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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY diarrhoea

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					                              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


       The present repeat comparison study was carried out to evaluate the health
benefits of Swajal Project being implemented in various districts of UP. The study was
conducted in two districts of UP viz. Banda and Jhansi out of 9 districts covered under
the Swajal project. The study was conducted only in those villages where the baseline
study was done. The main objective of the present study was to assess the impact of
the Swajal project on the health and hygiene practices of people and reduction in the
incidence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years.       Apart from Swajal villages, their
control villages (Non-swajal) also were studied for the comparison purposes which were
about 5 km. apart from the Swajal villages. The informations were collected on pre-
tested questionnaires almost same as in the baseline.


    The analyses of data collected revealed that there was reasonable increase in the
health and hygiene practices particularly in terms of use of safe drinking water, hand
washing practices, use of sanitary latrines etc in the Swajal villages as compared to
Non-swajal villages in repeat study when compared with baseline. It was also observed
that there was a decrease in the incidence of diarrhoea in the Swajal villages when
compared from baseline to repeat study.           The study has lead to the following
observations:
1. Water supply and Sanitation

   The availability of handpumps was 6.1 per 100 households in the repeat study as
    compared to baseline where it was only 4.0 per 100 households in the Swajal
    villages. It showed only a marginal increase in the Non-swajal villages.

   There was reasonable increase in the availability of private latrines in Swajal villages
    which from a baseline of 11.3 percent increased to 13.3 per 100 households in
    repeat study.

   The use of sanitary latrines significantly increased (repeat=28.3% and
    baseline=21.5%) in families of Swajal villages in the repeat study as compared to
    Non-swajal villages.

   The system of refuse disposal such as garbage pit increased to 28.7 per 100
    households from a baseline of 25.4 per 100 households. The waste water drainage
    (repeat=0.4 and baseline =0.2 per 100 households) was also found to be improved in
    the Swajal villages.




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2. Water Handling Practices


   The practice of storing of water in containers in the swajal villages which was 92.9
    percent in baseline reached to maximum (100 %) in the repeat study. In the Non-
    swajal villages, this increase was only from 85.3 percent in baseline to 88.5 percent
    in the repeat study.

   The practice of covering water container was found 97.5 percent in the repeat study
    from a baseline of 80.7 percent in the Swajal villages as compared with Non-swajal
    villages.

   The practice of taking water from container hygienically was found to be
    significantly improved in the repeat study in the Swajal villages (91.8%) from
    baseline (87.3%) in comparison to Non-swajal villages.

   The practice of daily cleaning of water container increased to 95.6 percent in repeat
    study from a baseline of 86.2 percent in the Swajal villages compared to the Non-
    swajal villages.



3. Health and Hygiene Practices



   The practices of hand washing before meals was observed to be significantly
    increased in the families of Swajal villages (36.5%) in repeat study from a baseline of
    21.6 percent in comparison to Non-swajal villages.

   The practice of hand washing after defaecation (repeat=72.3% and baseline=29.4%)
    and after cleaning infant’s faeces (repeat=81.8% and baseline=36.8%) were also
    significantly increased in the families of Swajal villages in the repeat study from
    baseline as compared to Non-swajal villages.


4. Knowledge about Diarrhoea and its Control



   The knowledge about diarrhoea (repeat=96.2% and baseline=63.8%) and its causes
    (repeat=82.4% and baseline=50.9%) increased in the families of Swajal villages in
    repeat study from baseline as compared to Non-swajal villages.

   The knowledge about management of diarrhoea such as giving more fluids
    (repeat=49.1% and baseline=14.7%), more food (repeat=99.4% and baseline=91.1%)
    and continuing breast feeding (repeat=91.2% and baseline=77.0%) during diarrhoea
    was significantly improved in the families of Swajal villages in repeat study from
    baseline as compared to Non-swajal villages.




                                                                                              iv
   The incidence of diarrhoea decreased to 7.4 percent in the Swajal villages in repeat
    study from a baseline of 13.6 percent as compared to Non-swajal villages
    (repeat=9.0% and baseline=9.8%).


1. Diarrhoea – Incidence, Duration and Severity


   The duration of diarrhoea was more reduced in the children of Swajal villages in
    repeat study (3.46+1.41) from baseline (4.07+2.77) as compared to Non-swajal
    villages.

   The incidence of diarrhoea came down significantly in the children of Swajal villages
    whose families were using drinking water from Tap/handpumps in repeat study
    (6.0%) compared with baseline (6.6%) in comparison to those who were using from
    Well/natural water.

   The incidence of diarrhoea decreased in the children of Swajal villages whose
    families were storing the drinking water in the container (repeat=7.5% and
    baseline=13.4%).
    The incidence of diarrhoea was found decreased in the children of Swajal villages
    whose families were covering water container (7.1%) in the repeat study from
    baseline (12.4%) as compared to Non-swajal villages.

   The incidence of diarrhoea in the children of Swajal villages came down to 4.6
    percent whose families were taking water hygienically from the container in repeat
    study from 6.7 percent in baseline when compared with Non-swajal villages.

   The incidence of diarrhoea came down to 7.3 percent in the children of Swajal
    whose families were daily cleaning water container in the repeat study from 10.0
    percent in the baseline.

   The incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the children of educated mothers (3.0%)
    than in the uneducated (9.4%) in the Swajal villages in the repeat study.

   The incidence of diarrhoea was found decreased in the children of Swajal villages
    whose families had knowledge about diarrhoea (repeat=7.3% and baseline=11.8%)
    and its causes (repeat=5.7% and baseline=10.9%) when compared with Non-swajal
    villages.

   The incidence of diarrhoea was also found decreased in the children of Swajal
    villages whose families had knowledge about prevention of diarrhoea (repeat=6.0%
    and baseline=13.6%) as compared to Non-swajal villages.

   The incidence of diarrhoea was found decreased in the children of Swajal villages
    whose families were washing hands with soap/ash before meals (repeat=5.0% and
    baseline=10.6%), after defaecation (repeat=6.1% and baseline=9.5%) and after
    cleaning of infant’s faeces (repeat=7.3% and baseline=12.3%) as compared to Non-
    swajal villages.
   The duration of diarrhoea was found decreased in the children of Swajal villages         v
    whose families had knowledge about giving more fluids (repeat=2.88±1.25 and
    baseline=3.76±0.14), giving more food (repeat=3.25±1.36 and baseline=3.66±0.13)
    and continuing breast feeding (repeat=3.32±1.49 and baseline=3.51±0.16) during
    diarrhoea as compared to the Non-swajal villages.

   The duration of diarrhoea was found decreased in the children of Swajal villages
    whose mothers were educated (repeat=3.22±1.49 and baseline=3.49±0.18) than
    uneducated mothers as compared to the Non-swajal villages.


   The severity of diarrhoea in terms of number of loose motions per day was
    decreased (4.1%) in the children of Swajal villages in repeat study from the baseline
    (4.6%) as compared with Non-swajal villages.



        The results of logistic regression analysis showed that the education of mothers,
source of water supply, daily cleaning of water container, washing hand after
defaecation and knowledge about diarrhoea         were the main factors affecting the
incidence of diarrhoea.


        There has been a drop of the villages from the project over a period of one year.
This needs to be looked into and the reason thereof recorded. Besides, the performance
of certain villages has been much better as compared to others.       This needs further
exploration by means of short term focussed studies and its findings must be exploited
for better results in other villages/districts where project activities are yet to be
completed.


        In the Swajal villages, the project activities started in the year 2000 and a
baseline survey was carried out at that time. The repeat survey has been carried out
almost after a year of the start of the project. Many of the project interventions are yet
to be completed. Inspite of limited period, the project has shown its impact, however, it
is suggested that for the real impact study, the intervention period should have been
little longer.

				
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Description: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY diarrhoea