"BIOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW PACKET"
Name: BIOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW PACKET Here is your final review packet. Make sure that you know and understand the material on these sheets. Define or describe the terms listed below, answer any questions asked, and be able to label any diagrams. I. Embryology: Zygote: diploid fertilized egg; fused egg and sperm cell Gastrulation: Stage of embryonic development in which embryo folds inward to form 3 germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm); Placenta: membrane pouch that attaches mother to fetus and supplies fetus with nutrients Fetus: developing human 8 weeks after fertilization till birth Embryo: multi-celled organism at the early stage of development II. Evolution: Evolution: change of species over time Natural Selection: when individuals with more favorable traits survive and reproduce better than others because of environmental pressures Homologous Structures: similar internal structures, but different functions in different species. Ex. Human arm and Bat wing. o Suggests that two organisms share a common ancestory/evolved from the same organism Vestigial Organs: organs that are present in the body that no longer have a function o Tells us something about the behavior of our ancestors o Our appendix doesn’t work now, but suggests we once had a diet that required an appendix Adaptations: favorable traits that improve the ability for an organism to survive and reproduce Fossils: remains of living things from many years ago; buried in layers of sedimentary rock; fossils in lower layers are older and more simple than fossils in top layers Variations: different versions of a genetic trait; NECESSARY for natural selection to work Biogenesis: Law that states that life can ONLY come from pre-existing life. o Opposite of spontaneous generation which suggests life can come from non-living things Who is Charles Darwin? How did he come up with his beliefs? Observational biology that developed the theory of evolution. He observed organisms in different geographical locations in the Galapapgos islands. What were the first living organisms on Earth? What is the endosymbiotic theory? Prokaryotic Heterotrophic archaebacteria. Endosymbiotic theory states that complex eukaryotic cells evolved from large prokaryotes engulfing smaller prokaryotes. Describes how the mitochondria and chloroplasts became part of our cells. What does the Big Bang Theory state? The universe was created in an explosion and the universe is constantly expanding. What are some types of evidence that evolution occurred? Fossils What are some types of evidence that many organisms share common ancestors? Homologous structures, vestigial organs, similarities of gene What were the results of Miller and Urey’s experiments? Organic molecules are can be made from inorganic molecules; They attempted to recreate the conditions of early earth to prove that organic molecules (amino acids, nucleotides, sugars) would form from inorganic compounds (CO2, CH4. H2O). This is a necessary first step to forming living things! III. Classification: What is taxonomy? The study of classifying and naming living things. What are the 5 kingdoms? Also be familiar with the 6 kingdom system of classification. 5: Monera Protist Animal Plant Fungus 6: Archeabacteria Eubacteria Protist Animal Plant Fungus Difference between 5 and 6 kingdom system: as scientists learned more about monerans(the bacteria) they learned that there were really two different groups that could not be grouped together. They then divided monerans into two kingdoms: eubacteria and archaebacteria Know some basic characteristics of each kingdom, and know representative organisms from each kingdom. Archeabacteria Eubacteria Protist Animal Plant Fungus Prokaryote Prokaryotes Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote Lives in “true Single Multicelled Multicelled usually HARSH bacteria” celled Heterotroph Autotroph Multicelled environments Autotroph Heterotroph or decomposers heterotroph Know the hierarchical sequence of taxonomic categories. Domain, Kingdom ,Phylum, Class, Order, Family ,Genus, Species Which is the broadest category? Domain (followed by kingdom) Which is the most specific category? Species Which 2 categories form the scientific name of an organism? Genus species What is binomial nomenclature? Using 2 part naming system to identify organisms; two parts include the genus and species name of the organism What is the scientific name of humans? Homo sapiens The scientific name of the wolf is Canus lupus. Identify its genus and species. Genus: Canus species: lupus Who is Carolus Linnaues? Inventor of the original hierarchical organizing system for living things. What is a taxonomic key? Why do we call them dichotomous keys? Verbal Tool consisting of a series of two part questions used to identify organisms based on appearance. Example: To identify a tree, the first question might be does the tree have broad leaves or needles? IV. Virus & Bacteria What is a bacterium? Prokaryotic cell To what kingdom do the bacteria belong? Eubacteria and Archaebacteria which were formally lumped together into the kingdom Monera Which bacteria live in harsh environments, resembling the early earth? archaebacteria Which are the more common disease causing bacteria? How do they cause diseases? Eubacteria. They can attack your cells directly, release toxins that hurt your cells, or compete with your cells for valuable resources like food What is a prokaryote? Eukaryote? Prokaryote cells do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles like the mitochondria, chloroplasts or endoplasmic reticulum. Eukaryotes have a nucleus and all of the organelles listed above. Are bacteria prokaryotes or eukaryotes? Prokaryotes What is a flagellum? A tail-like structure found on some bacterial cells that helps the bacterial cell move from place to place Describe the following shapes of bacteria: coccus, bacillius, spirillium. Coccus – round/spherical Bacillus – rod shaped Spirillium – spiral shaped Antibiotic Chemical/drug that kills bacterial cells by destroying their cell wall or blocking protein synthesis Antibody Protein produced by the immune system to recognize and inhibit specific pathogens (like viruses or bacteria) Virus Non-living pathogen that is made of a protein coat and contains DNA or RNA. Can only reproduce by taking over a living cell. Vaccine A weakened version or harmless portion of a pathogen that allows the immune system to learn how to fight a disease without experiencing any symptoms of that disease. Binary Fission Asexual cell division in prokaryotic cells (bacteria). Results in two identical cells Retrovirus Virus that contains RNA. Mutates faster than a DNA virus because information must be copied twice; (HIV) Bacteriophage Virus that infects bacterial cells. Has potential to be used as a new type of “antibiotic” Pathogen Anything biological (made of protein/nucleic acid) that causes disease. Describe the structure of a virus what is the inner core of a virus; what is the protein coat surrounding the core? o A virus has an external protein coat called the capsid. The capsid surrounds the genetic material found in the core. The genetic material can be either DNA or RNA Are viruses living or non living? Explain. Viruses are not alive because they do not maintain homeostasis, they do not use energy, and cannot reproduce on their own and MOST IMPORTANTLY they are not made of cells. Know differences and similarities between viruses & cells. o Cells are packets of cytoplasm and organelles surrounded by a membrane. They must fulfill ALL the characteristics of life o Viruses are protein wrapped around DNA/RNA. They do NOT fulfill all the characteristics of life Know the differences between the lytic cycle and lysogenic cycle. Lytic cycle: virus invades cell and viral DNA takes over. Host cell replicates viruses and dies. Host has symptoms Lysogenic cycle: Virus invades cell, but viral DNA hides and is reproduced each time the host cell reproduces. Hibernation phase, host has no symptoms but virus is spreading V. Human Anatomy: Digestive System Know the main function of the digestive system, and the major organs. I. See your note packet for these Know and be able to label a diagram of the human digestive system. I. See your note packet for these Know the functions and location of the following organs: I. Mouth – site of mechanical digestion and chemical digestion of carbohydrates (starch). Saliva lubricates food and contains amylase to break down starch. II. Epiglottis- flap of tissue covering the wind pipe to prevent choking during swallowing. III. Esophagus – “food tube” connects pharynx to the stomach. Squeezes food down to stomach with muscle contractions called peristalsis IV. Stomach- site of mechanical and chemical digestion. Lined with protective mucus. Produces acids (HCl) and enzymes to break down food. V. Small Intestine- where the enzymes and bile from the pancreas and liver work to break down food and is the site for the absorption of most nutrients. Lined with villi, which increase the surface area of the small intestine. VI. Large Intestine (colon) – undigested material pass through while water is reabsorbed. VII. Rectum- stores feces VIII. Anus- undigested waste leave the body IX. Liver- produces digestive enzymes, bile, and also makes urea X. Gallbladder – stores bile made in the liver XI. Pancreas- produces insulin, neutralizing chemicals which are sent to the small intestine; produces most of the enzymes needed to digest protein, fats and disaccharides Describe the following terms: Peristalsis – wave-like muscle contractions that push food through the digestive system. Bolus – refers to lump of food mixed with saliva that is swallowed Bile- chemical that helps dissolve fats and oils, allowing them to be digested. Feces – excess food or indigestible material that is excreted rather than absorbed Circulatory System Which blood vessel carries blood away from the heart? Arteries Which blood vessel carries blood toward the heart? Veins What is the function of capillaries? Allows for the diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and waste to pass in and out of blood What is the biggest artery in the human body? Aorta Which blood vessel carries blood from the heart to the lungs? Pulmonary artery Which blood vessel carries blood from the lungs back to the heart? Pulmonary vein Know the correct sequence of blood vessels from the heart through the body and back to the heart. Left atrium left ventricle aorta Entire body vena cava right atrium right ventricle pulmonary artery lungs pulmonary veins Left atrium Arteries all branch into arterioles which branch into capillaries. After diffusion, all capillaries fuse into venules and then into veins. What is the importance of hemoglobin? Molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide; contains Iron which can bond with oxygen; iron gives blood (and rust!) its color Red Blood Cells – carries oxygen and carbon dioxide White Blood Cells – fights pathogens ( part of the immune system) Platelets – proteins and cell particles that clot blood during bleeding Plasma – liquid portion of blood that carries dissolved nutrients Know and be able to label a diagram of the heart (atria, ventricle, aorta, septum) Respiratory System Know and be able to label a diagram of the human respiratory system Know the passage of air from the nostrils or mouth to the lungs. Nostrils – warms and moistens air Pharynx – allows food and air to pass Larynx – voice box Trachea- cartilaginous tube that leads air into the lungs Bronchi – first branch off the trachea Bronchioles – network of fine hollow tubes in the lungs Alveoli – at the end of the bronichioles, the site of gas exchange with capillaries Inhalation – diaphragm contracts and pulls air into the lungs Exhalation – diaphragm relaxes and air flows back out of the lungs Diaphragm – muscle that controls breathing What is another term for the voice box? Larynx Excretory System Be able to label the parts of the human excretory system. Know the diagram of the kidneys (Bowman’s Capsule; Glomerulus, Loop of Henle) Know the functions of: Kidneys – filters toxins from blood Ureters – tube that passes urine to urinary bladder Urinary Bladder – stores urine Nephrons- functional unit of the kidneys Nervous System What makes up the central nervous system? Brain and spine What makes up the peripheral nervous system? nerves What are the main parts of the human brain? Be able to identify them on a diagram. Cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem What is the largest part of the human brain involved in higher level thinking? cerebrum VI. Ecology Biosphere: where all living things on the planet are found; includes part of the lithosphere (land) hydrosphere (ocean and other bodies of water) and atmosphere (air) Biotic Factors (examples) – predation, food, symbiosis Abiotic Factors (examples)- temperature, light, salt, precipitation Population- number of individuals of a species Community- all the populations of different species in a given area Ecosystem- the biotic and abiotic factors in a given area. Habitat- where an organism lives Niche- what an organism does in its habitat; its job or role Symbiosis when two organisms depend on each other in one way or another o Mutualism – both species benefit o Commensalism - one species benefits, the other is not harmed or helped o Parasitism- one species benefits, the other is harmed Food Chains & Food Webs o Autotrophs – produces its own food o Heterotrophs- must consume food o Consumers (primary/first order; secondary/higher order) Carnivores: meat eaters Herbivores: plant eaters Omnivores: everything eaters Scavengers – eats already dead organisms Decomposers- breaks down dead material and recycles the nutrients in the ecosystem Ecological Succession o Primary Succession – life beginning in a region that did not have life before ( on bare rock forms soil as well) o Secondary Succession- life beginning in a region that did support life before (soil is present) o Pioneer Communities- first populations to succeed at surviving in a new region. o Climax Communities – most stable populations at the end of succession. Biogeochemical Cycles o Nitrogen Cycle which organisms convert nitrogen gas into a form usable by plants? Nitrogen-fixing bacteria o Carbon/Oxygen Cycle photosynthesis/respiration What process puts oxygen into the atmosphere? What processes put carbon dioxide into atmosphere? What processes put very large quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere o Water Cycle Condensation: water vapor turns to liquid water Precipitation: water falls to ground as snow, rain or ice Evaporation: liquid water turns to gaseous water Transpiration: water vapor released from leaves of plants Ground Water: water stored in soil Biomes o What is a biome? A geographic location with characteristic abiotic factors o Terrestrial Biomes know characteristics of each Tundra – cold dessert; dry Taiga – cold, more rain than tundra but pretty dry; evergreen trees Temperate Deciduous Forest – where we live! Grasslands – dry warm but grass and certain trees can live here Desert – very dry and hot Tropical Rainforest – warm and very wet o What type of biome do we live in? Temperate Deciduous Forest o What is the difference between marine biomes and freshwater biomes? Marine is salt water o Name some freshwater biomes. Ponds, lakes, river, swamp, bog, marsh Natural Resources define and give examples o Perpetual Resources: resources is constantly present in the environment o Renewable Resources: more can be made in a reasonable amount of time without major destruction to ecosystem – fruits, water o Nonrenewable Resources: oils, fuel – form naturally but over billions of years VII. Genetics Who is the father of genetics? Gregor Mendel Describe the following: o Law of Dominance and Recessiveness: some alleles over power other alleles when paired together. You will “see” the phenotype of the dominant allele only o Law of Segregation: during gamete formation, each gamete only receives one allele for each gene. Offspring therefore inherits one allele from mom and one from dad o Law of Independent Assortment: during gamete formation, the inheritance of one trait does not influence the inheritance of another. Different genes get passed on in different combinations. One pair of parents can produce many different offspring just by passing on different combinations of alleles Incomplete Dominance: in the heterzygote, the traits of both alleles are blended (red allele + white allele pink flower) Codominance: in the heterozygote, the traits of both alleles are both fully expressed. (black allele + white allele black and white fur (not gray!) Sex Determination: What is the genotype of: (1) Female; (2) Male? Female: XX, Male: XY Who determines the sex of a baby? Father (can pass on either his X or his Y; mom can only pass on an X) Sex Linked Traits What does that mean? (Examples include color blindness and hemophilia) Traits are found on the X-chromosome; males only inherit 1 copy and are therefore more likely to end up with an sex-linked recessive trait Blood Types A, B, AB, O which are recessive; which are codominant O is recessive, A and B are codominant What are the possible genotypes for each blood type? o A: AA or Ao; o B: BB or Bo o AB: AB o O: oo What is a test cross? Why is one used? - parent with an unknown genotype crossed with the recessive. Used to identify the genotype of the unknown parent. If any recessive offspring result from the cross, unknown parent was heterozygous; if all dominant offspring result from the cross, unknown parent was homozygous; Define: genetics; allele; autosome o Genetics: study of heritable traits and how they are passed from parent to offspring o Allele: a variation of a gene (brown and blonde are variations of the Hair color gene) Homozygous vs. Heterozygous o Hetero: individual who inherited two different alleles for the same gene; Bb, Hh o Homozygous: individual who inherited two of the same alleles for the same gene; BB, hh Genotype vs. Phenotype o Genotype refers to the combination of alleles you inherited o Phenotype is the physical appearance you have because of the alleles you inherited Monohybrid vs. Dihybrid Cross Mono: cross that focuses on a single trait; brown hair vs. blonde hair Di: cross that focuses on two traits: brown hair and blue eyes vs. blonde hair and brown eyes Be able to do Punnett Sqaures for all types that we have done in class. Be able to figure out genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring. 1. Cross a heterozygous blood type A female with a homozygous type B male. Parents: AO x BB - see your book/notes 2. Cross a color blind male with a female who is a carrier for color blindness. Parents: XbY x XBXb 3. Cross a homozygous green plant with a yellow plant (green is dominant to yellow) Parents: GG x gg 4. Incomplete dominance: cross a red flower with a white flower Parents: RR x rr (Rr= pink because its incomplete) 5. Incomplete Dominance: cross 2 pink flowers Parents: Rr x Rr