Chem 1 Study Guide for Final Exam 122004 by rua13781


									Honors Chemistry Study Guide for Final Exam

Any material in the following Chapters of Glencoe “Chemistry – Matter and Change” is
“fair game” for the final: particular attention should be paid to the areas noted. Also
review procedures for labs, lab reports, and the labs we did.

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Chemistry

Know various disciplines of chemistry (organic, inorganic, physical, analytical,
biochemistry), what chemistry includes (matter) and what it does not
Know the scientific method. Observe, hypothesize, test, find relationships, conclude, and
Know pure and applied research and technology

Chapter 2 – Data analysis

Know the definition of density (d=m/v) and be able to calculate any component
Know significant figures, common and SI units and sizing prefixes
Understand precision vs. accuracy and how to determine % error (accepted-
experimental)/ accepted * 100.
Know dimensional analysis (conversion of units using conversion factor(s))

Chapter 3 – Matter – Properties and Changes

Know states of matter, physical and chemical changes and the difference between them
(chemical changes produce new substances); know examples of physical and chemical
properties; remember intensive physical properties do not depend on how much is
present, extensive do; know elements vs. compounds, substances vs. mixtures;
homogeneous vs. heterogeneous, suspensions vs. colloids (Tyndall effect). Know Law of
Definite Proportions; be able to convert from % composition to an empirical formula.
Know Law of Multiple Proportions.

Chapter 4 – The Structure of the Atom

Know the structure of the atom, that the atom is mainly empty space, and the names and
characteristics of the subatomic particles (proton, electron, and neutron) – explain
Rutherford’s experiment and know what an emission spectrum is. Recognize Thompson,
Millikan, Bohr and what they did. Be able to explain emission spectra in terms of Bohr’s
atomic model. Know atomic numbers, atomic masses, and the Law of Conservation of
Mass. Understand and be able to give examples of isotopes and allotropes. Know the
names and composition of the three isotopes of hydrogen and their atomic structures.
(hydrogen, deuterium, tritium)
Chapter 5 – Electrons in atoms

Be able to explain orbitals, and recognize s, p, d, f; be able to generate orbital
configurations (1s2 etc.) and orbital diagrams (the ones with lines for orbitals and arrows
for electrons); know the Aufbau principle (and be able to generate the filling mnemonic –
diagonal lines) and the Pauli Exclusion principal and Hund’s Rule; know how many
electrons in any orbital (2). Know shapes of s and p orbitals. Know the role of principal
(energy level), angular momentum (shape), magnetic (orientation) and spin (spin +/- ½)
quantum numbers.
Explain the wave nature of light and the electromagnetic spectrum; be able to explain
properties of a wave.
Know what an emission spectrum is and how it arises. Know the Bohr atom and the
relation to line spectra.
Be able to write electronic configurations at any level of detail (showing electrons, orbital
details or noble gas convention)
Know relative sizes of atoms and ions; Know cations and anions
Know valence electrons.

Chapter 6 – The Periodic table and The Periodic Law

Know the structure of the Periodic Table and who invented it; differentiate the
contributions of Mendeleev and Moseley. Know regions of the table, what are periods vs.
groups, and what the names of various important kids of elements are, e.g. alkali and
alkaline earth metals, halogens, inert (noble) gases, transition metals, lanthanides and
Know metals, non-metals and metalloids and their characteristics
Be able to discuss atomic and ionic radii, electronegativity, ionization energy and
electron affinity
Know about periodic trends in properties
Be able to explain ionization and determine ionic charge.

Chapter 7 – The Elements

Know uses and importance of common elements; know comparisons of properties of
main group elements vs. transition elements. Be able to identify s, p, d and f block
elements and distinguish properties. Know properties of some of the common elements.
Know which elements exist as diatomic molecules (H,O,N,F,Cl,Br, I)

Chapter 8 – Ionic bonding

Be able to write Lewis dot structures for atoms and ions. Understand electronegativity
and what makes a bond non-polar, polar covalent or ionic.
Be able to explain metallic, ionic and covalent bonding.
Know ions and oxidation states, Stock System names for compounds, and names and
formulas for hydrates
Know charges and names of common ions
Know ionic vs. covalent compounds; differentiate formula units vs. molecules
Be able to write Lewis structures for ionic compounds
Binary vs. polyatomic compounds
Know typical properties of ionic compounds

Chapter 9 - Covalent Bonding

Be able to explain and exemplify orbital hybridization and show how it controls structure
and recognize/distinguish single, double and triple bonds.
Know sigma and pi bonds
Molecular compounds: difference between formula units and molecules
Typical properties of ionic vs. molecular compounds
Be able to determine an empirical formula given % composition, and distinguish
empirical and molecular formulas.
Be able to name covalent compounds
Be able to draw Lewis structures for covalently bound compounds
Be able to explain properties of water in terms of its bonding.

Chapter 10 - Chemical Reactions

Know synthesis, decomposition, single and double replacement (or displacement) and
Know the difference between energy of reaction and activation energy; endo and
exothermic reactions
Know catalyst, inhibitor, photosynthesis and respiration
Know signs a chemical reaction has occurred; explain products and reactants; know what
a precipitate is.
Be able to write word and formula equations, and the little symbols for states
Know reversible reactions and equilibrium
Be able to write and balance equations; know the difference between subscripts and
Understand reaction rate and factors impacting it
Be able to write complete and net ionic equations and define and identify spectator ions.
Be familiar with the activity series and what it means.

Chapter 11 – The Mole

Know Mole, and the value and meaning of Avogadro’s number.
Be able to calculate a compound’s molar mass, and convert moles to grams or particles
and vice versa. Know empirical and molecular formulae and be able to derive them from
experimental data. Explain and exemplify hydrates, be able to write formulas for them.
Chapter 12 – Stoichiometry

Know the determination and use of mole ratio
Balance an equation and determine the quantity of one component used or generated
from another, in moles or grams.
Be able to calculate theoretical and % yield and explain limiting reagent. Given a
compound, determine mass % of a component element.

Chapter 13 and 14 – States of Matter and Gases

Know what controls what state matter is in. Know characteristics of solids, liquids, and
gases. Be able to explain kinetic molecular theory. Differentiate boiling, sublimation and
condensation and other phase changes. Know Kelvin and Celsius and how to convert.
Explain and diagram a barometer. Explain the forces bonding matter: dispersion forces,
dipoles, hydrogen bonds, as well as covalent and ionic bonds. Know density, fluidity,
viscosity, surface tension (remember the penny and the water drops)
Know Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law, Gay-Lussac’s Law, and the combined gas law. Be
able to calculate the unknown value among pressure, temperature and volume when one
changes. Know atmospheric pressure in atmospheres, KiloPascals, torr, and mm Hg at
“STP”. Be able to interconvert units. Remember to use Kelvin in all gas law problems.
Know the molar volume of a gas (22.4L) and be able to use the ideal gas law PV= nRT.
Know diffusion and effusion and what controls them.
Know Dalton’s law of partial pressures.
Be able to read and interpret a phase diagram, triple point and critical point
Know the difference between an ideal and a real gas.

Chapter 15 - Solutions

Explain the unique properties of water in terms of its structure and bonding. Know why
ice floats. Know factors that control solubility and rate of dissolution. Be able to explain
saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated solutions. Be able to calculate a solution’s
molarity, molality and % concentration. Explain what controls colligative properties (F.P.
and B.P. – the molal number of particles) Understand the differences between solutions
of solids vs. gases in liquid, and explain suspensions, colloids vs. solutions. Know the
Tyndall effect. Be able to write ionic and net ionic equations and define spectator ions.
Know and recognize electrolytes vs. non-electrolytes

Chapter 16 – Energy

Differentiate potential vs. kinetic energy. Know exothermic and endothermic, how heat
shows up in a reaction for either: as a reactant (endo) or a product (exo). Know the sign
of enthalpy (ΔH): negative for exo (heat comes out) and positive for endo (heat has to be
added). Know the formula for heat q (in joules) = Cp*mass*ΔT; know how to get heat of
combustion (divide experimental number by the number of grams of fuel consumed) and
the molar heat of combustion (multiply heat of combustion by the number of grams in a
mole). Be able to derive Cp given an experimental heat flow, and know that the Cp of
liquid water is 4.18 j/oCg.

Chapter 17 – we didn’t get here. Be able to explain an energy diagram for a reaction and
pick off the energy of activation. Know that a catalyst speeds up a reaction and an
inhibitor slows one down.

Chapter 18 – Equilibrium

Know that physical processes such as melting or freezing and making soltuons as well as
chemical systems can be equilibria. Equilibrium is a balance between the rate of the
forward process and the reverse process – rates will be equal at equilibrium. Many but
not all chemical reactions are equilibria. Recognize a buffer as a chemical equilibrium
(see acids and bases). Review our work on LeChatlier’s principle, which states that a
system at equilibrium will shift, making more products or reactants as needed to relieve
an applied stress. Recall our experiment with cobalt chloride and be able to explain the
color changes.

Chapter 19 – Acids, Bases

Know characteristics of acids and bases. Be able to name and recognize common acids
and bases. Be able to write a neutralization reaction. Explain indicators and titration.
Explain conjugate acids and bases. Know binary, oxy, monoprotic and polyprotic acids.
Know strong and weak acids and bases. Know generally what pH means. Be able to
define pH as – log[H3O+]. Be able to interconvert pH and pOH knowing that pKw = 14,
therefore 14 = pH + pOH. Be able to derive pH or concentration of H3O+ from
concentration of OH-. Be able to write ionic and net ionic acid-base reactions and identify
spectator ions. Understand hydronium ion. Be able to explain or recognize a buffer. Be
able to do titration calculations (Molar conc. A)*(volume A) = (Molar conc. B)*(vol B)
and = #moles of volume is in liters. Be able to convert liters to mL and back.

Chapter 20 – Redox

This was our last new topic. Know LEO goes GER (loss of electrons is oxidation, gain of
electrons is reduction). Recall the activity series, which is based on elements being
oxidized and reduced, and that single replacement reactions are generally redox reactions.
Know that an OXIDIZING AGENT is reduced, and a REDUCING AGENT is oxidized.

Chapter 22 and 23 – Organic Chemistry

Be able to name or recognize organic compounds and functional groups. Be able to
recognize various types of monomers and polymers (plastics) – condensation and
addition, thermoplastic and thermosetting. Be able to explain various types of isomers
(structural, geometric and optical). Know the structure of benzene. Explain resonance.
Know saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and the names of the first 10
alkanes. Know alkenes, alkynes, ketones, aldehydes, acids, amino acids, alkyl halides,
ethers, esters, amines, amides. Know addition, substitution and elimination reactions,
esterification and amidization (condensation reactions). Be able to write molecular (just
the atoms and subscripts) and structural (enough detail to show how all the atoms are
hooked together) formulas.

Chapter 25 – Nuclear Chemistry

Know the structure of the atom. Know the properties of electrons, protons and neutrons.
Know radioactive decay processes involving beta particles (-1β) which are electrons,
alpha particles (42α) which are helium nuclei, and gamma rays, which are purely
electromagnetic radiation – no mass, no charge. Be able to write a decay series involving
the changing nuclides and the emitted particles. Remember that a beta particle actually
increases the atomic number when emitted while not changing mass (because it’s an
electron released from a neutron in the nucleus leaving an “extra” proton), and the alpha
particle reduces both atomic number (by 2) and atomic mass (by four). Again, be able to
explain and exemplify isotopes.

Wow! We did a lot! Good luck. It was fun!

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