Honors Chemistry Study Guide for Final Exam Any material in the following Chapters of Glencoe “Chemistry – Matter and Change” is “fair game” for the final: particular attention should be paid to the areas noted. Also review procedures for labs, lab reports, and the labs we did. Chapter 1 – Introduction to Chemistry Know various disciplines of chemistry (organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, biochemistry), what chemistry includes (matter) and what it does not Know the scientific method. Observe, hypothesize, test, find relationships, conclude, and revise. Know pure and applied research and technology Chapter 2 – Data analysis Know the definition of density (d=m/v) and be able to calculate any component Know significant figures, common and SI units and sizing prefixes Understand precision vs. accuracy and how to determine % error (accepted- experimental)/ accepted * 100. Know dimensional analysis (conversion of units using conversion factor(s)) Chapter 3 – Matter – Properties and Changes Know states of matter, physical and chemical changes and the difference between them (chemical changes produce new substances); know examples of physical and chemical properties; remember intensive physical properties do not depend on how much is present, extensive do; know elements vs. compounds, substances vs. mixtures; homogeneous vs. heterogeneous, suspensions vs. colloids (Tyndall effect). Know Law of Definite Proportions; be able to convert from % composition to an empirical formula. Know Law of Multiple Proportions. Chapter 4 – The Structure of the Atom Know the structure of the atom, that the atom is mainly empty space, and the names and characteristics of the subatomic particles (proton, electron, and neutron) – explain Rutherford’s experiment and know what an emission spectrum is. Recognize Thompson, Millikan, Bohr and what they did. Be able to explain emission spectra in terms of Bohr’s atomic model. Know atomic numbers, atomic masses, and the Law of Conservation of Mass. Understand and be able to give examples of isotopes and allotropes. Know the names and composition of the three isotopes of hydrogen and their atomic structures. (hydrogen, deuterium, tritium) Chapter 5 – Electrons in atoms Be able to explain orbitals, and recognize s, p, d, f; be able to generate orbital configurations (1s2 etc.) and orbital diagrams (the ones with lines for orbitals and arrows for electrons); know the Aufbau principle (and be able to generate the filling mnemonic – diagonal lines) and the Pauli Exclusion principal and Hund’s Rule; know how many electrons in any orbital (2). Know shapes of s and p orbitals. Know the role of principal (energy level), angular momentum (shape), magnetic (orientation) and spin (spin +/- ½) quantum numbers. Explain the wave nature of light and the electromagnetic spectrum; be able to explain properties of a wave. Know what an emission spectrum is and how it arises. Know the Bohr atom and the relation to line spectra. Be able to write electronic configurations at any level of detail (showing electrons, orbital details or noble gas convention) Know relative sizes of atoms and ions; Know cations and anions Know valence electrons. Chapter 6 – The Periodic table and The Periodic Law Know the structure of the Periodic Table and who invented it; differentiate the contributions of Mendeleev and Moseley. Know regions of the table, what are periods vs. groups, and what the names of various important kids of elements are, e.g. alkali and alkaline earth metals, halogens, inert (noble) gases, transition metals, lanthanides and actinides Know metals, non-metals and metalloids and their characteristics Be able to discuss atomic and ionic radii, electronegativity, ionization energy and electron affinity Know about periodic trends in properties Be able to explain ionization and determine ionic charge. Chapter 7 – The Elements Know uses and importance of common elements; know comparisons of properties of main group elements vs. transition elements. Be able to identify s, p, d and f block elements and distinguish properties. Know properties of some of the common elements. Know which elements exist as diatomic molecules (H,O,N,F,Cl,Br, I) Chapter 8 – Ionic bonding Be able to write Lewis dot structures for atoms and ions. Understand electronegativity and what makes a bond non-polar, polar covalent or ionic. Be able to explain metallic, ionic and covalent bonding. Know ions and oxidation states, Stock System names for compounds, and names and formulas for hydrates Know charges and names of common ions Know ionic vs. covalent compounds; differentiate formula units vs. molecules Be able to write Lewis structures for ionic compounds Binary vs. polyatomic compounds Know typical properties of ionic compounds Chapter 9 - Covalent Bonding Be able to explain and exemplify orbital hybridization and show how it controls structure and recognize/distinguish single, double and triple bonds. Know sigma and pi bonds Molecular compounds: difference between formula units and molecules Typical properties of ionic vs. molecular compounds Be able to determine an empirical formula given % composition, and distinguish empirical and molecular formulas. Be able to name covalent compounds Be able to draw Lewis structures for covalently bound compounds Be able to explain properties of water in terms of its bonding. Chapter 10 - Chemical Reactions Know synthesis, decomposition, single and double replacement (or displacement) and combustion Know the difference between energy of reaction and activation energy; endo and exothermic reactions Know catalyst, inhibitor, photosynthesis and respiration Know signs a chemical reaction has occurred; explain products and reactants; know what a precipitate is. Be able to write word and formula equations, and the little symbols for states Know reversible reactions and equilibrium Be able to write and balance equations; know the difference between subscripts and coefficients. Understand reaction rate and factors impacting it Be able to write complete and net ionic equations and define and identify spectator ions. Be familiar with the activity series and what it means. Chapter 11 – The Mole Know Mole, and the value and meaning of Avogadro’s number. Be able to calculate a compound’s molar mass, and convert moles to grams or particles and vice versa. Know empirical and molecular formulae and be able to derive them from experimental data. Explain and exemplify hydrates, be able to write formulas for them. Chapter 12 – Stoichiometry Know the determination and use of mole ratio Balance an equation and determine the quantity of one component used or generated from another, in moles or grams. Be able to calculate theoretical and % yield and explain limiting reagent. Given a compound, determine mass % of a component element. Chapter 13 and 14 – States of Matter and Gases Know what controls what state matter is in. Know characteristics of solids, liquids, and gases. Be able to explain kinetic molecular theory. Differentiate boiling, sublimation and condensation and other phase changes. Know Kelvin and Celsius and how to convert. Explain and diagram a barometer. Explain the forces bonding matter: dispersion forces, dipoles, hydrogen bonds, as well as covalent and ionic bonds. Know density, fluidity, viscosity, surface tension (remember the penny and the water drops) Know Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law, Gay-Lussac’s Law, and the combined gas law. Be able to calculate the unknown value among pressure, temperature and volume when one changes. Know atmospheric pressure in atmospheres, KiloPascals, torr, and mm Hg at “STP”. Be able to interconvert units. Remember to use Kelvin in all gas law problems. Know the molar volume of a gas (22.4L) and be able to use the ideal gas law PV= nRT. Know diffusion and effusion and what controls them. Know Dalton’s law of partial pressures. Be able to read and interpret a phase diagram, triple point and critical point Know the difference between an ideal and a real gas. Chapter 15 - Solutions Explain the unique properties of water in terms of its structure and bonding. Know why ice floats. Know factors that control solubility and rate of dissolution. Be able to explain saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated solutions. Be able to calculate a solution’s molarity, molality and % concentration. Explain what controls colligative properties (F.P. and B.P. – the molal number of particles) Understand the differences between solutions of solids vs. gases in liquid, and explain suspensions, colloids vs. solutions. Know the Tyndall effect. Be able to write ionic and net ionic equations and define spectator ions. Know and recognize electrolytes vs. non-electrolytes Chapter 16 – Energy Differentiate potential vs. kinetic energy. Know exothermic and endothermic, how heat shows up in a reaction for either: as a reactant (endo) or a product (exo). Know the sign of enthalpy (ΔH): negative for exo (heat comes out) and positive for endo (heat has to be added). Know the formula for heat q (in joules) = Cp*mass*ΔT; know how to get heat of combustion (divide experimental number by the number of grams of fuel consumed) and the molar heat of combustion (multiply heat of combustion by the number of grams in a mole). Be able to derive Cp given an experimental heat flow, and know that the Cp of liquid water is 4.18 j/oCg. Chapter 17 – we didn’t get here. Be able to explain an energy diagram for a reaction and pick off the energy of activation. Know that a catalyst speeds up a reaction and an inhibitor slows one down. Chapter 18 – Equilibrium Know that physical processes such as melting or freezing and making soltuons as well as chemical systems can be equilibria. Equilibrium is a balance between the rate of the forward process and the reverse process – rates will be equal at equilibrium. Many but not all chemical reactions are equilibria. Recognize a buffer as a chemical equilibrium (see acids and bases). Review our work on LeChatlier’s principle, which states that a system at equilibrium will shift, making more products or reactants as needed to relieve an applied stress. Recall our experiment with cobalt chloride and be able to explain the color changes. Chapter 19 – Acids, Bases Know characteristics of acids and bases. Be able to name and recognize common acids and bases. Be able to write a neutralization reaction. Explain indicators and titration. Explain conjugate acids and bases. Know binary, oxy, monoprotic and polyprotic acids. Know strong and weak acids and bases. Know generally what pH means. Be able to define pH as – log[H3O+]. Be able to interconvert pH and pOH knowing that pKw = 14, therefore 14 = pH + pOH. Be able to derive pH or concentration of H3O+ from concentration of OH-. Be able to write ionic and net ionic acid-base reactions and identify spectator ions. Understand hydronium ion. Be able to explain or recognize a buffer. Be able to do titration calculations (Molar conc. A)*(volume A) = (Molar conc. B)*(vol B) and = #moles of volume is in liters. Be able to convert liters to mL and back. Chapter 20 – Redox This was our last new topic. Know LEO goes GER (loss of electrons is oxidation, gain of electrons is reduction). Recall the activity series, which is based on elements being oxidized and reduced, and that single replacement reactions are generally redox reactions. Know that an OXIDIZING AGENT is reduced, and a REDUCING AGENT is oxidized. Chapter 22 and 23 – Organic Chemistry Be able to name or recognize organic compounds and functional groups. Be able to recognize various types of monomers and polymers (plastics) – condensation and addition, thermoplastic and thermosetting. Be able to explain various types of isomers (structural, geometric and optical). Know the structure of benzene. Explain resonance. Know saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and the names of the first 10 alkanes. Know alkenes, alkynes, ketones, aldehydes, acids, amino acids, alkyl halides, ethers, esters, amines, amides. Know addition, substitution and elimination reactions, esterification and amidization (condensation reactions). Be able to write molecular (just the atoms and subscripts) and structural (enough detail to show how all the atoms are hooked together) formulas. Chapter 25 – Nuclear Chemistry Know the structure of the atom. Know the properties of electrons, protons and neutrons. Know radioactive decay processes involving beta particles (-1β) which are electrons, alpha particles (42α) which are helium nuclei, and gamma rays, which are purely electromagnetic radiation – no mass, no charge. Be able to write a decay series involving the changing nuclides and the emitted particles. Remember that a beta particle actually increases the atomic number when emitted while not changing mass (because it’s an electron released from a neutron in the nucleus leaving an “extra” proton), and the alpha particle reduces both atomic number (by 2) and atomic mass (by four). Again, be able to explain and exemplify isotopes. Wow! We did a lot! Good luck. It was fun!
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