass of connective tissue that
                            surrounds the pericardial cavity &
                            seprates the 2 pleural cavities.

             o _______________________________ or
               enclosed by the abdomen & pelvic girdle-2
                   _______________________ cavity

                    _______________________ cavity

               Chapter 1
An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
 Relationships of the Body Cavities

               Chapter 1
An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
   Diagrams of the Body Cavities

                            Chapter 1
             An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
 Sectional Anatomy & Clinical Technology
     o radiological procedures (__________________-doctors who
       specialize in analyzing & performing these procedures):
           X-rays
                  ____________________-the resistance of X-ray
                    penetration-bones have a high radiodensity &
                       o ___________- a very radiodense chemical
                          solution that the patient drinks in order to
                          show digestive tract- in X-ray-barium is
                          white & outlined by digestive tract-check for
                       o radiodense dyes-injected to show circulatory
                          system-called an ______________________.
                       Other Procedures:
                       o _____________(Computerized
                          Tomography)- formerly called CAT –
                          computerized axial tomography)-uses
                          computers to reconstruct sectional views-
                          show 3D relationships & soft tissue structure
                          more clearly than X-rays.
                       o MRI Scans-___________________________-
                          uses a magnetic field & radio waves to create
                          an image of soft tissues-not as dangerous
                       o _____________________- inexpensive &
                          simple-sound waves are reflected by internal
                          structures & a picture or- echogram- is
                          made from the patterns of echoes.
 Diagnostics: Anatomy & Observation
      o There are 4 basic components to a physical examination:
               *________________- examining body proportions,
                posture, & patterns of movement-often the most
                important of the 4-provides the largest amount of
                useful information.
               _________________-the physician uses hands &
                fingers to feel the body-detect unusual lumps.
               __________________- tapping with the fingers or
                hands to obtain information about the densities of
                underlying tissues.
               ___________________- listening to body sounds-often
                using a stethoscope.

                           Chapter 1
            An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
              Steps of the Scientific Method

1. _________________use your 5 senses)-define a


2. Propose a _________________-explains your observation-

  must be testable, unbiased, & repeatable

3. Design an ___________________ to test your hypothesis

        collect & analyze data- determine if data are

          ______________________(prejudiced or influenced)

        if biased _____________________ experiment

4. Draw a _______________________

   if not biased –refine hypothesis-_________________


   if not repeatable-propose ________________


   if repeatable –accept as a ________________________

               Chapter 1
An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology


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