OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies Italy 2010 by OECD

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									OECD Reviews of Risk Management
Policies

iTALY
REviEw Of ThE iTALiAn nATiOnAL
CiviL PROTECTiOn sYsTEM
OECD Reviews of Risk
Management Policies:
     Italy 2010
REVIEW OF THE ITALIAN NATIONAL CIVIL
        PROTECTION SYSTEM
              ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION
                         AND DEVELOPMENT
      The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of 30 democracies work together to
address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation. The OECD is also at
the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments
and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an
ageing population. The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy
experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate
domestic and international policies.
      The OECD member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea,
Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Commission of
the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD.
      OECD Publishing disseminates widely the results of the Organisation’s statistics gathering
and research on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as the conventions,
guidelines and standards agreed by its members.



          This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions
        expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the
        Organisation or of the governments of its member countries.




ISBN 978-92-64-08219-9(print)
ISBN 978-92-64-08220-5 (PDF)
DOI 10.1787/9789264082205-en

Series:OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies
ISSN 1993-4092 (print)
ISSN 1993-4106 (online)




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                                                                                 foRewoRD – 3




                                             Foreword

           this fourth volume of the oeCD futures Project on Risk management
       Policies contains a case study review of italy’s civil protection system. it fol-
       lows the publication of three previous volumes containing risk management
       case studies: “norway: information Security”; “Sweden: the Safety of older
       People”; and “Japan: large Scale floods and earthquakes”.
            launched in 2003, the oeCD futures Project on Risk management
       Policies aims to assist countries to address the complex challenge of manag-
       ing risks in the 21st century. the Project is monitored by a steering group,
       consisting of representatives from government ministries and agencies,
       whose objective is to identify best practices in risk management across
       countries in light of their ability to detect and adapt to significant changes
       with potential for significant disruptions to society and/or the economy.
       the Project follows a multidisciplinary approach in its analysis of govern-
       ment institutions, policies and programmes designed to tackle present and
       future challenges associated with highly disruptive events (e.g. natural and
       man-made disasters), and the major trends in demography, urbanisation,
       technology and climate that give shape to a new risk landscape. it produces
       case study reviews for participating countries that request an outside review
       of how they handle a specific risk management topic in order to identify best
       practices and areas where improvement can be made. Reviews begin with a
       self-assessment of relevant policies by national authorities in co-ordination
       with the oeCD Secretariat, and are followed by a series of panel interviews
       with stakeholders conducted by a team of international experts.
           nearly the entire italian national territory is exposed to some type of
       major natural hazard. throughout italy’s history, seismic tremors, hydro-
       geological events, forest fires and volcanic eruptions have periodically led
       to huge losses of human life and damage to property. over the past century
       civil protection activities sporadically developed out of a series of ad hoc,
       local rescue interventions into a systematic and institutionalized approach
       to forecasting, alert, emergency management and relief. the need for a
       robust natural disaster management system has become clearer in light of
       associated costs over the past two decades alone, which are estimated at over



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     eUR 100 billion when including damage to critical infrastructure. Beyond
     losses to human life, natural disasters may result in high economic impacts
     such as major production disruptions, widespread electrical failures, severe
     transport disturbances, the breakdown of communications services and
     damage to italy’s rich archaeological and cultural patrimony – a pillar of its
     important tourist industry. for these reasons, italy’s national Department of
     Civil Protection requested that oeCD conduct a review of the civil protection
     system in italy focusing on its activities related to earthquakes, volcanoes,
     floods, tsunamis, landslides and forest fires.
          a preliminary self-assessment by civil protection stakeholders was
     launched in spring 2008 to prepare the ground for on-site visits and panel
     interviews from 6-10 october and 1-4 December 2008 with representatives
     from all levels of the national Civil Protection Service: central government
     departments, regional, provincial and municipal levels of government, pre-
     fectures, scientific institutes, volunteer organisations and operators of infra-
     structure. in addition to the wide range of different actors interviewed, the
     panels were geographically distributed across northern, central and southern
     italy.
         this review analyses the policies, legislation, institutional structures,
     administrative reforms and operational programmes that together com-
     prise italy’s civil protection system, which encompasses the national Civil
     Protection Service (nCPS); an institution comprising all bodies and resources
     in the italian territory that may be used for civil protection activities. it
     assesses italy’s co-ordinated approach to each phase of the risk management
     cycle (risk assessment, prevention, protection, forecasting and early warning,
     emergency response, recovery and lessons learned), drawing on illustrations
     with reference to the following types of risks: earthquakes, volcanoes, floods,
     tsunamis, landslides and forest fires. the analytical criteria applied in this
     review are derived from “emerging Risks in the 21st Century”, which has
     been endorsed by the oeCD Steering Group on Risk management Policies.
     the review takes into account facets of italy’s economy, constitutional and
     administrative reform, and public policies that provide context for a holistic
     analysis, but that lie outside the nCPS mandate.
         Chapter 1 provides factual background on the most common risks of
     natural disasters in italy, and presents some of the major trends that could
     impact upon civil protection activities in the future. Chapter 2 provides a
     general overview of the italian legislative framework for civil protection,
     and describes recent changes related to the devolution of public administra-
     tion, which provide important context for understanding the organisation and
     responsibilities of civil protection services. Chapter 3 analyses italy’s unique
     approach to managing disasters based on co-ordinated functions rather than
     exclusive competence. Chapter 4 considers risk assessment activities and



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       disaster prevention policies. Chapter 5 describes risk communication efforts
       both before and after an event occurs. Chapter 6 presents italy’s approach to
       emergency preparedness and real time response. Chapter 7 covers post event
       issues or emergency overcoming as it is known in italy. Chapter 8 presents a
       synthesis of conclusions and recommendations.
           each chapter is divided into several sections, in most cases introduced by
       an analysis of the general context, and then the Review team’s assessment
       and recommendations for action. the report does not only focus on areas
       where emergency management could be improved, it also civil protection
       instruments and policies that can be considered best practices and that should
       be promoted in different oeCD countries.
           the oeCD expert Review team comprised mr. Pentti Partanen, Director
       General of the Department for Rescue Services of the finnish ministry of the
       interior; mr. Beat habegger, Researcher from the Swiss national institute of
       technology, Centre for Security Studies and was led by mr. Ulf Bjurman,
       Senior advisor on Civil Protection and Crisis management, previously head
       of Department in the Swedish Rescue Services agency. mr. Barrie Stevens,
       Deputy Director of the international futures Programme, and mr. Jack
       Radisch, Policy analyst, represented the oeCD Secretariat in the review.
       the report was prepared with the assistance of ms. Rossella iannizzotto and
       ms. angela Crovace.
            the Review team would like to thank the representatives of organisa-
       tions from the italian national Civil Protection Service who were interviewed
       to gather data and information for this project; a complete list is provided in
       annex e. in particular, the Review team would like to thank the staff of the
       italian Department of Civil Protection, both for its superb logistical support
       throughout the review and its co-operation in providing information.




            michael oborne
            Director
            oeCD international futures Programme




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                                            Table of contents


Executive summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   natural disasters in italy – consequences and estimated damages . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   emerging risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

Chapter 2. Governance and organisational structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   national strategies and legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              23
   Roles of regions, provinces, prefects and municipalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           28
   Co-ordination of the national Civil Protection Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            34
   operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   38
   international co-operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           42
   Central government sector competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       44
   technical-scientific support and research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    50
   Critical infrastructure operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              54
   volunteer organisations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          54

Chapter 3. Analysis of Italy’s civil protection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
   Central administrative structure for civil protection and the legislative context 57
   Regional, provincial and municipal implementation of civil protection services 64
   Prioritisation and/or consolidation of activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Chapter 4. Risk assessment, prevention and early warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
   Delayed time and real time activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
   early warning systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
   Disaster damage reduction and prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Chapter 5. Risk communication and preventative information . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
   Preventative information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83



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   Risk communication in emergency time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
   112 emergency call number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Chapter 6. Preparedness and real time response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
   operational Guidelines for emergency management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            89
   emergency preparedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         90
   human resource aspects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        91
   technology standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      93
   Critical infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    94

Chapter 7. Post-event issues, emergency overcoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
   Reconstruction and compensation for disaster damages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
   insurance coverage for natural disasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
   evaluation and lessons learned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Chapter 8. Synthesis of conclusions and recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
   General conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
   Governance structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
   Prevention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
   Risk assessment and early warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
   Risk communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
   Post-event issues, emergency overcoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
   other general issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110

Annex A. Principal legislation and operational components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
   Civil protection legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
   2008 operational Guidelines for emergency management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117

Annex B. Critical infrastructure operator components within NCPS . . . . . . .141

Annex C. Review self-assessment questionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151

Annex D. Presentation of INGV, RELUIS and the EUCENTRE . . . . . . . . . . .163

Annex E. List of interviewees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171




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Figures
figure 1.1     Seismic zones up to 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
figure 1.2     Seismic zones from 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
figure 1.3     Satellite mapping of forest fires: 24 July 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
figure 1.4     number of wildfires in italy 1970-2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
figure 1.5     oeCD countries: % of population aged 65 and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
figure 2.1     Structure of the national Civil Protection Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
figure 2.2     Changes under law no. 286/ 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
figure 2.3     Regions of italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
figure 2.4     operational committee in session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
figure 2.5     Department of Civil Protection: 9 offices and 42 services . . . . . . . . . 37
figure 5.1     isoradio emergency news network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86


Tables
table 1.1      major earthquakes in italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
table 2.1      Regions of italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31


Boxes
Box 1.1        Knock-on effects of damaged critical infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20




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                                   Executive summary

           the self-assessment exercise, panel interview process and on-site visits
       have provided the Review team with documentation, testimony and the
       opportunity to observe the effectiveness of italy’s civil protection system, to
       assess how a selection of its components interact within its operational struc-
       ture, to identify several best practices and to formulate recommendations for
       improvement.
            The Review Team has found:
            1. Practical applications for risk assessments:
                 italy has implemented a coherent, multi-risk approach to civil protec-
                 tion that fully integrates scientific research and technological expertise
                 into a structured system for forecasting and early warning of natural
                 disasters. with regard to its delayed time activities, the national
                 Department of Civil Protection (DPC) provides strong support to
                 knowledge development of natural hazardous phenomenon through
                 a network of competence centres. it should continue and strengthen
                 research efforts on the vulnerability of its population, building stock
                 and critical infrastructures to risks associated with these phenom-
                 enon in partnership with competence centres and national research
                 institutes, and foster their collaboration with bodies outside italy, for
                 instance through relevant european Union programmes.
            2. Sophisticated disaster models, and forecasting and early warning
               systems:
                 an effective system of information sharing between real time moni-
                 toring stations and civil protection authorities provides high capacity
                 to model events and mobilize actions before certain types of disas-
                 trous events occur (e.g. volcanoes and floods) by estimating with
                 greater accuracy the appropriate mode of action and level of response
                 required. this system also helps decision makers set priorities when
                 multiple events occur simultaneously as is the case with forest fires
                 in high season. high priority should be given to completing the
                 national network of functional Centres (CfSes) in all regions and



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12 – exeCUtive SUmmaRy

             autonomous provinces. a common modern technology standard to
             facilitate interoperability is paramount.
         3. valuable central government leadership in the case of large scale
            disasters and national emergency management:
             Situating DPC under the President of the Council of ministers ensures
             that resources from all central government ministries, local govern-
             ment and the private sector may be put to use rapidly and in a co-
             ordinated fashion to minimize consequences of large scale disasters.
             there are signs that this model of joined-up efforts is gaining favour
             in different countries, and that italy stands out in its ability to co-
             ordinate different levels of public safety and security services. the
             italian civil protection system’s capacity to co-ordinate capabilities
             is especially laudable in light of its proven ability to act outside the
             national territory with effectiveness. volunteer organisations can be
             mobilized upon request to other members of the european Union,
             anywhere italian nationals require assistance, and especially in coun-
             tries suffering from a natural disaster that require humanitarian aid.
             DPC should continue and strengthen its efforts to share its expertise
             in disaster management with developing countries through training
             programmes and capacity building efforts.
         4. Uneven civil protection capacity across local levels of government:
             the national Civil Protection Service (nCPS) incorporates a well
             co-ordinated and highly mobile force of volunteer organisations to
             fortify emergency response, relief and recovery activities. there is
             nevertheless a glaring disparity between the civil protection capa-
             bilities of many italian municipalities; some are well developed
             while others possess a low level of capacity for emergency manage-
             ment – even in regions with very high risks of natural disasters. this
             imbalance between risk and response capabilities calls for action to
             establish and maintain minimum standards for crisis management
             throughout italy. an efficient inspection system, supplemented by
             the power to implement sanctions, is needed to ensure that minimum
             standards are adhered to for civil protection services in all provinces
             and municipalities.
         5. the need for a plan to maintain a high level of professionally trained
            staff:
             throughout DPC and regional civil protection services the staff
             demonstrate a high level of technical expertise and motivation. in
             the broader nCPS however, a life long learning system should be
             instituted to maintain commitment and up to date skills for human
             resource development. implementation of an education and training


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                 programme could furthermore advance the recruitment of volunteers
                 in parts of italy where these important resources lag behind national
                 averages.
            6. Prevention plans and policies have been formally adopted, but their
               implementation is weaker than desirable:
                 Severe impacts from past disasters reveal an urgent need to increase
                 damage reduction efforts and better implement prevention policies.
                 high priority should be given to strengthening the enforcement of
                 land use restrictions in zones exposed to natural hazards and ensur-
                 ing the application of seismic codes in building and infrastructure
                 construction, reconstruction and retrofitting. these measures should
                 be further strengthened by legislation that introduces a more effec-
                 tive system of inspection, control and sanctions for violations. DPC
                 should be given a role with legal support to act as a “champion” for a
                 safer society, and to seize opportunities for a more forward-looking
                 approach to the whole risk management cycle that detects the early
                 warning signals of emerging risks.
            7. Risk communication is well implemented at all levels of the nCPS,
               but some best practice tools are not used:
                 Civil protection services at regional, provincial and municipal level
                 both make broad and targeted outreach efforts to raise public aware-
                 ness about risks. Preventative information could be improved by dis-
                 seminating risk maps to inform communities about specific and local
                 risks, thereby complementing efforts to reduce the high number of resi-
                 dents exposed to natural hazards. leveraging the extensive reach of its
                 constituent bodies, the nCPS is in a strong position to launch an action
                 plan to improve the public’s understanding of climate change impacts
                 on hydro-geological risks and heat waves that would aim to dispel
                 expectations that the future will be roughly like the past. as a resil-
                 iency building measure it could provide simple instructions to citizens
                 about how they should prepare themselves accordingly. high priority
                 should be given to full implementation of the single 112 emergency
                 Call number for the benefit of persons in urgent need of help.
            8. a need for a comprehensive framework legislation on civil protection
               to provide an overall picture of the system and to clarify roles and
               responsibilities as well as expectations:
                 italy’s system for overcoming disasters relies on the co-ordination of
                 multiple functions, resources and capabilities located in various bodies
                 and organisations, rather than attributing competence to a single actor.
                 Under such a scheme the clarity of roles and responsibilities takes
                 on increased importance. legislation pertaining to civil protection


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             has developed in multiple increments over the past 100 years. to
             achieve transparency, a comprehensive overview and improved public
             understanding, this corpus of laws, ordinances and decrees should be
             streamlined into a coherent legislative framework. the expectations
             of provinces and prefectures should be more detailed since both are
             expected to take part in civil protection activities, but they appear to
             be more strongly involved in some areas of the country than in others.
             there is scope to reconsider the seemingly duplicative functions of
             italy’s multiple police forces as a resource saving measure.
         9. the “return to normal” following a disaster could be accelerated
            through policies supporting broader risk sharing:
             natural disaster damages as a percentage of GDP are amongst the
             highest in oeCD countries. Public policy does not adequately sup-
             port incentives for retrofitting and private investment in disaster
             mitigation. Policymakers should re-launch deliberations over a pub-
             lic-private system that would improve insurance coverage for natural
             disaster losses that could build in incentives for individuals to invest
             in mitigation measures, such as lower premiums or deductibles in
             conjunction with a building code compliance rating system.
         10. lessons learned ex post disaster could be better leveraged to review
             and modify policies through a more formalized process:
             a formal system or structure should be established for evaluating
             systematically and independently the response to disasters, to col-
             lect information on damages and to draw lessons learned from these
             events to reformulate policies. Placing the “major Risk Commission”
             within a more formalized setting and giving it this mandate might
             well serve this purpose.




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                                              Chapter 1 

                                            Introduction


           italy’s national territory is exposed to a broader range of natural hazards than
       any other european country. the vulnerability of its population and built environ-
       ment is often severe and has in some cases been exacerbated by human activities.

Natural disasters in Italy – consequences and estimated damages

       Earthquakes
           numerous seismic faults cover italy’s national territory, and despite
       significant advances in seismic zoning (compare figures 1.1 and 1.2) it
       is expected that there are many more faults that remain unknown. events
       are particularly severe with high potential for serious consequences in the
       apennine mountains (irpinia), the Calabrian arc, eastern Sicily and in the
       friuli region of north-eastern italy. in central italy seismicity is characterized
       by more frequent events of moderate magnitude.
           the abruzzo earthquake on 6 april 2009 (and its aftershocks) led to 309
       fatalities with reconstruction costs estimated at eUR 12 billion. it is esti-
       mated that more than 120 000 persons have died in earthquake-related events
       over the last century.
            much of the building stock and public works in italy predate modern
       seismic codes, and the uptake of seismic zoning, where new construction is
       obliged to follow seismic codes, has been slow. large-scale development of
       public works proceeded very quickly in the period between the 1950s and the
       1990s, while seismic zoning was mainly put in place after the 1980 irpinia
       and the 2002 San Giuliano di Puglia earthquakes. Protection or retrofitting
       of italy’s cultural and environmental heritage to bring it into conformity with
       the requirements of seismic codes remains a persistent challenge, due to the
       expense of such works in general and risk of damaging their artistic value.
       the result is that most of the existing buildings and public works are not ade-
       quately protected against the consequences of earthquakes. the combination



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                             table 1.1. Major earthquakes in Italy
                          Year    Location                Deaths      Injuries
                          1857    Basilicata               ˜12 000       *
                          1906    Calabria                     557      ˜2 000
                          1907    Calabria                     167         ˜ 90
                          1908    Calabria/Messina         ˜90 000      14 138
                          1910    Irpinia                      ˜50       *
                          1914    Etna (Vulcan)                ˜69          115
                          1915    Fucino                    32 610       *
                          1919    Mugello                     ˜100        ˜400
                          1920    Lunigiana/Garfagnana         171        ˜650
                          1930    Irpinia                    1 778       4 264
                          1968    Belice                       231         623
                          1976    Friuli                       989      ˜3 000
                          1980    Irpinia- Basilicata        2 914     ˜10 000
                          1997    Marche-Umbria                 11        ˜100
                          2002    Molise-Puglia                 29       *
                          2009    Abruzzo                      309      ˜1 500

                        ˜ signifies approximately; * signifies no data available.
Source: italian Department of Civil Protection (2008), “framing the Challenges for the Governance of
Risk in the Public Sector”, Conference paper, oeCD, Paris, 17 april 2008.

      of the considerable seismicity, population and construction density and vulner-
      ability due to buildings susceptible to collapse, results in a high seismic risk
      for most of the italian territory, even higher than the risk in other countries
      exhibiting a higher seismic hazard. it is estimated that up to 40% of the italian
      population lives in highly seismic areas (see zones 1 and 2 in figure 1.2) where
      60% of buildings are not constructed according to seismic codes.

      Volcanic eruptions
           there are several active volcanoes present on the national territory
      including etna, Stromboli and vesuvius, but thanks to modern technology
      they can be monitored constantly. volcanology and the capacity to forecast
      eruptions have improved tremendously and permit precautionary measures
      such as alerts to be sounded and evacuations to be initiated, though perhaps
      not completed. vesuvius is regarded as a particularly dangerous volcano due
      to its location in the most densely populated volcanic region in the world and
      tendency towards sudden and extremely violent eruptions. the consequences
      of the eruption of mount vesuvius in 79 aD for herculaneum and Pompeii
      are known the world over. Dense housing developments in lava flow zones
      over the past 60 years are evidence, however, that the local population has



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       forgotten or severely underestimates the immense danger it is exposed to.
       one of the most violent eruptions of mount vesuvius occurred in 1660 BC at
       avellino, two kilometres west of the present crater. another significant erup-
       tion in 1631 in combination with torrential and persistent rain led to between
       3 000 and 4 000 casualties and destroyed parts of Portici and other towns in
       the area. the most recent eruption in 1944 had more limited consequences,
       but still destroyed several villages.

       Floods and landslides
           Serious flooding (sometimes in the form of flash floods) and landslides
       afflict many parts of the country. Such hydro-geological risks are the most
       frequently occurring natural hazard in italy. over the past 80 years, there
       have been as many as 5 400 floods and 11 000 landslides and avalanches.
       there have been more than 3 500 fatalities due to hydro-geological risks over
       the past 50 years. the damage these events cause to critical infrastructure
       have also resulted in enormous costs to the italian economy with consequence
       such as severe electricity failures, transport disruptions, major production
     figure 1.1. Seismic zones up to 2003                    Figure 1.2. Seismic zones from 2004
                                                                                 Seismic zones
                                                                                 (Danger level)
                                  CS = 12
                                  CS = 9                                                 zone 1 (High)
                                  CS = 6                                                  zone 2 (Moderate)
                                  Provincial borders                                      zone 3 (Low)
                                                                                          zone 4 (Minimal)




Source: italian Department of Civil Protection (2008), “framing the Challenges for the Governance of
Risk in the Public Sector”, Conference paper, oeCD, Paris, 17 april 2008.



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      loss and telecommunications failures. the flooding of the arno River in 1966
      is considered to be the worst in the history of florence since 1557. the casual-
      ties numbered 101; 5,000 families were left homeless by the storm; and 6,000
      stores were forced out of business. the damage to or destruction of millions
      of masterpieces of art and rare books for which florence is famous was dev-
      astating and focused world attention on the disaster. even decades later, much
      restoration work remains to be done.
          there are 9 187 geographic areas classified as very high landslide risk
      areas in italy. landslides in the twentieth century alone caused 5 939 deaths,
      or an average of nearly 60 per year. the annual damage cost has been calcu-
      lated to be one billion eUR (0.15% GDP).* the most recent disaster occurred
      in 1998 at Sarno and Quindici in the Campania region when secondary layers
      detached from the slopes of Pizzo d’alvano and killed 160 persons.

      Forest fires
          forest fires are extremely frequent events, naturally in the hot and dry
      periods of the year, but also in the winter. the forests cover one-third of the
      country and often a number of severe forest fires occur simultaneously, thus
      high capacity for communication, prioritisation and co-ordination is neces-
      sary. figure 1.3 provides satellite imagery of forest fires on a single day, some
      of which were large enough to spread smoke over the adriatic Sea.
          fires are frequently started by arsonists hoping to lay claim to the
      degraded land for new construction. large forest fires need water bombing
      from the air to be extinguished. the number of requests for water bombing
      generally reaches around 1000 per year but have in some years reached 2000
      or more.

Emerging risks

          the objectives of civil protection activities in italy are ordered toward
      planning for disasters or actually managing interventions following disasters
      to reduce loss of human life, as well as damage to goods, national heritage,
      human settlements and the environment. Such overall objectives, as well as
      operational needs and requirements, are quite different from those committed
      to medium-long term prevention, sustainable development and environmental
      protection, even though knowledge, information and experiences between the
      two management approaches, programmes and activities must be shared and
      exchanged.

      * eC fP6 integrated Project – PReview: landslides Platform overview, Gaia
      Righini, Department of earth Sciences, University of firenze, italy.


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                   figure 1.3. Satellite mapping of forest fires: 24 July 2007




Source: naSa (national aeronautics and Space administration) (2007), earth observatory website,
www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=18775, accessed 2 february 2009.


                       figure 1.4. Number of wildfires in Italy 1970-2008
      20 000

      18 000

      16 000

      14 000

      12 000
                                                                       -336x+11364
      10 000   443x+4300
       8 000

       6 000

       4 000

       2 000

          0
               1970
               1971
               1972
               1973
               1974
               1975
               1976
               1977
               1978
               1979
               1980
               1981
               1982
               1983
               1984
               1985
               1986
               1987
               1988
               1989
               1990
               1991
               1992
               1993
               1994
               1995
               1996
               1997
               1998
               1999
               2000
               2001
               2002
               2003
               2004
               2005
               2006
               2007
               2008




       Source: fiorucci, P., f. Gaetani (2008), Wildfire risk assessment and management, Cima
       Research foundation.



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           as with other industrialized economies, italy’s production depends on the
      well functioning of its infrastructure networks for communications, transport
      and utilities. Significant risks are associated with potential failures in critical
      infrastructure and the particular problems that their interdependence can give
      rise to under emergency situations.


             Box 1.1. Knock-on effects of damaged critical infrastructure

        on the 28th September 2003, a blackout affected more than 56 million people
        across italy and areas of Switzerland. estimates vary for the number of fatalities
        that were directly related to the loss of power. 30 000 people were trapped on
        trains. Several hundred passengers were stranded on underground transit systems.
        there were significant knock-on effects across other critical infrastructures.
        many commercial and domestic users suffered disruption in their power supplies
        for up to 48 hours. the immediate trigger for the blackout stemmed from a fault
        in the Swiss transmission system, but the consequences of the initial failure
        propagated across the border affecting the networks in france, Slovenia, and
        austria. it also led to a domino effect that ultimately led to the separation of the
        italian system from the rest of the european grid. Such “knock-on effect” may
        produce disruptions in the financial and payment systems, including credit cards,
        and telecommunications, energy and transport systems.


           the ageing population in italy is also a considerable and growing risk
      factor, since elderly citizens taken as a group are more vulnerable and have
      special needs in emergency situations. Relative to younger age groups, the
      limited mobility of the elderly can impede evacuations; lower income levels
      may place the elderly in housing that is more exposed to natural hazards, and
      poor health may weaken capacity to cope with adverse conditions following
      a disastrous event. Statistically, the elderly are also more vulnerable to heat
      waves. amongst oeCD countries, italy’s population has the second highest
      ratio of people over age 65. Between 1997 and 2007 this figure accelerated
      at a greater pace in italy than all other oeCD countries except Japan, and it
      is forecast to increase significantly in years ahead, as indicated in figure 1.5.
          lastly, climate change is anticipated to introduce or augment the level of
      certain risks, such as rising sea levels and extreme weather conditions that
      produce floods, droughts and seasonal fires. while average precipitation
      levels have remained steady on a yearly basis in italy, seasonal variance has
      become more extreme, i.e. wet periods are wetter and dry periods are dyer.
      Rises in sea level could increase vulnerability to floods in coastal areas,
      moreover they could lead to significant economic disruptions in cities like
      Genoa and naples with important ports for sea freight and passenger trans-
      port, as well centres of tourism such as venice.


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                      figure 1.5. OECD countries: % of population aged 65 and over
  45
  40
  35
  30
  25
  20
  15                                                                                              2009
  10
                                                                                                  2050
   5
   0




                                       United Kingdom
       Australia
                          Austria
                         Belgium
                          Canada
                   Czech Republic
                        Denmark
                          Finland
                           France
                        Germany
                          Greece
                         Hungary
                                                Iceland
                                                Ireland
                                                    Italy
                                                  Japan
                                                  Korea
                                          Luxembourg
                                                Mexico
                                           Netherlands
                                          New Zealand
                                               Norway
                                                 Poland
                                              Portugal
                                       Slovak Republic
                                                  Spain
                                               Sweden
                                           Switzerland
                                                 Turkey

                                         United States
                                                                                     OECD total
                                             m
Source: oeCD (2009), oeCD factbook 2009: economic, environmental and Social Statistics, oeCD,
Paris, pp. 167-192.




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                                              Chapter 2 

                  Governance and organisational structure


            Civil protection is used to describe organised action aimed at coping
       with collective threats caused by natural or human induced disasters. in
       italy, a unique system of civil protection evolved gradually over the course of
       the 20th century from basic legislation that first instituted a permanent fire
       brigade. like many countries, the governance of civil protection was born of
       local necessity, but involves central government services when events exceed
       local capabilities to manage them. over the past 100 years successive leg-
       islative acts have often followed major natural disasters that made clear the
       need for permanent institutions to manage and lead the many civil protection
       capacities found throughout various ministries, levels of government, scien-
       tific institutes, industry and volunteer associations; from forest fire fighters
       and the national police to volcanic monitoring and canine units.
           Government civil protection services at central, regional, provincial
       and municipal level are now structured to co-ordinate their operations and
       resources with non-governmental actors through a top-down, bottom-up
       organisational system that strategically integrates capabilities at short notice
       and in real time. the national Civil Protection Service (nCPS) provides a
       legally recognised, institutional form to these diverse actors, with its mandate
       to protect human lives, health, economic assets, cultural and architectural
       heritage, human settlements and the environment from any kind of disaster,
       either natural or man-made.

National strategies and legislation

           the legislative acts described below do not cover the entire corpus of
       laws, decrees and ordinances related to civil protection, many of which
       were adopted by regional governments. annex a provides more detailed
       descriptions of the major pieces of civil protection legislation. the sections
       below describe the key legislation to understanding italy’s unique top-down
       / bottom-up dynamic in emergency management planning and operations.


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     together these acts provide the legal basis for civil protection interventions
     that are proportionate to the level of capacity needed to respond to the broad
     variety of natural hazards facing the italian territory, and reflect the efficien-
     cies demanded by a decentralised system of public administration that oper-
     ates under the principle of subsidiarity.

     The National Civil Protection Service
          the national Civil Protection Service was established in 1992
     (l. 24.2.1992 n. 225). the Prime minister, or by delegation to the minister
     for Co-ordination of Civil Protection, and the Department of Civil Protection
     (DPC), which was created within the Prime minister’s office, was given the
     responsibility to initiate and to co-ordinate the emergency activities of the
     central government, regions, provinces, municipalities, agencies, institutions
     relevant institutions or organisations, both public and private, present on the
     national territory. the role of the voluntary organisations was reaffirmed
     and recognised and a fund for civil protection was institutionalized. each of
     these entities acts within its own area of competence and responsibility. in
     the legislation on the italian national Civil Protection Service, these entities
     are designated as the components and operational structures of the Service.
         the law 225/1992 grants the government Cabinet the power to declare a
     state of emergency. the major Risk Commission was formally created as a
     link between the civil protection administration and the different scientific
     communities; furthermore the national Commission for Prediction and
     Prevention of major Risks, the Civil Protection operation Committee and
                figure 2.1. Structure of the National Civil Protection Service
                                                                       Interior                  National Fire-fighters Corp - Police -
                                                                                                              Prefectures
                                                                   Foreign Affairs

                                                                    Environment                 ANPA

                                                                       Health                   118

                                                               Economy and Finance              Revenue Guard Corp

                                                                      Defence                     Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri

                                                                Productive Activities             G.R.T.N.

                                                          Transportation and Infrastructures             Costal Guard – ANAS
                                                                                                           Società Autostrade
                                                           Cultural Heritage and Activities            Ferrovie dello Stato Group

                                                                                                           I.N.G.V. - C.N.R.
                                                         Education, University and Research
                                                                                                      National Research Institutes
          Precidency of the     Civil Protection                  Communications
         Council of Ministers    Department
                                                           Agricultural Policy and Forestry      State Forest Corps

                                                                      Regions                  Civil Protection regional bodies

                                                                      Provinces                Civil Protection provincial bodies

                                                                                               Mayor
                                                                    Municipalities
                                                                                               Municipalities Volunteers Groups
                                                                                               Volunteers Associations



        Source: elena Rapisardi (2009), “Building Civil Protection 2.0”, web 2.0 expo.



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       the national Council for Civil Protection were established. Besides the emer-
       gency services, the law dealt with forecasting and prevention measures which
       were included in the scope of civil protection. Prevention was no longer lim-
       ited to matters related to the rescue of persons in emergency situations, the
       reconstruction or restoration of effected areas but also included measures to
       limit the impact of major risks in italy. through this legislation, the italian
       government approach to civil protection changed from a system of post emer-
       gency intervention to a system which included risk assessment, forecasting
       and measures for prevention of risks.
           the law 225/1992 defined civil protection in italy as a structure based on
       the principle of subsidiarity. at the lowest level, the mayor has operational
       responsibility in his municipality; when the municipal resources are insuffi-
       cient to manage the crisis, the next levels of responsibility are called into play
       as needed (region, province, central government). the law had the intention
       of harmonising efforts across different levels of responsibility and improv-
       ing efficiency; it does not intend to centralise powers and competences. if a
       special commissioner was not nominated, then the prefect had the task of co-
       ordinating the support with the municipality level. the regions were required
       to improve their structure for civil protection intervention and support, and
       promote capacity building of the local organisations. the provinces were to
       participate actively in the national level efforts and elaborate provincial pro-
       grammes for prediction and prevention.

       Government decentralisation and administrative reforms
            the 1997 constitutional law (l 15.3.1997 n. 59) introduced government
       decentralisation. the administrative competences among national, regional
       and local levels were formally modified (l 31.3.1998 n. 112) resulting in the
       attribution to local bodies of all duties not specifically assigned to the central
       government or other levels of competence. Civil protection was recognised as
       a system of joint competence wherein different tasks were attributed to the
       regions and the local communities with the exception of specific responsi-
       bilities, i.e. those recognised as being within the scope of the national Civil
       Protection Service. a specification of the tasks within the competence of
       the central government, the regions and the municipalities respectively was
       adopted (l. 28.8.1997 n.281).
           in 2001 modifications were made to the italian constitutional law which
       had implications on the power of the central government and the regions
       to legislate (Constitutional l. 18.10.2001 n. 3). the reform not only estab-
       lished in the Constitution the principle of vertical subsidiarity within the
       institutional levels of power, but also the horizontal within the public and
       private sector, by increasing the role of individuals, associations and business
       enterprises. this is reflected in the high level of co-ordination between civil


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     protection authorities, volunteer organisations, utilities and critical infrastruc-
     ture operators. the constitutional reform also took account of the constraints
     imposed on the Constitution due to international law and european Union
     treaty agreements with obligations limiting national sovereignty. a domestic
     law which contradicts international obligations assumed by italy is thus to be
     considered anti-constitutional. the reform places emphasis on and clarifies
     the precedence of international commitments derived among others from
     treaties over relevant domestic legislation.

     Reforms to the structure and co-ordination of civil protection 
     operations
         two pieces of legislation adopted in 2001 significantly changed the
     structure of civil protection in italy: law 7.9.2001 n. 343 on the operational
     co-ordination of civil protection activities and the improvement of logistic
     structures); and law 9.11.2001 n. 401 adopting guidelines to guarantee
     the operational co-ordination of structures in charge of carrying out civil
     protection activities and for the improvement of civil defence logistic struc-
     tures. the second of these two laws transferred responsibility to the Prime
     minister, in collaboration with the regions and local communities, for the
     planning of operational emergency guidelines, forecasting and prevention
     programmes against risks, as well as the national rescue programmes and
     planning responsibility to carry out required emergency measures. Under this
     legislation responsibilities for civil protection activities were thus returned
     to the situation established by legislation in 1992. the competence of the
     central government in civil protection matters was placed once again with
     the Prime minister. the national Civil Protection agency was abolished and
     the Department for Civil Protection (DPC) re-established within the Prime
     minister’s office.
         the Prime minister was given the power to delegate his competence
     in the area of civil protection to the minister of interior. a Committee for
     government, regions and local communities was established and the national
     Commission for Prediction and Prevention of major Risks as well as the
     Civil Protection operational Committee and the national Council for Civil
     Protection were maintained. Consequently, on 2 march and 12 april 2002 the
     Prime minister issued decrees establishing the Civil Protection operational
     Committee and re-establishing the national Commission for Prediction and
     Prevention of major Risks respectively.
          legislation in 2002 (law. 4.11.2002 n. 245, converted by law. 27.12.2002
     n. 245, and including its modifications in law. 27.12.2002 n. 286) conferred
     full authority on the Prime minister to undertake action upon the outbreak
     of an extraordinary emergency situation; the criteria to evaluate the situa-
     tion depend upon the life threatening risk level. this action is triggered by


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       a request from the head of the Department of Civil Protection and after
       conferring with the President of the region involved before releasing a state
       of emergency declaration. to deal with the emergency, the Prime minister
       has the authority to decide on the extent of involving the available opera-
       tional structures of the national Civil Protection Service, and the head of
       the Department of Civil Protection co-ordinates the resources necessary to
       manage the event’s consequences.
            Previously the Prime minister issued on 20 December 1998 guidelines
       for the planning of prediction, prevention and response activities in respect
       to forest fires. in 2001 the President of the Republic issued a Declaration
       (194/2001) regulating the participation of volunteer organisations in the civil
       protection activities.
            the head of DPC was given the authority over all public and private
       organisations for operational co-ordination in civil protection matters. new in
       the 2002 decrees was that large events were not defined precisely, but given
       a generic character and decisions on the response to natural emergencies and
       disasters were to be made in each situation by the government, on proposal
       of the head of DPC.

                          figure 2.2. Changes under Law No. 286/ 2002

                Law no. 225/1992        which, because of its intensity and size, shall require
                                                extraordinary means and authorities

                      EVENT

                                                  meeting of Council of Ministers



                                            Declaration of the “State of Emergency” and
                                               assignment of the Head Commissioner

                Law no. 286/2002          emergency state of major entity to be assessed on
                                            the basis of its life threatening potential risk

                       EVENT
                                                The President of the Council of Ministers
                                                before declaring the state of emergency
                                      decides the activation of the civil protection national system



                                       The Head of the Civil Protection Department is in charge of
                                        coordinating all the interventions to face the emergency


              Source: italian Department of Civil Protection (2008), “framing the Challenges
              for the Governance of Risk in the Public Sector”, Conference paper, oeCD,
              Paris, 17 april 2008.




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     Operational guidelines for emergency management
         on 3 December 2008, the Prime minister issued “operational Guidelines
     for emergency management”, which make it incumbent upon the representa-
     tives of the different component parts and structures of the national Civil
     Protection Service to ensure implementation of standard procedures for inter-
     vention activities. the specific competences and procedures of the system’s
     different component parts need to be respected when working together in the
     “operational Committee”. in particular, the representative of each component
     and structure is responsible for actions which the guidelines spell out through
     well-defined, specific tasks related to immediate actions and actions to be
     carried out within 12 and 24 hours respectively.

Roles of regions, provinces, prefects and municipalities

          italy has a population of nearly 60 million people and a total terrestrial area
     of just over 300 000 km² including Sicily and Sardinia, the two largest islands in
     the mediterranean. the country is subdivided into 20 regions, 109 provinces and
     8,104 municipalities. many municipalities are remote, sparsely populated and
     possess very limited resources for public services, yet their locations are often
     highly exposed to natural hazards. the italian regions vary greatly according to
     their size, population, cultural and linguistic characteristics, productive capacity
     of their economic activities and the types of natural hazards to which they are
     exposed. the regions are even different with respect to their degree of independ-
     ence and power to legislate: five regions (friuli-venezia Giulia, Sardinia, aosta
     valley, trentino alto adige and Sicily) have a special autonomous status that
     enables them to enact legislation on some local matters. the autonomous region
     of trentino alto adige is divided into two autonomous provinces: the Province
     of trento (or trentino) and the Province of Bolzano (or alto adige/Südtirol).
          following a national process of administrative reform (described below in
     greater detail), regions provinces and municipalities have responsibility for civil
     protection within their territorial areas. Civil protection is, as stated before,
     based on the principle of subsidiarity, i.e. in each municipality the mayor is
     responsible for civil protection and organises municipal resources according to
     a pre-established municipal emergency plan. the latter is designed to cope with
     specific risks that might occur in the municipality’s territory. the support of
     provinces and regions as well as the assistance of central government adminis-
     trations, co-ordinated by the prefects, is brought to bear when local capacity is
     insufficient to manage the scale of the disruptive event. the central government
     maintains its role of providing general orientation and co-ordination in the field
     of civil protection, but the regions and the local institutions are responsible for
     the preparedness and management of ordinary emergencies at the local level.
     in the most serious situations, a national level integration will take place and



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       emergency forces available on the spot will unite with any other staff and
       equipment necessary to meet the needs effectively.

       Civil protection at regional level
            Regions have authority over such policy areas as transportation, education,
       environment, etc., which helps organise civil protection activities and structures in
       light of their specific territorial and risk characteristics. the autonomous regions/
       provinces, can issue their own legislation although it does not take precedence
       over established national legislation. all the regions are responsible for carrying
       out risk assessment for natural and technological risks, forecasting and prevention
       programmes. Regional differences in climate, topography and socio-economic
       characteristics account for their diverse civil protection capacities. they must pro-
       vide the fundamental civil protection functions, however, such as relief operations,
       according to the national guidelines defined by the central government, but it is
       clear they are not equally equipped to handle these tasks. the regions co-ordinate
       with, and frequently delegate some of their tasks to, the provinces.
            improving the preparedness of regions could be furthered by creat-
       ing standardized checklists of minimum resource requirements, e.g. each
       region would be required a certain number of volunteers (such as 5,000) to
       fight forest fires, a situation awareness room for fire fighters and police, etc.
       Connections and relations between the Department of Civil Protection and
       the regions are excellent and their collaboration has worked out well in prac-
       tice, but there is still quite a gap in the formal and legal arrangements.
            each region affected by a calamitous event has an obligation to guarantee the:
            •    immediate activation and deployment of the regional emergency
                 convoys and the volunteer organisations;
            •    management of health care emergency operations, based on the
                 region’s own plan, in compliance with the main criteria and policies
                 established by the Prime minister concerning the management of
                 health relief and rescue operations in crisis;
            •    deployment of its technical experts to check the safety in buildings,
                 survey the damage, evaluate remaining risks, undertake testing of
                 drinking water quality and make assessments of environmental
                 recovery and land reclamation operations;
            •    participation of its official representatives in the activities of the
                 operational and co-ordination centres established within the Region;
            •    management of radio networks for the emergency communication
                 and the activation and co-ordination of the volunteer organisations
                 of radio amateurs;



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         •     use of primary necessity goods stored under regional competence to
               provide assistance to the population.
        in case there is a need for extraordinary powers due to the actual over-
     whelming needs in an area affected by disaster and on the basis of requests
     coming from the local institutions, the region will submit a request for a
     Declaration of the State of emergency.
          if in order to face an emergency the need to establish a national co-ordi-
     nation structure (in italian: “Direzione di Comando e Controllo” Di.Coma.C.)
     in situ should arise, the region will, in agreement with the DPC, identify and
     set up the headquarters needed for this purpose. this might include utiliz-
     ing the Regional operational Room, which must guarantee 24 hour oper-
     ability. the operational Room provides the national operations centre “Sala
     Situazione italia” with a constant update of information related to the activi-
     ties in progress and communicates the type and quantity of resources needed
     in support to those already on site as well as maintains the contacts between
     the operational centres at the provincial and municipal levels.


                                 figure 2.3. Regions of Italy




             Source: italian Department of Civil Protection (2008), “framing the
             Challenges for the Governance of Risk in the Public Sector”, Conference
             paper, oeCD, Paris, 17 april 2008..



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          The role of the provinces
               the provinces are responsible for the establishment and implementation
          of the provincial emergency plan, and in certain cases the co-ordination of
          relief operations for municipalities within their territories. according to the
          model adopted by each region, the Rescue Co-ordination Centre (CCS) of
          the province is activated in the event of emergencies. in the CCS there are
          representatives of the region, the prefecture, the province and the institutions,


                                      table 2.1. Regions of Italy

North West regions       Area (km²)          Population · Density             Nominal GDP
Aosta Valley                3 263              126 923 · 38.9/km²             EUR 4.0 billion
Liguria                     5 420             1 614 924 · 298/km²            EUR 41.0 billion
Lombardy                   23 861             9 714 640 · 407.1/km²         EUR 305.5 billion
Piemonte                   25 399             4 424 800 · 174.2/km²         EUR 118.7 billion
North East regions
Emilia-Romagna             22 124             4 323 830 · 195.4/km²         EUR 128.8 billion
Friuli-Venezia Giulia       7 856             1 229 992 · 156.6/km²          EUR 34.3 billion
Trentino-Alto Adige        13 607             1 017 246 · 74.8/km²           EUR 30.8 billion
Veneto                     18 398            4 885 548 · 265.5/km²          EUR 139.0 billion
Centre regions
Lazio                      17 208             5 610 709 · 326.1/km²         EUR 160.5 billion
Marche                      9 694             1 565 919 · 161.5/km²          EUR 38.5 billion
Tuscany                    22 990             3 701 243 · 161/km²            EUR 99.1 billion 
Umbria                      8 456              892 351 · 105.5/km²           EUR 20.6 billion
South regions
Abruzzo                    10 794             1 332 536 · 123.5/km²          EUR 26.8 billion
Basilicata                  9 995              590 944 · 59.1/km²            EUR 10.5 billion
Calabria                   15 081             2 009 301 · 133.2/km²          EUR 32.5 billion
Campania                   13 595             5 812 649 · 427.55/km²         EUR 94.3 billion
Molise                      4 438        320 838 (2007) · 72.3/km²            EUR 6.0 billion
Puglia                     19 366             4 080 311 · 210.7/km²          EUR 68.9 billion
Islands
Sardinia                   24 090             1 670 219 · 69.3/km²           EUR 34.0 billion (2007)
Sicily                     25 708            5 036 666 · 195.9/km²           EUR 83.0 billion




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     administrations and operational structures dedicated to the management of
     the emergency. these are responsible for:
         •   evaluating the needs in the province;
         •   utilizing the available resources in a rational way;
         •   defining the type and quantity of regional and national resources
             needed in support to those already available;
         •   identifying, if not specified in the emergency planning, the rescue
             areas.
         the CCS must assure unified direction of operations and co-ordinate
     actions with those carried out by the mayors of the involved municipalities. if
     the model adopted by the region does not indicate clearly who exercises lead-
     ership of the CCS and there is no specific agreement between the prefecture
     and the province in force, then this task is assigned to the prefect, who has
     the general responsibility of ensuring the safety of the people and property.
     however, the main operational functions remain as follows:
         •   the prefect is responsible for the activation and implementation of
             the national resources present on the provincial territory regarding
             public order and security, exercising this duty with due respect to the
             subsidiarity of responsibility to the mayors;
         •   the President of the Province is responsible for the immediate activa-
             tion and utilization of the resources, functioning of the road systems
             and resolving the problems caused to the networks and service
             infrastructures and, if so provided by the regional jurisdiction, co-
             ordinates the contribution given by the volunteer organisations and
             maintains contact with the municipalities affected by the event. the
             provinces are responsible for the establishment and implementation
             of the provincial emergency plan.
         the organisational model at a provincial level includes a single integrated
     operational room, which on the one hand carries out the tasks established by
     CCS and on the other hand collects, assesses and disseminates information
     related to the event and the civil protection response, through a constant
     exchange between the different operational centres active within the prov-
     ince, the relevant Regional operational Room and the national operational
     Room (SSi).
          when an event requires support to the activities carried out by the munic-
     ipal operational centres and to link the activities carried out at municipal level
     with those carried out at the provincial level, inter-municipal operational
     Centres are activated (mixed operational Centres – Com.), which are
     located in specifically identified structures, sometimes by merging one or



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       more municipalities. the activation of such Centres is the responsibility of
       the authority responsible for the CCS unless a head Commissioner in charge
       is nominated by the government following the declaration of the State of
       emergency or the co-ordination is assigned to the head of DPC.

       The role of the prefects
            within each province there is a prefect who represents the central
       government and has the responsibility for co-ordinating and encouraging
       integration of the organisations responsible for security and civil protection.
       this means co-ordinating the very significant central government resources
       available for civil protection purposes with provincial resources; for instance,
       this involves co-ordinating resources from the national fire Brigade Corps,
       the national forest Corps, the armed forces, including the Carabinieri, the
       national Police and the national health Service and supporting the province
       and the municipalities with these. a councillor (assessor), who is a political
       appointee, is responsible for civil protection in the region and province. the
       provinces do not have a more specified responsibility; however, they receive a
       contribution of eUR 40 million per year for civil protection purposes, largely
       related to their planning and co-ordination role. there is no legal power to
       force the provinces and municipalities to consolidate their capacity.

       The role of municipalities
           municipalities are responsible for the establishment and implementation
       of the municipal emergency plan. the mayor has the responsibility for civil
       protection and manages the volunteers and the local police and other local
       resources, but does not have power over national agencies; he can request
       assistance from them at any time. the local Carabinieri and volunteer organi-
       sations are meant to collaborate with the municipal civil protection service in
       order to assist the population in the event of emergency. the first emergency
       response, regardless of the nature, scale and effects of an event must there-
       fore be handled by the local structure, preferably through the activation of a
       municipal operational Centre (C.o.C.). the CoC co-ordinates all the dif-
       ferent components operating locally. During the emergency planning phase,
       appropriate support to the mayors of small municipalities must be guaranteed
       by the provincial and regional administrations.
           the mayor assumes the direction and co-ordination of the rescue services
       and assistance to the population hit by a disaster and is in charge of the nec-
       essary operations carried out to face the emergency; he does this by imple-
       menting the pre-established municipal emergency plan. with the support of
       the municipality’s personnel and resources and, as needed, by requesting
       the assistance of other civil protection structures operating in the area (fire



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     brigades, police forces, health facilities, water, gas and power supply institu-
     tions or companies, waste disposal companies and telephone companies, local
     volunteer forces), the mayor is in charge of the following:
         •   identification of the best location for the municipal operational centre
             and the waiting and recovery areas (if not already specified in the
             municipal emergency plan;
         •   assessment of the situation and conducting the security or rescue
             operations, including evacuation of the population;
         •   health care and assistance to injured persons;
         •   food distribution and identification of temporary accommodation for
             homeless;
         •   continuous provision of updated information on the situation and the
             behaviour code to the public;
         •   monitoring the municipal road and traffic system with particular
             focus on rescue operations and evacuation measures;
         •   establishing a monitoring point on the municipal territory for main-
             taining situation awareness.
         the capability and organisation of the municipalities is very uneven,
     and sometimes extremely weak. Depending on the intensity or scale of the
     event and the local capacity, the operational and co-ordination centres of the
     national Civil Protection Service (nCPS) assist the mayor to ensure success-
     ful management of the emergency.

Co-ordination of the National Civil Protection Service


     Chain of command
          for the civil protection system to function effectively it is important
     that the appropriate level of authorities (municipal, regional or national) take
     charge of operations according to the seriousness of the event and within their
     respective areas of competence. in an emergency situation it should be first
     of all made clear who decides and assumes the operational responsibility for
     the interventions to be carried out. in cases of a national emergency, this role
     rests with the national Department of Civil Protection (DPC), whereas the
     Prime minister assumes the overall political responsibility. in such cases,
     italy has established a clear chain of command for disaster management. the
     co-ordination of the national Civil Protection Service and the promotion of
     civil protection activities are entrusted to the Prime minister through DPC.



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       when a disastrous event occurs nCPS is able, in a very short time, to define
       the event’s significance and assess whether local resources are sufficient to
       handle it.
           the first emergency response, irrespective of the nature, scale and effects
       of an event must however be guaranteed by the local structure. appropriate
       support to the mayors of small municipalities must be guaranteed by the pro-
       vincial and regional administrations. the mayor assumes the direction and
       co-ordination of the rescue services and can request assistance of the civil
       protection structures operating in the area. Depending on the intensity or
       scale of the event and capacity of the local system to respond, the operational
       and co-ordination centres of the operational components and structures of
       nCPS will be activated across italy at various levels of responsibility in order
       to guarantee the co-ordination of activities needed to manage the emergency.

       National Department of Civil Protection (DPC)
           DPC is tasked with the protection of lives and assets from damage or
       possible damage due to natural and technological disasters, short notice and
       in real-time. these overall objectives, as well as the associated operational
       needs and requirements, are quite different from those committed to medium
       and long term risk prevention, sustainable development and environmental
       protection, even if knowledge, information and experiences are of neces-
       sity shared and exchanged between these different domains of government
       interventions.
           the main tasks of DPC are promoting and co-ordinating the whole
       system; intervening directly in the event of national disasters; defining
       common intervention and action procedures for the whole system; submitting
       guidelines for legislation relative to risk prevention; directing the setting up
       and management of information networks necessary for risk prevention; pro-
       ducing and managing extraordinary regulations – the official orders – needed
       to conduct emergency interventions and deal with calamities. an early warn-
       ing system has been created which covers the emergency cycle phases: fore-
       cast, monitoring, surveillance, and risk prevention, emergency management
       and overcoming. DPC together with regions has the role and responsibilities
       to co-ordinate this system.
           DPC is organised in nine general offices (natural risk, seismic risk,
       anthropogenic risk, emergency management).the daily activities of DPC are
       dedicated to hazard forecasting and monitoring, surveillance and emergency
       management for events which need national resources but also to further the
       development of policies for preparedness and prevention. the development
       of techniques and methodological and scientific approaches to conducting
       operations in real time are also major tasks for DPC.



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       Operational Committee
            another role of DPC is to lead national co-ordination of responses to highly
       disruptive events, including natural disaster management. in cases of the most
       severe types of national emergency (so-called type C events), the head of DPC con-
       venes on its premises the Civil Protection operational Committee, which defines
       intervention strategies, guarantees a co-ordinated deployment of national resources,
       and ensures a unified direction and co-ordination of all emergency activities.
                        figure 2.4. Operational committee in session




Source: italian Department of Civil Protection (2008), “framing the Challenges for the Governance of
Risk in the Public Sector”, Conference paper, oeCD, Paris, 17 april 2008.

            the operational Committee is led by the head of DPC and comprises
       representatives of all components of the national Civil Protection Service,
       including ministries, agencies, institutes, organisations and infrastructure
       providers. in addition, other important events which require co-ordination
       between different national organisations have been put under the responsi-
       bility of DPC. the last two G 8 Summits in italy are clear examples having
       required the co-ordination of capabilities from various national organisations.
       the operational Committee serves as a structure to ensure and force con-
       structive collaboration as well as horizontal and vertical coherence.

       State of Emergency
             in the legislation, the Council of ministers (government) is given the exclu-
       sive right to declare a State of emergency and grants the power to issue deroga-
       tion ordinances of the existing laws to the Prime minister or the other minister in
       charge. this emerges from the need to dispose of sufficient legal and intervention
       tools needed to face natural calamities, catastrophes and other disastrous events
       i.e. all emergency situations of a large scale or disasters. moreover, it is based on
       a concept of civil protection spreading beyond just relief or rescue activities with
       the objective of including specific tasks in the field of emergency forecasting and
       prevention, and not only representing a central government derived structure, but
       rather a common national effort extended throughout the whole italian territory.


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               figure 2.5. Department of Civil Protection: 9 offices and 42 services

                                                    O ce I            Functional             Volcanic     Hydro-geological,           Forest res          Weather
                                                   Forecast,
                                                                       Centres             risk service      hydraulic,               risk service        service
                                                 evalutation,
                                                prevention and         Network                               maritime
                                                 mitigation of          service                           and coastal risk
                                                 natural risks                                                service

                                                    O ce II
                                                   Forecast,          Health risk    Environmental            Cultural                Industrial,
                                                 evalutation,          service         risk service           Heritage               nuclear and
  Communication      DEPUTY HEAD OF THE         prevention and                                               protection               transports
                                                 mitigation of
     service            DEPARTMENT                                                                             service               risk service
                                                  man-made
                                                     risks
                         TECHNICAL-
                                                    O ce III         Evalutation      Vulnerability         Training and              Territorial
                        OPERATIONAL
                                                  Evaluation,            and               and               knowledge              monitoring and
    Press O ce             AREA                    prevention         research       post-emergency         divulgation               data-base
                                                 and mitigation        service         mitigation              service               management
                                                 of seismic risk                         service                                       service


                                                                     Emergency         Emergency             Service for the        Telecommuni-
                                                                    methodologies,    management           coordination of the      cation service
    Legal O ce                                                                                            National Operational
                                                   O ce IV           procedures         service
                                                  Emergency              and                                   Room (Sala
                                                                                                          Situaizone Italia, SSI)
                                                                      planning
                                                                                                              and maritime
                                                                       service                                emergencies
                                                                                                                (COEMM)


     HEAD                                   Technical     Investigation         Internal            Technical               Human              Resources
                      Head of the          secretariat       service             control          service for the          resources          and logistics
    OF THE
                      Department           and special                           service          management                service           coordination
  DEPARTMENT            O ce              assignments                                              of buildings                                 service
                                                                                                    and safety


                                                     O ce V           IT service       Innovation          National Radio           Major events          Statistic
                                                 Major events,
                                                                                         service             Network                management         research and
                                                 technological
                                                 resources and                                             management                 service             analysis
    Secreteriat                                    innovation                                                  service                                    service



                                                     O ce VI
                                                    Voluntary         Voluntary       International         Institutional              Training
    Operational                                      Service           Service          Relations             Relations                 service
      Structure      DEPUTY HEAD OF THE         Institutional and
                                                                        unit             service               service
     (art.1, co.8,                                International
                        DEPARTMENT                  relations
   L.D. 245/2005)

                         TECHNICAL-                                   Contracts         Rewards               Financial                Relations
                       ADMINISTRATIVE                                  service         and special              a airs                 with the
                           AREA                   O ce VII                               grants                service                public and
                                                Administration                           service                                      corporate
                                                                                                                                        bodies
                                                                                                                                      secretariat


                                                                      Uni ed Air       Flight safety,          Air Fleet
                                                                        Fleet          training and          technical-
                                                   O ce VIII                               aerial            administra-
                                                                     Coordination
                                                    Aerial
                                                                       service           activities          tive service
                                                   activities
                                                                                       supervision
                                                                                          service



Source: italian Department of Civil Protection (2008), “framing the Challenges for the Governance of
Risk in the Public Sector”, Conference paper, oeCD, Paris, 17 april 2008.




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Operations
          the operational Committee is convened by the head of DPC each time
     he deems necessary with the aim to ensure unified direction and co-ordina-
     tion of the emergency management interventions. the Committee remains
     in headquarters during an event to be able to work together. DPC provides
     a situation centre, the national operational Room (“Sala Situazione italia”,
     SSi) that contains the operational Committee Room, equipped with techni-
     cal and communication systems to be able to house and provide assistance
     for the meetings held during the management of national emergencies. the
     operational Committee Room structure is, from a technical point of view, a
     very complex series of inter-operable systems. it is designed and operated to
     keep pertinent information online in the room at all times, and provides an
     integrated picture of unfolding events through monitoring surveillance and
     telecommunications systems. it needs to maintain a high level of reliability
     and at the same time to enable decisions to bring the different relevant serv-
     ices into action easily and quickly in the event of emergency.

     Common planning methodology
         in 1998, the national Civil Protection Service adopted the so called
     Augustus Planning Method. the augustus plan has provided a single organi-
     sational and operational model to both the national and local levels of civil
     protection services. the national methodology is based on the definition of:
         •   the capacities and the roles of each specific organisation or activ-
             ity and its field of intervention in carrying out and supporting the
             response plan needed in different types of operations,
         •   the procedures for a correct evaluation of an emergency event’s scale
             and the response needed to overcome it,
         •   the action procedures,
         •   the information exchange activity co-ordination systems in crisis
             situations or situations clearly leading to a state of emergency.

     The National Operational Room
          the national operational Room is housed within DPC’s headquarters in
     Rome. it receives, collects, processes and verifies breaking news stories or infor-
     mation concerning calamity events as well as critical situations in italy and abroad.
     another duty of SSi is to spread information with the objective of alerting imme-
     diately and activating the different components and structures of nCPS set up for
     emergency management, contributing in this way to a prompt activation of the
     potentially needed measures to face the emergency.



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           in case of emergencies requiring extraordinary decisions and deci-
       sive action, SSi becomes an essential structure in support of the Civil
       Protection operational Committee and guarantees the implementation of the
       Committee’s dispositions through the structures of the nCPS. the SSi has
       duty officers from the national fire Brigade Corps, national forest Corps,
       armed forces, Carabinieri, national Police, Revenue Police Corps and Coast
       Guard on standby around the clock in the SSi of DPC. the officers of these
       groups maintain contact with their respective departments and agencies.
           other components and operational structures can be added to SSi. the
       diversity of subjects handled within SSi turns it into a main point of refer-
       ence and a unique co-ordination centre in its genre. Should the emergency
       situation require the active participation of other institutions and administra-
       tions, SSi which is planned according to a modular structure model is able to
       respond adequately.
            Depending on the situation, connections are established through a dedi-
       cated secure system with the relevant regions and prefectures as well as with
       the entities responsible for lifelines (telecommunication companies, water,
       first aid and health centres, highways, railways, airlines, national volunteers,
       etc.). in the near future, this system will allow SSi to take part directly in the
       follow-up actions through the forthcoming regional radio network in order to:
            •    have access to the sound and data from regional radio channels (sig-
                 nals, selections, etc.) one by one or collectively,
            •    let the Regional operative Unit and SSi act collectively both in hear-
                 ing and in transmitting on the same radio channel,
            •    allow direct communications for co-ordination,
            •    connect the forthcoming regional radio network with a telephone user
                 connected to SSi (integration radio-wire) and vice versa.
           normally, the SSi is actively engaged in the global monitoring of both
       impending and ongoing emergencies in italy and abroad through seeking,
       requesting, collecting, processing and assessing related information on a
       twenty four hour basis. the Centre also acquires any useful information
       about interventions and measures carried out at local and regional level. all
       those activities are carried out in close co-operation with:
            •    the national operational rooms of the institutional organisations
                 responsible for public recovery operations,
            •    the civil protection operational rooms of regional and autonomous
                 provinces,
            •    the civil protection operational rooms at municipal level,



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         •   the local governmental offices (prefectures) and
         •   the national operational rooms or the monitoring structures of admin-
             istrations managing public services networks and infrastructures.
          in event of an emergency, the SSi is in addition responsible for alerting
     and, when necessary, activating the operational structures of the national
     Civil Protection Service, which are called to contribute to managing a specific
     disaster. the SSi is also responsible for technical support to the operational
     Committee in case of impending or ongoing national emergencies. according
     to the italian legislation, there are three types of emergency events. type a
     events can be managed with the available resources in the municipality where
     it occurs, whereas type B events require additional co-ordinated resources
     from outside. when there is a type C event (a national disaster which, because
     of its intensity and size, requires extraordinary means and authorities), then
     significant national level resources are made available. DPC conducts opera-
     tions in C level events through the regions and prefects, or both, and thus
     maintains in principle the normal line of operational command. the national
     level resources are made available and intervene under local management.
     DPC representatives are sent on site when the different local bodies do not
     have sufficient capacity for managing the event or do not collaborate well with
     each other. DPC can as needed provide resources in a type B event and help to
     reinforce the local leadership.

     Operational procedures
         the ability of SSi to perform its tasks and functions efficiently is
     strongly linked to the alert bulletins issued by the civil protection services
     and the quality of the information provided. in case of natural or man-made
     events within the scope of civil protection’s mandate ,co-ordinated action is
     undertaken between operational rooms at the national, regional, provincial
     and/or prefectural level, in addition to the central control structures of the
     service networks and infrastructure operators to:
         •   verify news upon receiving notice of the event and immediately
             informing SSi;
         •   inform SSi as to the operations already carried out or programmed to
             take place, by indicating the type, location, time-frame and resources
         •   implemented;
         •   test the available resources at their disposal and inform SSi;
         •   inform SSi of extra support needed;




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            •    keep in contact with SSi and immediately update SSi about the event
                 as it unfolds;
            •    upon request by DPC, draft reports summarizing the activities being
                 carried out.
           information not yet transferred or made available to the regional func-
       tional centres and in particular to the national functional Centre, by institu-
       tions and administrations co-ordinating data collection through monitoring
       networks must be submitted directly to SSi. furthermore, each operational
       civil protection structure and component body must provide a constant flow
       of information, involving from the earliest phases the local institutions by
       means of the regional operational rooms.
           the operational Committee is convened by the head of DPC each time he
       deems it necessary. the aim is to ensure unified direction and co-ordination
       of emergency management interventions. the Committee remains in DPC’s
       headquarters during an event to be able to work together. DPC provides a situ-
       ation centre, the SSi, which contains the operational Committee Room.

       Unified Joint Operative Centre (COAU) – Fire fighting
            each region has the competence to organise its fire fighting system,
       including forecasting, prevention and planning activities. DPC supports
       regions upon request. fire fighting is carried out by ground teams in co-
       ordination with the national forest fires air fleet. the Unified airborne
       operations Centre (CoaU)* is in charge of co-ordinating the national air
       fleet deployments upon request for assistance made by regional systems to
       DPC. the office of air activity is co-ordinated with the emergency office,
       the weather office, the CfSe, the forest fires Risk office, etc. in addition,
       the forest fire Corp liaisons acting within the CoaU are directly linked to
       all Regional operational Rooms, which are in charge of assessing fire situa-
       tions and requests for support. it is not the job of the CoaU to elaborate risk
       assessment on forest fire; rather it decides the national forest fires air fleet
       deployment strategy in order to meet requests from the region.
           the forest fires Risk office within DPC is involved in supporting the
       activities of the CfSe forest fires Sector with technical analysis for the
       decision makers. all data collected by the CfSe are used as input for the
       mathematical model used for evaluating the forest fires hazards. the output
       of the model forms the basis for the daily bulletin which is distributed to all
       operational Corps and all regional civil protection authorities involved in
       forest fires fighting. the bulletin is also a decision support tool to allocate the
       use of the national air fleet. During the events, the CfSe supports CoaU

       * established by law 353/2000.


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     in the definition of the possible scenarios for the active fires. Different sat-
     ellite technologies such as hot spots monitoring and brilliance analyse are
     utilized. all these activities are supported by CtSs (technical centres) such
     as the Cima Research foundation – mathematical model development –,
     the University of florence (Unifi) – hot spot monitoring – and the institute
     of methodologies for environmental analysis (imaa) – brilliance analy-
     ses. after the event, the forest fires Risk office in collaboration with the
     agriculture Supplies agency (aGea) makes a first evaluation of the damage
     using satellite technologies. aGea is in charge of the land use identification
     and detection, delimitation, qualification of burnt areas with geospatial data
     performed by satellite or airplane platform.

International co-operation

          DPC has set up a national platform for disaster risk reduction to achieve the
     objectives set-out in the “hyogo Declaration” and by the “hyogo framework
     for action”. it maintains a representative role within the nato initiative for
     civil protection. in addition, DPC has a number of bilateral agreements with
     third countries for co-operation in the field of civil protection, namely in the
     organisation of training activities, exchange of experts, joint exercises related
     to specific interventions, and the organisation of seminars and conferences.
         for example, DPC was involved in a eUR 500 000 project on “Strength-
     ening the national Strategy for forest fire fighting” in lebanon. the project
     aims to strengthen lebanon’s a forest fire prevention system at national scale
     with forecasting capacity of 48-72 hours, including an intensive training
     phase to increase the know-how of local staff working in forest fire preven-
     tion and forest management.

     Co-operation through the European Union
         DPC is the italian focal point of the eU mechanism for Civil Protection
     to facilitate co-operation in civil protection assistance interventions in the
     event of major emergencies. over the next three years DPC is going to be
     responsible for the organisation of the training courses aimed at developing
     european expertises for assisting both eU member States and third countries
     in case of an emergency. DPC also takes part in the eU fiRe 4 Project with
     the objective to define common operational procedures on the subject of
     forest fires and seismic events.
         Since 1987, DPC has been carrying out international missions in develop-
     ing countries upon request by the ministry of foreign affairs. the framework
     legislation specifies that DPC is competent for operating in international crises
     in co-operation with the ministry of foreign affairs.



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           DPC has been increasingly involved in international crises in recent
       years. at the international level, the italian civil protection system, rather
       than simply traditional domestic services, has become more and more utilized
       for international humanitarian assistance missions. this expanded role for
       civil protection in international crises has been confirmed at regional level by
       a european consensus on humanitarian aid. the DPC’s assistance interven-
       tions in third countries are conducted on both a bilateral and a multilateral
       basis. in order to match its response to an international emergency in the best
       possible way, DPC implements the system set up for domestic in the receiv-
       ing country which facilitates a smooth co-ordination of all available means.
           DPC is also involved in the PPRD South (former eURomeD Pro-
       gramme) established in the framework of the Barcelona Process and aimed
       at developing and reinforcing the co-operation in the field of civil protection
       in the euro-mediterranean region, and in particular in the areas of preven-
       tion, preparedness and response to natural and man-made disasters. DPC is
       furthermore involved in the adriatic-ionic initiative which encompasses pro-
       grammes jointly developed by the countries which surround the adriatic Sea.

       International humanitarian assistance missions
           DPC and components of the national Service have become increasingly
       involved in the management of international crises in recent years. Since
       1987, DPC has carried out international missions in developing countries
       upon request by the ministry of foreign affairs. italian legislation specifies
       that DPC is competent for operating in international crises in co-operation
       with the ministry of foreign affairs. in particular they have been used for
       international humanitarian assistance missions. this expanded role for civil
       protection in international crises has been confirmed at regional level by a
       european consensus on humanitarian aid. Such assistance interventions in
       third countries are conducted on both a bilateral and a multilateral basis. in
       order to match its response to an international emergency in the best possible
       way, DPC implements the system set-up for domestic actions in the receiv-
       ing country, which facilitates a smooth co-ordination of all available means.
           DPC strongly endorses the United nation’s (U.n.) leadership in case
       of emergency interventions abroad, and in principle acts under its aegis
       when working with Un forces. this consists in working under the overall
       co-ordination of the Un office for the Co-ordination of humanitarian
       affairs (Un oCha), with the United nations Disaster assessment and
       Co-ordination (UnDaC), the international Search and Rescue advisory
       Group (inSaRaG) and the United nations world food Programme (Un
       wfP). DPC has been charged with setting up a national platform for disaster
       risk reduction to achieve the objectives identified by the “hyogo Declaration”
       and by the “hyogo framework for action”. DPC maintains a representative


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     role within the nato initiative for civil protection. in addition, DPC has a
     number of bilateral agreements with third countries for co-operation in the
     field of civil protection, namely in the organisation of training activities,
     exchange of experts, joint exercises related to specific interventions, organi-
     sation of seminars and conferences.

Central government sector competencies

         the italian national Civil Protection Service (nCPS) consists of the
     regions, the provinces, the municipalities, the national and local institutions
     and all other relevant public and private institutions or organisations in italy,
     which are designated in law as its components and operational structures of
     the Service. each of these entities acts within its own competence and area
     of responsibility. the representatives of the components and structures sit
     on the “operational Committee” and are meant to ensure implementation of
     intervention activities with respect to their specific competences.

     National Fire Brigade Corps
          the fire Brigade national Corps is an essential component of the
     operational structure for civil protection, and is in charge of protecting the
     population and preserving the national cultural patrimony from any natural
     or man-made risk in the whole of italy. the Corps collaborates closely with
     the police in the execution of its operational tasks. Command of operations
     depends on the character of each event. as for the chain of command in the
     event of emergencies, the responsibility is on the local level and if the scale
     of the event increases then the provincial level becomes involved and also the
     prefect. one of the important challenges is to achieve co-ordination between
     the different bodies or sectors (health, police, etc.), as they do not operate
     at the same geographic level; matters of public health, for example, are the
     responsibility of the region.
         the limited number of fire fighters, seen in relation to the population
     of italy and compared to other european countries, creates a considerable
     need for either more part time employment of fully trained fire-fighters or
     volunteers trained for fire fighting. however, given the divergent economic
     and cultural conditions, it seems to be possible to involve sufficient numbers
     of local volunteers from the northern parts of italy. in the southern parts of
     the country, there are only professionals and recruitment of volunteers is very
     difficult. this is clearly a weak point in the system and means that the prob-
     lem of insufficient resources and the difficulties to recruit enough persons
     also due to the limited economic resources available should be addressed.
     one possible solution could be to employ part time fire-fighters.



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           the same technical and operational rules apply everywhere through-
       out the system and as human resources are mobile it is easy to connect and
       communicate with all localities and allocate resources where needed. local
       fire brigades belong to the national Corps of fire-fighters. of the 716 000
       incidents in 2007, less than 30% were fires, and the rest were accidents of
       different types. the Corps also has the responsibility for the fire and rescue
       services at the 13 international airports with a staff of 3 100 and CBRn pre-
       paredness in general.
           a debriefing is held each morning between the centres of the national
       Corps and DPC exchanging information on the situation in italy and emer-
       gency events that have occurred in the past 24 hours. this is conducted over
       a fibre optic secure infrastructure built for cold war purposes and to resist
       a nuclear attack. the national Corps receives an up-dating on the situation
       from DPC. there is no intention to introduce a tetRa based communication
       system for the emergency services as they are costly, in particular due to the
       topography in italy. the present analogue system is considered more flexible
       in giving access to different groups.
            a database is maintained that stores images and audio in digital so that
       knowledge and lessons learned from past accidents can be recalled from the
       archives to help manage the current accident. in the event of an emergency,
       information is shared on an iCS model. all fire fighters go through a six
       months basic training course which is supplemented by more specialized
       training and training for higher levels of responsibility in their career, espe-
       cially for officer and commander positions. Guidelines are issued for the
       regional, provincial and municipality levels, and italy has among the lowest
       rate of victims in fires in the world.
            Prevention is managed in different ways. for chemical safety and explo-
       sives as well as for the transport of dangerous goods, there is a commission
       which exercises responsibility. Risk assessments and planning are performed
       at the regional level with universities providing technical inputs.

       Italian National Forest Corps
           the italian national forest Corps (fC) exercises environmental monitor-
       ing and pollution control and certain police duties. fC conducts forest fire
       fighting as well as search and rescue operations in the forests and mountains.
       the responsibilities for these actions which are part of the national Civil
       Protection System lie on the regional level; on the local level, the munici-
       palities and provinces conduct the immediate emergency response. the
       forests cover 10 million hectares or one third of italy; 60% of the forests are
       privately owned and 40% are public property. as much as 10% of the forests
       are national parks. there are 8120 employees in fC which has an air fleet,



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     mainly used for surveillance and forest fire fighting, search dogs and other
     resources necessary for the tasks. a meteorological system meteomont
     monitors the mountain areas (300 locations are nodes for information on
     wind and other meteorological data) and provides a snow and avalanche fore-
     cast service, i.e. risk assessment and early warning.
          mapping of the forests is planned on the regional level but implementation
     is on the local level which is obliged to assess the risks and have maps indicat-
     ing the areas where there should be no commercial or residential exploitation
     of land. most parts of italy are covered by risk maps and the mountain regions
     have a good notion of the risks; however, the many stakeholders expressed the
     opinion that this is not always the case in some southern parts of italy.
         the national framework rules are specified in the regional and local
     regulations. there are however no efficient sanctions to prevent inappropri-
     ate use of land. the number of forest fires has decreased since 1985 when
     new legislation was issued prohibiting building in burnt areas during periods
     of 5, 10 or 15 years after the fire. logging is prohibited for 10 years in such
     areas. municipal authorities can however give permission to build in cut
     down areas. forest fires are becoming more dangerous due to encroaching
     land use development. People seek to build on the borders to national parks.
     Stakeholders informed the Review team that about 50% of the forest fires are
     thought to be set purposefully.
         there is no single administration with exclusive jurisdiction over the
     forest and mountain areas. the national forest Corps intervenes as a police
     force, but each police force has its own field of action. there are several
     actors providing search and rescue services in the mountainous areas, which
     are co-ordinated locally. the national fire Brigade Corps intervenes at an
     early stage to extinguish forest fires, which is most important to enable effi-
     cient control of impacts, and co-ordinate itself with other services.

     The Armed Forces
          the italian Joint operations headquarters (Coi) deploys forces from
     the army, navy, air force and Carabinieri. the Coi is the main interface
     office for the armed forces with the DPC. Regions, prefects, provinces and
     mayors can also request assistance directly from the armed forces for the
     management of emergencies. there are no earmarked forces for civil protec-
     tion activities. Requests are granted on the ground of feasibility, availability
     and opportunity on evaluation in each single case. earmarking of resources
     for this purpose would lead to poor quality and problems concerning funding
     of the forces. the military forces maintain their own management structure
     when they are put at disposal for such operations but are under the opera-
     tional control of the mayor, or any other relevant body which is responsible in



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       the chain of command and control established for each emergency situation.
       for instance, if DPC needs additional support for forest fire extinguishing,
       the request goes through the Coi.
            the types of civil protection events in which assistance is rendered are for
       instance immediate aid to rescue human lives, response in major emergencies
       such as a Stromboli volcanic emergency which affects many persons living in
       the vicinity, forest fire fighting, handling unexploded bombs and managing
       other major security events. Planning and exercises (for instance the one in
       Stromboli) have been conducted in collaboration even though it is hard to plan
       for something when you don’t know the impacts in advance. Scenarios are
       however used for planning large scale events and for providing assistance in
       general to regional, provincial and local response. when the scenarios occur,
       the operational Committee considers what resources are needed to handle the
       particular event and Coi deploys resources accordingly. DPC pays for military
       support within the frame of the funding allocated in a decree on a State of
       emergency. Some military resources which are procured in particular for par-
       ticipating in disaster management are also financed with the support of DPC.
            the public weather forecast and meteorological service in italy is man-
       aged by the air force. the radio and television weather forecasts receive their
       raw material or data mainly from the air force but also from other sources
       and use the data as they wish. the civil protection system has a strong capac-
       ity to exploit the meteorological data together with seismic and hydro-logical
       data for real time prediction and forecasting purposes, for early warning and
       alerting and in the operational information and decision support system. this
       is carried out by DPC and the regions as an element in their risk management.
       DPC issues warnings to the public through the media and through the chain
       of command to all concerned. the prefect informs the local authorities and
       the mayor the individual citizens and society in general.

       Police Forces
            the Carabinieri (120 000 persons) is a military police force conducting
       normal police duties in italy together with other police services, for instance
       the financial Police (68 000 persons), which comes under the authority of
       the minister of economy and finance, and the national, regional, provincial
       and municipal police (105 000 persons). at each level, the Carabinieri would
       be involved in emergency management and in large events the prefect will
       co-ordinate the Carabinieri with the region. the widespread structure of its
       territorial organisation, which is a peculiar and traditional feature since the
       Carabinieri was established in 1814, assures a capability, in case of natural
       disasters, for giving immediate warnings and a first aid in the suburban areas
       of italy, especially where the Carabinieri represents the only operating serv-
       ice of the central government.


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          the Carabinieri has a major task in assuring the continuity of public order
     and security in areas that have been struck by natural disaster by preventing
     and repressing crimes (looting). the Carabinieri participates in emergency
     activities and has “emergency units” located all over italy with competence in
     the region where the unit is deployed, and when required also in neighbouring
     regions, and can delimitate damaged areas, conduct surveillance to protect
     public and private properties, control and regulation of road traffic, secure aid
     convoys and conduct surveillance on first aid material. in the event of major
     disasters, it has become necessary to establish a forensic unit to be deployed
     on site for the identification of victims, gathering information concerning their
     families and undertaking “post mortem” examinations.
         Besides the Carabinieri, italy has several other police organisations
     with different roles related to civil protection, namely: the financial Guard,
     the national Police, the Coast Guard and the regional Police in five of the
     autonomous Regions, the provincial police and the municipal police. even
     though the financial Police force falls under the responsibility of the minister
     of economy and finance it is a military corps. it deals with taxation and
     finance crime, smuggling including drugs, border control, illegal immigra-
     tion and customs. the financial Police has access to boats, ships and aircraft
     for patrolling the boarders and the italian territorial sea.
         the national Police is a civilian service acting at national and regional
     level, and has the responsibility for public security, regular policing and
     law enforcement and patrolling the italian highways. along with patrolling,
     investigative and law enforcement duties, it patrols the Autostrada (italy’s
     express highway network), and oversees the security of railways, airports,
     bridges and waterways.
         the italian Coast Guard, which is a branch of the italian navy, has
     responsibilities related to the use of the sea, mostly in the field of commercial
     and recreational navigation. these responsibilities include search and rescue
     at sea, maritime safety (including port state control) and protection of the
     marine environment in close collaboration with the ministry of environment.
     among different important tasks are fishery surveillance and control as well
     as acting as the maritime police in areas under italian sovereignty. the Coast
     Guard also carries out duties for other public services.
          the main duties of the regional police in five of the autonomous regions
     and of the provincial police are related to enforcing hunting and fishing leg-
     islation as well as wildlife management and environmental protection. the
     municipal police have duties related to enforcing local regulations and traffic
     control as well as maintaining public order by reacting to petty crime and
     other anti-social behaviour.




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       Environment and Land and Sea Protection
           the ministry of the environment and land and Sea Protection and the
       natural environment Protection Directorate are directly responsible for
       the forest fire fighting sector (aiB) for the protection of designated areas,
       national Parks and State natural Reserves. the aiB planning in these areas
       is based on guidelines issued by DPC regarding forest fire emergencies and
       under the direct responsibility of the regions and prefectures as well as the
       State forest Corps in case of urban-forest interface zones. a significant ele-
       ment for fighting forest fires is the realization of a municipal land register
       of the areas subject to fire emergencies and local emergency plans with the
       respective interface areas. Park institutions can only solicit the negligent
       municipalities located within the protected area. the heads of the national
       Parks Service are in charge of supplying information regarding their pro-
       tected territories and aiB planning. this information is essential in order
       to carry out an active fight against fires, which relies on a thorough knowl-
       edge of the roadway and fire fighting infrastructures, the water accessible
       areas, etc. in addition to the type and geographical position of the vegetation
       directly or potentially of interested in relation to the fire.
            Since 1999, the ministry of the environment has activated a public service
       aimed at the prevention of and fight against marine and hydrocarbon pollution
       along the entire italian 7,500 km long coast line, including the islands. the
       ministry disposes of a tested intervention plan based on a system of equipped
       naval units prepared to confront environmental pollution emergencies. in case
       of serious hydrocarbon pollution, fighting operations carried out by the naval
       forces are called upon by the responsible marine commander and authorized by
       the ministry of environment in agreement with the harbour Command office
       of the Coast Guard. in case of crisis the responsibility to act is under the General
       Director of the natural environment Protection. the entire system’s co-ordina-
       tion is defined by department’s legal guide lines; in case of national emergency,
       the direct responsibility is passed on to the Department of Civil Protection,
       which becomes the institution in charge of co-ordinating the whole system.

       National Health Service
            the ministry of health is the central body of the italian national health
       Service (nhS), which operates at different levels with fundamental obliga-
       tion to guarantee health care as a fundamental right of the individual. the
       regions and autonomous provinces plan and organise in their own territory
       the health services and the activities for health protection, co-ordinating and
       monitoring the actions of local health Care authorities and hospitals. the
       local health Care authorities plan and organise health care in their own
       territory assuring the delivery of care through public and private accredited
       structures. there are some semi-autonomous public agencies providing


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     specialised care and operating at national or interregional level in the form
     of hospital trusts.
         the ministry of health has two general departments responsible for the
     organisational structure of the nhS. the Department for the health care
     structure, research and the ministry’s finances and staff deals mainly with
     the requirements for certifying and carrying out nhS activities, for testing
     agreement protocols for instance between regions and universities and the
     identification of needs of health care professionals and biomedical research.
     the Department for health care, public health, animal health and interna-
     tional affairs deals with all aspects related to citizens’ health, including
     prevention and prophylactic care, production, commercialisation and control
     of medicinal drugs, food safety and safety in workplaces. the nhS is made
     up of bodies and organs at different institutional levels, each contributing to
     reaching the objectives for the protection of public health.
         nhS contributes to civil protection through the assessment of needs
     and priorities for action to be taken and provide, in collaboration with the
     representatives of the autonomous regions and provinces, the information
     concerning human health, logistics and technological resources available in
     the area affected by the event, identifying their location, characteristics and
     equipment, time frame for action and modalities for use. furthermore, nhS
     will propose the potential deployment of expert teams for the evaluation of
     specific risks, identify potential public health care measures to protect the
     population and activate reference centres, laboratories and other institutions
     highly specialized in diagnostics and therapy.

Technical-scientific support and research

         to fulfil its task of identifying the types of events, their geographical dis-
     tribution and the probability of occurrence and risks, DPC has established a
     structured system of collaboration with the scientific community and research
     through the “Commissione Grandi Rischi”, the major Risk Commission,
     which is focused on risk assessment. this Commission takes a multi hazards
     approach and deals with four phases of the emergency management cycle,
     forecasting, monitoring, surveillance and risk prevention of both natural and
     technological disasters.
         ministries, universities, public research institutes and centres, and public
     administrations combine forces with the DPC through different forms of co-
     operation, agreements, understandings and working teams, in order to define
     both prevention and forecasting measures for the different types of risk. for
     the fulfilment of the operational responsibilities of the italian Civil Protection
     System, technical, scientific and industrial structures are involved with the
     aim of ensuring the necessary technical-scientific support.


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       Technical-scientific support
           an early warning system plays a very important role in supporting the
       decision making of authorities in charge of alerting the different components
       and operational structures of the national Civil Protection Service. the
       system operates under the direct control of civil protection authorities and is
       used to activate the emergency plans of provinces and municipalities.
            the national early warning System for floods, landslides, forest fires,
       volcano activities and hydro-meteorological risks in general is provided cen-
       trally by DPC and in the regions by developing a national network of “Centri
       funzionali”, functional Centres (CfSes, a network of civil protection multi-
       risk functional centres for forecasting and surveillance of effects to support
       the civil protection authority decision making). the national functional
       Centre and the Regional functional Centres, which are supplemented by the
       Competence Centres (Centri di Competenza – CtSs, centres for technologi-
       cal and scientific services), are involved in risk assessment and management
       and together constitute the network of receptors of any kind of warning.
       links have been established between CfSes and CtSs for the supply of
       services, for instance monitoring activities in real time.
            Depending on the natural phenomena (seismic, meteorological or volcanic
       activities) there are different levels of comprehensiveness for permanent sur-
       veillance and monitoring. the alert level of an event can be updated following
       its real time evolution. earthquakes generally are abrupt phenomena and a
       specific reaction procedure has been set up for these, which starts immediately
       after an event is detected. thus, the preparedness is focused on the integrated
       and shared activities addressed to forecast, monitor and conduct surveillance
       of the events as well as their effects in the short term and real-time.
           DPC is charged with the task of issuing guidelines and the definition of
       procedural and operative standards of the overall management of the system
       and of the provision of the necessary reserve or substitute capacity when a
       regional CfSe is not in operation. Regional CfSes are planned to be located
       in every italian region or autonomous Province. the DPC is supporting the
       regions in the establishment and development of Regional CfSes. apart
       from the national functional Centre, only nine of the 21 Regional functional
       Centres are at present fully operational, seven partly operational and five
       not operating at all. CfSes are the operative support units for the collection,
       elaboration and exchange of every type of data and they provide a multiple
       support system for the decision making. they also participate in research and
       development and conduct training of the regional civil protection personnel.
           CtSs provide services, information, data, elaboration, technical and
       scientific contributions for specific topics (meteorological, hydro-geological
       and hydraulic, volcanic, seismic and manmade risk, data from satellites, etc.).



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     the aim of CtSs in the early warning system is to establish a mechanism to
     share data in accordance with the best practices in the risk assessment and
     management field between:
         •   at the central government level: the Competence Centres (scientific
             institutions providing support and services), the ministry of infra-
             structure, the ministry of Cultural heritage, the national Research
             Centre, all the government components of the operational Committee
             and the national functional Centre;
         •   at prefecture level: Prefectures’ territorial offices of Government or
             main Prefecture of a region (UtG)
         •   at region/municipality level: regions (20 regions and 2 autono-
             mous provinces) with both planning and operative duties, Regional
             functional Centres (data collection and analysis, support to national
             functional Centre). in particular regions provide the general indi-
             cations for emergency planning and the general policies for risk
             mitigation; provinces and prefectures issue the provincial emer-
             gency plan according to the regional indications, municipalities are
             responsible for civil protection activities, organisation of local emer-
             gency plans co-ordinated with the provincial plans. Regional agro-
             meteorological services (aRPa-Sim) have the role of regional hydro
             meteorological centre and national reference centre for the italian
             national Civil Protection Service.

     Research and development
          the national Department of Civil Protection (DPC) exercises a strong
     supporting role in research and development programmes and has been stead-
     ily involved in projects carried out together with regions, provinces, munici-
     palities and competence centres at european, national and local levels, aimed
     to improve knowledge and instruments for risk mitigation. the foremost
     examples are its support of the istituto nazionale di Geofisica e vulcanologia
     (inGv), the laboratories University network of Seismic engineering
     (Reluis) and the european Centre for training and Research in earthquake
     engineering (eUCentRe).
         in the past, civil protection received scientific data based on specific
     requests; because of its new technical capacities, it is now able to participate
     in planning and management activities, not only for single research projects
     but also in integrated and shared information systems, supported by the
     most advanced technologies – often specifically identified for this pur-
     pose. Research groups have been set up and work on the basis of available
     research results and the aims defined in the legislation, namely safeguarding
     human life and health, property, national heritage, human settlements and


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       the environment from different natural or man-made disasters. the research
       groups focus on the hydro-meteorological hazards, volcano activities and
       seismic risks and have undertaken the following tasks:
            •    the definition of possible event scenarios and risks and identification
                 of observable precursors to such scenarios,
            •    the definition procedures for assessing the vulnerability of different
                 areas in italy and procedures for warning,
            •    the definition of codes and rules for land-use planning and new
                 buildings, for rehabilitation or retrofitting of the existing buildings
                 and for renewed planning of urban areas at risk.
           the european RiSK-awaRe and amPhoRe Projects for instance pro-
       duced over the period 2003-2006 very good results in improving monitoring
       capabilities, particularly enhancing the use of radar data. DPC also contrib-
       utes significantly to european Union policy development by participating in
       major risk management research projects as well as in the preparations for
       the implementation of the inSPiRe Directive* and above all in the european
       Union Global monitoring for environment and Security Programme (GmeS).
            within the framework of GmeS, DPC contributed to set up the
       eURoRiSK PReview Project (development of satellite products devoted to
       civil protection activities for several natural and technological risks). DPC is
       currently responsible for the operational and civil protection and humanitar-
       ian user validation activities within the SafeR Project. these are aimed at
       realizing the european core system (pre-operational phase) devoted to the
       distribution of services, products and satellite goods related to natural and
       humanitarian emergencies. DPC is also involved in the operational phase of the
       linKeR project with the task of facilitating user-friendly SafeR products at
       european level.
           as far as the tsunami risk in the mediterranean is concerned, DPC is going
       to take part in the forthcoming UneSCo intergovernmental Co-ordination
       Group (ioC) for the tsunami early warning and mitigation System in the
       north eastern atlantic, the mediterranean and Connected Seas (neamtwS)
       Project, both as a national focal point and as a responsible for surveillance and
       early warning in the central mediterranean area.




       * Directive 2007/2/eC of the european Parliament and of the Council of
       14 march 2007 establishing an infrastructure for Spatial information in the
       european Community (inSPiRe) was published in the official Journal on
       25 april 2007. the inSPiRe Directive came into force on the 15th may 2007.


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Critical infrastructure operators

         italy’s industrialized economy relies heavily on well functioning infra-
     structure whose components are extremely complex and interdependent,
     including industrial supply chains (just-in-time), communication services,
     energy and water utilities, transportation networks, and financial payment
     systems. natural disasters tend to have severe effects on critical infrastruc-
     tures leading to very significant damage and loss. Such consequences have
     also been the result of the severe electricity failures, transport disruptions,
     major production interceptions and telecommunications failures that italy has
     suffered in the past.
          the italian national Civil Protection Service includes the national public
     and local institutions and all other relevant institutions or organisations, both
     public and private, present on the national territory, which are designated as
     the components and operational structures of the Service. other components
     and operational structures can be added to SSi which is planned according
     to a modular structure concept, should the emergency situation or disaster
     require the active participation of other institutions and administrations.
     Critical infrastructures which form part of nCPS and have well defined spe-
     cific tasks in an event to take immediate actions and actions to be carried out
     within 12 and 24 hours respectively are presented in annex B.

Volunteer organisations

         volunteer organisations play a significant role in the civil protection
     system, providing a dedicated and well organised corps of human resources
     that can intervene to support professional civil protection services in times
     of emergency. more than 100 000 volunteers across the country stand ready
     to supplement the italian Red Cross staff of 4 000 official employees, whose
     salaries are paid by the government. the importance of volunteer organisa-
     tions is reflected by their representation on the operational Committee.
          in 2001 the President of the Republic issued Declaration 194/2001 regu-
     lating the participation of volunteer organisations in civil protection activi-
     ties. as many as 50% of the personnel involved in an operational response to
     a disaster may be volunteers, including volunteer fire fighter brigades, 15%
     military units (previously conscripts but now professionals which means that
     the available persons have been reduced dramatically), 25% professional fire-
     fighters and 10% other forces (technical, i.e. police, medical care etc.). only
     volunteers who have received specific training and have adequate equipment
     should be involved in fighting forest fires and employed as fire-fighters in
     general. other types of volunteers have tasks such as taking care of children
     and elderly. the italian national forest Corps and the national fire Brigade



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       Corps co-ordinate the action between ground forces and the air delivery by
       the Unified airborne operations Centre (CoaU).
           the volunteers are supported by an important labour policy that guaran-
       tees their return to normal working duties, but there is no legal obligation of
       an employer to allow a volunteer to leave the job more than a limited number
       of days for qualified service per year. Usually employers have no objections
       unless the person performs an indispensable function. the volunteer force is
       growing and is now about one million persons (approximately 100-150 thou-
       sand can be mobilized within two hours). the lombardy region, for example,
       can count on over 16 000 civil protection volunteers from private associations
       or local town groups registered in the Regional Registry of Civil Protection
       volunteers.
          the volunteers are represented on the operational Committee. the Red
       Cross in italy is considered to be something between a volunteer and a gov-
       ernment organisation, as the government pays the salaries of its personnel.
       this organisation has 4,000 official employees and 100,000 volunteers.
           the volunteers can also be used in international interventions; volunteer
       medical teams were for instance sent to indonesia and Sri lanka after the
       2004 tsunami. But there are certain challenges related to sending volunteers
       abroad i.e. the possibility for them to stay away for long periods and language
       barriers. volunteers are generally trained locally, and should ensure that
       volunteers know how to avoid being an obstruction or burden to professional
       responders. they have to be informed about what actions they cannot under-
       take and understand the risks present in earthquake, forest fire and flood
       situations, before they can learn what actions they may take outside the red
       zone where entry is limited to experts and fire brigade personnel.
           the specific tasks of the volunteer organisations, the national alpine
       Rescue and Spelaeology Corps, the italian Red Cross and other organisa-
       tions in nCPS in the event of an emergency or disaster, are considerable.
       they include providing information about the event and the number of vol-
       unteers and resources that are active in the affected areas as well as to plan
       for potential deployment of additional resources. they may be called upon to
       participate, upon request by the competent authorities, in rescue operations
       of the population and all the necessary activities to reinstate ordinary living
       conditions, such as preparation and distribution of meals and shelter for the
       rescue teams and the affected population.




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                                              Chapter 3 

                   Analysis of Italy’s civil protection system


           the civil protection system in italy draws from numerous actors at
       central, regional, provincial, and municipal levels of government, acting in
       concert with private actors such as volunteer organisations, the scientific
       research community and operators of critical infrastructure, to provide effi-
       cient preparation and effective response to disruptive events. the national
       Civil Protection Service (nCPS) is a legally established institution that
       strengthens coherency of action amongst these various actors and the diverse
       sets of expertise and/or resources that they provide.

Central administrative structure for civil protection and the legislative
context

            the mission of the national Civil Protection Service is the protection
       of lives and goods from damage, or possible damage, due to natural and
       technological disasters by taking appropriate response action at very short
       notice and in real-time. Depending on the geographical scale of an event, the
       potential for disruption and the capacity of the local civil protection actors
       to respond and manage it, the operational and co-ordination centres of the
       components and structures of the nCPS are activated to manage the situation.
       the President of the Council of ministers (known outside italy as the Prime
       minister) is entrusted with the co-ordination of nCPS and the promotion of
       civil protection activities through the Department of Civil Protection (DPC),
       in what is described as a functions-based (instead of competences-based)
       “architecture”. this model for co-ordinating and mobilizing the wide range of
       national capacity needed to handle a disaster is a unique approach compared
       to the public administrations in most, if not all, other countries.
           a clear chain of command for disaster management has been created.
       in 2002, legislation conferred full authority to the Prime minister to take
       action upon the out break of an extraordinary emergency situation. this
       is done after consultation with the President of the region involved, with


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      an agreement to issue a “Declaration of state of emergency”. the need for
      this action is based on an evaluation of the level of life threatening risk and
      a request by the head of the Department of Civil Protection. the Prime
      minister thus has the authority to decide on the involvement of the available
      components and operational structures of nCPS, each of which acts within
      their own area of competence and responsibility. when an event occurs that
      requires the intervention of civil protection services, an assessment is made
      in a very short time of its magnitude and whether local resources will be suf-
      ficient to manage it or whether broader support is required.
          the first emergency response, irrespective of the nature, scale and effects
      of an event must be guaranteed by the local structure or bodies, followed by
      provincial and regional administrations. appropriate support to the mayors
      of small municipalities is supposed to be guaranteed by the prefect. the
      mayor assumes the responsibility for the direction and co-ordination of the
      rescue services and can request assistance from the civil protection structures
      available and operating in the area, for instance fire brigades, police forces,
      health facilities, water, gas and power supply institutions or companies, waste
      disposal companies, telephone companies and local volunteer forces.
           Co-ordination for the whole civil protection system is undertaken by the
      national Department of Civil Protection (DPC), which intervenes directly in the
      event of national disasters; defines and implements intervention and action proce-
      dures common to the whole nCPS; establishes guidelines for legislation related to
      risk prevention; takes action to set-up and manage the information networks nec-
      essary to achieve risk prevention; and elaborates and manages the dissemination
      of exceptional regulations – the official orders – needed to conduct the emergency
      interventions and deal efficiently with the calamities. an early warning system
      has been created by DPC which covers all the emergency management cycle’s
      phases i.e. forecasting, conducting surveillance and monitoring, risk prevention,
      emergency response and overcoming or recovery. DPC also provides a structured
      system for combining the operational components and structures of the nCPS
      with the scientific research and development communities.
           DPC has the national co-ordination role for disaster management which
      it exercises together with regions, and as mentioned before the head of DPC
      is responsible for convening the “Civil Protection operational Committee”.
      this Committee, which meets at DPC, has the task to ensure a unified direc-
      tion and co-ordination of all emergency activities by defining the interven-
      tion strategies and guaranteeing a co-ordinated deployment of the national
      resources to deal with the disaster.
          the operational Committee is led by the head of DPC and consists of all
      the relevant civil protection actors, including the ministries, agencies, insti-
      tutes and organisations and infrastructure providers. the Committee remains
      in DPC’s headquarters during the initial phases of an event to be able to work


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       closely together. DPC provides a situation centre, the SSi, that contains the
       operational Committee Room, endowed with different features and able to
       support in the best possible way the meetings of the Committee during the
       management of major national emergencies. adoption in 1998 within the
       entire nCPS of the so called Augustus planning method has provided both the
       national and the other levels with a single organisational and operational model.
            the SSi at DPC has the task to guarantee the reception, collection, process-
       ing, analysing and testing of news or information concerning emergencies and
       crises as well as other critical situations in italy and abroad. another duty of
       SSi is to spread information with the objective of alerting immediately and
       activating the different operational components and structures of nCPS set up
       for emergency management. SSi contributes in this way to a prompt activation
       of the potentially needed measures and resources to face the emergency.
           in the event of emergencies which require extraordinary means and
       powerful support to local structures or bodies, SSi becomes an essential
       instrument which supports the Civil Protection operational Committee and
       guarantees the implementation of its decisions and dispositions of resources
       through the structures of nCPS. the SSi has duty officers from the national
       fire Brigade Corps, national forest Corps, armed forces, Carabinieri,
       national Police, Revenue Guard Corps and Coast Guard on standby around
       the clock in the SSi of DPC. the duty officers maintain contact with their
       respective departments and agencies. other components and operational
       structures can as needed be added to SSi. Depending on the situation, con-
       nections are established through a dedicated secure system with the relevant
       regions and prefectures as well as with the entities responsible for critical
       infrastructure or lifelines (telecommunication companies, water utilities, first
       aid and health centres, highways, railways, airlines, national volunteers, etc.).
             DPC conducts operations through the regions and prefects or both and thus
       maintains in principle the normal line of operational command. the national
       level resources are made available and intervene under local management,
       i.e. the province or the mayor. DPC representatives are sent on site to assist when
       the different local bodies do not have sufficient capacity for managing the event
       or it is found necessary because they do not collaborate well with each other.

       Findings related to the administrative structure
            the Review team draws the following general conclusions about the
       italian civil protection system on the basis of its interviews, on site visits,
       analysis of relevant legislation and informative material made available by
       the different components and operational structures:
           the Department of Civil Protection serves as a unique and coherent
       national crisis management organisation. it provides dynamic and efficient


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      leadership to the national Civil Protection Service with efficient central gov-
      ernment leadership and access to all national resources needed for dealing
      with disasters. it ensures a unified direction and co-ordination of all emer-
      gency activities by defining the intervention strategies and guaranteeing a
      co-ordinated deployment of national resources in accordance with a single
      organisational and operational model, the augustus planning method, which
      is implemented at both the national and local levels.
           italy has adopted a multi-risk approach to large scale disaster management
      covering the full range of possible emergency situations. this approach fully
      integrates scientific research and technological expertise into a structured
      system for maintaining its excellent early warning capacity, covering forecast-
      ing, surveillance and monitoring. its high level of situation awareness effec-
      tively feeds into emergency response operations and overcoming or recovery.
      further, DPC provides strong encouragement and support for knowledge insti-
      tutes and centres for research and development at national and european level.
           the nCPS follows an efficient system for scaling up and adapting the
      command and control capacity to guarantee a co-ordinated deployment of
      national resources in accordance with the needs of each disaster situation.
      it has demonstrated this capacity not only for interventions in italy, but also
      through important and significant contributions in such actions within the
      european Union, and also in international humanitarian assistance actions in
      third countries suffering from severe disasters.
           whereas in most other european countries responsibility for emergency
      management falls under the ministry of the interior or ministry of Justice, in
      italy the nCPS benefits from its position under direct authority of the italian
      government and the Prime minister. it further benefits from the fact that DCP
      is situated within italy’s institutional equivalent of the Cabinet office. as in
      Japan, where the level of risk for natural disasters is extremely high, and in the
      United Kingdom, the overall co-ordination and responsibility for communities
      remaining safe and secure is a task of the Prime minister’s Cabinet office.
      the more general differences between the three countries seem to be that the
      role of DPC is even geared for intervening directly in operational functions
      whereas the Cabinet office of Japan is involved in emergency prevention poli-
      cies and that of the United Kingdom is very focused on contingency planning.
          there are clear tendencies in different countries to adopt an approach
      similar to italy’s whereby the central government is enabled to enhance co-
      ordination between different levels of government administrations for safety
      and security. the United States Department of homeland Security, which
      merged 22 agencies of the federal government to better co-ordinate their mis-
      sions and programmes into a single, integrated agency focused on protecting
      the american people and their homeland. the comprehensive national strategy
      seeks to develop a complementary system connecting all levels of government


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       without duplicating effort. the Russian federation, which suffers from a con-
       siderable number of natural disasters within its large territory, has established a
       specialized ministry of Civil Defence, emergencies and Disaster Relief which
       has considerable resources at its disposal for its missions under different con-
       ditions including arctic and sub-tropical climate conditions to respond to all
       types of disaster. in finland the ministry of interior now consists of the Police
       Department, the Department for Rescue Services, the migration Department
       and the Border Guard Department. iceland has brought together its national
       Crisis management Centre with the 112 emergency Call Centre, the Police
       Communications and Command Centre and the icelandic maritime traffic
       Service as well as involved administrations at a common location. in Sweden a
       development in this direction has started with integration at regional level of the
       common 112 emergency Call Centre and the “blue light authorities”.

       Opportunities for improvement
            the Review team found needs to consider further improvements in a
       number of areas of significant importance that could help the italian system
       of civil protection function even more efficiently. even though some areas
       fall formally outside civil protection’s field of competence according to the
       present legislation, these matters are of fundamental importance for the over-
       all results linked to its objectives.

       Minimum standards for civil protection capabilities
            most important is the general need to achieve a minimum standard of
       capacity for civil protection activities in all parts of italy, although specific
       risk conditions will require allowing for local differences between municipal-
       ities. Solutions are required for dealing with the fact that some municipalities
       have a low or even very low and unsatisfactory level of emergency manage-
       ment capabilities. this is cause for major concern when such municipalities
       confront very high risks for natural disasters.
            the Review team found that one reason for the unevenness of civil
       protection capacity could be that the more qualified response resources in
       public administrations are still part of the central government services. even
       though the constitutional reforms transferred operational responsibility to
       the local level there was not, as might be expected, a transfer of the emer-
       gency response functions and resources to the municipalities, which is where
       they are usually located in different european countries. these resources,
       for instance the fire and rescue services and police, are not always directly
       accessible to the responsible mayors when needed and can have compara-
       tively long, indeed unsatisfactory, response times even in densely populated
       areas. access to voluntary civil protection resources differs considerably



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      from region to region, and in particular in the South of italy where it has been
      difficult to recruit volunteers. in any case, volunteer units cannot be used for
      more qualified fire fighting or hazardous materials tasks, although they play
      a major role in dealing with the general tasks in managing natural disasters. it
      strikes the Review team as unusual that the size of the national fire Brigade
      Corps which is the most important component for any emergency manage-
      ment is comparatively small taking into account the size of the population
      and the level of risk in italy.
           nCPS has to a great extent received its present form in the past ten
      years. Continued development of the system is urgently required and has to
      be undertaken to achieve an equivalent high standard of preparedness in the
      whole of italy, naturally adapted to the particular risks for disaster in each
      region. nCPS should therefore be continually improved, for instance through
      the establishment in all the regions of fully operational functional Centres
      (CfSes) for forecasting and surveillance of effects to support the civil pro-
      tection authority decision making. these regional centres form a national
      network of vital importance together with the national functional Centre,
      supplemented by the Competence Centres (centres for technological and
      scientific services, development and transfer – CtSs), which are involved in
      risk assessment and management.
           Bolstering capacities where needed in the current system would improve
      conditions for nCPS to function even better as a holistic system for disaster
      management. the Department of Civil Protection cannot meet individu-
      ally with 8 104 municipalities to identify where there are weaknesses in the
      system overall, however it does meet with regional civil protection authori-
      ties annually. likewise regional civil protection authorities meet with their
      provincial counterparts, and the provincial authorities meet with their coun-
      terparts at municipal level. this process of information exchange and consul-
      tation permits a broad knowledge of where capacities are strong and weak. to
      ensure satisfactory implementation of civil protection policies and capabili-
      ties from the central to the local levels of government, and the fulfilment of
      related intentions and legal requirements, a system of inspection and control
      should be introduced. this system could be supplemented by evaluations and
      cost benefit analyses to achieve the best possible use of the available public
      resources for the different components and structures of nCPS.

      Disaster prevention activities
          the Review team found that better implementation of prevention
      policies that reduce the exposure and vulnerability of italy’s population to
      natural risks is needed. the impacts of earthquakes that have occurred in
      recent years upon the building stock have been exacerbated to a great extent
      because their design is not in conformity with seismic codes, nor have they


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       been retrofitted to reach an equivalent safety standard. Due to the seismic
       risks, italy also faces a considerable challenge to protect its preserved and
       huge cultural and environmental heritage. the urban planning codes need
       to be reinforced by robust enforcement measures such as inspections, higher
       incentives to retrofit and harsher penalties for violations such as building on
       previously burnt land or in areas at risk, etc.
           the review mission clarified that it would be very beneficial if nCPS were
       to have a mandate for prevention policies with a similar role as in disaster man-
       agement. the formal responsibility for implementation of safety or security
       measures should then still remain with different ministries, agencies, regions,
       provinces and municipalities. DPC possesses relevant capabilities and experi-
       ence in prevention, however, which could improve the situation in this respect
       significantly. DPC is already involved in the prioritized efforts to improve
       safety in schools, hospitals, etc. both in new construction and by retrofitting.

       Legislation
           the Review team has found that the legislation has grown and been improved
       successively based on experiences and lessons learned from the disasters that have
       occurred and now consists of different laws, decrees and ordinances, etc. this
       makes it difficult to see their interrelationship and to obtain a clear overview of the
       scope, organisation, responsibilities and obligations related to risk management,
       not only for persons with a legal background, but also and even more so for those
       in nCPS implementing the legislation and the general public.
            the interest in elaborating a more streamlined or holistic and transpar-
       ent civil protection legislation should be given high priority. Such legislation
       could have the form of a framework law supplemented by more specialized
       coherent legal instruments covering specific areas of the law and implemen-
       tation ordinances and guidelines. Such a statutory package would facilitate
       implementation and form a strong tool for robust enforcement measures such
       as reinforced inspections. a more streamlined and transparent legislation
       would most probably lead to more efficiency in the whole nCPS as well as
       facilitate for each actor a better understanding of his/her role in the service
       and fulfil obligations more expediently and precisely. the legislation should
       thus be streamlined into and substituted by a holistic and coherent legal
       framework and system, covering the italian national Civil Protection Service
       and setting minimum targets for civil protection, to achieve transparency and
       a comprehensive overview and understanding for all persons involved in the
       Service and of the general public.




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Regional, provincial and municipal implementation of civil protection
services

           the regions are responsible in general for civil protection and in particu-
      lar for risk assessment, emergency forecasting and prevention programmes
      for their geographical area. the Review team observed that the diverse his-
      torical, geographic and socio-economic conditions of the regions of italy, in
      comparison to many other european countries, has been taken into account in
      the delegation of responsibility to the regions, provinces and municipalities in
      accordance with the so-called principle of subsidiarity. however, differences
      in fiscal resources, environmental conditions and institutional peculiarities of
      the italian regions have led to unequal ability to implement their responsibili-
      ties throughout italy.
           the Review team observed flexible models for implementing contin-
      gency planning, emergency response plans and preventive measures when
      it visited the civil protection authorities for liguria, emilia-Romagna, Sicily
      and Campania regions. the liguria and Campania regions have fully opera-
      tional functional Centres (CfSes), which is not the case in the Sicily. in con-
      trast, the Review team observed that some regions may even delegate some
      of their tasks to provinces when they are particularly well organised and
      possess strong capacities, for example as the emilia-Romagna region does
      in the province of Parma. again, differences from the expected norm were
      evident in Genoa, where the prefect had been given prominent co-ordination
      role for the province.
           flexibility amongst administrative levels has also been implemented in
      Sicily, where some municipalities have initiated and established inter munici-
      pal collaboration for civil protection planning in the absence of provincial
      powers in civil protection. these municipalities work together at a sub-pro-
      vincial level, frequently around a strong municipality with more capacity and
      resources, or when the need for collaboration in an area between municipali-
      ties is particularly strong, for instance in the area around the etna volcano.
      Similar solutions can be found in other parts of europe. in Sicily the need for
      inter municipal plans and collaboration is being emphasized, and this year the
      region has provided funding for inter municipal co-operation, for example for
      forest fire fighting.
          Certain civil protection authorities at the provincial level pointed out
      that they lack of power to execute prevention and contingency planning poli-
      cies. to redress this situation would require strengthening their enforcement
      powers, such as inspections and the ability to levy penalties for violations
      or neglect of responsibilities. within each province, the prefect represents
      the central government and has the responsibility for co-ordinating and
      encouraging integration of the organisations responsible for security and civil



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       protection. this means co-ordinating the very significant central government
       resources available for civil protection purposes, but provinces and munici-
       palities should not be allowed to over rely on these resources and neglect their
       civil protection responsibilities.
           Regions submit a request to the Prime minister for a Declaration of
       the State of emergency when a disaster triggers the need for extraordinary
       resources. if the need to establish in situ a national co-ordination structure
       should arise in order to face an emergency, the region will, in agreement
       with the DPC, identify and set-up the headquarters needed for this purpose,
       including consideration of the possibility of utilizing the Regional operational
       Room.
           During a “State of emergency” the Regional operational Room must
       guarantee 24 hour, around the clock operability. the organisational model
       at a provincial level includes a single integrated operational room (CCS),
       which on the one hand carries out its own tasks and on the other hand col-
       lects, assesses and disseminates information related to the event and the
       civil protection response, through a constant exchange between the differ-
       ent operational centres active within the province, the Regional operational
       Room and SSi. when an event requires support to the activities carried out
       by the municipal operational centres and the establishment of a link between
       the activities carried out at municipal level with those carried out at the
       provincial level, inter-municipal operational Centres are activated (mixed
       operational Centres – Com), which are located in specifically identified
       structures, sometimes by merging one or more municipalities. the activa-
       tion of such Centres is a duty of the authority responsible for the CCS unless
       a head Commissioner in charge is nominated following the “Declaration of
       a State of emergency” or the co-ordination is assigned to the head of DPC.
           Opportunities for action: the flexibility demonstrated amongst differ-
       ent administrative levels in maintaining a sufficient level of civil protection
       capacity despite a lack of resources is laudable. however, it is necessary
       to ensure that the roles and responsibilities of the region, prefectures and
       provinces be completely clear and well known to other bodies in the broader
       nCPS that might have to interact with them to ensure efficient risk and dis-
       aster management.

       Capacity of the municipalities
            Stakeholders made it clear to the Review team that many small munici-
       palities lack sufficient capacity and resources of their own to protect the pop-
       ulation satisfactorily in the event of a disaster requiring a qualified response
       at short notice. the time factor related to the development of an event and its
       consequences will vary considerably from one type of emergency to another.



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      this problem is not unique to italy, but probably more severe than in other
      european countries due to the high level of risk for very severe emergency
      situations in small municipalities. the Review team has found that a suffi-
      ciently strong and efficient organisation, in the form of nCPS with a task to
      ensure a unified direction and co-ordination of all emergency activities with
      DPC promoting and co-ordinating the whole system, is of utmost importance
      in italy for the protection of lives and goods, including the very significant
      cultural heritage from damages or possible damages.
          the lack of capacity amongst municipalities in some countries, such as
      france and the United Kingdom, has led to a broader regionalisation of the
      responsibility for the emergency or fire and rescue services, for instance in
      france’s Départements. in finland the municipal rescue services have been
      regionalised in the whole country, while in Sweden a common municipal
      organisation for fire and rescue purposes is being established successively on
      a voluntary basis between municipalities, a reorganisation process that takes
      considerable time to realize. the Review team considered that such actions
      could have considerable benefits also for the rational management of other
      public services, for instance education, social services, etc.
           in different european countries the fire and rescue service is often a
      municipal responsibility and forms the basis for the whole emergency response
      organisation. this organisation paradigm consists of professional fire-fighters
      on full time or part-time employment, and can be supplemented in some
      countries by volunteers with different tasks depending on their training and
      competence. the fire and rescue services co-operate with other services such
      as the police and health care and municipal social services in different forms.
          on the other hand, as a consequence of the constitutional reform, the
      mayor has been given by law the responsibility for civil protection in the
      municipality and manages the volunteers and the local police and other
      local resources. the local Carabinieri and volunteer associations will col-
      laborate in different ways with the local civil protection in order to support
      the population in the event of emergency. in other words, the mayor has the
      responsibility, but does not have control over national agencies and the more
      powerful resources. there is a difference between the tasks of the mayor who
      has operational leadership and the availability of necessary resources which
      are under the competence of other public administrations, which can only be
      requested to assist.
          a fundamental question for the Review team is why the decentralisation
      process was not accompanied by a transfer of resources to municipalities to
      support the competences it requires of them, such as civil protection. even
      the municipality of milan had very limited civil protection capacity until
      a couple of years ago, due to a lack of political interest in these matters.
      in the past several years there has, however, been vast improvement of the


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       co-ordination between national, regional, provincial and municipal authori-
       ties and the volunteer services. nevertheless, the Review team finds that
       there is an urgent need to improve the conditions for the mayor, who has such
       a key role in the emergency and disaster management, to make it possible for
       him to execute satisfactorily his responsibility in disaster situations.
            Opportunities for action: in line with the development in other european
       countries, it would be beneficial to start a process to improve the civil protec-
       tion capacities for small municipalities with limited resources, in particular
       in the South of italy, by facilitating co-operation with nearby communities.
       to compensate for the very uneven, and in many cases extremely limited,
       capacity and resources at local level for responding to emergencies, a stronger
       leadership role should be established for the provinces. alternatively the
       development of collaboration agreements between municipalities should be
       promoted, in particular when the latter face a common major risk of disaster.
       another solution for improving the situation would be a municipal adminis-
       trative reform to consolidate neighbouring municipalities.

       Central government support to the municipalities
             the stakeholder interviews informed the Review team that central govern-
       ment services that are necessary for emergency management are not always acces-
       sible in the time needed, or adapted to the needs of the municipalities. in general,
       the municipal resources only consist of the local police, local health services and
       other local resources. the local Carabinieri and volunteer services support the
       local civil protection service in the event of an emergency. volunteers cannot,
       however, fill the role of qualified fire-fighters, and should not from a workers
       health and safety aspect be called to do so without extensive education and train-
       ing. the panel interviews also indicated that in some southern parts of italy,
       recruitment of volunteers is more difficult than in the northern parts of the coun-
       try, due to lack of tradition and high unemployment. Given that a short response
       time is critical in many situations, municipalities and even provinces need to be
       assured of quicker access, at short notice, to central government resources, such
       as the national fire Brigade Corps, police and other organisations. the Review
       team was informed that in a suburb of naples with 60 000 inhabitants, the fire bri-
       gade could only reach the town centre after 25 minutes. in many oeCD countries,
       it is considered necessary to maintain response times in densely populated areas
       of less than 10 minutes and certainly not exceeding 20 minutes.
           Opportunities for action: measures should be taken to make the national
       resources for emergency management support more directly accessible in
       emergency situations at short notice to the municipalities in order to sup-
       plement gaps in their civil protection capacity, and take charge of the more
       qualified response actions than those for which volunteers and other local
       resources are adequate.


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      Inspection system
          Stakeholders expressed the opinion that provinces do not have the neces-
      sary formal powers to improve the performance of municipalities that do not
      always fulfil their civil protection duties in certain important respects, for
      instance emergency planning. inspection is a regular instrument implemented
      in other european countries to ensure appropriate emergency management.
      Such control is even carried out for instance at the european Community
      level as a regular tool in relation to eU member States in different policy
      areas. for example, the implementation of the european Seveso ii Directive*
      requires on-site prevention and preparedness measures, and off-site emer-
      gency planning adherence to the legal requirements is subject to forceful
      inspection and enforcement. the introduction of an inspection system within
      the area of civil protection, supplemented by necessary means of sanctions
      to improvement measures, should therefore be considered not only for emer-
      gency contingency planning matters, but also in respect to prevention meas-
      ures including reconstruction and retrofitting. it is recognised this matter
      cannot be resolved only within the framework of nCPS.
           Opportunities for action: an inspection system, supplemented by the
      competence to implement sanctions, should be introduced to ensure that
      provinces and municipalities meet minimum standards for civil protection
      contingency planning and emergency preparedness, as well as the implemen-
      tation of prevention measures, including standards for the reconstruction and
      seismic retrofitting of buildings.

Prioritisation and/or consolidation of activities

          the review mission revealed that the italian government anticipates very
      significant budget reductions due to its public debt, which if enacted could
      have significant negative effects on the capabilities of nCPS. at the same
      time the Review team has indicated that there is an evident need to continue
      the very positive and successful development of the nCPS seen in relation to
      the very high prevailing risk for natural disasters that threatens italy.
          the found annual budget for DPC is eUR 1.6 billion, of which eUR 1.4 bil-
      lion are funds for costs related to disasters in previous years. the total bank
      loans for such costs amount to eUR 1.2 billion. the compensation paid each
      year for recovery measures through the regions amounts to about eUR 150 mil-
      lion. the costs for reconstruction after the Saint Giuliano earthquake, for
      example, were eUR 85 million. approximately, eUR 200-250 million are

      * Directive 2003/105/eC of the european Parliament and of the Council of
      16 December 2003 amending Council Directive 96/82/eC on the control of
      major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances.


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       allocated each year to cover the DPC’s internal expenses, including eUR 100-
       130 million that are needed to cover the costs of the air fleet, eUR 60 mil-
       lion for technical and scientific competence centres and eUR 40 million for
       the operating costs (personnel, equipment, etc.). Up until 2003, DPC had
       eUR 77 million given on an annual basis to use in the event of emergencies,
       but now funding for this purpose is provided on request.
           there are, however, opportunities to streamline and reduce duplication of
       efforts, for instance through the implementation of more cost/benefit assess-
       ments, which might enable continued improvements with fewer resources.
       there are also some indications, for instance in the 2009 abruzzo earthquakes,
       that the expected level of resistance was not reached in earlier reconstruction
       and retrofitting projects. therefore the Review team suggests that efforts be
       enhanced to evaluate and analyze how efficiently the available public resources
       are used to improve safety and security of the population at risk.
            Opportunities for action: Given the high public debt in italy and espe-
       cially in light of the impending and very significant government budget
       reductions, there is urgent need to identify where the best value for money
       can be achieved. horizontal co-operation across the components of the nCPS
       would be a practical approach to co-ordinate efforts for achieving the best
       possible use of national resources that could be made available for civil pro-
       tection purposes, and thus offer opportunities for:
            •    conducting common cost efficiency assessments, analyzing parallel
                 organisational or overlapping areas of competence where duplication
                 of efforts can be avoided and rationalizing spending. emergency pre-
                 paredness should be one of the aspects to be taken into consideration
                 in all reforms of public administration given the very high level of
                 natural risks in italy;
            •    considering alternatives to financing disasters by public bonds;
            •    providing necessary resources for the continued improvement of
                 the civil protection system, for instance through the establishment
                 of CfSes in all regions and the development of prevention poli-
                 cies, including retrofitting of existing constructions and buildings
                 to reduce the number of those which are not in conformity with the
                 requirements in the seismic codes;
            •    considering how resources can be reallocated between public admin-
                 istrations to improve the protection of the population and national
                 assets in italy, including a more even level of safety.




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                                              Chapter 4 

             Risk assessment, prevention and early warning



Delayed time and real time activities

           when the italian national Civil Protection Service (nCPS) was estab-
       lished in 1992, forecasting and prevention measures were included in the
       scope of civil protection. the concept of prevention is no longer limited to the
       rescue of persons in emergency situations and reconstruction or restoration,
       but also includes measures to limit the major risks in italy. there has been
       an important shift in the legislation from a system that focused primarily
       on post emergency intervention to a system that includes risk assessments,
       forecasting and risk prevention measures. the tasks and responsibilities for
       these upstream activities involve civil protection actors at central and regional
       levels of public administration and the scientific community.
           Pre-disaster planning and forecasting activities are supported by the
       network of functional Centres (Centri funzionali) and Competence Centres
       (Centri di Competenza). the former are institutions that provide scientific
       and technical expertise about the nature of hazards, vulnerability of popula-
       tions and assets, and the development of technical measures to reduce them.
       the latter are forecasting and monitoring services at regional level (supple-
       mented by the national functional Centre in Rome), which are dedicated to
       prevision and surveillance of hydrogeological, meteorological, seismic and
       volcanic phenomenon for the purpose of supporting the decisions of civil
       protection authorities with hard data.
           through these networks of “delay-time” knowledge institutes and “real-
       time” forecasting organisations, the nCPS has fully integrated scientific
       research and technological expertise into a structured system that maintains
       a sufficient early warning and management capacity, covering the emergency
       management cycle phases: surveillance, assessment, forecasting, monitoring
       and risk prevention, emergency management and overcoming or recovery.
       ministries, universities, public research institutes and public administrations


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      combine forces with the national Department of Civil Protection (DPC) through
      different forms of co-operation, agreements and working groups, in order to
      define prevention and forecasting measures for the different types of risk.
           to identify and assess the different types of events, their geographical
      distribution and the probability of occurrence and risks, DPC has established
      collaboration with the scientific and research community, including a national
      commission for the forecasting and prevention of risks called the major
      Risks Commission (mRC). mRC is focused on risk assessment, takes a multi
      hazards approach in dealing with surveillance, forecasting, monitoring and
      prevention of risks for both natural and technological disasters. in the event
      of disaster, the head of DPC issues a request to the President of the mRC to
      immediately summon the full commission, adding as necessary a contribu-
      tion on the event which has been provided by external technical experts. in
      the reports exchanged between the operational Committee and the mRC, risk
      scenarios and their potential development are defined as well as scientific data
      regarding the event which will be collected and guaranteed by the national
      functional Centre housed within DPC. this functional centre also assesses the
      need to benefit from further expert or scientific opinions and to organise the
      participation or to provide the services of the Competence Centres.
          Opportunity for Action: the italian national Civil Protection Service
      could serve as an excellent platform and tool for creating a more satisfactory
      situation for risk assessment as it consists of the relevant disaster manage-
      ment actors and has the collective experience of handling disasters. By
      bringing together its relevant competences, nCPS could facilitate efficient
      management and ensure the most rational use of available resources for this
      important task within the surveillance and assessment, forecasting, monitor-
      ing and risk prevention phases of the emergency management cycle. this
      would not change the responsibilities of the different actors charged with risk
      assessment and prevention policies within their respective areas of compe-
      tence. in this context it should be recognised that the scope of the research
      and development in which DPC and the research centres and institutes take
      part often is quite wide and will cover the whole risk management cycle
      which includes and addresses risk prevention as a major element.

      Scientific collaboration and research
          DPC develops techniques and methodological and scientific approaches
      to conducting operations effectively in real time. the Review team has found
      that DPC exercises a strong role in research and development and has been
      steadily involved in projects carried out together with regions, provinces,
      municipalities and Competence Centres at european, national and local
      levels, aimed at improving knowledge and instruments for risk mitigation.
      the interviews and visits of the Review team demonstrated clearly the


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       importance of this active involvement of DPC and collaboration with italian
       institutes and centres in research and development, nationally and interna-
       tionally and within different eU Programmes, for the development of the
       italian national Civil Protection System (nCPS).
           examples of this are the major risk management integrated research
       projects as well as the preparations for the implementation of the inSPiRe
       Directive and above all the GmeS (Global monitoring for environment and
       Security) Programme. the contribution of the DPC and italian centres and
       institutes, often with support from DPC, with their knowledge and experi-
       ence can obviously be beneficial in general, but will also lead to significant
       improvements of the national capacity on a continual basis.
           it has been evident for the Review team that the DPC has in compari-
       son with most other countries a higher capacity in respect to research and
       development due to the significant integration of scientific research and tech-
       nological expertise and work within its organisation. this is reinforced by
       the established collaboration in different forms with universities and public
       research institutes and centres also in different research projects conducted at
       different national levels and within european Programmes.
            Opportunities for action: italy should continue to play an important
       role in the development of techniques and methodological and scientific
       approaches to conducting operations effectively in real time. the active
       involvement of DPC and the italian institutes and research centres, in collabo-
       ration with each other and within eU Programmes, for instance, should be
       continued and given high priority in the future. involvement in such activities
       can contribute significantly to the knowledge base and experience of italian
       civil protection actors.

       Addressing climate change
           in the course of panel interviews, the Review team was informed that
       climate change aspects could have significant importance for civil protec-
       tion activities in italy due to the consequences of more intensive and heavy
       rainfall and flooding, heat waves and drought, which in parts of the country
       have already begun to be observed. Stakeholders claimed that managing
       emergencies has raised awareness in the civil protection community that
       natural phenomena pose an increasing risk to the built environment, but this
       has not often filtered through to authorities with responsibility for urban and
       rural planning. Panel interviews suggested that long term prevention requires
       linking civil protection activities to decision making processes for land use
       planning and soil quality, as well as control procedures to ensure that public
       safety objectives are met.




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          the Review team was informed that the national Service has set up an
      overall strategy and has built in capacity to face the major risks resulting
      from climate change both in terms of prevention and forecasting. one such
      risk is increased torrential rainfall. while precipitation levels have remained
      stead on an annual basis, variance has fluctuated greatly, with longer dry
      spells and more intense rainfall over shorter time periods. the early warning
      system for hydro-geological risk consists of about 2 500 detecting points. for
      heavy rainfall or flash floods, there are 23 meteorological radars covering
      the italian territory, which allows the steady monitoring of precipitation and
      also permits forecasts and warnings to be provided over the short term (1 to
      6-8 hours).
          monitoring systems for environmental risks support civil protection
      decision making at national, regional and provincial level with data collected
      automatically by meteorological radar in real time, which is necessary to
      make a composite view of precipitation. the observation systems also pro-
      vide hydro/geo forecasting capabilities and knowledge of the vulnerability
      of territory. there is recognition that climate change has led to a need for
      different types of forecasting and modelling. a system is under development
      to model water levels in the Po river based on projections that incorporate
      climate change.
          in regard to heat waves and their effects on forest fires and public health,
      the Review team found that the early warning system daily bulletins to
      appropriate health authorities when needed. furthermore, DPC is actively
      involved and supports epidemiological monitoring and research conducted
      by the national Centre for Prevention of heat health effects, where it con-
      tributes to the assessment of heat wave related mortality. the development of
      a simulation model to explore changes of heat wave related mortality under
      different scenarios is meant to aid decision makers to consider adaptation
      policies in light of the health impacts of climate change.
          Opportunities for action: Climate change aspects should be given much
      more consideration and visibility within the national Service through a
      dedicated action programme, which more strongly includes and involves
      municipalities. the impacts of climate change at local levels need to be better
      assessed and incorporated into hazard mapping both to plan for an adequate
      amount of emergency management capabilities and to inform the public about
      the changes it should expect.

Early warning systems

           in 2004, operational guidelines were issued defining the tasks, respon-
      sibilities and organisation of the national early warning System, and the
      development of the functional Centres and Competence Centres network.


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       the functional Centres were thus intended to be developed as civil protection
       multi-risk functional centres. the early warning System, which is based on
       a distributed architecture and under the direct control of the civil protection
       authorities at different levels, plays a very important role in supporting the
       decisions taken by the authorities in charge of alerting the different com-
       ponents and operational structures of the nCPS in the different emergency
       management phases and activating the provinces’ and municipalities’ civil
       protection emergency plans.
            DPC and regions work in tandem through the national network of functional
       Centres (Cfes) to provide the national early warning system, which produces
       forecasts and conducts surveillance for floods, landslides, forest fires, vol-
       canoes and hydro-meteorological risks. these centres support the decision
       making of civil protection authorities, and together they constitute the network
       of receptors for any kind of warning. the link between the functional Centres
       and Competence Centres is based on contracts with the aim of supplying neces-
       sary services around the clock throughout the year. Some of the CtSs carry out
       monitoring activities in real time, for instance inGv’s national seismic network
       and Unifi for SaR monitoring of the Stromboli volcano.
            for some natural phenomena (e.g. earthquakes, meteorological events
       or volcano activity), there is permanent surveillance and monitoring that is
       articulated to different levels of precision. the level can be updated following
       the evolution of an event. earthquakes generally are abrupt phenomena and
       a specific reaction procedure has been set up for these, which starts immedi-
       ately after an event is detected. thus, preparedness focuses on the integration
       of forecasting, monitoring and surveillance activities, as well as the effects
       of events in the short term and real-time. for example, emergency manage-
       ment for seismic events is supported by three main surveillance seismic
       networks that rapidly improve the knowledge of a seismic event as soon as it
       occurs: the seismometric network of inGv, the soil strong-motion network
       of the national accelerometric network (Ran) and the Seismic Structure
       observatory (oSS) of DPC. while inGv can provide full basic information
       on magnitude and location of an earthquake in a few minutes, the Ran and
       oSS networks provide more detailed remote data that enables DPC to evalu-
       ate the locally felt intensities.
           the public weather forecast and meteorological service in italy is man-
       aged by the air force. the radio and television weather forecasts receive
       their raw material or data mainly from the air force but also from other
       sources and use it as they wish. the nCPS has a strong capacity to exploit the
       meteorological data together with seismic and hydrological data for real time
       prediction purposes, for early warning and alerting and in the operational
       information and decision support system. this is carried out by DPC and the
       regions as an element in their risk management. DPC issues warnings to the



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      public through the media and through the chain of command to all concerned.
      the Prefect informs local authorities and the mayor, the individual citizens
      and society in general.
           as noted earlier, DPC is charged with the administrative task of issuing
      guidelines and the definition of procedural and operative standards, i.e. non real-
      time disaster management or so called delayed time and the overall management
      of the system. alternative capacity is provided by the national functional Centre
      when a Regional CfSe is not operating or not yet operational. Regional CfSes
      are planned to be located in every italian region or autonomous Province. CfSes
      are the operative support units for the collection, elaboration and exchange of
      every type of data and they provide a multiple support system for the decision
      making. they also participate in research and development and conduct training
      of the regional civil protection personnel. DPC is supporting the regions in the
      establishment and development of Regional CfSes. CtSs provide services, infor-
      mation, data, elaboration, technical and scientific contributions for specific topics
      (meteorological, hydro-geological and hydraulic, volcanic, seismic and man-made
      risk, data from satellites, etc.). the aim of the participation of CtSs in the early
      warning System is to establish a mechanism to share data in accordance with the
      best practices in risk assessment and management field.
          the daily activities of DPC are dedicated to hazard forecasting and
      monitoring, surveillance and emergency management for events which need
      national resources but also to further elaboration of non-structural policies
      for preparedness and prevention. another task of DPC is the development
      of techniques and methodological and scientific approaches to conducting
      operations in real time. Research groups have been set up to work on the basis
      of available research results and the aims defined in the legislation, namely
      safeguarding human life and health, property, national heritage, human set-
      tlements and the environment from different natural or man-made disasters.
      the research groups focus on the hydro-meteorological hazards, volcano
      activities and seismic risks.
          the interviews clearly indicated the very important role CfSes play and
      can play in achieving the objectives of nCPS, for instance for risk assess-
      ment, forecasting and early warning. the participation of the CfSes together
      with the other actors in achieving a common situation awareness, providing
      necessary information and decision support both at central and regional
      levels, participation in research and development and conducting training
      of the involved disaster management personnel in the regions contributes
      significantly to the national capacity for efficient crisis management. of the
      planned 21 CfSes in the italian regions and autonomous Provinces, only
      nine CRSes are at present fully operational.
          Opportunities for action: in order to realize the goals which the nCPS
      has set up for itself, very high priority should be given to the establishment


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       of fully operational functional centres (CfSes) in all 20 regions and 2
       autonomous Provinces, taking into account that the level of risk for natural
       disasters, even though there are certain differences in the types of risk, is
       high in more or less all italian regions. CfSes are a prerequisite for fulfill-
       ing the need to allow the italian national Civil Protection Service to act with
       equivalent efficiency in the event of disaster in all parts of italy.

Disaster damage reduction and prevention

           in italy earthquakes are the natural hazard causing the highest toll on
       human life and damage to infrastructure and property. the 2009 abruzzo
       earthquakes are a recent reminder of this recurrent phenomenon, as over 300
       lives were lost and devastating destruction took place in the regional capital
       of l’aquila. it has been reported that the resulting destruction of buildings
       and other constructions was due, to a great extent, to their not being designed
       according to modern seismic codes. the abruzzo earthquakes, and other
       tremors that have occurred in recent years, demonstrate the importance of
       undertaking preventive measures to reduce disaster damage.
           a report presented to the Congress of the United States showed that
       hazard mitigation investments to reduce the risk of natural hazards save
       on average four dollars in future costs for every dollar spent by the federal
       emergency management agency (fema). fema pre-disaster mitigation
       grants for floods, hurricanes, tornados and earthquakes between 1993 and
       2003 are expected to save more than 220 lives and prevent almost 4 700 inju-
       ries over approximately 50 years. the benefits of such investments for risk
       reduction would likely have even greater impact in italy due to the relatively
       high costs caused by disastrous events that are often associated with damages
       to culturally significant buildings.1
            the Review team has found that measures to improve the general popu-
       lation’s safety from risks associated with natural disasters urgently need to
       be undertaken, and that these measures also need to take into account how
       to protect and preserve italy’s cultural patrimony and environmental assets.
       Such resources hold tremendous significance for italy’s national economy,
       notably its tourist industry, which is one of the fastest growing and most
       profitable sectors. with 43.7 million international tourist arrivals and total
       receipts estimated at USD 42.7 billion, italy is the fifth major tourist destina-
       tion and the fourth highest tourist earner in the world.2 a particular challenge
       for disaster damage reduction is the cost of seismic retrofitting a very large
       number of vulnerable buildings and constructions that attract tourists, many
       of which are delicate and could be easily damaged in the retrofitting process.
           Such efforts are being undertaken by DPC and have been prioritized
       to improve safety in schools, hospitals and other types of public buildings,


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      both in modern buildings with sub-standard construction and the retrofitting
      of older buildings of particular cultural value. a plan has been launched to
      assess the seismic safety of strategic and critical construction in italy, and
      initiatives to seismically rehabilitate about 1500 of the 42 000 public schools
      in italy. even these targets, however, will not suffice to reach a more satisfac-
      tory result in an acceptable time frame.
          another difficulty relates to the considerable number of new buildings
      that were constructed in violation of building codes, or with an inadequate
      control system during their construction. moreover, former seismic codes
      were insufficient to ensure modern safety needs (though modern codes do
      provide for these), thus leading to unsatisfactory performance of even 10-20
      years-old buildings, as the reports from the abruzzo earthquake indicate.
          the panel interviews indicated that it would be very beneficial if the
      nCPS were to be attributed a broader competence related to prevention poli-
      cies (even if formal responsibility for practical implementation would remain
      with different ministries and agencies, regions, provinces and municipalities).
      although the public and mass media have on occasion blamed DPC for the
      present unsatisfactory level of risk, the Review team finds, to the contrary,
      that very significant improvements and cost benefit solutions would be
      achieved if the nCPS were attributed a similar role for prevention as is the
      case for crisis management, including the duty to ensure a unified direction
      and co-ordination of all emergency activities. in particular, DPC’s experience
      derived from forecasting and monitoring activities of natural phenomena,
      delivery of risk assessments to guide disaster management, and involvement
      in the reconstruction or recovery after disasters (including the financing of
      such measures) place it in a strong position to provide relevant input.
           Opportunities for action: the role of the national Civil Protection Service
      in risk assessment and prevention policies should be clarified and widened to
      include benchmarking as a supplementary, voluntary tool to facilitate compara-
      ble risk assessment. DPC should, in addition to the present task of influencing
      regulation and codes, be given the role to act as a “champion” for a safer soci-
      ety and provide opportunities to consider also more forward-looking aspects
      to detect the signals that constitute an early warning of emerging risks. the
      task should cover the whole risk management cycle and be given legal support.
      account could be taken of the fact that the research and development being
      conducted in italy and in the eU context is already more focused on the holistic
      risk management cycle, which deals more extensively with risk prevention, than
      the more limited emergency management cycle. Sufficient resources for ensur-
      ing that the task can be executed satisfactorily should be allocated to DPC.




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       Land use planning
           the Review team has during its study visits and interviews found that
       land use planning requirements for construction and building, which are gen-
       erally seen as a very useful and efficient tool for prevention, not least against
       the consequences of natural disasters, are quite frequently set aside. the most
       extreme example of this is the habitation increase in the high risk area around
       the vesuvius volcano, from a limited amount of houses in 1944 to the present
       population in the area of about 550 000 persons. in italy land use planning
       can due to the high level of risk be of particularly significant importance as
       a long term policy tool in protecting the population and property from the
       consequences of flooding, forest fires, landslides or erosion and avalanches,
       volcano eruptions and earthquakes.
           a new law has introduced a registry of burnt areas in which subsequent
       building is prohibited to improve the forest fire situation. the number of
       forest fires in italy has decreased since 1985, when the new legislation was
       issued prohibiting building in burnt areas for periods of 5, 10 or 15 years
       after the fire and logging for 10 years. mapping of the forests is carried out
       at regional level, but implementation of land use policies is performed at
       municipal level, and a decree prescribes the obligation to assess the risks and
       to produce maps indicating the areas where there should be no exploitation.
       many of italy’s mountainous and forest areas are particularly dangerous
       in respect to forest fires and avalanches; hence the forest Corps, provides
       hazard maps for avalanche zones.
           the municipalities are supposed to use these maps to guide decisions
       on building permission but there are different perceptions of risks. in most
       parts of the mountainous areas there is high awareness of the risks for natural
       disasters, but this is not the case in some southern parts of italy. the national
       framework rules are specified in the regional and local regulations, but there
       are no efficient sanctions for inappropriate use of land, and some municipal
       authorities give permission to build in areas at risk and also in cut down
       areas. Some municipalities with sufficient risk awareness have commissioned
       private companies to develop risk maps. there is legislation in some regions
       that calls for the availability of risk maps and the need to control building in
       burnt areas. at the national level, information campaigns have been under-
       taken in schools, aimed at raising awareness amongst teachers, pupils, and
       through them the general public.
            in regard to seismic risks, DPC and the regions recently issued guide-
       lines for microzoning in land use planning, which form a part of a multi risk
       approach. Seismic microzoning studies are aimed at identifying areas where
       soil amplification effects and co-seismic effects (such as seismically induced
       landslides, soil liquefaction). however microzoning has been very rarely
       implemented up to now, except in the case of post-earthquake reconstruction.


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          the physical planning or land use planning is regularly given an important
      preventive role in other european countries – for instance in the netherlands
      and the nordic countries – and safety is a criterion for where and how to build.
      even if this is the case, it is however unfortunately possible to find examples
      in all countries of where the exploitation interests have been allowed to over-
      rule the security or safety interests and requirements. these are and should
      however to be seen as exceptions.
          on the other hand in certain situations and geographical areas, the safety
      requirements are upheld and implemented very stringently. one exam-
      ple is any activity which falls within the scope of the european Seveso ii
      Directive.3 the provisions in the Directive which are controlled by forceful
      inspection systems are implemented in all european countries, also in italy.
          autumn is the period when the risks for landslides and floods caused by
      heavy rainfall and erosion in steep hillsides are greatest in italy. forest fires
      are most frequent during the summer and are mainly caused by strong winds
      and on the other hand by arson or intentionally initiated fires aimed to clear
      wooded space for building purposes, which are estimated to be the reason for
      up to 50% of the forest fires. these fires are becoming more dangerous due
      to encroaching land use development, i.e. people seek to build close to the
      borders of forests and national parks.
          the obligation to take into account safety conditions through inter alia
      adequate land use planning as a basis for granting permission to construction
      and building should be strengthened through regulation in the legislation and
      efficient sanctions introduced to hinder inappropriate use of land. the imple-
      mentation of these legal provisions needs to be monitored more efficiently by
      the proposed inspection system.
          Opportunities for action: measures should be undertaken to ensure that
      safety aspects are taken into account more extensively through legislative
      provisions to ensure adequate land use planning and building requirements
      and that the implementation of these legal provisions are monitored by the
      proposed inspection system. as indicated earlier, this important issue is to
      be considered within a broader policy context that cannot be resolved only
      within the framework of nCPS.
           the nCPS excels at the phases of the risk management cycle within its
      mandate. its effectiveness is hindered, however, by two factors outside its control
      that have sometimes led to unjustified criticism about the ability of DCP in par-
      ticular to manage emergencies. first it should be noted that the prevention phase
      of risk management is largely not its responsibility. Despite a robust legislative
      corpus in italy that provides for structural and non-structural measures to reduce
      exposure and vulnerability to natural risks, a lack of enforcement of these rules
      has often accentuated damages. for example: building permits require designs



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       to conform to modern seismic standards, but the process is undermined by a
       lack of thorough and independent inspections. the collapse of the quite modern
       hospital in l’aquila meant that many victims of the 2009 earthquake needed to
       be transported by the emergency services to much more distant medical facilities.
       moreover, regulations and guidelines for land use planning to prevent exposure
       to natural risks are often violated. this not only endangers human lives and prop-
       erty, but also increases the operational burden of the emergency services that are
       spread too thin during peak seasons, especially for floods and forest fires.
            Second, italy’s devolved public administration promotes the autonomy
       and flexibility of local government, but many of its 8,104 municipalities pos-
       sess insufficient response resources to meet their civil protection responsibili-
       ties. this is both a funding problem and an issue of spatial reorganisation,
       since many municipalities must consolidate capabilities to achieve an ade-
       quate level of response capacity, and where this is not the case, an additional
       burden is placed on the DCP’s task of co-ordination.
           Prevention policies that reduce the exposure and vulnerability of italy’s
       population to natural risks need better implementation. Urban planning codes
       should be reinforced by robust enforcement measures such as inspections,
       higher incentives to retrofit and harsher penalties for violations such as build-
       ing on previously burnt land. municipalities should have clearer obligations to
       meet some minimum capacity standards to respond to the risks they face with
       support coming from the central government to compensate for the added
       resource burdens that devolvement has brought to bear.




                                                 Notes

1.     multi-hazard mitigation Council (2005), Natural Hazard Mitigation Saves: An
       independent Study to Assess the Future Savings from Mitigation Activities.
2.     world tourism organization, Tourism Highlights (2008 edition).
3.     Directive 2003/105/eC of the european Parliament and of the Council of
       16 December 2003 amending Council Directive 96/82/eC on the control of
       major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances.




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                                              Chapter 5 

          Risk communication and preventative information


           “Building a culture of prevention is not easy. While the costs of pre-
       vention have to be paid in the present, its benefits lie in a distant future.
       Moreover, the benefits are not tangible; they are the disasters that did not
       happen.”– Un Secretary General Kofi annan
            Before an event occurs, effective risk communication discourages irre-
       sponsible behaviour, such as constructing buildings, or undertaking com-
       mercial and recreational activities, in areas exposed to particularly hazardous
       natural phenomenon (e.g. volcanoes, forest fires and avalanches). State of the
       art surveillance and monitoring technology can enable advance preparation
       for some types of severe events that will hit a specific area with a high level
       of probability.

Preventative information

           organisations throughout the national Civil Protection Service actively
       conduct outreach activities to increase public awareness about natural haz-
       ards and to encourage them to improve their own resilience. the Review
       team was presented documentation from every level of government (central
       government to municipalities) that promotes public awareness about risks.
            the Department of Civil Protection (DPC) manages a number of activi-
       ties aimed at the development of a culture of civil protection through sensiti-
       zation campaigns, exhibitions and publications; e.g. through distribution of its
       pamphlet entitled “Civil Protection in the family”, which describes various
       types of natural hazards, how to prepare for them, specific actions to take in
       the course of an actual event, and what authority to call for help.
           at the local level, risk communication tends to address the most pressing
       needs, in the town of Gratteri, for example, pamphlets are distributed that
       demarcate detailed fire hazard zones and instructions for what to do in case
       of a wildfire. the city of Portici has published and distributed pamphlets on


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      the risk of an eruption of vesuvius, including likely lava flows and evacua-
      tion routes.
           the Review team found evidence of more specific programmes directed
      at vulnerable groups, for example school children and tourists. the city of
      napoli, together with the association “Stop Disasters”, publishes a multi-risk
      pamphlet Uscita di Emergenzia with information on preparing for disasters
      and where to evacuate in case of particular events. the region of lombardy
      publishes pamphlets in english that are made available to non-italian speak-
      ers who frequent the region’s famous skiing resorts and backpacking areas,
      e.g. “a Self-protection handbook for thunderstorms and avalanches” and
      “a Guide to Bad weather Conditions”. in addition to providing outsiders
      valuable information about the types and likely locations of extreme weather
      conditions that can endanger their activities, they also provide practical tips
      on prevention and self-protection.
          there is resistance in some parts of italy, however, to making risk maps
      generally available to the public, which stems from the position that the
      public should not be made unnecessarily afraid or induced to panic. instead,
      focus is placed on providing directions on what measures to take during an
      emergency. in the opinion of the Review team, on the contrary, risk commu-
      nication has been shown in other countries to increase active involvement and
      support from the public for necessary improvements in prevention policies.
           in some countries, for example france, risk communication activities
      are the result of the right of citizens to be made aware of the risks to which
      they are subject; sometimes called the “community right to know”. mayors
      in france are under legal obligation to take actions to inform citizens every
      two years about the natural risks facing their town. it should also be recog-
      nised that when information is intentionally withheld from the public in an
      open society, it can cause considerable distrust in the public authorities. the
      national Risk Register in the United Kingdom, for example, alerts the public
      to the types of events the government considers to be the highest actual risk
      in order to incite the public to take measures to increase its own resilience.
      this is also thought to have had the effect of increasing the level of public
      trust in government, which is important to ensure co-operation during the
      execution of emergency response activities. Japan is another country that
      takes a proactive approach to informing populations facing a very high level
      of risk. municipalities are obliged to disseminate risk maps to the public
      that also indicate evacuation routes to be taken and anticipated safe meeting
      points.
          in italy the level of risks from natural phenomena are relatively high
      compared to other european countries. to achieve the goals of risk com-
      munication, who Safe Community Programmes could be a very useful
      tool to create better public participation at the local level. Such programmes


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       should not be limited to developing awareness of major risks only, but aim
       also at increasing safety and security in general. for this reason, they should
       also cover minor day-to-day risks, which taken in aggregate over time lead
       to higher numbers of fatalities and injuries than many one-off, large-scale
       emergencies.
            Opportunities for action: in addition to the existing programmes at cen-
       tral government level, a programme for providing the public more specific
       information about local risks should be considered, including dissemination
       of risk maps to create public risk awareness and knowledge on adequate
       action to take in the event of disaster or accident.

Risk communication in emergency time

            in course of alerts for floods, tsunami and volcanic eruptions, for exam-
       ple, responsibility for risk communication and provision of information to the
       affected public is primarily placed with the mayor of the affected municipal-
       ity. DPC actively promotes the dissemination of information to the affected
       public to ensure timely and accurate public awareness concerning the event.
       these efforts include making the population aware of the relevant risk sce-
       narios in the immediate term, and instructions on self-help measures to take.
       DPC has a Press office and Communication Service that disseminate infor-
       mation directly and that liaises with the national and foreign media.
           DPC is establishing an in-house call centre, which is under development
       and will be used in the event of disasters. the aim of the call centre will be:
            •    to provide information to the population concerning the event and the
                 primary measures to safeguard the population;
            •    to handle calls of potential importance to improve the management
                 of emergencies.
            •    the public utility radio channel isoradio covers most of the italian
                 highways. it regularly broadcasts traffic reports, weather conditions,
                 railway information and public service reminders at regular inter-
                 vals around the clock. During emergencies, isoradio also provides
                 listeners with updated information about the incident as it develops.
                 a recent project is aimed at improving the quality of the existing
                 isoradio network services and at widening the coverage of highways
                 not yet covered by the service. the new isoradio network will be
                 carried out using three different types of radio-diffusion systems:
                 mountain systems, highway systems and subway systems.




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                      figure 5.1. Isoradio emergency news network




    Source: italian Department of Civil Protection (2008), “framing the Challenges for the
    Governance of Risk in the Public Sector”, Conference paper, oeCD, Paris, 17 april 2008.

112 Emergency call number
         in italy there are several possible telephone numbers to call different
      emergency lifeline services, for example 112 emergency calls are answered
      by the Carabinieri. Requirements under eC Directive 2002/22* call for

      * Directive 2002/22/eC of the european Parliament and of the Council of
      7 march 2002 on universal service and users’ rights relating to electronic com-
      munications networks and services (Universal Service Directive) as well as
      more specific requirements regarding 112, e.g. geographic positioning of mobile
      telephone calls (Commission Recommendation of 25 July 2003/K [2003] 2657)
      and the CoUnCil DeCiSion of 29 July 1991 on the introduction of a single
      european emergency call number (91/396/eeC).


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       member states to ensure that the 112 number is well known by their citi-
       zens, which is difficult when many different emergency call numbers are
       maintained, and leads to immediate action by the competent authority for
       providing the necessary help. the common european Union 112 emergency
       call number serves the purpose of facilitating urgent help for an individual in
       an emergency situation or disaster anywhere in the european Union through
       one single call. this is of particular importance in a country such as italy
       where the important tourist industry draws so many foreigners, most of
       whom would not know of any other number to call than 112 should they find
       themselves in urgent need to obtain help.
           in 1968, italy had already initiated a process to simplify and standardize
       the operational liaison between emergency services that resulted in the adop-
       tion in 1976 of 112 for use as a common emergency number for the opera-
       tional centres of the Carabinieri. Citizens were thereafter able to request help
       in dangerous situations from the Carabinieri and would, when relevant, be
       transferred to other competent structures or informed how to contact these
       services. when the 112 was adopted in 1991 as the single european emer-
       gency call number, measures were taken to make it possible to receive the
       calls also in foreign languages. the use of 112 increased from about 2.7 mil-
       lion calls in 1992 to about 6.2 million calls in 2004.
            Since the infraction procedure initiated by the european Commission in
       2006, the italian government has been developing initiatives aimed at fully
       complying with the european Union law on the 112 emergency Call number.
       in particular, italy issued a decree dated 22 January 2008, which provided for
       a first phase of implementation of the european Directive within the italian
       system. this decree was implemented within the province of Salerno to serve
       as a test for a subsequent implementation in the remaining italian provinces.
       however, due to financial constraints, the project had to be suspended in July
       2008.
            it is important to highlight that following a sentence issued by the Court
       of Justice on 15 January 2009, the italian government has promoted the estab-
       lishment of an operational interministerial working Group co-ordinated by
       DPC, which is currently setting up a strategy aimed at full implementation
       of the Universal Service Directive, and thus comply with the sentence issued
       by the european Court of Justice. the working Group consists of representa-
       tives of the major ministries and institutions involved in the implementation,
       such as the ministry of health, the ministry of interior, the ministry of
       Defence and the ministry for economic Development.
           in northern europe, 112 is, or is becoming, the sole emergency call
       number i.e. a common number for all emergency services which also serves
       as in impetus for enhanced collaboration between these countries. another
       development is to introduce modern digital tetra communication systems


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      and integrate these with the 112 services, which also facilitates cross sector
      co-operation in emergency response operations.
           the Review team has found that DPC is strongly convinced of the
      importance of a single european emergency number and DPC is committed
      to reinforcing the italian capacity to address all phases of disaster as well as
      early warning systems, which can benefit from the implementation of 112 in
      all eU member States.
          Opportunities for action: full support should be given to efforts to
      achieve full implementation of the european Union 112 emergency call
      number for the benefit of individuals seeking urgent help in italy.




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                                              Chapter 6 

                      Preparedness and real time response



Operational Guidelines for Emergency Management

           the Prime minister issued on 3 December 2008 operational Guidelines
       for emergency management to regulate the information flow between the dif-
       ferent actors involved, the activation and co-ordination of the components and
       structures of the italian national Civil Protection Service (nCPS), to describe
       the organisational model of the emergency management at a national level to
       support and adequately contribute to the local civil protection response, and to
       guarantee the necessary operational co-ordination of emergency management.
            according to the model adopted by each region, the Rescue Co-ordination
       Centre (CCS) of the province is activated. in the CCS there are representatives
       of the region, the prefecture, the province and the institutions, administrations
       and operational structures dedicated to the management of the emergency. the
       CCS must according to the guidelines assure unified direction of operations
       and co-ordinate actions with those carried out by the mayors of the involved
       municipalities. if the model adopted by the region does not indicate clearly
       who exercises leadership of the CCS and there is specific agreement between
       the prefecture and the province in force, then this task is assigned to the pre-
       fect who has the duty of ensuring the safety of the people and the goods.
            each region affected by an event guarantees for instance the immediate
       activation and deployment of the regional column and the volunteer organisa-
       tions, the management of health care emergency operations, the deployment
       of its technical experts to check the safety in buildings, assess the damage,
       evaluating the risks left and induced, verifying if the water is drinkable
       and conducting environmental recovery and land reclamation operations as
       well as use of primary necessity goods stored under regional competence
       to assistance to the population. the region will, in case there is a need for
       extraordinary means and powers due to the actual needs in an area affected



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      by disaster and on the basis of requests coming from the local institutions,
      submit a request for a declaration of the State of emergency.

Emergency preparedness

           the limited numbers of fire-fighters in relation to the size of the country
      and population create a considerable capability deficiency, though one solution
      to address this need would be to fully train more volunteers for fire-fighting.
      even this approach would only be possible in the parts of italy where there are
      enough volunteers, which tend to be in the north. in the southern part of italy
      there is a relative dearth of volunteers, and there are too few professionals due
      to insufficient resources to pay them. this is clearly a weak point in the prepar-
      edness and real time response to disasters that should be urgently addressed.
      one possible solution in the South of italy could be to employ appropriately
      trained part time fire-fighters which is a solution chosen in northern europe
      in particular in areas where the population is limited. another question to con-
      sider in this context is why emergency response resources of this type are not
      part of the municipal structure as in other countries.
           During the panel interviews stakeholders often mentioned the unsatisfac-
      tory situation in respect to contingency planning in the municipalities due to
      insufficient funding and resources or lack of political commitment was men-
      tioned. in liguria for instance 50% of the municipalities were estimated to have
      fully implemented their civil protection role, but municipalities where there are
      only 250 inhabitants cannot complete an entire civil protection plan. liguria
      has operational plans for the provinces that can compensate for this and be put
      in place, if the municipality planning is lacking. in Sicily, however, where there
      are 390 municipalities and as many as 90 municipalities per province, each of
      which is under resourced, provinces cannot cope with this problem.
          in italy, there is a general discussion going on concerning the useful-
      ness of the provinces in particular in regions like Sicily. on the other hand
      in some regions the provinces play a rather strong role. the Review team
      found that the official position is to support the provinces. the main task for
      the provinces is to elaborate the provincial emergency plan, but a problem is
      that they have no specified powers. the mayors are the local civil protection
      authorities, but the President of the Province is not by law a civil protection
      authority. in some regions, the prefects are also involved and playing impor-
      tant roles in civil protection which means that there are multiple actors with
      certain authority making the situation sometimes quite unclear.
           Some municipalities, for instance in Sicily, have established inter-municipal
      collaboration for civil protection planning and work together at a sub-provin-
      cial level, frequently around a stronger municipality with more capacity and
      resources or around for instance the volcano etna. the logic is to start with a


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       common risk mapping, and the approach adopted is always the same, to assess
       and map the hazards and risks, create relevant scenarios and elaborate an
       operational plan. most major risks are very well known in Sicily, for instance
       all the area around etna can be subject to the consequences of an eruption of
       the volcano, earthquakes and the effects of the ash plume. there are also geo-
       graphical areas where floods, forest fires, etc. call for well established collabo-
       ration between municipalities. in areas with a high and very high level of risks,
       a civil protection organisation and emergency plan is required in the legislation
       to be set up and this obligation is being fulfilled in Sicily for volcanic risks and
       marine and coastal risks including wave intrusion.
            to overcome some of the problems in Sicily, the need for inter-municipal
       plans and collaboration is being emphasized and this year the region has
       provided funding for inter municipal co-operation, for example for forest fire
       fighting covering 30% of the Sicilian territory. the region has implemented
       this model for co-operation also for public administration of health services
       and waste management without an obligation in the legislation. the develop-
       ment of organised co-operation and the inter municipality co-operation model
       is therefore encouraged and supported in Sicily. an agreement is signed by
       the participating municipalities establishing the collaboration with all com-
       ponents collaborating within the municipal co-operation.
           the Review team found it difficult to obtain clear answers to ques-
       tions about how the application of the above cited national guidelines by the
       regions is monitored. there is also a need to analyse the extent to which the
       constitutional and administrative reforms have increased or decreased the
       capacity for conducting civil protection activities at every level of public
       administration.
           Opportunities for action: the shortcomings in respect to preparedness
       and real time response should be addressed and different solutions should
       be considered from region to region depending on their particular resource
       deficiencies, to permit nCPS to function in a holistic way in the event of dis-
       aster. the interest of interoperability and achieving a more even level of civil
       protection capacity in the country requires an overall solution that cannot be
       resolved only within the framework of nCPS.

Human resource aspects

           the Review team has found a clear, coherent national leadership with
       other relevant actors integrated into the italian national Civil Protection
       Service and a very high level of commitment and professionalism of the
       personnel at the national and regional level in particular. at provincial and
       municipal level the visits and interviews demonstrated that there are discrep-
       ancies amongst their respective capacities for civil protection activities and


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      a need to establish a minimum acceptable level in all parts of italy. this will
      require a more systematic and common education and training system for all
      civil protection actors in italy.
           a very large number of motivated volunteers provide the necessary
      resources needed for large scale civil protection operations and help to create
      local involvement in many, but not all, parts of italy. about 50% of the per-
      sonnel involved in an operational response to a disaster will be volunteers,
      including some volunteer fire fighter brigades, 15% military units (previously
      conscripts, but now professionals- which means the available persons have been
      reduced dramatically), 25% professional fire fighters and 10% others (technical),
      i.e. police, medical care, etc. only volunteers who have been specifically trained
      and have adequate equipment can be involved in forest fires and other firefight-
      ing. other volunteers have tasks such as taking care of children and elderly.
          the costs for volunteers’ training and maintaining the organisation are
      covered, that is if the organisation is registered in a national registry. the
      volunteers can also be used in international interventions. training of vol-
      unteers, generally carried out locally, is important to avoid the volunteers
      becoming an obstruction to the professionals. firstly, they have to learn what
      they cannot do and to understand the risks in earthquakes, forest fires and
      floods, before they can learn what they can do, outside a red zone into which
      no one is allowed to enter except experts and fire brigade personnel.
          however, recruitment of volunteers is difficult in certain parts of italy,
      due to tradition and other reasons, but the opportunity of getting a good
      education and training could help to improve the situation. furthermore, as
      volunteers cannot fill some more qualified roles without education and train-
      ing, for instance that of qualified firemen, and should not be required to do so
      from a workers health and safety perspective, such education and training has
      to be conducted. Different solutions for improving the situation in the areas
      with problems of volunteer recruitment need to be found and, besides educa-
      tion and training, certain guidance could be gained from sharing the experi-
      ences from the areas in italy, which have been successful in their recruitment,
      and also other countries.
          Opportunities for action: nCPS seems to a great extent to be very per-
      sonality driven at all levels and measures need to be taken to maintain the
      present high level of personal competence and capacity among the personnel
      – including persons in leadership positions – in the long term perspective. a
      very high level of competence is necessary for the personnel to be able to fulfil
      their roles under pressure in the very complex situations which characterize
      a disaster. Besides the training conducted at different levels of the command
      and control system and the regular disaster management exercises, a common
      competence development or life long learning system should be considered for
      the personnel in the operational components and structures of nCPS.


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           Such a system could also serve as an engine for improvement of nCPS
       and therefore include measures for addressing some of the shortcomings that
       the interviews have indicated primarily on the provincial and municipality
       levels. the training of the mayors for instance consists of only a one day
       workshop. for the officers in charge of civil protection at municipal level
       there are opportunities offered to participate in several training courses.
           the regional plan foresees that in case of warning there should be a 24
       hour operational room at local level, but the municipalities frequently do not
       have the resources to manage such a system. if this is the situation, then the
       mayor being responsible for the municipality will be acting very much on his
       own. But also personnel other than the mayors in the whole system need to
       have good designated education and training to be able to collaborate well
       and efficiently with each other at the different posts and levels they may be
       appointed to in the nCPS. a common competence development programme
       would also facilitate good recruitment to the service. the training of volun-
       teers should be a part of the common civil protection training.
           Opportunities for action: maintaining the high level of commitment and
       professionalism of the civil protection personnel is vital and should be pro-
       moted through the introduction of a common competence development or life
       long learning system and measures should be taken to facilitate the recruit-
       ment of volunteers in all parts of italy including education and training.

Technology standard

            the visits demonstrated that modern advanced technical equipment is
       available and used in certain parts of nCPS, for instance systems for sharing
       the common situation awareness and exercising efficient command and con-
       trol. the visits and hearings indicated however that in the prefectures, prov-
       inces and municipalities on the other hand only some of these had centres
       with a modern technological standard whereas others were operating with
       very traditional means such as fax, telephone or cell phone.
           also in other countries old methodologies and technology are still in
       service to a great extent. in the emergency services in general, there is quite
       strong traditionalism and a certain tendency to maintaining traditional meth-
       odology and technique too long, although the situation is changing quickly
       with the new generation of personnel.
           in italy modern it is now becoming successively implemented and
       operational in certain centres, as elsewhere in the italian society. Seen in
       relation to the high level of risk as well as the magnitude of the consequences
       that have to be managed with a diversified and large quantity of resources,
       the full introduction of modern methodology and technology on a wider scale



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      can be considered more important and require higher priority than in many
      other european countries.
           Opportunities for action: efforts should be made to bring all civil protec-
      tion operational centres in the prefectures, provinces and municipalities fully
      operational and up to an appropriate and as far as possible common modern
      technology standard which would facilitate interoperability and enable the
      centres to contribute more to nCPS. an improvement of the technology in
      the centres would enhance the capacity for exercising the emergency com-
      mand and control efficiently but also make it possible to share and contribute
      to the common national situation awareness system.

Critical infrastructure

           major critical infrastructure providers or life-lines are among the compo-
      nents and structures involved in nCPS and are represented in the operational
      Committee (see annex B for more descriptive detail of the operators and
      their roles in civil protection). these components and structures in nCPS
      must be obliged to ensure the implementation of their specific competences
      and capacities in the intervention activities with respect to the established
      procedures. in the past, italy has experienced a number of very severe elec-
      tricity failures, transport disruptions, major production loss and telecommu-
      nications failures, which during the study visits and hearings indicated the
      need to consider the introduction of more extensively legislative and other
      measures to ensure the functioning of the critical infrastructure in disaster
      situations or other crises.
           Disruption of critical infrastructure increasingly subjects industrialized
      economies to negative cascade effects due to the interdependencies of dif-
      ferent systems. this also applies to such systems as financial and payment
      systems including credit cards and cellphone communication systems. it
      should furthermore be taken into account that extensive privatisation of these
      services creates new risks and needs for ensuring the functioning of the criti-
      cal infrastructures through legislation.
           there is a clear need to take further steps to ensure the functioning of
      the critical infrastructure in italy in the event of natural disasters or other
      national crises. in Japan for instance, legislation places the responsibility for
      the functioning of the infrastructure through requirements on the infrastruc-
      ture providers, public and private, by requiring them to have business conti-
      nuity planning. Such an approach is recommended also for italy, not least as
      these providers or lifelines are the only entities able achieve appropriate and
      adequate practical results in these respects. there is also a strong self-interest
      for the infrastructure providers to make their functioning more secure.



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            Opportunities for action: Consideration should be given to the introduc-
       tion of a legal responsibility to have effective business continuity planning for
       critical infrastructure providers, and lifelines in both the business sector and
       the public sector should be considered to ensure the functioning of society in
       the event of natural disasters or other national crises.




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                                              Chapter 7 

                   Post-event issues, emergency overcoming


            the frequency and high magnitude of damages from natural disasters in
       italy create specific challenges for recovery and reconstruction in addition
       to the loss of human life, damages to buildings, equipment and inventory
       resulting from the initial event itself. Considerable indirect costs may arise,
       mainly through two channels: the disruption of supply in goods and services,
       particularly in vital systems such as health and energy; and negative reactions
       from the public. Special efforts must therefore be made in support of rapid
       reconstruction and to help economic activity resume. at the same time a
       disaster is a window of opportunity to foster public dialogue on the adoption
       of policies that can reinforce the prevention of damages from future events.

Reconstruction and compensation for disaster damages

            the general approach to support a “return to normalcy” is to provide
       comfortable accommodation in the post emergency phase, allocate a mini-
       mum level of government support for housing and the resumption of produc-
       tive activities, and to ensure that public order is maintained.
           an important share of the State’s annual budget is devoted to restoring
       damages incurred as a result of natural disasters. from 1999-2008, the State
       spent over eUR 35 billion in ad hoc, ex post disaster compensation. although
       no dedicated disaster fund has been established, yearly expenses are progres-
       sively growing. the compensation of disaster losses is handled on a case-
       by-case basis, whereby the italian government intervenes in emergencies by
       providing ex post financial aid and enacting ad hoc laws (so called emergency
       legislation). following a disaster the local government of the affected area
       (town, province or entire region according to the extent of the disaster) may
       petition for a “Declaration of State of emergency”. if the central government
       Cabinet approves the proposal, it opens the way to an order specifying the
       financial amounts to be made available to the public for long term reconstruc-
       tion. these funds are primarily directed toward paying for reconstruction of


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      public infrastructure and to contribute to the rebuilding of private houses. the
      area identified in the declaration may make claims for compensation from the
      fund for recovery measures through the region where it is located, and the
      President of the region delegates a body to monitor reconstruction works. the
      Department of Civil Protection acts as an intermediary in this process.
          aggregate damages from disasters in italy can be very high; over the last
      forty years, the estimated average annual cost of seismic events is eUR 3 bil-
      lion when adjusted for inflation. owners of private houses may be eligible
      to receive compensation for repairs and retrofitting or to build a new home,
      for which they generally have to justify expense claims in detail. they are
      required, moreover, to move back into their homes within a certain time
      delay. Since building repairs in seismic zones as a rule include retrofitting,
      the level of compensation individuals receive will in most cases not cover
      100% of the damage costs. Residents are never fully satisfied with the com-
      pensation they receive, as they have often lost their house, property, history
      and business or livelihood, but a minimum amount is provided at the begin-
      ning of the post emergency stage so that they can try to start over.
          there are considerable practical problems opposing recovery efforts
      and reconstruction in areas that have been damaged by disaster, although
      they are part and parcel of the same objective, i.e. a return to normalcy. for
      the local economy to recover it is imperative that utilities be re-established
      as quickly as it is possible to safely do so, and it is important for local busi-
      nesses to have access to short term assistance to overcome unexpected
      expenses resulting from the disaster. at the same time essential repair work
      may be obstructed by the city’s residents who are trying to resume normal
      activities, and by media who are present to cover the event. while temporary
      evacuations alleviate these difficult working conditions, and allow exclusive
      access to the disaster zone to emergency services, residents complain if they
      are kept from their homes for an extended time since they wish to retrieve
      belongings, protect their property from looting, make repairs to damage and
      resume their lives as soon as possible. the national Civil Protection Service
      addresses some of these concerns by reinforcing the local police presence
      with the national Carabinieri to protect property against looters. there is also
      reimbursement made available for living expenses in alternative housing or
      special accommodation in a hotel or prefabricated houses that are generally
      located so as not to obstruct the reestablishment of essential services.
           Opportunities for action: State funding to compensate for losses arising
      from disasters are granted on an ad hoc provisions and highly discretional
      basis. expenses have often been granted without there being any conditional-
      ity for implementing prevention measures to avoid or limit similar disasters
      in future. for consistency across different types of disasters, the government
      Cabinet should make its decision with reference to an agreed set of criteria.



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Insurance coverage for natural disasters

           in italy, insurance coverage of risks related to natural catastrophes is
       limited to private insurance stipulated on a voluntary basis. at present, this
       kind of insurance coverage is fairly infrequent and it mostly concerns the
       industrial sector, covering devices, machineries, installations and ancillary
       services.
            By enacting special laws and provisions indemnifying the owners of
       properties affected by single disasters, the government has built up the pub-
       lic’s reliance on its generosity and undermined the willingness of individuals
       to purchase insurance. there can be no robust insurance market for disas-
       ter damages under the current conditions whereby the italian government
       responds to a public expectation that it provide compensation for losses and
       rebuilding costs. in light of italy’s high public debt and high financial deficit,
       budgetary reductions are anticipated in the coming years that could make
       disaster assistance an obvious target for cuts.
           to address this situation and to reduce government expenses, several
       proposals to develop a more efficient model have been presented and debated.
       Some stakeholders have argued that governmental expenditures could be
       significantly reduced should a national insurance mechanism be instituted to
       cover losses from natural disasters, on the basis of a partnership between the
       public and private sectors.
           the italian Parliament has discussed, but failed to pass, legislation to
       improve insurance cover for major risks. the government has looked into
       how it might improve the availability of insurance for disaster damages
       through a scheme for mandatory multi-risk insurance up to a certain amount,
       beyond which the government would act as reinsurer of last resort. these
       discussions included the possibility of creating a fund for seismic risks, which
       was unpopular with residents of low risk areas who would have been required
       to contribute to the fund. a main challenge then is to achieve a system of
       insurance that enjoys sufficient reserves to indemnify subscribers for disas-
       trous levels of damage, but is financed by risk based premiums. at present
       there is no compulsory insurance against catastrophic risks. Several propos-
       als have been made during the past years, but none has made it through the
       legislative process yet, partly due to competition law restrictions and to the
       opposition of consumer associations.
           Risk based insurance cover is one of the main methods to create incen-
       tives for property owners to take measures to mitigate risks and even prevent
       sub-standard construction and building. in the abruzzo region, the avail-
       ability of affordable earthquake insurance is very limited, although there
       were indications during the mission that penetration of earthquake insurance
       in italy is greater for commercial and industrial risks than for residential


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      property. even where earthquake cover is offered, the amount of coverage
      provided under policies is limited. full value earthquake insurance policies
      are extremely rare, if offered at all, and most policies typically have limits
      between 20% and 50% of sums insured. limits tend to be towards the lower
      level of this percentage in the more seismically active parts of the country
      and deductibles also apply.
          Opportunities for action: to foster the development of a voluntary insur-
      ance market for natural disasters and provide an incentive to purchase insur-
      ance, which is one of the main mechanisms through which people are usually
      compelled to invest in damage reduction measures, the legislative efforts
      should be re-launched to introduce the concept of a public-private system
      involving insurance companies in the coverage of natural disaster losses.

Evaluation and lessons learned

          the information provided during the mission review interviews indicated
      that the national Civil Protection Service has developed and increased its
      capacity and capability by continually learning lessons and gathering expe-
      rience from past events, and with the support of legislation and ordinances
      that have been introduced over time for this purpose. one such event that
      provided many such lessons for emergency planners was the San Giuliano
      earthquake in 2002. for example:
          •   it is difficult to create and maintain a culture of risk in areas with
              rare events. although several seismic tremors had occurred in the
              affected area over the centuries, no destructive earthquake had taken
              place for so long that the public awareness of the hazard had faded
              over time.
          •   Urban sprawl may be particularly vulnerable to tremors. no destruc-
              tive earthquake was reported in the past probably because the
              historical centre of the city was built on rock, while more recent
              construction was built on soft clay soil.
          •   the national building codes were obsolete. authorities should act
              according to the latest available information with wide scientific
              consensus. Keeping norms unchanged for a long time increases the
              indolence of engineers in updating their professional skill.
          •   Buildings constructed in past are not necessarily safe enough. there
              is a need to conduct seismic assessment of the buildings and infra-
              structures that have a crucial role in emergencies or with relevant
              consequences in case of collapse.




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            •    Due to the absence of any seismic awareness, local authorities were
                 not ready to manage a seismic emergency. the relief model used by
                 the national Civil Protection told local authorities what to do and
                 how to do it, but did not check their preparedness.
            interviewees clarified that there is no formalized system or structure
       for evaluating systematically the individual events and drawing lessons
       from these that could feed into specific proposals to change policy, although
       this has occurred after certain disastrous events. for example, after the San
       Giuliano earthquake the government considered the knowledge gap between
       scientific knowledge and its translation into risk mitigation tools to be unac-
       ceptable, and established a working Group to obtain scientific advice on the
       possible upgrade of both seismic zonation and seismic code. the output of
       this effort was a by-law (n. 3274) issued by the Prime minister on “general
       criteria for seismic zonation of the national territory and on seismic codes”.
           Disaster statistics and lessons that are informally drawn from events are
       not however compiled in a dedicated data bank as part of the information and
       decision support system of the national Civil Protection Service.
           Opportunities for action: for the benefit of all actors in the national Civil
       Protection Service and in support of national research centres, DPC should
       take the initiative, in conjunction with the regions, to establish a coherent and
       formal system or structure for evaluating systematically and independently
       each type B and type C emergency event, and where merited, formulating
       proposals to change policy in the light of the lessons that have been learned.




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                                              Chapter 8 

              Synthesis of conclusions and recommendations


           on the basis of its review mission and analysis of material provided by
       the different components and operational structures of the national Civil
       Protection Service, the Review team has found that the italian civil protec-
       tion system benefits from a unique and coherent approach to crisis manage-
       ment that can be scaled up to the national level, and that it exercises efficient
       central government co-ordination of emergency responses in the event
       of disaster under a very dynamic and efficient leadership executed by the
       Department of Civil Protection (DPC).

General conclusions

           the policies of the italian system of civil protection are well adapted to
       the country’s recent constitutional reforms, i.e. decentralisation and distribu-
       tion of public administration competences resulting in the attribution of those
       civil protection duties to local bodies that were not specifically assigned to
       the central government (such as the management of significant hazards).
           a unique coherent national crisis management organisation with efficient
       central government leadership and access to all national resources is needed
       for dealing with crisis and to ensure a unified direction and co-ordination
       of all emergency activities. this is achieved by defining intervention strate-
       gies and guaranteeing a co-ordinated deployment of national resources in
       accordance with a single organisational and operational model, the Augustus
       planning method, which is implemented both at the national and several local
       levels.
            a multi-risk approach to large scale disaster management has been estab-
       lished in italy covering the whole range of severe risks and possible crises
       situations. it fully integrates scientific research and technological expertise
       in a structured system for maintaining an excellent early warning capac-
       ity, covering the emergency management cycle’s phases, i.e. forecasting,



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      conducting surveillance and monitoring, risk prevention, emergency response
      and overcoming or recovery; strong encouragement and support by DPC
      is furthermore exercised in the involvement of the institutes and research
      centres in research and development projects at national and european level.
          the italian national Civil Protection Service has an efficient system for
      scaling up and adapting the command and control capacity for guarantee-
      ing a co-ordinated deployment of national resources in accordance with the
      particular needs in each disaster situation in the domestic realm, and also
      provides important and significant contributions abroad by participating in
      such actions within the european Union and in international humanitarian
      assistance actions.

Governance structure

           DPC’s position directly under the italian government and the Prime
      minister, being a part of the Council of ministers and having fully integrated
      scientific research and technological expertise in its organisation, gives the
      nCPS the very best conditions and capability for the crisis management
      needed to face the quite frequent disasters in the italian national territory. as
      in Japan, where the level of risk for natural disasters is extremely high, and in
      the United Kingdom, the overall co-ordination and responsibility for society
      remaining safe and secure is a task of a division within a body similar to the
      Cabinet offices. the more general differences between the three countries
      seem to be that the role of DPC is more operational whereas the Cabinet
      office of Japan has a co-ordinating role and is also involved in emergency
      prevention policies, while the Cabinet office of the United Kingdom plays
      a central role in planning for emergencies and works with other government
      departments to ensure that the country is prepared to deal with unexpected
      events.
          in most european countries, the ministries of the interior or Justice have
      the responsibility for emergency management. in the Russian federation,
      which is exposed to a considerable number of natural disasters within its vast
      national territory, a specialized ministry of Civil Defence, emergencies and
      Disaster Relief has been established with significant resources at its disposal
      and for its missions under different conditions including arctic and sub-
      tropical climate conditions.
           there are clear tendencies in different countries of a development toward
      following the italian line that focuses on central government involvement and
      enhanced co-ordination between safety and security government administra-
      tions even at a common location.




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           in a number of areas with significant importance for making nCPS
       actions function even more appropriately and efficiently, the Review team
       found that there is a need for further consideration of possible improvements.
       even though some of these areas could be considered to fall formally out-
       side the DPC competence, these matters are of fundamental importance for
       achieving its overall objectives.

       Civil protection capacity building
            high priority should be given to achieving a more equal capacity for
       civil protection in all regions of italy. municipalities in many areas of italy
       have quite a low or even very low level of capacity for emergency manage-
       ment. this is frequently the case in regions with very high risks for natural
       disasters which causes major concern. even though the constitutional reforms
       transferred operational responsibility to the local level, there was not a trans-
       fer of the emergency response functions and resources to the municipalities.
           the Review team found that one reason for the imbalance of capacity
       amongst different regions of italy could be that the most qualified response
       resources in public administration are still part of the central government.
       these resources are not directly accessible to the responsible mayors. the
       access to voluntary civil protection resources differs considerably and in par-
       ticular in the south of italy where it has been difficult to recruit volunteers.

       Legislative framework and administrative reform
            the legislation pertaining to civil protection should be streamlined into
       and substituted by a holistic and coherent legal framework and system, to
       achieve transparency and a comprehensive overview and understanding for
       all persons involved in the nCPS and members of the general public.

       Clarification of roles and responsibilities of the regions and 
       provinces
           in order to achieve and continually ensure efficient risk and disaster man-
       agement there must be no doubt as to the roles and responsibilities of civil
       protection authorities at every level of public administration, regardless the
       model chosen in a region to exercise such responsibilities. thus, it is neces-
       sary to have an obligation to make the roles and responsibilities of the region,
       prefectures and provinces completely clear and well known in each region to
       ensure efficient risk and disaster management and enable all involved actors
       to know their responsibilities, irrespective of which model of devolved opera-
       tional leadership is chosen by the region to implement.




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      Capability of the municipalities
           a stronger leadership role should be established for the provinces or alter-
      natively the development of collaboration agreements between municipalities,
      in particular when the latter face a common major risk for disaster. they should
      be encouraged to compensate for differing and in many cases extremely limited
      capacity and resources at local level for responding to emergencies. another
      solution for improving the situation would be a municipal administrative
      reform to consolidate co-operation between neighbouring municipalities. there
      is finally an urgent need for considering in depth the question of improving the
      conditions for the mayor, who has such a key role in the emergency and disaster
      management, to make it possible for him to execute satisfactorily his responsi-
      bility in disaster situations. this matter, which could include consideration of
      transferring of central government resources to the municipalities, is of a more
      overall nature and cannot be resolved within the framework of nCPS.

      Inspection System
          an inspection system, supplemented by the competence to implement
      sanctions, should be introduced to ensure minimum standards for civil
      protection contingency planning and adherence to a minimum level of emer-
      gency preparedness in provinces and municipalities respectively (as well as
      prevention measures including reconstruction and retrofitting). this matter
      involves the competencies of many public authorities and cannot be resolved
      exclusively within the framework of nCPS.

      Support to the municipalities
          measures should be taken to improve the access of municipalities to
      national emergency response resources at short notice. they may face unfore-
      seen risks that require more specific competencies and response actions than
      those that volunteers and limited local resources can provide for.

Prevention

          the consequences of failing to abide by seismic codes for buildings and con-
      structions have come to light following several major earthquakes, which supports
      the need to increase efforts for the prevention of disaster damages. italy also has
      a particular responsibility for protecting and preserving its significant cultural
      patrimony and environmental resources. the Review team’s visits and inter-
      views clarified that it would be very beneficial for nCPS to be attributed broader
      competence for prevention policies, with a role that leverages its competence in
      disaster management. the formal responsibility for implementation should remain
      in appropriate ministries and agencies, regions, provinces and municipalities.


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           the obligation to take into account safety conditions through inter alia
       adequate land use planning as a basis for granting permission to construction
       and building should be strengthened in the legislation and efficient sanctions
       introduced to hinder inappropriate use of land. the implementation of these
       legal provisions should be monitored by the proposed inspection system. as
       indicated earlier, this matter is to be considered as a matter of a more overall
       nature and national interest which cannot be resolved only within the frame-
       work of nCPS.
            the Review team has found that better implementation of prevention
       policies through DPC, which has relevant capabilities and experiences in
       prevention, are urgently needed to reduce the exposure and vulnerability of
       italy’s population to natural risks, and this should be reinforced by robust
       enforcement measures such as inspections, higher incentives to retrofit and
       harsher penalties for violations such as building on previously burnt land or
       in areas at risk.
            the role of the italian national Civil Protection Service in risk assess-
       ment and prevention policies should be clarified and widened to include
       benchmarking as a supplementary voluntary tool to facilitate comparable risk
       assessment. DPC should, in addition to the present task of influencing regu-
       lation and codes, be given the role to act as a “champion” for a safer society
       and provide opportunities to consider also more forward-looking aspects to
       detect the signals that constitute an early warning of emerging risks. the task
       should cover the whole risk management cycle and be given legal support.
       account could be taken of the fact that the research and development being
       conducted in italy and in the context of the european Union is already more
       focused on the holistic risk management cycle, which deals more extensively
       with risk prevention, than the more limited emergency management cycle.
       Sufficient resources for ensuring that the task can be executed satisfactorily
       should be allocated to DPC.

Risk assessment and early warning

       Functional Centres
            very high priority should be given to the establishment of fully opera-
       tional functional centres (CfSes) in all twenty regions and the two autono-
       mous provinces, taking into account that the level of risk for natural disasters,
       even though there are differences in the types of risk, is high in more or less
       all italian regions. CfSes are a prerequisite for fulfilling the need to allow
       the italian national Civil Protection Service to act with equivalent efficiency
       in the event of disaster in all parts of the national territory.




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      Active involvement of DPC in research and development
          the active involvement of DPC and the italian institutes and research
      centres, in collaboration with each other and within international collabora-
      tions, such as programmes of the european Union, should be continued given
      high priority in the future. italy can thereby contribute significantly with its
      knowledge and experience to the general development of civil protection but
      also gain substantial benefits to the improvement of the national capacity and
      the further development of the italian national Civil Protection Service.

      Addressing climate change
          Climate change aspects should be given much more consideration and
      visibility within the italian national Civil Protection Service for instance
      through a particular action programme, which should include and involve the
      local level. to a certain degree the impacts of climate change have already
      been observed in italy, for instance more intensive and heavy rainfall lead-
      ing to floods, as well as heat waves and drought. the obligation to take into
      account safety conditions for construction and building should be strength-
      ened through legislation and efficient sanctions introduced. Continued active
      involvement of DPC and the italian institutes and research centres, in col-
      laboration with each other and within for instance eU Programmes, should
      be pursued also in the future. very high priority should be given to the estab-
      lishment in all 20 regions and 2 autonomous Provinces of fully operational
      CfSes which are a prerequisite for fulfilling the need to act with equivalent
      efficiency in the event of disaster in all parts of italy.

Risk communication

      Provision of preventative information to the public
           a programme for providing a more proactive risk communication with
      the public should be considered, in addition to the existing programmes,
      including information on different types of risks and dissemination of risk
      maps to create public risk awareness and knowledge on the adequate action
      to take in the event of disaster or accident.

      112 Emergency call number
          full support should be given to establishing a strategy aimed at achieving
      the full implementation of the eU 112 emergency Call number in accordance
      with the european Union legal requirements for the benefit of the individuals
      seeking urgent help in italy.



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       Preparedness and real time response
            Shortcomings at local levels in respect to preparedness and real time
       response should be addressed to achieve a more satisfactory situation in the area
       of contingency planning. Different solutions are possible and obviously will vary
       to a certain extent from one region to another, even if nCPS has to function in a
       holistic way in the event of disaster. the interest of interoperability and achiev-
       ing a more even level of safety and security in the country requires this matter,
       which is of a more overall nature and national interest which cannot be resolved
       only within the framework of nCPS, is taken under consideration urgently.

       Human resource aspects
           maintaining the high level of commitment and professionalism of the
       civil protection personnel is vital and should be promoted through the intro-
       duction of a common competence development or life long learning system.
       measures should be taken to facilitate the recruitment of volunteers in all
       parts of italy including providing them with education and training.

       Technology standard
           efforts should be made to bring all civil protection operational centres
       in the prefectures, provinces and municipalities fully operational and up to
       an appropriate and as far as possible common modern technology standard
       which would facilitate interoperability and enable the centres to contribute
       more to nCPS. an improvement of the technology in the centres, would
       enhance the capacity for exercising the emergency command and control effi-
       ciently but also make it possible to share and contribute to a common national
       situation awareness system.

       Critical infrastructure
           introduction of the responsibility for effective business continuity plan-
       ning in both the business sector and the public sector should be considered
       and the functioning of critical infrastructure in the event of natural disasters
       or other national crises ensured through legislation.

Post-event issues, emergency overcoming

       Insurance and resource allocation
           insurance is one of the main mechanisms in many oeCD countries
       through which people are usually compelled to invest in damage reduction
       measures. to foster the development of a voluntary insurance market for


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      natural disasters and provide an incentive to purchase insurance legislative
      efforts should be re-launched to introduce the concept of a public-private
      system involving insurance companies in the coverage of natural disaster
      losses.

      Evaluation and lessons learned
           initiative should be taken by DPC to establish, for the benefit of all actors
      in the Civil Protection Service and for research purposes, a coherent system
      or structure for evaluating systematically and independently the individual
      emergency events or disasters and learning the lessons from these.

Other general issues

          Given the high public debt in italy and especially in light of the antici-
      pated and impending very significant government budget reduction and as
      there are urgent needs for improvement, as indicated earlier, the operational
      Committee where the different components and structures of the italian
      national Civil Protection Service are represented seems to be a very appro-
      priate platform to use for co-ordinated efforts to achieve the best possible
      use of the national resources that can be made available for civil protection
      purposes by the different actors and thus offer opportunities for:
          •   conducting common cost efficiency assessments, analyzing parallel
              organisational or overlapping areas of competence where duplication
              of efforts can be avoided and rationalizing spending. emergency
              preparedness should on the basis of the very high level of risk in italy
              be one of the aspects to be taken into consideration in all reforms of
              public administration;
          •   considering alternatives to financing disasters by public bonds;
          •   providing necessary resources for the continued improvement of the
              Civil Protection System, for instance the establishment of CfSes in
              all regions and the development of the prevention policies, includ-
              ing retrofitting of existing constructions and buildings to reduce the
              number of those which are not in conformity with the requirements
              in the seismic codes;
          •   considering how resources can be reallocated between public admin-
              istrations to improve the protection of the population and national
              assets in italy, including a more even level of safety.




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                                               Annex A

            Principal legislation and operational components



Civil protection legislation

       Early legislation
           two fundamental pieces of legislation were put into place in the first
       decades of the 20th century. in 1919 the Public works authority was through
       a law (R.D.l. 2.9.1919 n. 1915) given the responsibility for direction and
       co-ordination of the rescue services in the event of earthquakes. all civil,
       military and local authorities depended on the Public works authority. this
       law framed for the first time rescue service in case of natural disasters, but
       the scope of application was limited to geological events only. in 1926 a law
       created a permanent structure for rescue services and extended its man-
       date beyond earthquakes (R.D.l. 9.12.1926 n. 2389). the focus was largely
       geological disasters and the task assigned was that of rescuing populations
       affected by emergencies following disasters.
            Subsequent legislation led to changes in the structure and role of the
       authority over the next fifty years. all civil and military authorities were
       placed under the command of the prefect of the Province until the minister
       or his Under Secretary arrived on site. once the minister of Public works
       had completed the first phase of rescue operations, a Commissioner could be
       nominated to direct the rescue services. a permanent structure designated
       to the task of rescuing of the population was established. auxiliary and
       technical personnel of the province and towns as well as the personnel of
       the rescue teams and committees were co-ordinated by civil engineers who
       were responsible for search and rescue in ruins. the obligations related to the
       emergency health services were the responsibility of the Red Cross and the
       Director of neighbouring towns. an obligation to maintain and update annu-
       ally a register or inventory of rescue teams, hospitals, entry points and fuel
       stations was introduced.



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      Structure for co-ordination
          in 1970 the minister of interior was made responsible for the rescue of
      and assistance to the population in the event of natural disaster, and for the
      direction and co-ordination of all activities undertaken by the administrations
      of the State, the regions, local communities and institutions (law 8.12.1970
      n. 996). this legislation defines natural catastrophes as events that entail a
      serious risk and danger to the security of people and property and that due to
      their nature and extent must be dealt with as emergency situations. the con-
      cept of “prevention” was also introduced, even if it was limited to emergency
      planning and not prevention measures to reduce risks. the tasks of civil
      protection were described in the legislation and the establishment of a “Civil
      Protection volunteer Service” was recognised. the law created within the
      ministry of the interior an “inter ministerial Committee for Civil Protection”
      and a “technical inter ministerial Commission” composed of the representa-
      tives of the state administrations and the affected local communities. the law
      empowered the Prime minister to make declarations of catastrophe or natural
      disasters and to nominate a Commissioner for direction of the rescue services
      and co-ordination of the services, in collaboration with the regional bodies
      and affected local communities.
          the experiences from three big disasters had demonstrated insufficient
      capacity and need for better services and structure for co-ordination. Civil
      protection was defined as a collection of services in preparedness (rescue,
      assistance and emergency services) and as a co-ordination service for emer-
      gency management in a catastrophe. natural disasters and catastrophes and
      the tasks of civil protection were described and defined as situations that
      entail a serious risk and danger to the security of people and property and
      that due to their nature and extent must be confronted. with this law it was
      recognised that the fire brigade may train and equip volunteers and the con-
      cept of Prevention was introduced, even if it was limited to emergency plans
      and not reduction of risks.
          the law created within the ministry of the interior an inter ministerial
      Committee for Civil Protection and a technical inter ministerial Commission
      composed of the representatives of the state administrations and the affected
      local communities. the law empowered the Prime minister to make declara-
      tions of catastrophe or natural disasters and nominate a Commissioner who
      directs the rescue services, applies the general directives and co-ordinates
      the services in collaboration with the regional bodies and affected local
      communities. a large part of the law was dedicated to national fire Service
      and defines its roles and functions and centres for intervention (CaPi) and
      assistance to affected populations. this service was under the authority of the
      Director General (DG) of public assistance, later the DG Civil Protection, and
      the anti fire Service of the ministry of the interior.



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       National Civil Protection Service and the principle of subsidiarity
            the national Civil Protection Service was established through a law
       in 1992 (l. 24.2.1992 n. 225). the Prime minister in co-operation with the
       italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), which was created within
       the Prime minister’s office, was given the responsibility to initiate and co-
       ordinate the activities of the central government, the regions, the municipali-
       ties, agencies, institutions and other public and private organisations in italy.
       the role of the voluntary organisations was recognised and a fund for civil
       protection is institutionalized. the government (Council of ministers) was
       entitled in the law, on a proposal of the Prime minister, to declare a State of
       emergency, which was to be executed by the Prime minister who was given
       the authority to nominate Commissioners.
           the law codified the Commission on major Risks which had been organ-
       ised already and served as a link between the administration of the civil
       protection and the different domains of the scientific community and fur-
       thermore established the national Commission for Prediction and Prevention
       of major Risks as well as the Civil Protection operation Committee and the
       national Council for Civil Protection.
           Besides the emergency services, the law dealt with forecasting and
       prevention measures which were included in the scope of civil protection.
       Prevention was not limited to matters related to the rescue of persons in
       emergency situations and reconstruction or restoration but also included
       measures to limit the major risks in italy, i.e. there was a change from a
       system for post emergency intervention to a system which included assess-
       ment based on forecasting and prevention of risks.
           the law defined the civil protection as a structure on several levels and
       with a mixed competence between government, regions, municipalities as
       well as research communities, voluntary organisations and all other relevant
       institutions including private entities. the structure was based on the princi-
       ple of subsidiarity. the interventions made by the public bodies were to be in
       the form of offering support or aid, when the citizens or subordinate entities
       were unable to manage the situation. the mayor was given responsibility in
       each municipality and when the municipal resources were insufficient then
       the higher levels could be mobilized. the law had the intention of harmonis-
       ing and improving efficiency but not to centralise powers and competence.
       if a Commissioner was not nominated then the prefect had the task of co-
       ordinating the support to the municipality.
           the law thus established a structure for co-ordination of competences but
       in a context of decentralisation to the regions, provinces and municipalities,
       where the mayor was the responsible authority. the regions were required
       to improve their structure for civil protection intervention and support and



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      to promote the local organisations. the regions were given a role in regional
      planning and providing guidance as well as required to participate and initi-
      ate through regional programmes in the organisation and civil protection
      activities. they were above all obliged to act in areas of prediction and pre-
      vention in different situations and areas of risk, whereas their competences
      on the operational level remain limited. the provinces were to participate in
      the national Service and elaborate provincial programmes for prediction and
      prevention, which could serve as a basis for the prefects’ emergency planning
      measures.

      Modification of administrative competences
           in the legislation on sharing of competences among national, regional
      and local levels (l 31.3.1998 n. 112), the administrative competences were
      modified in 1997. the public services of the government, the regions and
      the local communities, and their tasks and responsibilities were defined for
      the implementation of the provision in the constitutional law of the 16 march
      1997 (l 15.3.1997 n. 59) in respect to civil protection and other matters. this
      constitutional law and some supplementary implementation ordinances had
      introduced federalism and the principle of subsidiarity as the criteria for
      distributing the administrative competences and resulted in the attribution
      of all duties to the local bodies, also civil protection matters, which were not
      assigned specifically to the government or otherwise. in fact civil protection
      was recognised as a system with mixed competences with different tasks
      attributed to the regions and local communities with the exception of certain
      duties i.e. those which fall within the scope of the national Civil Protection
      Service. the specification of tasks within the competence of the government,
      the regions and the municipalities respectively was instituted and executed
      through a Joint Conference and a law of 28 august 1997 (l. 28.8.1997 n. 281).

      National Commission for Prediction and Prevention of Major Risks
          the Prime minister issued in 1998 a decree (18.3.1998 n. 429) regulating
      the organisation and functioning of the national Commission for Prediction
      and Prevention of major Risks.

      Legislation affecting the competences
          Changes were made in respect to the responsibilities at local level in 1999
      (l. 3.8.1999 n. 265) in respect to the co-ordination and organisation of the
      provinces and municipalities. the competence for information to the public
      on natural emergencies was transformed from the prefects to the mayors.




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           the eU Directive 96/82/Ce of 9 December 1996 on the control of major-
       accident hazards involving dangerous substances was implemented through
       legislation in 1999 (l. 17.8.1999 n. 334) and introduced certain specific
       competences and tasks. this Directive is aimed at the prevention of major
       accidents which involve dangerous substances, and the limitation of their
       consequences for man and the environment, with a view to ensuring high
       levels of protection throughout the Community in a consistent and effective
       manner.
           other legislation in 2000 was the law (l. 10.8.2000 n. 246) on strength-
       ening of the national firefighter Corp and the forest fires national law
       (l. 31.11.2000 n. 353), which assigned the full responsibility for forest fire
       prevention and fire fighting to the regions.
            in 2001 (l. Constitutional 18.10.2001 n. 3) modifications were made in
       the constitutional law which had implications on the power to legislation
       exercised by the State and the regions in respect to constraints in the con-
       stitution due to international law and european Union obligations. these
       constraints are such as derive from generally recognised norms of interna-
       tional law and eU treaty agreements with obligations limiting sovereignty.
       a domestic law which is in contradiction to international provisions is thus
       to be considered as anti constitutional. the reform puts the emphasis on and
       clarifies the precedence of the international commitments following from
       treaties to the normal domestic legislation.

       National Civil Protection Agency
            in the context of a modification of administrative competences, a
       national Civil Protection agency for technical and operational matters was
       established through law (l. 30.7.1999 n. 300) under the ministry of interior
       which had the political administrative functions. the agency had responsi-
       bility, besides the technical and operational matters, for the civil protection
       scientific matters, the fire services and the national Seismic Services. the
       fire Service Corps was subordinated the agency in matters related to civil
       protection. the agency was abolished in 2001 (l. 7.9.2001 n. 343).

       Changed structure in 2001
           legislation in 2001 changed the structure i.e. the law (l. 7.9.2001 n. 343)
       on urgent dispositions for the operational co-ordination of the structures
       designated for the civil protection activities and the improvement of logistic
       structures of civil protection as well as the law (l. 9.11.2001 n. 401) with
       urgent guidelines needed to guarantee the operational co-ordination of the
       structures in charge of carrying out civil protection activities and for the
       improvement of civil defence logistic structures. the latter law transferred


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      the responsibility for the planning of operational guidelines and the forecast-
      ing and prevention programmes against risks as well as the national rescue
      programmes and plans needed to carry out required emergency measures to
      the Prime minister in agreement with the regions and local communities.
      the civil protection activities were thus in this legislation changed back and
      returned to what was established in 1992.
           the competence of the State in civil protection matters was lifted again
      through the law (l. 7.9.2001 n. 343) to the Prime minister to whom the respon-
      sibility for large events and the power to declare a State of emergency belongs
      in accordance with administrative rules. the national Civil Protection agency
      was abolished and the italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) re-estab-
      lished within the Prime minister’s office. the Prime minister was entitled
      to delegate his competence in the area of civil protection to the minister of
      interior. a Committee for government, regions and local communities was
      established and the national Commission for Prediction and Prevention of
      major Risks as well as the Civil Protection operational Committee and the
      national Council for Civil Protection were maintained. Consequently, on
      2 march and 12 april 2002 the Prime minister issued decrees establishing
      the Civil Protection operational Committee and national Commission for
      Prediction and Prevention of major Risks respectively.
          the head of the italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) was given
      responsibility for operational co-ordination in civil protection matters of all
      public and private organisations. new in this legislation was that large events
      were not defined precisely but they were given a generic character related to
      natural emergencies and disasters to be decided on in each situation by the
      government, on proposal of the head of the DPC.
          the Prime minister issued on 20 December 1998 guidelines for the plan-
      ning, prediction, prevention and response activities in respect to forest fires.
           in 2001 the President of the Republic issued a Declaration (194/2001) regulat-
      ing the participation of volunteer organisations in the civil protection activities.

      Role of the Prime Minister
          the legislation in 2002 (l. 4.11.2002 n. 245, converted by l. 27.12.2002
      n. 245, and including its modifications in l. 27.12.2002 n. 286) confers
      full authority to the Prime minister, upon the break out of an extraordi-
      nary emergency situation, evaluated according to the life threatening risk
      level, and upon a request by the head of the DPC and after conferring with
      the President of the region involved even before the actual release of the
      Declaration of a State of emergency, to dispose the involvement of the avail-
      able operational structures of the national Civil Protection Service to face
      the emergency.


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2008 Operational Guidelines for Emergency Management

           the Prime minister issued on 3 December 2008 operational Guidelines
       for emergency management to regulate the information flow between the
       different subjects involved, the activation and co-ordination of the compo-
       nents of the national Civil Protection Service (nCPS), describe the organi-
       sational model of the emergency management at a national level to support
       and adequately contribute to the local civil protection response and guarantee
       the necessary operational co-ordination of the emergency management. By
       forecasting and anticipating as well as evaluating an event or situation and
       thus the consequent intervention including the local system’s ability and the
       available and by guaranteeing a constant and immediate mutual exchange
       of information, both at a territorial and central level, it will be possible for
       the head of the italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) to achieve an
       immediate and complete knowledge of the event and therefore to be able
       to evaluate at any moment the emergency situation in progress, that upon
       becoming an extraordinary emergency would require the Prime minister’s
       co-ordination of operations and initiatives.

       The “Sala Situazione Italia”(SSI): the National Operational Room
            the SSi at the italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) has the task
       to guarantee the reception, collection, processing and testing of news or
       information concerning calamity events as well as critical situations in italy
       and abroad. another duty of SSi is to spread information with the objective of
       alerting immediately and activating the different components and structures
       of the nation Civil Protection System (nCPS) set up for emergency manage-
       ment, contributing in this way to a prompt activation of the potential needed
       measures to face the emergency. in case of emergencies requiring extraordi-
       nary means and power, SSi becomes an essential structure in support of the
       Civil Protection operational Committee and guarantees the implementation
       of its dispositions through the structures of the nCPS. the SSi operates on a
       24 hour basis, all year round, through the participation of the DPC staff and
       staff from the operational structures of the national Civil Protection Service:
            •    national fire Brigades Corps
            •    armed forces (italian Joint operations headquarters of the Defence)
            •    national Police
            •    Carabinieri
            •    Revenue Guard Corps
            •    national forest Corps
            •    harbour office of the Coast Guard



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           other components and operational structures can be added to the SSi.
      the diversity of subjects handled within SSi turns it into a main point of
      reference and unique co-ordination centre in its genre. Should the emergency
      situation require the active participation of other institutions and adminis-
      trations, SSi, which is planned according to a modular structure, is able to
      respond adequately. it is equipped, besides the ordinary computer technology
      and telecommunications equipment, with the following:
          •   a terminal as the interface of its own national operational co-ordina-
              tion structure;
          •   a “com centre” system set up for an integrated co-ordination of radio
              and phone communications including those operating on different
              frequencies and different systems.
          SSi is also equipped with local inter-com phone lines and with the most
      updated technology for video conferences, including satellite technology,
      for communication with the operational centress of the main national Civil
      Protection Service components and structures.

Organisational model for the management of emergencies

      Municipality level
           the first emergency response, irrespective of the nature, scale and effects
      of an event must be guaranteed by the local structure, preferably through the
      activation of a municipal operational Centre (C.o.C.) for all the different
      components operating within the local context. During the emergency plan-
      ning phase, appropriate support to the mayors of small municipalities must
      be guaranteed by the provincial and regional administrations. the mayor
      assumes the direction and co-ordination of the rescue services and assist-
      ance to the population hit by a disaster and is in charge of the first necessary
      operations carried out to face the emergency, by implementing the emergency
      plan. with the support of the municipal structure’s personnel and by request-
      ing the assistance of the civil protection structures operating on the territory
      (fire brigades, police forces, health facilities, water, gas and power supply
      institutions or companies, waste disposal companies and telephone compa-
      nies, local volunteer forces) is in charge of the following:
          •   identification of the best location for the municipal operational centre
              and the waiting and recovery areas, the waiting and the welcoming
              or hospitalization areas for the population (if not already specified in
              the emergency planning phase);
          •   assessment of the situation and conducting the security or rescue
              operations, including evacuation of the population;


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            •    health care and assistance to injured persons;
            •    distribution of meals and identification of temporary accommodation
                 of homeless;
            •    continuous provision of updated information to the public on the situ-
                 ation and the behaviour code;
            •    checking of the municipal road system with particular focus on the
                 traffic due to rescue operations and evacuation measures determined
                 by the event;
            •    establishing a monitoring point to follow the evolution of the event.
           Depending on the intensity or scale of the event and capacity of the local
       system to respond, the operational and co-ordination centres representing the
       operational components and structures of the nCPS will be activated across
       the territory at various levels of responsibility in order to guarantee the co-
       ordination of activities needed to manage the emergency.

       Provincial level
            according to the model adopted by each region, the Rescue Co-ordination
       Centre (CCS) of the province is activated. in the CCS there are representa-
       tives of the region, the prefecture, the province and the institutions, admin-
       istrations and operational structures dedicated to the management of the
       emergency and these are responsible for:
            •    evaluating the needs in the province;
            •    implementing the available resources in a rational way;
            •    defining the type and quantity of regional and national resources
                 needed to support those already available;
            •    identifying, if not specified in the emergency planning, the rescue areas.
           the CCS must assure unified direction of operations and co-ordinate
       actions with those carried out by the mayors of the involved municipalities. if
       the model adopted by the region does not indicate clearly who exercises lead-
       ership of the CCS and there is specific agreement between the prefecture and
       the province in force, then this tasks is assigned to the prefect who has the
       duty of ensuring the safety of the people and the goods. however, the main
       operational functions remain as follows:
            •    the prefect is responsible for the activation and implementation of
                 the national resources present on the provincial territory regarding
                 public order and security exercising this duty with due respect to the
                 subsidiarity of responsibility to the mayors;



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          •   the President of the Province is responsible for the immediate activa-
              tion and implementation of the resources, of the road systems and the
              problems caused to the networks and service infrastructures and, if
              so provided by the regional jurisdiction, co-ordinates the contribution
              given by the volunteer organisations and maintains contact with the
              municipalities affected by the event.
          the organisational model at a provincial level includes a single integrated
      operational room, which on the one hand carries out the tasks established by
      CCS and on the other hand collects, assesses and disseminates information
      related to the event and the civil protection response, through a constant
      exchange between the different operational centres active within the prov-
      ince, the Regional operational Room and SSi. when the event requires sup-
      port to the activities carried out by the municipal operational centres and to
      link the activities carried out at municipal level with those carried out at the
      provincial level, inter-municipal operational Centres are activated (mixed
      operational Centres – C.o.m.), which are located in specifically identified
      structures, sometimes by merging one or more municipalities. the activation
      of such Centres is a duty of the authority responsible for the CCS unless a
      head Commissioner in charge is nominated following the declaration of the
      State of emergency, or the co-ordination is assigned to the head of DPC.

      Regional level
          each region affected by an event guarantees:
          •   the immediate activation and deployment of the regional column and
              the volunteer organisations;
          •   the management of health care emergency operations, based on the
              region’s own plan, in compliance with the main Criteria and Policies
              established by the President of the Council of ministers concerning
              the management of health relief and rescue operations in emergency
              crisis;
          •   the deployment of its technical experts to check the safety in build-
              ings, survey the damage, evaluation of the risks left and induced, the
              testing to verify if the water is drinkable and environmental recovery
              and land reclamation operations;
          •   the participation of its official representatives in the activities of the
              operational and co-ordination centres established within the region;
          •   the management of radio networks for the emergency communication
              and the activation and co-ordination of the volunteer organisations of
              radio amateurs;



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            •    the use of primary necessity goods stored under regional competence
                 to assistance to the population.
            the region will in case there is a need for extraordinary means and powers
       due to the actual needs in an area affected by disaster and on the basis of
       requests coming from the local institutions, submit a request for a declaration of
       the State of emergency. if the need to establish in situ a national co-ordination
       structure should arise in order to face an emergency (Direction of Command
       and Control – Di.Coma.C), the region will in agreement with the DPC identify
       and set up the headquarters needed for this purpose, including consideration
       of the possibility of utilizing the Regional operational Room. the Regional
       operational Room, which must guarantee in a state of emergency a 24 hour long
       around the clock operability, provides SSi with a constant update of information
       related to the activities in progress and communicates the type and quantity of
       resources needed in support to those already on site as well as maintains the
       contacts between the operational centres at the provincial and municipal levels.

       National level
            Prior to or upon the break out of an emergency event requiring the use
       of extraordinary means and power, the co-ordination is conferred to the
       President of the Council of ministers who before implementing the necessary
       operations, may benefit from appointed commissioners, once the Council of
       ministers has formally declared the State of emergency. Upon the break out
       of an exceptional emergency situation, to be evaluated in relation to the seri-
       ous risk compromising the population’s safety, the President of the Council
       of ministers, upon the head of the Department of civil protection’s proposal
       after hearing the President of the affected region, even prior to the declaration
       of the State of emergency may order the involvement of the operational struc-
       tures of the nCPS, assigning the co-ordinating role to the head of the DPC.
            DPC becomes the meeting place of the operational Committee which
       must ensure a unified direction and co-ordination of all emergency activi-
       ties. the operational Committee led by the head of the Department, is made
       up the subjects identified in the D.P.C.m. 21 november 2006 which includes
       all the public and private institutions and administrations contributing to the
       management of the emergency. the Committee, on the basis of the event’s
       characteristics, needs, and resources available at a national level as well as
       those already implemented defines a strategy of action. the continuity of the
       information flow is ensured by SSi which stays in constant contact with the
       activated operational and co-ordination centres.




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      First priority operations
          the activation of the operational co-ordination structure at the local and
      national levels necessarily requires a few hours after emergency break out
      before the structure is functioning fully. it is therefore clear that first aid and
      assistance to the population activities will be the result of an immediate acti-
      vation of the civil protection structures ordinarily operative in the affected
      geographical area in so far their operational capacity has not been reduced by
      the event. nevertheless, in order to avoid that the first operations turn out to
      be inefficient or overlapping it is essential to ensure that from the very initial
      phases of the emergency each structure operates in tight collaboration with
      others involved through a mutual and integrated effort and use of resources,
      which can happen only as a result of a strong and unified co-ordination.
           for this purpose, in case of a particularly complex emergency situation
      and even before the issuing of a Declaration of the State of emergency by the
      Council of ministers, the President of the Council of ministers, by his own
      decree, upon the proposal of the head of the Department of Civil Protection
      and after consultation with the President of the affected region, may order
      the deployment of the nCPS operational structures, conferring to the head
      of the DPC the role of co-ordinator of operations and all initiatives to face
      the emergency in progress. all the information related to the event and the
      first civil protection response operations must be immediately reported from
      the earliest phases of the crisis to SSi in order to ensure that the head of the
      Department will dispose of the proper instruments and resources needed
      to face the event. furthermore, it is necessary that every initiative taken in
      order to integrate the available resources in the affected area is discussed and
      approved by the head of the Department, before convening the civil protec-
      tion operational Committee.
          the DPC operational response consists in the setting up of a Crisis Unit,
      which includes the participation of all interested offices and Services, and
      the immediate deployment of a task force for evaluation, support, co-ordi-
      nation purposes also with the scope of institutionalizing in situ the national
      Co-ordination Centre as a the main operational Committee reference struc-
      ture. the head of DPC is liable to provide a timely and constant information
      report to the President of the Council of ministers regarding the development
      of the emergency in progress through the elaboration of official bulletins
      describing the situation.

      Operational Committee of Civil Protection
          in an event which by scale, type and impact on the population and
      environment affects the community’s ordinary living conditions, the head
      of DPC is liable to convene the operational Committee of Civil Protection



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       which meets at DPC, except in case of other dispositions. the convention
       of the operational Committee will, besides its organic structure defined in
       the D.P.C.m. of 21 november 2006, depend on the type of emergency which
       determines what further administrations, national and local authorities and
       companies are called to participate. the operational Committee in particular
       has the duty to ensure “a common direction and co-ordination of emergency
       activities, through the establishment of interventions on behalf of all admin-
       istrations and institutions of interest to the relief operations”; that is, based on
       the development of the scenario and the constant data update provided from
       the site of the event to SSi, to define the intervention strategies and guarantee
       a co-ordinated deployment of national resources.

       National Commission for the Forecasting and Prevention of Risks
           the head of DPC issues the request to the President of the national
       Commission for the forecasting and Prevention of Risks (major Risks
       Commission) to immediately summon the Commission, and adding if neces-
       sary the contribution of external technical experts. in the reports exchanged
       between the operational Committee and the Commission the definition of
       risk scenarios and their potential development as well as the scientific data
       collection regarding the event are guaranteed by the national functional
       Centre of DPC. the national functional Centre is also responsible for evalu-
       ating the need to benefit from further opinions, participation or services pro-
       vided by the Competence Centres.

Main activities carried out by the operational components and
structures of the civil protection

           the representatives of the components and structures of the nCPS within
       the operational Committee must ensure the implementation of the estab-
       lished intervention activities with respect to the specific competences and
       procedures of these components and structures.
            in particular the representative of the:

       National Fire Brigades Corps

       Immediate actions
            a) provide detailed information regarding the consequences of the event
       for the purpose of making a first estimate of fatalities, the number of injured
       persons, the population in need of assistance and the accessibility to the area
       affected by disaster;



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           b) provide information regarding the human resources, logistics and tech-
      nology available and ready for immediate use on site, in particular resources
      for search and rescue activities, including those already deployed;
          c) provide information about additional resources available for potential
      use, identifying their location, characteristics, time frame for action and
      instructions for use;
           d) make available the mobile operational centres of the fire brigades as
      first co-ordination headquarters in situ;
              e) identify the co-ordinators of the urgent technical rescue operations on
      site;

      Within 12 hours
          a) make the personnel of the fire brigades available for safety control of
      strategic buildings and the structures hosting the operational and co-ordi-
      nation centres of the rescue and relief system supported by local technical
      experts;
          b) guarantee the service of its staff at the operational and co-ordination
      centres in disaster areas;

      Within 24 hours
          a) supply the required operational and logistic support for the urgent
      accommodation needs of the affected population;
          b) provide information concerning the interventions carried out to secure
      the safety of structures and infrastructures;

      Armed Forces

      Immediate actions
           a) provide detailed information regarding the consequences of the event
      for the purpose of making a first estimate of fatalities, the number of injured
      persons, the population in need of assistance and the accessibility to the area
      affected by disaster;
           b) following a request by SSi provide information regarding the human
      resources, logistics and technology available and ready for immediate use on
      site, in particular resources for search and rescue activities, including those
      already deployed;




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           c) provide information about additional resources available for potential
       use, identifying their location, characteristics, time frame for action and
       instructions for use;
           d) activate available ground, air and naval resources, autonomously or
       joined with other administrations, institutions or structures, for immediate
       evacuation purposes and treatment and transfer of injured persons (meDevaC)
       to designated medical facilities and hospitals;
            e) dispose notam to regulate flight activities over the areas at risk
       when these are located within military jurisdiction premises, for the purposes
       of simplifying and optimizing rescue and relief operations;

       Within 12 hours
            a) activate following a request by SSi available resources and man power
       for removal of debris and setting up of base camps for the rescue teams and
       shelter areas for the population;
            b) despatch to the area affected by the event, on request by SSi, necessary
       mobile structures for flight operations, which must be controlled and con-
       ducted in compliance with the established flight restrictive measures in terms
       of the availability and the distance to and operability in the area of interest;
           c) identify and activate the necessary means to carry out as soon as pos-
       sible on request by SSi an aero-photographic survey, including an infrared
       survey of the area of interest due to the event, and ensure its repetition in case
       of need as requested by SSi;
           d) activate the structures aimed at implementing a network of telecom-
       munications, also on a temporary camp basis, equipped with the necessary
       requirements respecting privacy restrictions;
           e) ensure its personnel/staff’s presence at the operational and co-ordina-
       tion centres on the territory;
           f) identify the military logistic structures with particular regard to air-
       ports and naval bases, which may be used as gathering areas for the rescue
       teams and as deposit areas of the equipment and means;

       Within 24 hours
           a) upon request of SSi, despatch available resources to guarantee the
       urgent assistance to provide accommodation and shelter to the population,
       except in case of security restrictions (classified specific areas, etc.).




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      Police forces
          (the national Police, the Carabinieri, the Revenue Guard Corps and the
      national Penitentiary Police and the national forest Corps are represented in
      the operational Committee)

      Immediate actions
          (through the direct co-ordination of the Department of Public Security,
      for general matters, or the prefects for local matters)
           a) provide detailed information regarding the consequences of the event
      for the purpose of making a first estimate of fatalities, the number of injured
      persons, the population in need of assistance and the accessibility to the area
      affected by disaster;
           b) provide information regarding the human resources, logistics and tech-
      nology available and ready for immediate use on site, in particular resources
      for search and rescue activities;
          d) propose the possible use of additional resources, by indicating their
      location, characteristics, time frame for action and instructions for use;
          e) the Police administration head of the affected province is responsible
      of identifying the co-ordinator of public security and safety actions in the
      province;
          f) adopt public security and safety competence measures;

      Within 12 hours
          a) guarantee in collaboration with the health authorities the activation of
      the necessary scientific technical competences and experts for the procedures
      needed to identify bodies and ensure the presence of specialized staff at the
      operational and co-ordination centres activated in the affected area;
          b) ensure the presence of staff from the Police forces at the operational
      and co-ordination centres active in the affected area.

      Within 24 hours
           a) guarantee safety in the base camps hosting the rescue teams, the popu-
      lation’s shelter areas and the operational and co-ordination centres activated
      in the affected area.




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       Harbour Offices of the Coast Guard

       Immediate actions
            a) provide detailed information regarding the consequences of the event
       for the purpose of making a first estimate of fatalities, the number of injured
       persons, the population in need of assistance and the accessibility to the area
       affected by the event;
            b) provide information regarding the human resources, logistics and tech-
       nology available and ready for immediate use on site, in particular resources
       for search and rescue activities;
           c) plan the potential deployment of additional resources, identifying their
       location, characteristics, time frame for action and instructions or modalities
       for use;
            d) identify the co-ordinators of rescue operations at sea;
           e) provide information on the operability of harbour and maritime infra-
       structures in the areas affected by disaster;
           f) activate naval resources, also the ones provided on a private basis, sup-
       plied autonomously or jointly with other administrations, institutions or struc-
       tures, for the inflow of relief operators and to guarantee a timely evacuation
       and treatment and transfer of injured victims (meDevaC) to safe areas or
       hospital facilities which can provide temporary shelter areas for the population;
           g) dispose the issuing of avURnav in order to provide restrictions of
       the areas at risk and to facilitate rescue and relief operations;

       Within 12 hours
          a) plan the necessary activities to survey and evaluate the damage to the
       bunkering ports and coast and marine industrial plants;
           b) identify the harbour infrastructures which can be utilized as gathering
       areas for the rescue teams and for the means and equipment;
           c) ensure the presence of its staff at the operational and co-ordination
       centres active in the affected area;

       Within 24 hours
           a) provide all the information regarding the survey of damage to the
       marine environment and the necessary measures to guarantee the protection
       and safety of the marine areas under environmental protection and the equip-
       ment and production plants and companies involved in the event.



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      Italian Red Cross

      Immediate actions
           a) participate in gathering detailed information regarding the conse-
      quences of the event for the purpose of drafting a first estimate of the casual-
      ties, the number of injured persons and the population in need of assistance;
          b) provide information regarding the human resources, logistics and tech-
      nology available and ready on site;
          c) plan the potential deployment of additional resources, identifying their
      location, characteristics, time for action and modalities for use;
          d) ensure participation in rescue and relief operations and providing
      assistance to the injured population;
          within 12 hours
          a) ensure the presence of its personnel at the operational and co-ordina-
      tion centres activated in the area;
          b) guarantee participation in setting up and co-ordinating the base camps
      hosting the resources for relief operations and shelter areas for the population;
          c) ensure participation in providing assistance to the population in par-
      ticular to particularly sensitive groups of the population;
          d) activate its permanent structures with the purpose of guaranteeing,
      within its capacity limits, assistance with the sheltering of the evacuated
      population hit by the event;
          e) propose the potential deployment of expert teams for both special
      rescue operations and assessing the specific risk situations (health-logistic –
      psychological support);
         f) propose the deployment of special teams responsible of assisting the
      population in contacting their families;
         g) activate the transportation staff of the Red Cross by supplying special
      means of transport;

      Within 24 hours
          a) ensure the preparation and distribution of meals for the rescue teams
      and the population;
          b) ensure the deployment of the equipment and staff needed across the
      affected area for the co-ordination of water purifiers and distribution of
      drinkable water.



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       National volunteers organisations

       Immediate actions
           a) provide, in collaboration with the region, all the information regarding
       the number of volunteer organisations that are active in the affected area with
       their personnel and the professional skills of these persons, equipment and
       logistics with particular reference to search and rescue related activities, health
       care assistance and radio-communications in support of the population;
           b) plan the potential deployment of additional resources, identifying their
       location, characteristics, time frame for action and modalities for use;

       Within 12 hours
           a) ensure the participation of its staff at the operational and co-ordination
       centres active in the area;
           b) guarantee participation in setting up of base camps for rescue teams
       and shelter areas for the population;

       Within 24 hours
           a) ensure the preparation and distribution of meals for the rescue teams
       and the population;
           b) participate upon request by the competent authorities in the rescue of
       the population and all the necessary activities to reinstate ordinary living
       conditions.

       National Alpine Rescue and Spelaeology Corps

       Immediate actions
            a) provide all information regarding the presence of the Corps in the area
       affected by the event, including the availability of personnel, the professional
       skills of these persons, equipment and logistics with particular reference to
       search and rescue activities, health care assistance and support to the population;
           b) plan the potential deployment of additional resources, identifying their
       location, characteristics, time frame for action and modalities for use;

       Within 12 hours
           a) plan the potential deployment of expert teams for the evaluation of
       specific risk situations.



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      Autonomous regions and provinces

      Immediate actions
          a) provide, in collaboration with the volunteer representative, all informa-
      tion regarding the human, logistic and technological resources with particular
      reference to the mobile regional columns available in the area affected by
      the event, defining their location, characteristics, time frame for action and
      modalities for use;
          b) collaborate in the mobilisation and disposition, also through private
      companies and enterprises, of means, machines and equipment which might
      be necessary to use;
         c) plan the potential deployment of resources in the health department
      which might be necessary by identifying their location, characteristics, equip-
      ment, time frame for action and modalities for use;

      Within 12 hours
          a) collect information on availability the technical teams, also through
      agreement with professional bodies, to be used for monitoring the damage
      suffered, assessment of safety and remaining risks in buildings and of infra-
      structures and plan for the organisation of measures in agreement with the
      region affected by the event;
          b) identify areas, if necessary, outside of the region affected by the disas-
      ter where resources are to be stocked and preserved and to ship the resources
      to such areas;
           c) verify through regional and local public shipping and transport com-
      panies as well as private companies the availability of large collective means
      of transportation;
          d) offer support within the region affected by the event in identifying
      with particular attention to residential buildings and hotels for tourists the
      permanent structures necessary to guarantee the accommodations of the
      evacuated population or other persons affected by the event;
          e) ensure the presence of personnel from the region at the operational and
      co-ordination centres active on the affected area;




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       Within 24 hours
           a) identify companies and institutions, outside the region hit by the event,
       which could provide assistance to the local structures for supplying the fol-
       lowing services (waste disposal, management and preservation of bodies and
       corpses, public hygiene, etc.).

       Ministry of Work, Health and Social Policies

       Immediate actions
            a) contribute to the assessment of needs and priorities for action to be taken;
            b) provide, in collaboration with the representatives of the autonomous
       Regions and Provinces, the information concerning the human health, logis-
       tics and technological resources available in the area affected by the event,
       identifying their location, characteristics and equipment, time frame for
       action and modalities for use;

       Within 12 hours
           a) propose the potential deployment of expert teams for the evaluation of
       specific risks;

       Within 24 hours
            a) identify potential public health care measures to protect the population;
           b) activate reference centres, laboratories and other institutions highly
       specialized in diagnostics and therapy.

       Civil Aviation Authority [ENAC – Ente Nazionale per l’Aviazione Civile]

       Immediate actions
           a) supply all information regarding the operability and capacity of air-
       ports, air routes and heliports in the areas affected by the emergency;
           b) adopt, also through notam, in order to facilitate rescue operations,
       necessary regulations limiting ordinary and commercial flight activities in
       the airports concerned by the event and identifying alternative intermediate
       stops and rerouting air traffic;
          c) provide necessary information to travellers in order to limit their dis-
       comfort and difficulties;



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      Within 12 hours
          a) identify and activate civilian airports to be used as “hUBS” nearby the
      areas concerned by the emergency where the aircraft supplying rescue staff
      and equipment can be concentrated and where rescue teams can be gathered
      and stores of means, equipment and goods needed for relief operations can
      be maintained;
           b) propose the necessary agreements with the managing companies of the
      airports in order to provide an adequate level of assistance to the travellers
      and identify, in collaboration with the local public transportation companies
      and private bus companies as well as naval transportation companies, the
      appropriate alternative transport solutions for the passengers affected by the
      air transportation temporary limitations;
          c) identify the aeronautical companies and available aircraft for covering
      the transport needs in respect to the staff and material required by nCPS.

      ENAV [Italian Company for Air Navigation Services]

      Immediate actions
          a) supply all information regarding the operability and capacity of the
      airports in the areas affected by the emergency;
           b) plan all measures and regulations necessary to co-ordinate and con-
      trol the flow of air traffic, in agreement with the DPC/CoaU, including
      notam’s regulation of flight activity in the areas at risk, in order to facili-
      tate the required rescue operations (enav/aCU);
          c) co-ordinate the limitation of the air flow within italian air space
      or landing at airports located in the area affected by the emergency with
      eURoContRol, when necessary;

      Within 12 hours
          a) provide information records regarding the operational flights.

      Electrical Power Service Companies – GSE [Gestore Servizi Elettrici]

      Immediate actions
          a) provide information on the power production plants of GSe also oper-
      ating through power networks other than the national network (indicating the
      area, production status and contacts);




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           b) keep contact with the managers of the plants located in the area hit by
       the disaster and monitor and provide information about the actual situation
       within the GSe field of competence;

       Within 12 hours
           a) provide a contact centre for the spreading of useful information to the
       community with respect to the emergency and contribute with support to the
       updating of the state of the plants for the purpose of releasing useful addi-
       tional data to nCPS, in accordance with scheduled service hours and within
       the structures of GSe.

       Electrical power service companies – Terna

       Immediate actions
           a) supply the information regarding the consequences of the event such as
       the availability of production plants and production and provision of electric
       power;
           b) keep contact with the institutions involved in the distribution of
       electric power in the area affected by the event for the purpose of providing
       information regarding the power supply in the area;
            c) supply all the information concerning the technical and technological
       resources of the companies active in the affected area and capable of responding
       to the emergency and propose the potential deployment of additional resources,
       identifying their location, characteristics, time frame and modalities for use;

       Within 12 hours
           a) contribute to secure the provision of electric power in the area affected
       by the event;
           b) contribute to the access to and availability of the means, machines and
       equipment that may prove necessary, also through the support of contracted
       companies;
          c) co-ordinate activities for the urgent recovery of the safety of the net-
       works and damaged services;
           d) provide the necessary assistance, in terms of human, logistic and tech-
       nological resources, for the implementation and management of the opera-
       tional and co-ordination centress on the affected area.




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      ANAS [Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade Statali –  
      Auto-routes of Italy] and AISCAT [Associazione Italiana Società 
      Concessionarie di Autostrade e Trafori ]

      Immediate actions
           a) supply all information regarding the state of national mobility particu-
      larly focusing on the specific complexities determined by the event;
          b) supply all information on the damages suffered by the road system’s
      infrastructures, administered directly or by contract, in the area affected by
      the emergency;
         c) propose in respect to the highways the use of alternative road systems
      and the adoption of extraordinary traffic regulations, particularly aimed at
      ensuring the operability of nCPS;
          d) contribute to locating and implementing, with the support of compa-
      nies under contract, the available means, machinery and equipment which
      may prove necessary;
          e) provide the logistic structures and infrastructures (heliports, deposit
      areas for the storage of means and other useful resources to the rescue teams);
           f) provide escort and dispatch riders to the transportation of special mate-
      rial and mobile columns of rescue teams;
          g) allow the rescue teams easy access to the tollbooths;
          h) supply all useful information to drivers, in collaboration with CCiSS
      and iSoRaDio and the highway contractors, also through the implementa-
      tion of panels displaying messages with updated traffic information;
          i) plan necessary measures together with local institutions and volunteer
      organisations to provide an adequate assistance to drivers;

      Within 12 hours
          a) plan the necessary activities to survey and evaluate the damage suf-
      fered by the infrastructures also action in terms of potential adoption of
      restrictive motor vehicle traffic measures;
          b) provide an evaluation of the time needed to reinstate the ordinary oper-
      ability of the infrastructures hit by the disaster.




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       State Railway – RFI [Italian Rail Network] and Trenitalia

       Immediate actions
           a) supply all information concerning the national rail transport system,
       highlighting the most critical situations;
           b) supply all information on the deployment of experts required to verify
       the state of the infrastructure and, in case of a critical state of mobility,
       request further assistance to ensure the arrival of the civil protection;
           c) adopt the necessary information procedures aimed at minimizing the
       difficulties encountered by the travellers
          d) make available video and sound equipment for the information to the
       public by the civil protection;
           e) contribute available resources in collaboration with local institutions
       and volunteer organisations and provide appropriate assistance to the railway
       passengers on board, by re-routing them;
           f) evaluate the availability of logistic and rail system means to transport
       the population and rescue teams and goods following a request by the civil
       protection indicating type and quantity of transport needs and dislocation;

       Within 12 hours
           a) provide all information regarding the damage suffered by the railway
       system’s infrastructures in the area hit by emergency;
           b) contribute together with the civil protection to identify the best alter-
       native transport solutions for the passengers concerned by the limitation or
       blockage of the rail system;

       Within 24 hours
           a) make available, in compliance with the railway system’s need to guar-
       antee its service even during a state of emergency, logistics and rail system
       means required by the civil protection to assist the population or the rescue
       teams and for transportation needs (also by special trains) of people and
       goods.




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      Fixed line telephone and mobile phone companies –  
      Telecom Italia, Vodafone, Wind, H3G

      Immediate actions
          a) supply all information regarding the state of fixed line telephone and
      mobile phone services in the areas hit by emergency and the alternative net-
      works supplied by each operator, highlighting the organisational and infra-
      structural impact;
          b) supply all useful information to the elaboration of risk scenario analy-
      ses based on the inter-dependence with other critical infrastructures;
          c) identify the corrective measures needed to guarantee the best possible
      connection continuity of the networks throughout the national territory, in
      order to avoid a domino effect on other types of infrastructure and to solve
      traffic congestion problems that are reported in real time at the operators’
      co-ordination centres;
          d) outline the technical and planning measures supporting the operability
      and resilience of the necessary connections between the areas hit by emer-
      gency and the co-ordination centres spread across the territory and between
      the centres and the operational Committee by providing phone, video and all
      available data;
          e) proceed, in compliance with the terms and conditions regulated by the
      specific conventions set between the DPC and the phone service Providers
      and operators:
          •   to send SmS messages for the emergency management;
          •   to provide the number (as overall data) specified by nationality (coun-
              try code), of the international roamers present in the area hit by emer-
              gency. international roamers refers to users on national italian territory
              using a mobile phone service, roaming on the national italian telecom-
              munications’ network.
          f) provide support to the activities aimed at guaranteeing, in conformity
      with the legislation in force, the search of missing persons by means of the
      technological tools allowed by the assistance and verification systems of the
      mobile phone network.

      Within 12 hours
          a) verify the actions carried out and identify potential modifications
      based on the damage assessment;




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           b) provide the necessary assistance in terms of human, logistic and tech-
       nological resources, aimed at the implementation and co-ordination of the
       operational and co-ordination centres on the territory;
          c) plan the recovery project for the restoration of fixed line telephony and
       mobile phone lines infrastructures.

       RAI [Raditelevisione Italia]

       Immediate actions
           a) supply information regarding the state of the national radio and televi-
       sion broadcasting services and in the areas hit by emergency;
            b) make its services available for spreading information to the population;
           c) activate at the DPC a centre for transmitting live audio and video
       broadcasts of the three national television networks and RainewS24;
           d) activate at the DPC a live radio broadcast of the iSoRaDio channel/
       frequency.

       Italian Postal system

       Immediate actions
           a) supply information regarding the state of efficiency of the mail serv-
       ices and infrastructures in the areas hit by the event;
           b) activate the procedures for the setting up of a “contact centre” to pro-
       vide information to the population and particular user groups;
           c) keep in contact with the responsible persons in the area affected by the
       disaster for identifying the type and entity of the damage suffered by the infra-
       structures, carrying out recovery actions and to solve any other related criticality.

       Within 12 hours
            a) set up all the internal and external measures aimed at the prompt resto-
       ration, under safe conditions, of the damaged infrastructures and plants, with
       the objective of ensuring the continuity of services;
           b) according to their effective availability, make its physical and hi-tech
       infrastructures, as well as the network of post offices, available for the dis-
       semination of information to and communication with the public;




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           c) provide mobile phone services for communications addressed to the
      citizens;
          d) provide the use of the integrated logistic infrastructure and transporta-
      tion system according to the effective availability;
          e) provide all necessary assistance, in terms of human, logistic and tech-
      nological resources, aimed at the setting up and management of operational
      and co-ordination centres.

      Within 24 hours
          a) perform all actions aimed at the restoration of services in the areas
      hit by disaster, including the possible deployment of additional human and
      technological resources including hi-tech devices.

      Oil and gas production [ENI – Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi]

      Immediate actions
          a) provide information regarding damages suffered by the infrastructures
      involved in the storage, processing and transportation of the products;
          b) keep in contact with the managers of the power plants located in the
      area hit by the event, with the purpose of assessing the damages and identify-
      ing all possible criticalities;
          c) provide information regarding the corporate technical and technologi-
      cal resources located in the affected area and available to be employed for
      facing the emergency, and suggests the possible deployment of additional
      resources, identifying their original location and characteristics as well as
      their employment time and procedures;
         d) participate in locating and making available commercial product
      supply systems through the support of public and private enterprises;

      Within 12 hours
          a) contribute to restore safety in the areas affected by the event;
          b) help with finding and making available any necessary means, equip-
      ment and tools, when they might be needed, also through contracting firms
      and companies.
         c) co-ordinate all activities for the immediate restoration of safety in the
      damaged infrastructures and power plants;




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           d) provide all assistance, in terms of human, logistic and technological
       resources, needed to implement and manage the operational and co-ordina-
       tion centres in the affected area or to perform emergency logistics.




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                                               Annex B

    Critical infrastructure operator components within NCPS




Civil Aviation Authority of Italy (ENAC)

            the Civil aviation authority of italy (enaC) is the national regula-
       tor in the technical, economical and operational aviation field and certifies
       airlines, airports, air navigation service providers (anSP), manufacturers,
       maintenance, repair and overhaul (mRo) organisations, ground handlers, etc.
       enaC is engaged in dealing with the diverse regulatory aspects of air trans-
       port system and performs monitoring functions related to the enforcement of
       the adopted rules regulating administrative and economical issues. its core
       business is doubtless represented by safety control, in its double meaning of
       safety and security, according to internationally agreed terms of reference.
       Safety is understood as the safe planning, construction, maintenance and
       exploitation of aircraft, as well as the skill assessment of air carriers and in-
       flight personnel. Security is meant as the land-side safeguard of passengers,
       on board aircraft, inside and outside the airports, aimed at the prevention of
       illicit acts. enaC represents italy in the major international civil aviation
       organisations such as iCao, eCaC, eaSa and the european organisation
       for the Safety of air navigation (eurocontrol) with which enaC undertakes
       a continuous dialogue and co-operation. the specific tasks in nCPS in the
       event of an emergency include the supply of information regarding the oper-
       ability and capacity of airports, air routes and heliports in the areas affected
       by the emergency as well as adoption of necessary regulations, in order to
       facilitate rescue operations, limiting ordinary and commercial flight activities
       in the airports concerned by the event and identifying alternative intermedi-
       ate stops and rerouting air traffic.




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ENAV S.p.A.

          enav S.p.a. is a joint-stock public corporation fully government-
      owned Company for air navigation Services and italy plays through enav
      an important role in commissioning the aerial navigation satellite system
      which assists by the satellite network alone the approach and landing phases.
      as part of the european Geostationary navigation and overlay Service
      (eGnoS) enhancement programme developed by eU and enav, a Project,
      the Giant Project, funded by the european Commission, has demonstrated
      the benefits of satellite assistance compared to traditional radio assistance,
      which may be replaced over time. the Project will improve performance and
      reduce margins of error with respect to current GPS systems. the precision
      of satellite signals increases current safety levels and allows for more efficient
      and dynamic flight path management, thereby cutting back on times, costs
      and emissions. in addition to its significant logistical support, enav made
      an important contribution by developing the flight procedures used in the air-
      craft computer and played a role in defining the testing methodology used in
      the experiment. the choice of italy and enav is the result of the high tech-
      nical standards demonstrated nationally and internationally in recent years.
          the enav tasks in the nCPS include to supply all information regard-
      ing the operability and capacity of the airports in the areas affected by the
      emergency and plan all measures and regulations necessary to co-ordinate
      and control the flow of air traffic, in agreement with the DPC/CoaU,
      including regulation of flight activity in the areas at risk, in order to facili-
      tate the required rescue operations (enav/aCU). enav is also to assist in
      the co-ordination of the limitation of the air flow within italian air space
      or landing at airports located in the area affected by the emergency with
      eURoContRol, when necessary.

Electrical power service companies


      Electric Market Managing Company – GME
           electricity trading i.e. buying and selling electricity in the eU member
      Countries is regulated in accordance with the european Directive 96/92/
      eC concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and the
      italian legislation for implementation of the Directive the so called “Bersani
      Decree”). this liberalized the generation, import/export, purchase/sale of
      electricity in italy. Gestore dei Servizi elettrici – GSe S.p.a., the electricity
      Services operator which is owned by the government plays a key role in pro-
      moting, initiating the use and developing renewable energy sources in italy
      through its two subsidiaries the acquirente Unico – aU or the Single Buyer



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       and Gestore del mercato elettrico – Gme or the electric market managing
       Company. autorità per l’energia elettrica e il gas – aeeG or the Gas and
       electricity markets authority is an independent regulatory authority which is
       responsible for promoting competition in and the efficiency of the electricity
       and gas markets. the specific tasks in nCPS in the event of an emergency
       include to provide information on the power production plants of GSe also
       operating through power networks other than the national network (indicat-
       ing the area, production status and contacts as well as to keep contact with
       the managers of the plants located in the area hit by the disaster and monitor
       and provide information about the actual situation within the GSe field of
       competence. furthermore, GSe has an obligation to provide a contact centre
       for the spreading of useful information to the community with respect to the
       emergency and to contribute with support to the updating of the state of the
       plants.

       Terna Spa Group
           the transmissione elettricità Rete nazionale – terna Spa Group’s princi-
       pal activities are the transmission and dispatch of electricity on the high and
       extra high voltage grid in italy and Brazil. the grid comprises in total 35,129
       km of electricity lines and 302 transforming and switching stations and 3
       remote control centres. the Group also provides related services (develop-
       ment of the grid, management of the electricity system and engineering and
       maintenance of the plants). the tasks in nCPS of terna are similar to those
       of GSe.

A.N.A.S. S.p.A

           the motorways or highways in italy are mostly toll roads. a.n.a.S. S.p.a
       (anaS) which is a government owned company operates two motorways
       which are toll free. the toll roads form one network and 61% of them handled
       by the “autostrade per l’italia S.p.a.” company, and its subsidiaries, which
       are privately owned and supervised by anaS. the network of highways
       covers most of italy: northern and central italy are well covered, the south
       and Sicily are scarcely covered, Sardinia is not covered at all. the motorway
       operators are required to build, operate and maintain their networks at cost
       and to cover their expenses from the toll they collect.
            the specific tasks in nCPS in the event of an emergency include to pro-
       vide information regarding the state of national mobility particularly focusing
       on the specific complexities determined by the event and supply all informa-
       tion on the damages suffered by the road system’s infrastructures, admin-
       istered directly or by contract, in the area affected by the emergency and
       propose in respect to the highways the use of alternative road systems and the


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      adoption of extraordinary traffic regulations, particularly aimed at ensuring
      the operability of nCPS. other tasks are to provide the logistic structures and
      infrastructures (heliports, deposit areas for the storage of means and other
      useful resources to the rescue teams) as well as escort and dispatch riders to
      the transportation of special material and mobile columns of rescue teams
      which are allowed easy access to the tollbooths.
           furthermore, a task is to supply all useful information to drivers, in col-
      laboration with CCiSS and iSoRaDio and the highway contractors, also
      through the implementation of panels displaying messages with updated traf-
      fic information and plan necessary measures together with local institutions
      and volunteer organisations to provide an adequate assistance to drivers. in
      addition planning the necessary activities to survey and evaluate the damage
      suffered by the infrastructures also action in terms of potential adoption
      of restrictive motor vehicle traffic measures and an evaluation of the time
      needed to reinstate the ordinary operability of the infrastructures hit by the
      disaster are to be undertaken.

State Railway Company – RFI / Trenitalia

           the State Railway Company (Rfi) owns the infrastructure and train
      italia is a group managing the transports. when grave railway accidents
      occur, the consequences are enormous as the transport flow is disrupted
      which affects many persons. lives can be lost and the economic conse-
      quences are often high. much has however been learned from a number of
      serious events in the 1970s.
           when DPC was organised, this provided an opportunity to develop
      and exercise new plans and establish adequate training, thereby improving
      the preparedness for accidents. a protocol agreement for co-operation has
      reached between Rfi and both DPC and the regions. train italia and Rfi par-
      ticipate in the DPC operational Committee. the protocol agreement defines
      the roles in an event, and training is one of the main items in the agreement.
          train italia and Rfi have adopted an information exchange systems
      (eRaSm), started by their own specialists. the needs and complexity of
      infrastructure required Rfi to develop it in house, without going to the
      market to procure a ready system. eRaSm provides the users with a typol-
      ogy of assets (30,000 assets listed under 13 different types), stations, bridges,
      tunnels, etc. for each asset, eRaSm performs a dynamic risk analysis and
      considers and provides information about the possible impact, threat and
      needed level of protection.
          Rfi has operating procedure for management of relevant incidents or
      train accidents. there are three levels of management, namely the line,



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       regional department and a common network. in accordance with the incident
       flowchart for emergency management, DPC and the civil protection in the
       regions are alerted by the Railway operation Centre on the first notice by the
       on-site worker. in accordance with the protocol, a pilot project procedure is in
       place whereby the schedule is sent containing first advice as to the criticality
       of the event. this is the first news of a possible intervention. DPC does not
       manage the intervention which is done by the region, prefect, etc.
           if there is a fire, the fire department is contacted when the incident
       cannot be solved by the train italia and Rfi resources, which is the case with
       90% of the problems. the first step is to decide if it is a civil protection event
       or not. Guidelines for this are being elaborated in co-operation with DPC. a
       train which has stopped in a tunnel is usually not a C event, but could be after
       three hours. when there are many people in peril, then this is a civil protec-
       tion event. assistance to passengers and personnel can be provided by the
       civil protection throughout the italian territory.
            the role of train italia is to try and get the train moving again. there is
       an enterprise Risk assessment (eRa) and security management system for
       communication with DPC from whom information about dangerous weather
       variables to help them determine the risk levels are received. the procedures
       for train and infrastructure safety can then be put in place. with the antici-
       pated privatization, Rfi will co-ordinate with the new competitors and the
       licensing process will encompass safety matters. inspection is carried out by
       the agency of Safety under ministry of transport.
           in respect to for instance a volcano evacuation scenario, the train italia
       and Rfi will contribute in any situation and in the emergency planning which
       touches their structures. when in an event it would be important to evacu-
       ate many people, the train circulation situation can be changed to take away
       people suddenly. emergency plans are approved by each prefecture.
            the tasks in nCPS of train italia and Rfi is to provide all information
       regarding the damage suffered by the railway system’s infrastructures in the
       area hit by emergency and contribute together with the civil protection to
       identify the best alternative transport solutions for the passengers concerned
       by the limitation or blockage of the rail system. they will make available,
       in compliance with the railway system’s need to guarantee its service even
       during a state of emergency, logistics and rail system means required by the
       civil protection to assist the population or the rescue teams and for transporta-
       tion needs (also by special trains) of people and goods.




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Fixed line telephone and mobile phone companies – Telecom Italia,
Vodafone, Wind, H3G


      Telecom Italia
          the telecom italia Group is active in fixed-line and mobile telecom-
      munications and has a Business Continuity Plan even if there is no legal
      obligation to have one, but the plan is in the Group’s own interest. there is
      a new european project on critical infrastructure under consideration that
      could lead to binding rules. the output might be to require some form of co-
      ordination between industry and service providers within the european criti-
      cal infrastructures. within the industry, best practices are regularly shared
      through informal networks.
          During a major emergency, telecom italia is represented in the
      operational Committee. the telecommunication operators have supplied
      secure communications for the all components of the civil protection system
      or voluntary organisations taking part in rescue operations. the telecom
      network can become saturated during an emergency, but there are protocols
      ensuring a reserve capacity for institutions. the use of the reserve capacity
      can be managed from a central level where there is access to the service.
      there is also a dedicated communication system during a crisis affecting the
      railways.
           for public alert of italians in other countries, there is a moU with the
      ministry of foreign affairs to send an SmS to subscribers in an affected area
      (international disaster). the same action was taken in italy for communicat-
      ing with the public during the funeral of the Pope. the service is free for
      italians and there is not a capacity problem, but getting the message through
      might take some time.
          the specific tasks in nCPS in the event of an emergency are very exten-
      sive but include the supply of all information regarding the state of fixed line
      telephone and mobile phone services in the areas hit by emergency and the
      alternative networks supplied by each operator, highlighting the organisa-
      tional and infrastructural impact as well as the identification of the corrective
      measures needed to guarantee the best possible connection continuity of the
      networks throughout the national territory, in order to avoid a domino effect
      on other types of infrastructure and to solve traffic congestion problems that
      are reported in real time at the operators’ co-ordination centres.




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       Vodafone Italy Foundation
            “fondazione vodafone italia” stems from the firm resolve of vodafone
       italy to create an independent structure dedicated entirely to service and
       social solidarity, specializing in positive, disinterested action to benefit the
       community and its neediest members in particular. fondazione vodofone
       italia is a corporate foundation for multi-purpose disbursements which
       means that it pursues its statutory purposes mainly by collaboration and the
       disbursement of funds to other individuals working within civilian society. it
       aims to take on a supporting role in this area either by promoting and financ-
       ing innovative projects or by strengthening existing projects run by non-profit
       organisations.

       Wind
            wind telecomunicazioni S.p.a. was established in 1997 and is an italian
       telecom operator which offers integrated mobile, fixed and internet services.
       it is best known for being the third largest mobile phone company which
       operates in italy. wind currently runs a GSm (900/1800/e900), GPRS,
       eDGe, UmtS (video call and mobile broadband) and hSDPa network.
       while the GSm/GPRS network is available almost everywhere, eDGe,
       UmtS and hSDPa are available in most cities, but are still expanding.

       H3G Italy
            h3G italy, part of one of the world’s largest 3G operators and with over
       2.6 million subscribers in italy, has chosen ericsson as a strategic partner
       for the total management and development of its multi-vendor 3G network in
       italy. the contract also contains optimization of assets, management of h3G
       italy’s advanced 3G-multimedia service environment, including management
       of the service layer and business support systems.
            the agreement will deliver increased efficiency and cost savings of about
       eUR 250 million in a five year period for h3G italy, supporting the opera-
       tor’s further expansion in the promising area of 3G multimedia and video
       services in italy. h3G italy will now be able to focus even more on providing
       attractive, new services along with high advertising quality of service to its
       subscribers.

RAI

           Rai started in 1990 together with autostrade per l’italia S.p.a. the radio
       channel isoradio with the objective of giving information to persons along all
       national and district roads (every 30 minutes in english). for the past seven



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      years a public information system has been in place to transmit information
      on highway traffic and public utilities accidents related that involve civil
      protection authorities. isoradio has four channels in the main towns Rome,
      milan, turino and naples. normally the channel transmits classical music,
      but in the event of an accident the transmission is interrupted for the delivery
      of information related to the emergency.
          the channel isoradio started after the earthquake in malaysia in 2002 to
      provide direction to civil protection volunteers on how to proceed and has in
      effect become a dedicated channel to civil protection besides giving traffic
      information. During the funeral of the Pope the normal national channel and
      a channel in Rome were activated for civil protection purposes. in october
      2006 isoradio participated in the international exercise meSimex in the
      Campania region. the scenario for the exercise was the eruption of vesuvius
      even though this was not a road accident. the peculiarity with this channel is
      that it does not have a rigid programme schedule but can make interruptions
      for public utility or emergency management information. every day, time
      is given to all parties involved in the civil protection system to allow these
      stakeholders for instance the fire brigade opportunities to inform the public
      about a dangerous situation, forecasts, etc.
          normally, there are about five million drivers listening as the channel
      provides traffic information. 70% of the people listening want to know the
      weather and traffic conditions. whenever there is a major emergency, people
      will tune in. Rai does not cover the entire territory, but it is planning to
      achieve this in co-operation with DPC. with new Korean radio cutting edge
      digital technology and text messages, it will be possible to use all channels
      for general information about weather, news and warnings from the civil
      protection.
          the civil protection distributes news and warnings through all media
      channels such as press, radio and tv. the relation with isoradio is special
      and in the event of disaster, it is the voice of the civil protection which is
      transmitted to the public, giving information to the public affected by the
      emergency and to those not involved directly but emotionally. in September
      2004 the Prime minister signed an agreement with the telecommunication
      and mobile companies that foresees the possibility to interrupt any broadcast
      without notice. this agreement has never been activated, but it is in place. all
      official information will only come from the Civil Protection System.
          the specific tasks of Rai in nCPS in the event of an emergency are to
      supply information regarding the state of the national radio and television
      broadcasting services and in the areas hit by emergency and to make its
      services available for spreading information to the population. in addition the
      tasks are to activate at the DPC a centre for transmitting live audio and video



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       broadcasts of the three national television networks and RainewS24 and a
       live radio broadcast of the iSoRaDio channel/frequency.

Italian Postal System

            Since 2000 the italian Postal System has undergone large-scale changes.
       it is no longer a state-owned monopoly, although the government is the
       majority owner. the service which is managed by Poste italiane includes
       mailing letters and parcels, banking and financial services, and managing
       certain local administrative matters. Poste italiane has services catering spe-
       cifically to small business. the tasks in nCPS of the italian Postal System
       are to supply information regarding the state of efficiency of the mail services
       and infrastructures in the areas hit by an emergency or disaster and perform
       all actions aimed at the restoration of services in the areas hit by disaster,
       including the possible deployment of additional human and technological
       resources including hi-tech devices.

ENI

            eni is a major integrated energy company which operates in the oil
       and gas, electricity generation and sale, petrochemicals, oilfield services
       construction and engineering industries. the tasks in nCPS of eni include
       to provide information regarding damages suffered by the infrastructures
       involved in the storage, processing and transportation of the products, keep
       in contact with the managers of the power plants located in the area hit by
       the event, with the purpose of assessing the damages and identifying all pos-
       sible criticalities and provide information regarding the corporate technical
       and technological resources located in the affected area and available to be
       employed for facing the emergency, and suggests the possible deployment of
       additional resources, identifying their original location and characteristics as
       well as their employment time and procedures. among the other tasks are to
       contribute to restore safety in the areas affected by the event and co-ordinate
       all activities for the immediate restoration of safety in the damaged infra-
       structures and power plants.




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                                               Annex C

                     Review self-assessment questionnaires



                                    A. General Questionnaire

           Respondents may answer with reference to any risk within the remit of
       nCPS for which they are responsible but focus should be given to natural
       disasters: earthquakes, volcanoes, floods and forest fires.

A.1. Risk assessment
      A.1.a. Roles and responsibilities in risk and vulnerability
             assessment related to civil protection
            •    Please briefly describe the role and responsibilities of your organi-
                 sation with regard to the assessment of the following points:
                 ○   earthquake, volcano, flood, forest fire, other risks
                 ○   vulnerability of physical structures
                 ○   vulnerability of population groups
                 ○   secondary effects of these hazards and ensuing risks and vulner-
                     abilities
                 ○ integrating the results of the identified risks and vulnerabilities
                     in a central cost and damage assessment
                 ○ other
            •    Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and
                 the resources it devotes in order to fulfil its role in risk/vulnerability
                 assessment related to civil protection.
            •    which other actors co-operate with your organisation in assessing
                 these risks and vulnerabilities at the State level? at prefecture level?
                 at regional/provincial/municipal level? Private and non-government



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                 actors? Please describe the co-ordination and communication
                 channels.
             •   is your agency legally obliged to monitor the points identified above
                 in a.1.a (risk of earthquake, volcano, flood, forest fire)? if so, which?


      A.1.b. Risk assessment methods
        •	    Please briefly describe existing programmes aimed at:
                 ○ identifying, monitoring and evaluating the risk of earthquake,
                      volcano, flood, forest fire
                 ○ Detecting vulnerabilities in physical structures
                 ○ Detecting and monitoring new and existing vulnerable groups in
                      the population
                 ○ identifying secondary effects of these risks, including business
                      interruption costs
                 ○ integrating different types of risk and vulnerability data
             • how is data collected for the above points? (from where, how often,
                 etc.)
             •   are there any obstacles to the collection of data (resources, confi-
                 dentiality issues, privately-owned information; etc.)? if so, please
                 elaborate your answer.
             •   Please describe ongoing or planned research programmes regarding
                 risk and vulnerability assessment tools for the risks listed above in
                 a.1.a.


      A.1.c. Self-assessment
             •   how do you view the italian population’s exposure to earthquake,
                 volcano, flood, and forest fire taking into consideration:
                 ○   the different measures implemented after major disasters
                     (e.g. irpinia earthquake, Piemonte floods, Stromboli tsunami,
                     Seveso accident)
                 ○   Societal developments in the last 10 years (ageing populations,
                     changes in population income, etc.)
                 ○   technological developments of the last 10 years (increasing inter-
                     dependence of critical infrastructures, society’s dependence on
                     telecommunications)




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            •    in which area(s) do you feel that more information would be needed
                 regarding the various risks listed above, and the vulnerability of
                 structures and population groups?

A.2. Principles of strategic decision-making

       A.2.a. Roles and responsibilities in decision-making
            •    Please describe your role and responsibilities in designing and imple-
                 menting national strategies for earthquake, volcano, flood, forest fire
                 risk and vulnerability reduction (of physical structures and popula-
                 tion groups [elderly, concentrated urban populations, etc.])?
            •    what are the co-ordination and communication channels between
                 the entities?


       A.2.b. The national decision-making process
            •    how are priorities defined and targets set at the national level?
            •    what are the programmes and implementation plans related to these
                 targets?
            •    what are the overall public resources devoted to risk and vulner-
                 ability reduction? how is this apportioned according to the various
                 types of hazard?
            •    which stakeholders are consulted during the decision-making proc-
                 ess, and how?
            •    at what stage, if any, are the costs, benefits and risks of alternative
                 solutions considered?
            •    how are financial resources allocated to the measures in support of
                 risk and vulnerability assessment? Please make a distinction between
                 the various levels of government (State, regions, prefecture, prov-
                 inces and municipality) and between sources of funding (State or
                 local taxes, ear-marked funds, etc.)

A.3. Building codes, land use and seismic retrofit

       A.3.a. Building code policies
            •    Please describe the roles and responsibilities for formulating and
                 implementing building code policies in italy?




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          •   Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and
              the resources it devotes in order to fulfil the role of formulating and
              implementing building code policies.
          •   Please describe recent evolutions in italy’s building codes. which
              are the underlying objectives for change, and what are the expected
              effects of a change?
          •   how is the formulation of codes for buildings and physical infra-
              structures linked to natural disaster risk assessments and lessons
              learnt from previous disasters in and outside italy? Please indicate
              communication and co-ordination channels.
          •   what are the average delays of formulating a building code before
              this is translated into actual policy?
          •   what is the renewal rate of buildings in italy per year?
          •   which are the mechanisms for enforcing building codes in italy? is
              there a difference in the treatment of public and private buildings?


      A.3.b. Land use policies
          •   Please describe the roles and responsibilities in designing and imple-
              menting land use policies in italy?
          •   Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and
              the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.
          •   which are the land use criteria, if any, defined by the Department
              of Civil Protection and others, in relation to natural disaster risk and
              vulnerability?
          •   Please describe possible recent evolutions in land use policy in italy
              related to disaster reduction. which are the underlying objectives for
              change, and what are the expected effects of a change?
          •   how is the formulation of land use policies linked to disaster risk
              assessment and lessons learnt from previous disasters in and outside
              italy? Please indicate communication and co-ordination channels.
          •   Do these criteria refer to risk assessments elaborated by local/central
              authorities?
          •   which are the enforcement mechanisms for land use policies?




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       A.3.c. Seismic retrofit
            •    Please describe the roles and responsibilities in designing and imple-
                 menting seismic retrofit policies in italy?
            •    Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and
                 the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.
            •    Please describe possible recent evolutions in seismic retrofit policy in
                 italy. which are the underlying objectives for change, and what are
                 the expected effects of a change?
            •    how is the formulation of seismic retrofit policies linked to earth-
                 quake risk assessment and lessons learnt from previous earthquakes
                 in and outside italy? Please indicate communication and co-ordina-
                 tion channels.
            •    which are the existing policies in place to encourage the seismic
                 retrofit of
                 ○ Public constructions
                 ○ Private non-housing constructions
                 ○ Private housing
                 ○ other constructions
            •    are these actions co-ordinated with those of other organisations?
                 Please describe.
            •    has a legislative framework been put in place to allocate respon-
                 sibility and liability for seismic retrofit of buildings? if so, please
                 describe.
            •    Please inform about current or planned research programmes for the
                 seismic retrofit of buildings and the resources devoted to this activity.


       A.3.d.Self-assessment
            •    what is your view on the current legislative framework in italy con-
                 cerning land use, building codes and seismic retrofit? is the legisla-
                 tion “fit for purpose”?
            •    are there any obstacles to the correct implementation of land use,
                 building code and seismic retrofit policies? if so, please elaborate.
            •    how has the legal and regulatory framework evolved in the last 10
                 years, taking into consideration experiences from past disasters,
                 public sector decentralisation, etc.?




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A.4. Information to the public

      A.4.a. Awareness-raising among the general public
          •   Please briefly describe your role and responsibilities with regard to
              awareness-raising activities, for the hazards listed in a.1.a, vis-à-vis
              the general public.
          •   Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and
              the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.
          •   which other actors co-operate with your organisation with regard to
              awareness-raising activities at State level? at regional level? at pre-
              fecture level? at provincial level? at municipal level? Please describe
              the co-ordination and communication channels.


      A.4.b. Awareness-raising among public and private actors
          •   Please describe your role and responsibilities with regard to aware-
              ness-raising activities vis-à-vis public (regions, prefectures, prov-
              inces, municipalities) and private actors (infrastructure operators,
              etc.).
          •   Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and
              the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.
          •   which other actors co-operate with your organisation with regard to
              such activities at State level? at regional level? at prefecture level?
              at provincial level? at municipal level? Please describe the co-ordi-
              nation and communication channels.


      A.4.c. Alert
          •   Please describe your role and responsibilities with regard to hazard
              warnings for the hazards listed in a.1.a.
          •   Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and
              the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.
          •   which other actors co-operate with your organisation with regard
              to warning activities at State level? at regional level? at prefecture
              level? at provincial level? at municipal level? Please describe the
              co-ordination and communication channels.




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       A.4.d. Self-assessment
            •    what is your view of the italian population’s preparedness for a major
                 disaster of the types listed in a.1.a? has the level of preparedness
                 increased or decreased in the last 10 years?

A.5. Evacuation and rescue

       A.5.a. Roles and responsibilities
            •    Please describe the role and responsibilities of your organisation with
                 regard to disaster induced evacuation and rescue activities for the
                 hazards listed in a.1.a.
            •    Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and
                 the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.
            •    which other actors co-operate with your organisation with regard
                 to evacuation and rescue activities at State level? Regional level?
                 at prefecture level? at provincial level? at municipal level? Please
                 describe the co-ordination and communication channels.
            •    how is the formulation of evacuation and rescue plans linked to
                 risk and vulnerability assessments and lessons learnt from previous
                 disasters in and outside italy (e.g. evacuation of particular population
                 groups)? Please indicate communication and co-ordination channels.


       A.5.b. Self-assessment
            •    what is your view of your own organisation’s response capacity for a
                 major disaster from amongst the types listed in a.1.a?
            •    what is your assessment of the overall response capacity of emer-
                 gency rescue organisations in italy?
            •    Do you consider that the population has changed over the last 10-20
                 years, and that this has consequences for disaster evacuation and
                 rescue? Please describe.

A.6. Recovery enhancement

       A.6.a. Disaster losses mitigation
            •    Please describe the efforts of your organisation to encourage the
                 development of business continuity plans among
                 ○    Small and medium-sized enterprises


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              ○ large Corporations
              ○ operators of critical infrastructures
          •   Please describe the policy tools (legal incentives, tax, awareness-
              raising, other)
          •   are there any other policies in place to mitigate economic losses of
              disasters? Please describe.
          •   are there policies in place to encourage disaster losses mitigation
              among individuals? Please describe.


      A.6.b. Disaster insurance
          •   Please describe the current public or private insurance schemes in
              italy for the various hazards mentioned above in a.1.a (e.g. percent-
              age of insurance penetration among italian households; coverage of
              insurance policy, insurance financing, State implication, etc.).
          •   are there any policies to encourage insurance for these hazards,
              directed towards
              ○   home owners
              ○   Small and medium-Sized enterprises
              ○   other

      A.6.c. Compensation of victims
          •   Please briefly describe the policies and legislation in place for victim
              compensation and reconstruction
          •   of all reconstruction costs, which share is paid by the individuals, the
              State and the private sector?


      A.6.d. Self-assessment
          •   Do you consider that the current compensation system in italy is
              capable of recovering from a “mega-scale” disaster?
          •   in your opinion, is the current compensation system equitable, or
              does it particularly hit certain groups of the population, or business
              sectors?
          •   has this changed in the last 10 years? how are the prospects for the
              next 20 years?




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A.7. Feedback and organisational change

            •    Please describe your role and responsibilities with regard to feedback
                 and organisational change.
            •    Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and
                 the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.
            •    which other actors co-operate with your organisation with regard to
                 such activities at State level? at regional level? at prefecture level?
                 at provincial level? at municipal level? Please describe the co-ordi-
                 nation and communication channels.
            •    are there past examples where experience feedback has led to organ-
                 isational change? Please give examples.
            •    Do channels exist for the private sector, nGos or citizens to provide
                 feedback on existing structures and policies? Please give examples.

A.8. International Co-operation

            •    Please describe your role and responsibilities with regard to interna-
                 tional co-operation for disaster reduction and emergency response.
            •    Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and
                 the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.
            •    which other actors co-operate with your organisation with regard to
                 such activities at State level? at regional level? at prefecture level?
                 at provinvial level? at municipal level? Please describe the co-
                 ordination and communication channels.
            •    Please indicate how results of this activity are integrated into existing
                 policies in
                 ○    the other policy layers (assessment, decision-making, etc.)
                 ○    the different disaster preparedness and mitigation disciplines
                      (land use, building codes, seismic retrofit, research, etc.)
                 ○    are there past examples where international co-operation has led
                      to organisational change? Please give examples.
                 ○    how are international practices and experiences used in evaluat-
                      ing and elaborating italian disaster preparedness policy?




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              B. Questionnaire to regional, prefectural, provincial and
                               municipal authorities


B.1. Role and organisation

      B.1.a Please describe your responsibilities with regard to
            earthquakes, volcanoes, floods and forest fires.
          •     of these activities, which are implementations of decisions from the
                central government administration and which draw from your sole
                responsibility in this area?
          •     what is the organisational structure in place to fulfil these respon-
                sibilities?
          •     Please provide available data on your specific resources correspond-
                ing to these functions (annual budget) and their sources (i.e. grants
                from the central government, user fees, taxes, etc.)


      B.1.b. If available, please provide a detailed description
             (including maps) of:
          •     exposure to earthquake, volcano, flood and forest fire
          •     a record of major earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, forest fires in the
                region/province/municipality in the past decades
          •     industrial activities located in your region/province municipality
          •     Geographical concentrations of housing structures, collective build-
                ings

B.2. Co-operation with other administrative units

      B.2.a. Relations with other region’s/prefectures/provinces/
             municipalities
          •     which other actors does your region/province/municipality co-oper-
                ate with in carrying out its responsibilities described in B.1.a (other
                regions, prefectures, provinces, municipalities, ministries, national
                Civil Protection Service)? in each case, please give a brief account of
                the sharing of responsibilities between your organisation and actors
                from other levels.
          •     which activities are most likely to be shared with other actors? Does
                this involve training activities? Please describe.


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       B.2.b. Co-operation within the region/prefecture/province/
              municipality
            •    to which extent do preparedness authorities in your region/prefec-
                 ture/province/municipality co-operate and co-ordinate their activities
                 with other “non-preparedness” services (education, social and health
                 services, other)? if so, for which type of activities? Please describe.

B.3. Building codes, Land use and Seismic retrofit

            •    what activities do you take to mitigate the risk of earthquake, volca-
                 noe, flood and forest fire before a disaster?
                ○ Building inspections
                ○ land use zoning
                ○ Construction of coastal barriers, dikes, banks, levis and dams
             Please provide available data on your specific resources corresponding to these
             functions and their sources.
            •    what are the major challenges do you face in undertaking activities
                 to protect against and prevent damages arising from earthquake, vol-
                 cano, flood and/or forest fire disasters?
                 ○    what are the causes of these challenges?

B.4. Emergency Response

            •    Please describe your role with regard to disaster induced evacuation
                 and rescue activities.
            •    Please describe the way in which your evacuation and rescue teams
                 are structured and the resources your region devoted to this purpose.
            •    which other actors co-operate with your organisation with regard to
                 evacuation and rescue activities at State level? at regional/provincial/
                 municipal level? Please describe the co-ordination and communica-
                 tion channels.
            •    how is the formulation of evacuation and rescue plans linked to
                 risk and vulnerability assessments and lessons learnt from previous
                 disasters in and outside italy (e.g. evacuation of particular population
                 groups)? Please indicate communication and co-ordination channels.




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B.5. Overall Self-assessment

          •   what is your view of the overall response capacity for emergency
              rescue organisations in your region/prefecture/province/municipality
              to earthquake, volcano, flood and/or forest fire?
          •   is there an official process in place with established benchmarks to
              guide your evaluation of the regional/prefectural/provincial/munici-
              pal capacity to fulfil its responsibilities regarding earthquake, vol-
              cano, flood and/or forest fire disaster preparedness?
          •   Do you consider that the population has changed over the last 10-20
              years, and that this has consequences for disaster evacuation and
              rescue? Please describe.
          •   what are the major challenges faced by your region/prefecture/prov-
              ince/municipality in preparing for earthquake, volcano, flood and/or
              forest fire disasters? what are their causes?
          •   how has the physical and social vulnerability to these hazards
              evolved in the last 10 years?
          •   how do you expect these vulnerabilities to evolve in the next 10 years
              in your region/prefecture/province/municipality?




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                                               Annex D

        Presentation of INGV, RELUIS and the EUCENTRE



Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)

            the istituto nazionale di Geofisica e vulcanologia (inGv) is part of
       the national Civil Protection Service and provides in accordance with legal
       requirements basic hazard data and knowledge and monitors volcanoes and
       earthquakes. it is not the task of inGv to develop risk analysis and assess
       vulnerabilities in respect to the population. the Seismic law has established
       the zones to be studied carefully and education has been introduced for engi-
       neers on how to conduct seismic stress studies for buildings. in italy there are
       no well defined seismogenic structures as in some other parts of the world
       where these can be closely linked to the interfaces between the continen-
       tal plates. inGv is responsible for the national earthquake Centre, yearly
       funded by DPC, which can give DPC precise information within 2 minutes
       on the location and magnitude of seismic activity based on a well-meshed
       and dense seismometric network for providing real-time information on the
       occurrence of incidents.
           inGv can thus provide information on what has happened, not what is
       going to happen, as seismic prediction is not viable at the present state-of-
       the-art. new seismic catalogues and hazard maps are periodically elaborated,
       with the co-operation of the national scientific community and the DPC since
       1998 together with proposals for classification. Seismic classification is the
       basic tool for preventive action. nowadays about 70% of italy is classified in
       zones 1, 2, 3, while zone 4 covers the remaining part of the italian territory.
       in Zone 4 some minimal requirements for seismic safety under low intensity
       earthquakes must however be complied with. with the new code the seismic
       provisions needed for earthquake-safe design are directly related to the most
       recent (2006) hazard maps produced by inGv. in the national hazard maps
       there is no consideration of the local geology (the map doesn’t go into sedi-
       ments of different areas on national scale) as it refers to a standard stiff soil



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      condition. local soil conditions and possible amplification effects are taken
      into account when designing a structure (e.g. of building or of a bridge) based
      on specific soil investigation, according to the enforced seismic code (2008).
         the maps provide just seismic hazard, not risk, and therefore not assess-
      ments and mapping of vulnerability zones which are made by others than
      inGv. the national seismic hazard map will be available on internet.
          further improvements could be to produce seismic hazard maps with
      better resolution and better tools to transform the seismic information into
      more useful practical outputs for authorities, builders, etc. this is one of
      the objectives of the ongoing research project of inGv funded by DPC. the
      update of the national hazard map is, however, a great challenge, as a wide
      consensus has to be reached in the scientific community due to its economic
      and social implications. Updating every five years could be a good compro-
      mise between the need to have an up-to-date prevention tool and the timeli-
      ness of not changing it too frequently.

Laboratories University Network of earthquake engineering (ReLuis)

          the laboratories University network of seismic engineering (Reluis),
      founded through a conventional act signed on 17th of april of 2003, is an
      interuniversity consortium with the purpose to co-ordinate the University
      laboratories’ activity of earthquake engineering, giving scientific, organisa-
      tional, technical and financial supports to associated University and promot-
      ing their participation to scientific and technological orientated activities in
      earthquake engineering area, in accordance with national and international
      research plans in this area.
           Co-ordination action promotes the partnerships between University,
      Private University and interuniversity Centres (henceforth indicated with the
      term “University”) and between them and other research institutes and indus-
      tries and also promotes the development of seismic engineering laboratories
      according a statute through conducting knowledge generation and circulation.
      the RelUiS consortium is a scientific interlocutor of different governmental,
      regional, provincial and council agencies and of public and private institutes
      to get tangible objectives concerning vulnerability and risk evaluation and
      reduction. all the scholars belonging to the associated consortium struc-
      tures can associate and participate in Consortium activity, co-operating in
      an interdisciplinary way. the consortium has the main office in naples in
      the Dipartimento di analisi e Progettazione Strutturale at the University of
      naples “federico ii”. the consortium is a nonprofit organisation.




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            founding members are:
            •    Università degli Studi della Basilicata (Potenza) – Dipartimento di
                 Strutture, geotecnica, geologia applicata all’ingegneria
            •    Università degli Studi di napoli federico ii – Dipartimento di
                 analisi e Progettazione Strutturale
            •    Università degli Studi di Pavia – Dipartimento di meccanica Strutturale.
            Succession members:
            •    Università degli Studi di trento – Dipartimento di meccanica Strutturale.
           with DPC providing eUR 5 million of funding over the last three years,
       RelUiS has managed and carried out the main research programme for
       earthquake engineering involving 40 universities and about 1000 researchers.
       Special attention is devoted to experimental laboratory research, exploiting
       the great capabilities of the consortium. the past research programme was
       especially focused on the seismic vulnerability of buildings and bridges, the
       use of new technologies for seismic protection, the development of seismic
       prevention tools and seismic risk evaluation.
           RelUiS has provided an important scientific support in the emergency
       and post-emergency management of the abruzzo earthquake, its associated
       members being involved in the damage assessment surveys of buildings,
       infrastructures and cultural heritage, in the repair and retrofit of damaged
       schools campaign, in the technical check of repair and strengthening design
       documents of private buildings, and in the elaboration of case-studies for the
       repair and retrofit of historical centres.

EUCENTRE

           Roles and responsibilities in risk and vulnerability assessment related to
       civil protection
           the eUCentRe is a non-profit foundation of the Department of Civil
       Protection (DPC), istituto nazionale di Geofisica e vulcanologia (inGv),
       Università degli Studi di Pavia (UniPv) and istituto Universitario degli Studi
       Superiori di Pavia (iUSS). the core task of the eUCentRe is to promote
       and sustain activities on earthquake risk mitigation through:
            •    research developments;
            •    guidelines and support to code developments for decision making
                 organisations;




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          •   education and training of researchers in earthquake engineering and
              experts in the following disciplines: engineering seismology, geol-
              ogy, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering (design of new
              structures and assessment and retrofit of existing structures).
          •   consultancy activities at national and international level.
          in all projects, attention has been paid to present results in a format which
      is useful for:
          •   decision making institutions in planning emergency management;
          •   cost-benefit models which compare the cost of a retrofit measure
              with the benefit in terms of risk reduction;
          •   evaluation of secondary effects deriving from the damage produced
              by an earthquake.
           all the research and consultancy activities of the eUCentRe, which has
      a personnel of 104 persons, is organised in sections with groups experts in the
      various disciplines of earthquake engineering. the eUCentRe co-operates
      directly with DPC, almost 50% of the eUCentRe’s activities are related
      to civil protection, and organisations such as the municipalities, regions
      and prefectures in order to provide information on the definition of seismic
      input, the vulnerability of structures and infrastructures and, in general, of
      all the ingredients that enable a mathematical quantification of seismic risk.
      furthermore, the eUCentRe interacts with private organisations especially
      through the eUCentRe laboratory, which carries out experimental tests to
      prove and qualify the seismic performance of industrial products.
          the eUCentRe’s link with DPC and other decision-making organisa-
      tions is deeply related with its institutional activities. on the other hand, in
      order to specify how eUCentRe is linked with private organisations, very
      often the clients become members of the Professional Partnership Scheme.
           the first italian Code which has foreseen the need to monitor seismic risk
      is the “ordinanza del Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri no 3274” (oPCm
      no 3274, 2003). this regulation required a programme to be undertaken to
      check the seismic performance of structures relevant for the civil protection
      (e.g. hospitals, fire stations, etc.) or in terms of consequences of a disaster
      (e.g. schools, theatres, etc.). Since then, italian decision making organisations
      such as the regions have activated several programmes which have involved
      the eUCentRe. the main projects are listed in the following:




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       Closed projects:
            •    lombardy region: evaluation of seismic risk for the hospitals of the
                 lombardy district in italy;
            •    RmS: Definition of probabilistic distribution of response parameters
                 (i.e. displacement capacity and base shear resistance) for building
                 structural typologies typical of the “as built” in italy;
            •    DPC-inGv: Support for the improvements in the prediction of seis-
                 mic hazard maps of displacements and accelerations of italy;
            •    fP6-leSSloSS: Risk mitigation for earthquakes and landslides.
                 eucentre has acted as co-ordinator of the european project which
                 had 46 partners.

       Active projects:
            •    Prefecture of Siracusa: assessment of the seismic risk of the
                 industrial area of Priolo Gargallo;
            •    airplane: Seismic risk maps of italy;
            •    DPC-Reluis 2: Study of the seismic behaviour of RC buildings with
                 infill walls;
            •    miUR-fiRB: evaluation and mitigation of the seismic risk of large
                 infrastructures;
            •    DPC-Pe 7: adaptive pushover analyses;
            •    Region of Calabria: evaluation of seismic risk of structure and
                 infrastructures.

       Planned projects:
            •    DPC – eUCentRe 2008-2011: Seismic Risk of Residential
                 Buildings in italy at a national scale
            •    DPC – eUCentRe 2008-2011: application of a methodology
                 for Defining Priorities and timescales for Seismic intervention in
                 School Buildings in italy
            •    DPC – eUCentRe 2008-2011: Seismic Risk of the Road networks
                 in italy at a national Scale
            •    Region of Sicily: evaluation of seismic risk of large industrial estates
                 in Sicily




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                                               Annex E

                                      List of interviewees

           in the course of the study visits and interviews, the Review team met
       with representatives of:


       the italian Department of Civil Protection              the Region of Sicily
         (DPC)
                                                               the armed forces/italian Joint
       the national functional Centre (nfC)                      operations headquarters of the
                                                                 Defence (Coi)
       the national operational Room (SSi)
                                                               the State Railway Company (Rfi)
       the Rai Radiotelevisione italiana (Rai)
                                                               telecom italia
       the Radio Channel isoradio
                                                               the City of naples
       the national fire Brigade Corps
                                                               the Prefecture of naples
       the Central fire Station of Rome
                                                               the Regional functional Centre of
       the State forest Corps
                                                                 Campania
       the istituto nazionale di Geofisica e
                                                               the municipality of Portici
         vulcanologia (inGv)
                                                               the Civil Protection of Portici
       the Prefecture of Genoa
                                                               the Civil Protection of milan
       the Region of liguria
                                                               the Region of lombardy
       the Province of Parma
                                                               the Regional functional Centre of
       the Region of emilia Romagna
                                                                 lombardy
       the agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione
                                                               the national volunteer organisation
         e l´ambiente dell´emilia-Romagna
                                                                 Corpo degli alpini
         (aRPa),
                                                               the eUCentRe in Pavia
       the hydro-meteo-Climate Service of
         aRPa emilia-Romagna (SimC)                            the Province of Pavia


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Review of the italian national Civil PRoteCtion SyStem – © oeCD 2010
OECD PUBLISHING, 2, rue André-Pascal, 75775 PARIS CEDEX 16
                     PRINTED IN FRANCE
  (03 2010 02 1 P) ISBN 978-92-64-08219-9 – No. 57349 2010
OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies
iTALY
REviEw Of ThE iTALiAn nATiOnAL CiviL PROTECTiOn sYsTEM
When a disaster strikes, time is of the essence to save lives and limit potentially enormous
disruption to economic activities. Is Italy prepared for the next major natural disaster? This
OECD review of risk management policies focuses on the Italian civil protection system and
its means to prepare for and react to earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, landslides and even
volcanoes. The Italian National Civil Protection Service can rapidly mobilise operational
resources for emergency management and recovery both at home, throughout Europe and
around the world. Its components constantly research known hazards to better understand
and model vulnerabilities, while technical experts co-operate in real time to monitor events
as they unfold and operate the early warning systems. These professionals are supported
by a highly organised and motivated volunteer service unseen elsewhere in OECD countries.
What makes these many parts of the civil protection system work as one effective whole,
however, is its governance structure under the direct authority of the Italian Prime Minister.
Recent years have seen a steep increase in the frequency and economic impacts of
disasters, and Italy has been no exception. In addition to increased seasonal variance linked
to climate change, the devastating earthquakes around L’Aquilla in 2009 make Italy a case
study for policy-makers, emergency management practitioners, academics and international
organisations who are searching for solutions, notably in the areas of disaster damage
reduction policies. The Italian civil protection system offers a rich source of best practices
for their consideration. The National Department of Civil Protection in particular, as the hub
of the National Civil Protection Service, provides a model of professionalism and leadership.
The review report also identifies many challenges facing the Italian civil protection system
and areas where improvements are still needed.
This review was carried out within the framework of the OECD Futures Project on Risk
Management Policies.




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