BIOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW PACKET by rua13781

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                       BIOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW PACKET


Here is your final review packet. Make sure that you know and understand the material
on these sheets. Define or describe the terms listed below, answer any questions asked,
and be able to label any diagrams.

   I.        Embryology:

            Zygote: diploid fertilized egg; fused egg and sperm cell

            Gastrulation: Stage of embryonic development in which embryo folds inward
             to form 3 germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm);

            Placenta: membrane pouch that attaches mother to fetus and supplies fetus
             with nutrients

            Fetus: developing human 8 weeks after fertilization till birth

            Embryo: multi-celled organism at the early stage of development


   II.       Evolution:

            Evolution: change of species over time

            Natural Selection: when individuals with more favorable traits survive and
             reproduce better than others because of environmental pressures

            Homologous Structures: similar internal structures, but different functions in
             different species. Ex. Human arm and Bat wing.

                o    Suggests that two organisms share a common ancestory/evolved from
                    the same organism

            Vestigial Organs: organs that are present in the body that no longer have a
             function
                o Tells us something about the behavior of our ancestors
                o Our appendix doesn’t work now, but suggests we once had a diet that
                    required an appendix

            Adaptations: favorable traits that improve the ability for an organism to
             survive and reproduce
          Fossils: remains of living things from many years ago; buried in layers of
           sedimentary rock; fossils in lower layers are older and more simple than
           fossils in top layers

          Variations: different versions of a genetic trait; NECESSARY for natural
           selection to work

          Biogenesis: Law that states that life can ONLY come from pre-existing life.

              o Opposite of spontaneous generation which suggests life can come
                from non-living things

          Who is Charles Darwin? How did he come up with his beliefs? Observational
           biology that developed the theory of evolution. He observed organisms in
           different geographical locations in the Galapapgos islands.

          What were the first living organisms on Earth? What is the endosymbiotic
           theory? Prokaryotic Heterotrophic archaebacteria. Endosymbiotic theory
           states that complex eukaryotic cells evolved from large prokaryotes engulfing
           smaller prokaryotes. Describes how the mitochondria and chloroplasts
           became part of our cells.

          What does the Big Bang Theory state? The universe was created in an
           explosion and the universe is constantly expanding.

          What are some types of evidence that evolution occurred? Fossils

          What are some types of evidence that many organisms share common
           ancestors?
           Homologous structures, vestigial organs, similarities of gene

          What were the results of Miller and Urey’s experiments?
           Organic molecules are can be made from inorganic molecules; They
           attempted to recreate the conditions of early earth to prove that organic
           molecules (amino acids, nucleotides, sugars) would form from inorganic
           compounds (CO2, CH4. H2O). This is a necessary first step to forming living
           things!

III.       Classification:

        What is taxonomy?
       The study of classifying and naming living things.

         What are the 5 kingdoms? Also be familiar with the 6 kingdom system of
          classification.
       5: Monera      Protist     Animal        Plant           Fungus
         6: Archeabacteria     Eubacteria     Protist         Animal         Plant
                 Fungus
         Difference between 5 and 6 kingdom system: as scientists learned more about
         monerans(the bacteria) they learned that there were really two different groups
         that could not be grouped together. They then divided monerans into two
         kingdoms: eubacteria and archaebacteria

          Know some basic characteristics of each kingdom, and know representative
           organisms from each kingdom.
Archeabacteria Eubacteria     Protist         Animal       Plant         Fungus
Prokaryote       Prokaryotes Eukaryote        Eukaryote    Eukaryote     Eukaryote
Lives in         “true        Single          Multicelled Multicelled usually
HARSH            bacteria”    celled          Heterotroph Autotroph      Multicelled
environments                  Autotroph                                  Heterotroph
                              or                                         decomposers
                              heterotroph

          Know the hierarchical sequence of taxonomic categories.
         Domain, Kingdom ,Phylum, Class, Order, Family ,Genus, Species

           Which is the broadest category?
            Domain (followed by kingdom)
          Which is the most specific category?
            Species
          Which 2 categories form the scientific name of an organism?
         Genus species
          What is binomial nomenclature?
         Using 2 part naming system to identify organisms; two parts include the genus
         and species name of the organism
          What is the scientific name of humans?
         Homo sapiens
          The scientific name of the wolf is Canus lupus. Identify its genus and species.
         Genus: Canus           species: lupus
          Who is Carolus Linnaues?
         Inventor of the original hierarchical organizing system for living things.
          What is a taxonomic key? Why do we call them dichotomous keys?
         Verbal Tool consisting of a series of two part questions used to identify organisms
         based on appearance.
                Example: To identify a tree, the first question might be does the tree have
                broad leaves or needles?

   IV.       Virus & Bacteria

            What is a bacterium? Prokaryotic cell
   To what kingdom do the bacteria belong? Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
    which were formally lumped together into the kingdom Monera

 Which bacteria live in harsh environments, resembling the early earth?
archaebacteria

   Which are the more common disease causing bacteria? How do they cause
    diseases?
    Eubacteria. They can attack your cells directly, release toxins that hurt your
    cells, or compete with your cells for valuable resources like food

 What is a prokaryote? Eukaryote?
Prokaryote cells do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles like the
mitochondria, chloroplasts or endoplasmic reticulum.

Eukaryotes have a nucleus and all of the organelles listed above.

   Are bacteria prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
    Prokaryotes

 What is a flagellum?
A tail-like structure found on some bacterial cells that helps the bacterial cell
move from place to place

   Describe the following shapes of bacteria: coccus, bacillius, spirillium.
    Coccus – round/spherical
    Bacillus – rod shaped
    Spirillium – spiral shaped

   Antibiotic
       Chemical/drug that kills bacterial cells by destroying their cell wall or
       blocking protein synthesis

   Antibody
       Protein produced by the immune system to recognize and inhibit specific
       pathogens (like viruses or bacteria)

   Virus
       Non-living pathogen that is made of a protein coat and contains DNA or
       RNA. Can only reproduce by taking over a living cell.

   Vaccine
       A weakened version or harmless portion of a pathogen that allows the
       immune system to learn how to fight a disease without experiencing any
       symptoms of that disease.
     Binary Fission
         Asexual cell division in prokaryotic cells (bacteria). Results in two
         identical cells

     Retrovirus
         Virus that contains RNA. Mutates faster than a DNA virus because
         information must be copied twice; (HIV)

     Bacteriophage
         Virus that infects bacterial cells. Has potential to be used as a new type of
         “antibiotic”

     Pathogen
         Anything biological (made of protein/nucleic acid) that causes disease.

     Describe the structure of a virus what is the inner core of a virus; what is
      the protein coat surrounding the core?
          o A virus has an external protein coat called the capsid. The capsid
              surrounds the genetic material found in the core. The genetic material
              can be either DNA or RNA

     Are viruses living or non living? Explain.
         Viruses are not alive because they do not maintain homeostasis, they do
         not use energy, and cannot reproduce on their own and MOST
         IMPORTANTLY they are not made of cells.

     Know differences and similarities between viruses & cells.
         o Cells are packets of cytoplasm and organelles surrounded by a
            membrane. They must fulfill ALL the characteristics of life
         o Viruses are protein wrapped around DNA/RNA. They do NOT fulfill
            all the characteristics of life

   Know the differences between the lytic cycle and lysogenic cycle.
  Lytic cycle: virus invades cell and viral DNA takes over. Host cell replicates
  viruses and dies. Host has symptoms

  Lysogenic cycle: Virus invades cell, but viral DNA hides and is reproduced each
  time the host cell reproduces. Hibernation phase, host has no symptoms but virus
  is spreading

V.     Human Anatomy:
Digestive System

     Know the main function of the digestive system, and the major organs.
         I.    See your note packet for these
      Know and be able to label a diagram of the human digestive system.
          I.    See your note packet for these

      Know the functions and location of the following organs:

          I.      Mouth – site of mechanical digestion and chemical digestion of
                  carbohydrates (starch). Saliva lubricates food and contains
                  amylase to break down starch.

          II.     Epiglottis- flap of tissue covering the wind pipe to prevent choking
                  during swallowing.

          III.    Esophagus – “food tube” connects pharynx to the stomach.
                  Squeezes food down to stomach with muscle contractions called
                  peristalsis

          IV.     Stomach- site of mechanical and chemical digestion. Lined with
                  protective mucus. Produces acids (HCl) and enzymes to break
                  down food.

          V.      Small Intestine- where the enzymes and bile from the pancreas and
                  liver work to break down food and is the site for the absorption of
                  most nutrients. Lined with villi, which increase the surface area of
                  the small intestine.

          VI.     Large Intestine (colon) – undigested material pass through while
                  water is reabsorbed.

          VII.    Rectum- stores feces

          VIII.   Anus- undigested waste leave the body

          IX.     Liver- produces digestive enzymes, bile, and also makes urea

          X.      Gallbladder – stores bile made in the liver

          XI.     Pancreas- produces insulin, neutralizing chemicals which are sent
                  to the small intestine; produces most of the enzymes needed to
                  digest protein, fats and disaccharides


Describe the following terms:
        Peristalsis – wave-like muscle contractions that push food through the
           digestive system.
            Bolus – refers to lump of food mixed with saliva that is swallowed

            Bile- chemical that helps dissolve fats and oils, allowing them to be
             digested.

            Feces – excess food or indigestible material that is excreted rather than
             absorbed


Circulatory System

          Which blood vessel carries blood away from the heart?
         Arteries

            Which blood vessel carries blood toward the heart?

         Veins
          What is the function of capillaries?
         Allows for the diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and waste to
         pass in and out of blood

          What is the biggest artery in the human body?
         Aorta

            Which blood vessel carries blood from the heart to the lungs?

         Pulmonary artery

          Which blood vessel carries blood from the lungs back to the heart?
         Pulmonary vein
          Know the correct sequence of blood vessels from the heart through the
             body and back to the heart.
         Left atrium left ventricle  aorta Entire body  vena cava  right
         atrium  right ventricle  pulmonary artery  lungs  pulmonary veins 
         Left atrium

         Arteries all branch into arterioles which branch into capillaries. After
         diffusion, all capillaries fuse into venules and then into veins.
             What is the importance of hemoglobin? Molecule in red blood cells that
              carries oxygen and carbon dioxide; contains Iron which can bond with
              oxygen; iron gives blood (and rust!) its color

             Red Blood Cells – carries oxygen and carbon dioxide

             White Blood Cells – fights pathogens ( part of the immune system)

             Platelets – proteins and cell particles that clot blood during bleeding

             Plasma – liquid portion of blood that carries dissolved nutrients

             Know and be able to label a diagram of the heart (atria, ventricle, aorta,
              septum)


Respiratory System

      Know and be able to label a diagram of the human respiratory system
      Know the passage of air from the nostrils or mouth to the lungs.


      Nostrils – warms and moistens air


      Pharynx – allows food and air to pass


      Larynx – voice box


      Trachea- cartilaginous tube that leads air into the lungs


      Bronchi – first branch off the trachea


      Bronchioles – network of fine hollow tubes in the lungs


      Alveoli – at the end of the bronichioles, the site of gas exchange with capillaries


      Inhalation – diaphragm contracts and pulls air into the lungs
        Exhalation – diaphragm relaxes and air flows back out of the lungs


        Diaphragm – muscle that controls breathing


        What is another term for the voice box? Larynx


Excretory System

        Be able to label the parts of the human excretory system. Know the diagram of the
         kidneys (Bowman’s Capsule; Glomerulus, Loop of Henle)


   Know the functions of:
    Kidneys – filters toxins from blood


        Ureters – tube that passes urine to urinary bladder


        Urinary Bladder – stores urine


        Nephrons- functional unit of the kidneys


Nervous System

        What makes up the central nervous system? Brain and spine

        What makes up the peripheral nervous system? nerves

      What are the main parts of the human brain? Be able to identify them on a
       diagram.
Cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem

     What is the largest part of the human brain involved in higher level thinking?
cerebrum

   VI.      Ecology
       Biosphere: where all living things on the planet are found; includes part of the
        lithosphere (land) hydrosphere (ocean and other bodies of water) and
        atmosphere (air)

       Biotic Factors (examples) – predation, food, symbiosis


       Abiotic Factors (examples)- temperature, light, salt, precipitation


       Population- number of individuals of a species


       Community- all the populations of different species in a given area


       Ecosystem- the biotic and abiotic factors in a given area.

       Habitat- where an organism lives

       Niche- what an organism does in its habitat; its job or role

       Symbiosis when two organisms depend on each other in one way or another

           o Mutualism – both species benefit

           o Commensalism - one species benefits, the other is not harmed or
             helped

           o Parasitism- one species benefits, the other is harmed

   Food Chains & Food Webs
       o Autotrophs – produces its own food

        o Heterotrophs- must consume food

        o Consumers (primary/first order; secondary/higher order)

                  Carnivores: meat eaters

                  Herbivores: plant eaters

                  Omnivores: everything eaters

                  Scavengers – eats already dead organisms
              Decomposers- breaks down dead material and recycles the
               nutrients in the ecosystem

   Ecological Succession

       o Primary Succession – life beginning in a region that did not have life
         before ( on bare rock forms soil as well)

       o Secondary Succession- life beginning in a region that did support life
         before (soil is present)

       o Pioneer Communities- first populations to succeed at surviving in a
         new region.

       o Climax Communities – most stable populations at the end of
         succession.

   Biogeochemical Cycles
       o Nitrogen Cycle which organisms convert nitrogen gas into a form
          usable by plants? Nitrogen-fixing bacteria

       o Carbon/Oxygen Cycle photosynthesis/respiration
             What process puts oxygen into the atmosphere?
             What processes put carbon dioxide into atmosphere?
             What processes put very large quantities of carbon dioxide into
               the atmosphere


       o Water Cycle
            Condensation: water vapor turns to liquid water

                  Precipitation: water falls to ground as snow, rain or ice

                  Evaporation: liquid water turns to gaseous water

                  Transpiration: water vapor released from leaves of plants

                  Ground Water: water stored in soil

   Biomes
       o What is a biome? A geographic location with characteristic abiotic
          factors

       o Terrestrial Biomes know characteristics of each
             Tundra – cold dessert; dry
                    Taiga – cold, more rain than tundra but pretty dry; evergreen
                     trees
                  Temperate Deciduous Forest – where we live!
                  Grasslands – dry warm but grass and certain trees can live here
                  Desert – very dry and hot
                  Tropical Rainforest – warm and very wet
          o What type of biome do we live in?
          Temperate Deciduous Forest
          o What is the difference between marine biomes and freshwater biomes?
                 Marine is salt water
          o Name some freshwater biomes.
                 Ponds, lakes, river, swamp, bog, marsh
      Natural Resources define and give examples
          o Perpetual Resources: resources is constantly present in the
              environment

          o Renewable Resources: more can be made in a reasonable amount of
            time without major destruction to ecosystem – fruits, water

          o Nonrenewable Resources: oils, fuel – form naturally but over billions
            of years


VII.   Genetics

      Who is the father of genetics? Gregor Mendel
      Describe the following:
          o Law of Dominance and Recessiveness: some alleles over power other
              alleles when paired together. You will “see” the phenotype of the
              dominant allele only

          o Law of Segregation: during gamete formation, each gamete only
            receives one allele for each gene. Offspring therefore inherits one
            allele from mom and one from dad

          o Law of Independent Assortment: during gamete formation, the
            inheritance of one trait does not influence the inheritance of another.
            Different genes get passed on in different combinations. One pair of
            parents can produce many different offspring just by passing on
            different combinations of alleles

      Incomplete Dominance: in the heterzygote, the traits of both alleles are
       blended (red allele + white allele  pink flower)

      Codominance: in the heterozygote, the traits of both alleles are both fully
       expressed. (black allele + white allele  black and white fur (not gray!)
       Sex Determination: What is the genotype of: (1) Female; (2) Male?
Female: XX, Male: XY
       Who determines the sex of a baby? Father (can pass on either his X or his Y;
         mom can only pass on an X)

          Sex Linked Traits What does that mean? (Examples include color
           blindness and hemophilia) Traits are found on the X-chromosome; males only
           inherit 1 copy and are therefore more likely to end up with an sex-linked
           recessive trait

         Blood Types A, B, AB, O  which are recessive; which are codominant
O is recessive, A and B are codominant
         What are the possible genotypes for each blood type?

              o   A: AA or Ao;
              o   B: BB or Bo
              o   AB: AB
              o   O: oo

        What is a test cross? Why is one used?
        - parent with an unknown genotype crossed with the recessive. Used to identify
       the genotype of the unknown parent. If any recessive offspring result from the
       cross, unknown parent was heterozygous; if all dominant offspring result from the
       cross, unknown parent was homozygous;

          Define: genetics; allele; autosome
              o Genetics: study of heritable traits and how they are passed from parent
                  to offspring
              o Allele: a variation of a gene (brown and blonde are variations of the
                  Hair color gene)
          Homozygous vs. Heterozygous
              o Hetero: individual who inherited two different alleles for the same
                  gene; Bb, Hh
              o Homozygous: individual who inherited two of the same alleles for the
                  same gene; BB, hh

          Genotype vs. Phenotype
              o Genotype refers to the combination of alleles you inherited
              o Phenotype is the physical appearance you have because of the alleles
                 you inherited

          Monohybrid vs. Dihybrid Cross
             Mono: cross that focuses on a single trait; brown hair vs. blonde hair
             Di: cross that focuses on two traits: brown hair and blue eyes vs. blonde
             hair and brown eyes
Be able to do Punnett Sqaures for all types that we have done in class. Be able to figure
out genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring.

       1. Cross a heterozygous blood type A female with a homozygous type B male.
       Parents: AO x BB
        - see your book/notes

       2. Cross a color blind male with a female who is a carrier for color blindness.

       Parents: XbY x XBXb

       3. Cross a homozygous green plant with a yellow plant (green is dominant to
          yellow)

       Parents: GG x gg

       4. Incomplete dominance: cross a red flower with a white flower

       Parents: RR x rr (Rr= pink because its incomplete)

       5. Incomplete Dominance: cross 2 pink flowers

       Parents: Rr x Rr

								
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