Study Guide for Sophomore Fall Final Exam by rua13781


									                                    Study Guide for Sophomore Fall Final Exam

Be familiar with all of the terms listed below.

       TERM                              DEFINITION/EXPLANATION                 EXAMPLE

 hero’s quest





 epic conflict


 vedic hymn


 Indian epic

 epic hero

 Indian fable



 epic simile


 tragic flaw

 tragic hero

 heroic flaw

 medieval epic

 static character







 verbal irony

 situational irony

 dramatic irony



 literal language

 rhetorical devices

Latin Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots to Know

                        Meaning               Example words and meanings of words
Grammar: review your DGP notes and all sentences that we have completed thus far.
For this sentence, answer the following questions:

         since we will have finals next week we are reviewing for it this week by answering these questions

1. What part of speech are these words in the sentence?
        a. since           b. reviewing      c. answering       d. these e we

2. What sentence structure does this sentence have? Why do you think so?
3. What are the subjects in the sentence?
4. The verbs?
5. The verbal? What kind is it?
6. Punctuate the sentence correctly.
7. Is there a direct object? If so, what is it?
8. What are the two prepositional phrases? What are the objects of the prepositions?
9. What is the dependent clause? What kind is it?
10. What are the adjectives in the sentence?

Reading and Vocabulary
Read the passages and then answer the questions that follow.

Passage 1: The Peaceful Way
          To most people, salt is just something to sprinkle on popcorn. But to the people of India, salt is something special. It is a
symbol of their struggle for independence from Britain. It is a symbol of the Salt March of 1930, which was a turning point in that
struggle. And it is a symbol of Mahatma Gandhi, the man who led the Salt March.
          Gandhi believed that India should be a free country. He did not like seeing his people ruled by foreigners. The Salt March
was his way of protesting one aspect of British rule. The British had passed a law making it illegal for the people of India to collect
their own salt. Everyone was required to buy salt from the British. In early 1930, Gandhi believed it was time to break that law. He
decided to walk to the sea to gather his own salt "from the ocean created by God."
          It was not the first time that Gandhi had decided to break the law. He had been leading protests against British rule for years.
Many of the protests had been illegal, and Gandhi had often been jailed. But he didn't mind. He believed that if a law was morally
wrong it was his duty to break it. That was part of his philosophy, which he called Satyagraha. The philosophy called for the use of
moral force to change the wrongs of society. A person who used Satyagraha did not hate his enemies. He did not ever use violence
against them. But neither did he give in. According to Satyagraha, a person should act in a way that was morally right and sooner or
later the forces of right would win out. A person practicing Satyagraha would not follow ways that he or she believed to be wrong.
          In March of 1930, Gandhi wrote to the British viceroy, or governor, stating his intention to lead a salt march. The viceroy
did not reply. So on March 12, Gandhi and 75 followers set out on the march. Gandhi was 61 years old. On the march, Gandhi wore
only a simple loincloth. In his right hand he carried a thick bamboo staff to lean on as he walked. Day after day, the hot sun beat
down on him and his followers. Still they kept walking, averaging 10 miles a day. As they walked, they were joined by hundreds of
other Indians. Every step of the way, people poured out of their huts to greet Gandhi and join in the march. The revered leader
stopped frequently to speak to the people. He reminded them of their duty to love one another and to resist the British through
nonviolent means. Gandhi told his followers, "I would rather die a dog's death and have my bones licked by dogs that I should return
home a broken man."
          Throughout the march, Gandhi watched for the arrival of the viceroy's soldiers. He fully expected to be arrested. He had
even named a substitute to take over leadership of the march after his arrest. But days passed and no soldiers showed up. The viceroy
had decided not to make an arrest, because he thought the march would simply peter out and die. He was wrong.
          The Salt March soon became world news. People from many different countries followed Gandhi's every move. They
marveled at the thin old man who was capturing the love and admiration of the Indian people. Every day, Gandhi was offered a ride
in a cart. But he always refused. He insisted on walking all the way. He knew the world was watching and waiting.
          Finally, on April 5, Gandhi reached the coast. By that time almost 10,000 people were marching with him. Gandhi was
feeling weak. He had walked 241 miles. The trip had tired him. But he was also very happy, and when a reporter asked him what he
wanted from the march, he said, "I want world sympathy in this battle of Right against Might."
          All that night Gandhi and his followers prayed by the water's edge. Early the next morning, Gandhi held a religious
ceremony and bathed briefly in the sea to purify himself. Then, at 8:30 a.m., he stooped by the water's edge to pick up a handful of
salt. Thousands of Indians shouted their joy. For the first time in their lives, all the people of who had marched with Gandhi felt truly
          After picking up the salt, Gandhi was sure he would be arrested immediately. But he was not. It was another three weeks
before the British put him in jail. In the meantime, the news of his defiance spread all across India. The word salt was on everyone's
lips. Almost overnight, it came to mean independence for India. The people were in an uproar. Many of them followed Gandhi's
example by going down to the sea and gathering salt for themselves. They also began burning British cloth in the streets and holding
public demonstrations against Britain.
         On April 27, Gandhi was finally arrested for his role in the Salt March. As he was taken to jail, he calmly began singing his
favorite hymn. He was not upset or worried. His faith in Satyagraha remained unshaken. He was certain that sooner or later Britain
would have to give up its unjust position as ruler of India.
         In the end, Britain did grant India the right of self-government. But that did not happen quickly. India's fight for
independence had only begun with the Salt March. It took another 17 years for the country to win its freedom. During those 17 years,
Gandhi was arrested again and again. Some of his followers were beaten and even killed. But Gandhi never abandoned his belief in
nonviolent protest. And with Gandhi as their leader, neither did the people of India.

1. The author's purpose in writing "Mahatma Gandhi: The Peaceful Way" was what?
A. to express an opinion about the British rulers of India
B. to inform the reader about Gandhi's nonviolent struggle for India's independence
C. to convey a mood about the Salt March
2. Which of the following statements from the article best describes Mahatma Gandhi?
A. "Gandhi was 61 years old."
B. "He had been leading protests against British rule for years."
C. "But Gandhi never abandoned his belief in nonviolent protest."
3. In this article, "I want world sympathy in this battle of Right against Might" means Gandhi wanted what?
A. people to feel sorry for him and for the Indian people
B. to gain world-wide support for the Salt March
C. to gain world-wide support for the cause of Indian independence
4. In the meantime, the news of his DEFIANCE spread all across India. DEFIANCE means what?
A. open rebellion
B. obedience
C. nonviolence
5. The viceroy had decided not to make an arrest because he thought that the march would simply PETER OUT. PETER
OUT means what?
A. gather strength
B. slowly die out
C. change direction

 Passage 2: Lunar Legacy
         When Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon twenty-five years ago today, the nation responded ecstatically. It was not just
that American astronauts had beaten Soviet cosmonauts to the moon in the Cold War's most visible symbolic struggle.** Their feat
implied that the same combination of heroism, determination, technical wizardry, and managerial genius would soon conquer other
worlds and a host of earthly ills as well.
         But how fast the dream dissipated! The space agency that put astronauts on the moon later blew up the shuttle Challenger
and gained a reputation for incompetence rather than omnipotence. Space budgets shriveled, NASA lowered its sights. Instead of
venturing onward to Mars, astronauts now cling close to home, working only in low earth orbit. It is as if, critics say, Columbus's epic
voyage to the New World had been followed with boat trips around the harbor.
         The space agency's fall from grace should not be exaggerated. The mythology of the lunar achievement makes it easy to
forget that three astronauts were incinerated in a fire on the launch pad and three others almost lost in an explosion on the way to the
moon. But in that race for national supremacy, losses were tolerated that today might prove crippling.
         Historians in coming centuries will have to judge whether the moon landing was a "giant leap for mankind," as Mr.
Armstrong proclaimed on taking his first step, or merely the most extreme and daring example of an exploit on the order of climbing
Mount Everest or reaching the poles. As of now, it has not led to much- a few follow-up landings, a momentary reputation as the
world's top technical power, and some genuine scientific gains in determining the moon's age, composition, and likely origin. But
more might have been learned at a fraction of the cost by sending an armada of automated devices.
         The moon program, born of Cold War desperation, had nowhere to go after its success. Once the Soviets had been
vanquished, why run another lap? In subsequent years, space operations have proved far more expensive and far less useful than
enthusiasts once imagined, thus difficult to justify without an overriding political goal.
         In the end it was the sheer strangeness of the experience-man on the moon!- that caused it to endure in memory with a
romance that cannot quite be blown away by hardheaded analysis. Perhaps the most memorable image to emerge from the moon
program was that of astronauts bobbing around the lunar surface or planting an American flag.
         But a far more important image was the sight of the Earth seen from afar- a radiant blue-and-white sphere, beautiful and
vulnerable, shimmering against the dark background of space. The lunar landing that some thought would launch mankind on its way
as a spacefaring species instead highlighted the fragility and isolation of home.
                                                                  --from The New York Times
                                                                  July 20, 1994
** The Cold War was the state of hostility and the struggle for global dominance between the United State and the Soviet Union. It
lasted roughly from the end of World War II, in 1945, until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The race to land a person on the
moon was one aspect of the Cold War.

6. The author implies that more might have been learned from the landing on the moon if _____.
A. NASA had spent more money on the project
B. NASA had sent robots instead of astronauts
C. the astronauts had followed stricter safety procedures
D. the astronauts had stayed longer to conduct more research
7. The author suggests that the real reason the moon landing was so significant was because _____.
A. many important scientific gains were achieved
B. the United States had beaten the Soviet Union to the moon
C. the landing launched important new space programs
D. the experience was so new and unusual
8. The author suggests that NASA's motive for putting men on the moon was based on _____.
A. a quest to explore new territories
B. the need for research about the moon's age, composition, and origin
C. a political agenda
D. a need to obtain photographs of Earth
9. According to the author, the best analogy for the moon landing would be _____.
A. climbing to the top of Mt. Everest
B. performing a feat of technical wizardry
C. going on an epic voyage
D. making a "giant leap for mankind"
10. Which of the following statements would most likely express the view of the author?
A. More effort should be focused on taking care of our fragile earth
B. NASA should expand its exploration of space
C. Landing on the moon was a significant scientific achievement
D. The United States has dominated the "space race"
11. What is ironic about the title of the editorial "Lunar Legacy"?
    A. The lunar landing will never be forgotten.
    B. The lunar landing was the start of important new space programs.
    C. The lunar landing launched mankind on its way as a "spacefaring species."
    D. The lunar landing was more of a novelty than a substantial scientific advance.

Passage 3: From the AJC
          “NATO’s readiness to give Georgia and Ukraine eventual membership has exacerbated Kremlin suspicions that the West’s
goal is to surround and weaken Russia. Lately tensions have escalated along Russia’s southern borders, especially with Georgia, with
Russia vowing to send more troops to confront what it calls Georgian aggression. Russia is also resisting U.S. plans to install missile
defenses in Poland and the Czech Republic.”

1. Where is the “Georgia” mentioned in the article? What tells you?
2. What does “exacerbated” mean in the article?
3. What does “escalated” mean in the article?
4. Why did I put those words in “1,” “2,” and “3” in quotation marks?
5. Why did I put the numbers in the previous question in quotation marks?
6. What has angered Russia with the US?


What is the meaning of these two idiomatic expressions?

She was walking on air after the cute boy asked for her number.


Those two old men sit around and chew the fat all day.



Know the difference between active and passive language

Write the following sentences in active language

She was going to the store.


We were waiting for you for an hour.


He was walking home by himself yesterday.


They were hoping to surprise you.


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