Bussiness Communication-I Assignment No.1 Prepared By: Zubair Naikzad Submitted to: S. Lateef Dallus Q1: Communication is a life blood of every organization. Discuss? Ans: Communication Is A Lifeblood Of Every Organization An organization is a group of people associated for business, Political Professional, religious, athletic, social or other purposes. Its activities require human beings to Interact and react, that is to communicate. They exchange information, ideas, plans; order needed supplies; make decisions, rules, proposals, contracts, and agreements. Communication is the “lifeblood” of every organization. There are two types of communication between organizations. 1. Internal Communication 2. External Communication 1. INTERNAL COMMUNCATION:- Internal Communication means communication between management, supervisors or employees downward, upward, and horizontal. It helps to increase job satisfaction, safety, productivity and profits and decreases absenteeism, grievances and turnover. When employees receive appropriate downward communication from management, they can be better motivated and more efficient. Upward internal communication has become increasingly significant. Many executives sincerely seek frank comments from employees in addition to the usual periodic reports. Successful managers listen closely to opinions complaints problems and suggestions, especially when these are clearly and effectively stated .As a response to increasing global competition. Some companies are developing new management styles, which make input from employees an integral part of important decision affecting the company. Effective horizontal communication peer is also essential in organizations in order to solve problems, perform job duties, prepare for meetings, and cooperate on important projects. 2. EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION:- External communication is the effective communication to people outside the organization to create good reputation and have a positive impact on its ultimate success. The right letter, proposal report, telephone call, or personal conversation can win back a disgruntled customer, create a desire for a firm’s product or service, help negotiate a profitable sale, encourage collection motivate performance and create goodwill. Communications to the public regarding social accountability have become significantly more important during the past two decades. Because of demands by many special interest groups (labor unions, environmental media, government agencies, political action committees, and others,), the media, business organization and political groups are seriously concerned about enhancing their public image. Q. 2) what are the importance and benefits of the effective communication? Ans: IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION The ability to communication well has always provided advantages to those who process it. Communication has a rich history, and its traditions can still be seen in modern-day communication concepts. 1. ANCIENT HERITAGE FOR COMMUNICATIONS PRINCIPLES The ancient world, both the East and the West, depended heavily on oral communication. For example, in ancient Greece and Rome, it was necessary to communicative well on one’s feet when dealing with matters in government assemblies and the low courts. 2. COMMUNICATION IS LIFEBLOOD OF EVERY ORGANIZATION An organization is a group of people associated for business, political professional, religious, athletic, social, or other purposes. Its activities require human beings to interact and react, that is to communicative. They exchange information, ideas, plans; order needed supplies; make decisions, rules proposals, contracts, and agreements. Communications is the “lifeblood” of every organization. There are two types of communication between organizations. • Internal Communication • External Communication INTERNAL COMMUNICATION Internal Communication means communication between management, supervisors or employees downward, upward, and horizontal. It helps to increase job satisfaction, safety, productivity and profits and decreases absenteeism, grievances and turnover. EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION External communication is the effective communication to people outside the organization to create good reputation and have a positive impact on its ultimate success. The right letter, proposal report, telephone call, or personal conversation can win back a disgruntled customer, create a desire for a firm’s product or service, help negotiate a profitable sale, encourage collection motivate performance and create goodwill. BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMMUNICATION 1. A VALUABLE JOB REQUIREMENT Nowadays, Strong communication skills are required in every field of organization. If career requires mainly mental rather than manual labor, your progress will be strongly influenced by how effectively you communicative your knowledge, proposals, and ideas to others who need or should receive them. Communication is a primary responsibility in many careers such as customer relations, labor relations, marketing, personnel, public relations, sale, and teaching. Also and scientific fields need editors, producers, researchers, and writers. Advancement can be made to management, research, training, and consulting positions. 2. AN ESSENTIAL FOR PROMOTION The prime requisite of a promotable executive is “ability to communicate”. Members of management spend 60 to 90 percent of their working days communicating – speaking, writing, and listening. Over the past 40 years, many surveys and articles have confirmed the idea that effective communication is essential for success and promotion in business. Q3: Explain the eight C’s of effective communication? Ans: To compose effective written or oral messages, one should must know and apply the Eight Cs, communication principles which are below one by one. 1. COMPLETENESS Your Business message is complete when it contains all facts the readers or listener needs for the reaction you desire. Completeness offers numerous benefits. First, complete message are more likely to drink the desired results without the expense of additional messages, second they can do a better job of building goodwill. Messages that contain information the receivers needs shoe concern for others. Third, complete messages can help avert costly lawsuits that may result if important information is missing last, communications that seem inconsequential can be surprisingly important if the information they contain is complete and effective. As you strive for completeness, keep the following guidelines in mind: • Provide all necessary information: Answering the five w’s helps make message clear: who, what, when, where, and why • Answer all questions asked: look for questions: some may even apear buried with in a paragraph. Locate them and then answer precisely • Give something extra, when desirable: Use your judgment in offering additional material if the sender’s message was incomplete 2. CONCISENESS Conciseness is saying what you have to say in the fewest possible words without sacrificing the other C qualities. A concise message is complete without being wordy. Conciseness is a prerequisite to effective business communication. A conciseness messages saves time and expense for both sender and receiver. Conciseness contributes to emphasis; by eliminating unnecessary words. Concise messages show respect for recipients by not cluttering their professional lives with unnecessary information. To achieve conciseness, observe the following suggestions: • Eliminate wordy expressions: Use single-word substitute instead of phrases whenever possible without changing, Omit unnecessary expressions, and Avoid overusing empty phrases, omit “which” and “that” Clauses whenever possible. • Include only relevant material: Concise message should omit not only unnecessarily wordy expression but also irrelevant statements. • Avoid unnecessary repetition: use of the abbreviations, pronouns, and cut out all needless repetition of phrases and sentences. 3. CONSIDERATION Consideration means preparing every message with the message receiver as in mind try to put your self in their place: you are considerate, you do not lose your temper, you do not accuse, and you do not charge them without facts. You are foremost, aware of their desires, problems, circumstances, emotions, and probable reactions to your request. In a broad but true sense, consideration underlies the other six C’s of good business communication. You adapt your language and message content to your receivers needs when you make your message complete. Three specific ways it indicate consideration are: • Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “We”: Using “you” does help project a you attitude. But overuse can lead to a negative reaction. • Shoe audience benefit or interest in the receiver: Readers may react positively when benefits are shown them. • Emphasize positive, pleasant facts: By using positive words, readers will react more favorably. 4. CONCRETENESS Concreteness means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general. Often it means using denotative (direct, explicit, often dictionary-based) rather than connotative words (ideas or notions suggested by or associated with a word or phrase). Thus the term female may appear in personnel folder as a part of a job description, yet widely different connotations may occur when using terms as wife, mother, spinster, widow, maiden, matron, or dowager. Each of these latter terms also refers to female but with wide-ranging associations. The following guidelines should help you compose concrete, convincing messages: • Use specific facts and figures: Use an exact precise statement or a figure in place of a general word to make your message more concrete. • Put action in your verbs: Use active rather than passive verbs and put action in your verbs rather than in nouns and infinitives. • Choose vivid, image-building words: Business writing uses less figurative language than does the world of fiction. 5. COMPARISONS Comparisons can make an unclear idea clear or make an idea more vivid. Compare the bland images in the left column with those in the right column: Bland Image More Vivid Image Proposals submitted this quarter were Too many simple sentences, too many uninteresting. simplistic ideas gave the impression of the writing of a first year student. This is a long letter. This letter is three times as long as you said it would be. To achieve comparison, observe the suggestion: • Figurative language: Use figures of speech with caution. When used sparingly they do make an idea more vivid. 6. CLARITY Getting the meaning from your head into the head of your reader—accurately— is a purpose of clarity we all carry around our own unique interpretations, experiences associated with words. To achieve clarity, observe the following suggestion: • Choose precise, concrete and familiar words: When in doubt, use more familiar towards; audiences will understand them better. • Construct effective sentences and paragraphs: Limit average sentence length to 17 to 20 words, insert no more than one main idea into a sentence and arrange the words so that the main idea occurs early in the sentence. 7. Correctness Correctness is the proper use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling. The term correctness, as applied to business messages also means the following three characteristics: • Use the right level of language: Informal writing is more characteristic of business writing –even more so if that writing in an Email message. • Check accuracy of figures, facts, and words: A good check of your data is to have another person read and comment on the validity of the material. • Maintain acceptable writing mechanics: Apply the principle of accepted mechanics to your writing. 8. Confidence Confidence is the belief in your own ability to do things successfully. As you strive for Confidence, keep the following guidelines in mind: • Make eye contact • Look pleasant as you speak • Watch your posture • Use a lot of gestures Q4: Comparative Repot on a Current Periodical. Apply two or more of the Eight C’s discussed in the chapter as critical for evaluating a story from popular magazine. Kathryn Simmonds Letter from the Understudy Dear Malcolm, The first thing to say is I'm sorry. I know it won't be easy for you to believe after recent events, but I deeply regret the mess I've made and the embarrassment I've caused you. I've had time to turn it all over since I've been here – to be honest, there's not much else to do but ruminate once you've wandered around the market and visited the Orangutan sanctuary - so I'm writing to try and explain. It's true, Alex and I didn't have the best relationship, but I wasn't the only one in the cast who found him difficult. He's a fine actor, of course, but it wouldn't be an exaggeration to say he also has an ego the size of a small planet. As a director, you wouldn't know what it was like to be around that all the time. The way he strutted around back stage in those tights. We used to say the only reason he'd climb a balcony in real life was if he knew there'd be a reflective surface at the top. You don't know what it was like to come in and see him every evening, warming his voice, poring over his notices, practicing his Jude Law smile. I knew he'd never give me a chance. Apart from anything else, he seemed to have the constitution of a Shire horse – not so much as a runny nose, a headache Actually, my own head is pounding rather. It must be the heat. Apparently it's so hot because the rains are due, that's what one of the local children told me anyway. There are a little gang of them who like to practice their English on me. They're a welcome diversion from my thoughts. They were asking me questions this morning. 'What is your name?' 'Gavin.' 'Where do you come from?' 'London.' Then one of them, a little girl of about seven, asked me, 'What are you doing here?' I didn't have the phrase in my book for 'I've committed actual bodily harm against one of the rising stars of British theatre,' so I said I was having a holiday. 'Where is your wife?' she asked. There was a blinding shaft of sunlight between us, and the ground was wobbling with the heat. All of a sudden I felt so terribly wretched. The theatre is my wife, I thought, And now I've lost her. And I began to sob. Right there in front of them. Well, they all ran away of course in hysterics and who could blame them. But this is what I want to explain. The theatre is the only thing I've ever wanted, since I was a child myself - almost before I knew what it meant to be an actor. I don't come from a theatrical family. Mum and Dad didn't take us for a quick burst of Chekhov and a Zeffirelli double-bill; it was Bob's Full House and The Daily Mirror, so they had no idea where I got the notion from. Actually, it started with The Wizard of Oz at primary school, I was a nine year-old Tin Man and I had a costume made out of foil-covered boxes. I can still remember the song: Just to register emotion Jealousy – devotion And really feel the part. I could stay young and chipper And I'd lock it with a zipper If I only had a heart. Later on I used to sing that song to myself at castings, except it became 'If I only had a part.' So Mum and Dad helped me through drama school, even though they wanted me to get a nice safe job, something with a pension plan. My younger sister, Dianne, works in risk management and drives a convertible Golf GTI. Mum's always impressed because Dianne buys bottles of balsamic vinegar which are tied with raffia around the neck. Mum had never eaten an olive until Di introduced her to one. All I've managed to introduce her to is a feeling of vague anxiety. As I said, my parents aren't middle-class; they don't understand what we affectionately call 'The Arts'. So my motivation wasn't all self-interest, you see. I owed them. You can't have your parents carrying on the same awkward conversations for years. 'Oh yes, Gavin's still acting…Hm? No, he's done a bit of radio work though. Yes, The Archers. Yes, just the one episode. An assistant vet. He's in a play at the moment. No, we hadn't heard of it either. It's touring. Middlesbrough, we think.' At the very least you need to show them a picture, a press cutting. Something. But I knew, I knew in my heart, that I didn't lack talent. I just needed the opportunity to prove myself as the Gavin Pollard I could be; not the bit-playing, spear-carrying walk-on, but the scene-stealing, balcony-scaling leading man. The prospect of becoming one of those unemployed older actors terrified me, a lifetime spent creaking about in the shadows, gradually filling up with a sort of Jimmy Porter vitriol, hanging around in WH Smith to skim read copies of The Stage. So I decided I wouldn't, couldn't let it happen. This has all been my own doing, and I'm not laying blame at your door, but I do wonder, would this have happened if I'd had a chance sooner? Perhaps if you'd put me on for the occasional Wednesday matinee? Lets be honest, it doesn't bother a party of school children who's playing the lead, they're only there to show off in front of their mates - like that time one of them called out, 'Oi, Romeo, when you gonna give her one?' and the entire balcony erupted. But I never did get a matinee, and it was quite clear that Alex wasn't going to give way. So desperation took over. After a couple of trips to a Chinese herbalist on the Old Kent Road, and a bit of experimentation, I found something that would do the trick: short term effects with no lasting damage. I was too cautious at first, sprinkled some into his pre- performance Campari and he barely noticed, just murmured something later about indigestion (as I said, Shire horse). So next time I was more generous, and it worked like a charm. Within fifteen minutes he was complaining about stomach cramps, and soon after that he was sleeping like a baby. Of course, I felt a bit guilty, rather like a benign Macbeth, but I knew he wouldn't be seriously affected. How can I describe what it was like to stand there at last and do what I'd dreamed about all my life, to speak those lines, to move an entire audience to tears? It's true, I gave an immaculate performance, but I needed to be seen by the people who mattered - the critics. So I got a mate of mine to round up some journalists and casting agents to come and see the performance the following night. I knew the part inside out; I'd studied every subtlety and mannerism. I was ready. So imagine how I felt when Alex phoned up the next morning right as rain and ready to go back on. The critics would be turning up to see me, it was my big chance. But Alex was fighting fit. I was in a fever. I wasn't being rational, as Shakespeare has it, 'These violent delights have violent ends, and in their triumphs die, like fire and powder, which as they kiss, consume.' It was too late. I was already consumed. My entire professional life was hanging in the balance. It was a blustery afternoon, and I remember there was a child flying a kite as I walked through the park towards Alex's house. I remember watching the wind toying with the kite, hardly conscious of my body, as if I were walking through a dream. When I got there I hid behind a Clematis bush beside the front door and put the masque on that I'd filched from the props department. I didn't know when he'd be back, but he was usually at the theatre by six, so I waited. My heart was going like a train, and I was sweating – let me tell you Malcolm, it was worse, far worse than any stage fright. At five o'clock Alex rounded the corner and as he put his key in the lock I sprang out swinging the cricket bat. It was going to be a mild knock on the head, a gentle concussion, but he turned at the vital moment and pushed me back - he has very quick reactions, it must be all that fencing. There was some kind of tussle and I was sort of swinging at him with the bat, then he made a lunge for me and that's when the masque became dislodged. We stood there staring at each other for a fraction of a second, and I could see the word beginning to form in his mouth, 'Gav…' and that's when I panicked and took another swing at him. You must believe me, I didn't want to harm him seriously. Perhaps I was in shock, because the next bit is blurry, but I remember kneeling down to check his breathing, which sounded regular. There was some blood, just a little bit of a trickle around the nose, which looked a different shape, sort of squashed. I called the ambulance from a pay phone and went home. An hour or so later you rang me to say I'd be on. 'Gavin Pollard gave a charged performance,' said The Times. But I wasn't acting that night, that was the real thing. I held Juliet to me as if she were my dying career and all I could do was weep and rage. Afterwards I got on a plane and came here. It's getting dark. They'll be setting up the tables soon for dinner, and I've said all I needed to say so I'll stop now. I hope Alex is willing not to press charges, but that seems unlikely, given the circumstances – after all, who wants to swap a career as Romeo for one as Richard III? I intend to write to him, I just need to find the right words. Forgive me if I don't include a return address, I'm keeping a low profile for a little while. But then again, I suppose I'm used to anonymity. The End… Ans: Application of two or more of the Eight C’s • CONCISENESS • CLARITY • Correctness Dear Malcolm, I'm sorry. I know it isn’t easy for you to believe, but I deeply regret the mess I've made and the embarrassment I've caused you. I've had time to turn it all over since I've been here – to be honest, there's not much else to do. It's true; Alex and I didn't have the best relationship. He's a fine actor, but he also has an ego the size of a small planet. As a director, you wouldn't know what it was like to be around that all the time. I knew he'd never give me a chance. Apart from anything else, he seemed to have the constitution of a Shire horse – not so much as a runny nose, a headache. There are a little gang of children who like to practice their English on me. They were asking me questions this morning. 'What is your name?' 'Gavin.' 'Where do you come from?' 'London.' 'What are you doing here?' ‘So I said I was having a holiday. 'Where is your wife?' The theatre is my wife, I thought, And now I've lost her. And I began to sob. Well, they all ran away of course in hysterics and who could blame them. This is what I want to explain. I want to be actor from my childhood. It started with The Wizard of Oz at primary school, I was a nine year-old Tin Man and I had a costume made out of foil-covered boxes. I sang the song. Mum and Dad helped me through drama school; they wanted me to get a nice safe job, with pension plan. My younger sister, Dianne, works in risk management and drives a Golf GTI. My parents aren't middle-class; they don't understand 'The Arts'. So my motivation wasn't all self-interest. I owed them. I needed the opportunity to prove myself as the Gavin Pollard as a balcony- scaling leading man. The prospect of becoming one of those unemployed older actors who spent lifetime creaking about in the shadows. After a couple of trips to a Chinese herbalist on the Old Kent Road, and a bit of experimentation, I found something that would do the trick: short term effects with no lasting damage. I was too cautious at first, sprinkled some into his performance Campari and he barely noticed, just murmured something later about indigestion. So next time I was more generous, and it worked like a charm. Within fifteen minutes he was complaining about stomach cramps, and soon after that he was sleeping like a baby. Of course, I felt a bit guilty, rather like a benign Macbeth, but I knew he wouldn't be seriously affected. How can I describe what it was like to stand there at last and do what I'd dreamed about all my life, to speak those lines, to move an entire audience to tears? It's true, I gave an immaculate performance, but I needed to be seen by the people who mattered - the critics. Some journalists and casting agents to come and see the performance the following night. I was ready. So imagine how I felt when Alex phoned up the next morning right and ready to go back. The critics would be turning up to see me, it was my big chance. But Alex was fighting. I was in a fever. I wasn't being rational, 'These violent delights have violent ends, and in their triumphs die, like fire and powder, which as they kiss, consume.' It was too late. I was already consumed. My entire professional life was hanging in the balance. It was a blustery afternoon; I walked towards Alex's house. When I got there I hid behind a bush beside the front door. At five o'clock Alex rounded the corner and as he put his key in the lock I sprang out swinging the cricket bat. It was going to be a mild knock on the head, but he turned at the vital moment and pushed me back - he has very quick reactions. We stood there staring at each other for a fraction of a second, and I could see the word beginning to form in his mouth, 'Gav…' and that's when I panicked and took another swing at him. There was some blood, just a little bit of a trickle around the nose. I called the ambulance from a pay phone and went home. An hour or so later you rang me to say I'd be on. 'Gavin Pollard gave a charged performance,' said The Times. But I wasn't acting that night, which was the real thing. Afterwards I got on a plane and came here. It's getting dark. I hope Alex is willing not to press charges, but that seems unlikely, given the circumstances – after all, who wants to swap a career? I intend to write to him, I just need to find the right words. Forgive me if I don't include a return address. Q5: Explain the checklist of national cultural variation on page 80. Ans: NATIONAL CULTURAL VARIATION BETWEEN YOUR COUNTRY “PAKISTAN ”AND YOUR HOST COUNTRY CHINA: 1. Attitude towards Education The level of education of the middle managers in Pakistan and china is: Highest Level of education Pakistan% China% Less than high school 2.5 5.4 High school graduates 12.4 31.8 Some colleges 19.4 34.6 Undergraduate degree 65.4 27.6 Postgraduate degree 25.0 0.7 In china, the women are working with men in every field. They have equal rights. But in Pakistan, a few percent of women works in offices and others fields. Working women are not considering good. Education is free and it’s the responsibility of the government to provide the education every children. While in Pakistan, a large fund is spent on the education. But our education system is going downwards. 2. Law and Regulations There is a complete law and regulation and a complete enforcement for the law and the regulation in both China and Pakistan. In china and Pakistan, the people obey the laws and regulations from heart and don’t do anything which against culture. 3. Economics: Past history and projection Many economic changes have been occurred within the last five year in both china and Pakistan. The governments are doing many economic changes occurring which results the changes in the economic status of the humans. The governments welcomed the foreign investors to invest in their countries or do joint venture. There is a easy remove of funds between china and Pakistan. 4. Politics: Past history and projection of the future The Pakistan is a democratic country, while china is socialist. The investors outside investor is very supportive to china, but not to Pakistan because of the unstability of the government of Pakistan and its environments. 5. Religion: Homogeneity and diversity of belief structure The religion of the china is Buddhist and the religion of the Pakistan is Islam. Both countries are aware and respect the major religion beliefs that could affect business. The religion holidays affect the rhythm of conducting business. 6. Social norms: importance of family, influence of past colonial influences There is a great importance to the hierarchies of the china and Pakistan. And there are also rank order importances for participants at meeting. The business decision are made by director managers. 7. language: Use of the English and other languages used in business relationships In china, it is a necessary to have interpreter. While in Pakistan, it isn’t. The English language is understood at the oral and written level in china and Pakistan. Q6: What are the Individual Cultural variables? Ans: INDIVIDUAL CULTURAL VARIABLES: Living within that overall cultural petal is the individual person; he or she exhibits a unique lifestyle of personal habits and ethnic diversity. Within each culture, there are differences in verbal and nonverbal cues expressed through varying concepts of time, individual speech, food, acceptable dress, manners of home and at work, decision-making patterns, and other nonverbal variations. 1. Time Persons in Latin America and the Middle East treat time more casually than do Americans, who usually prefer promptness. Germans are time –precise; rarely do you wait for an appointment in Germany. In some cultures business people take afternoon naps, close shops, and postpone times for business meetings and dinner. German law specifies definite opening and closing hours for business and dictates which evening(s) retail stores may be open. Even when referring to seasons of the year, countries differ. Some speak of the rainy and dry season; American and European think of spring, summer, fall and winter. 2. Space American demand more room—buffer—between themselves and others when speaking. Most American feel uncomfortable if a stranger comes closer than 18 inches. Concepts of office space differ. In third-world countries, several people occupy the same office, even the same desk. Furniture is arranged according to alleged mystic power. In Germany, one’s door is often closed; you knock before entering the room. 3. Food In Asia, dark and light teas are national drinks. In Europe, French workers enjoy the glass of wine with lunch, often stated a stated codicil in a labor contact, Alcohol, as stated in the preceding section under “Religion” is forbidden for Buddhists, Moslems and Hindus. You can get into trouble by carrying Liquor into some countries. Cheese my be dessert in France, part of sandwich In Denmark, or hors d’oenvre in Germany. It may a good idea prior to visiting your host country to visit various ethnic restaurants in your home country. Then you will have in initial idea as to the kinds of food available: how are they served, fixed or eaten. 4. Acceptable Dress In most American Business, Males wear the business suits whereas the women wear dress and tailor suits. And in great measure that “uniform” is common thought the world. Even Eastern Europe, as it adopts more capitalistic methods. In India, wear Nehru jacket. In Singapore, a long sleeved shirts with a tie. In Middle East, long cotton coats are acceptable. It’s better to ask about the mode of dress for occasion in your host country then to risk making, an embarrassing mistake. 5. Manners Some cultural Anthropologist suggests that you observe the children in the foreign culture because by watching you learn them behavioral habits of elders. Shake your hand in Germany, hug you in Italy and d often stay in background in India. You bring a gift when visiting most homes in Europe. If you bring the flower, so then you avid the gifts of red roses in Germany and white in chrysanthemums, in France, Belgium and Japan. 6. Decision Making American is accused of being brusk; we wish to get to the point—fast. “Getting down to business” is a trait of Western culture. The Germans, Singaporean, Swiss, Dutch, and Scandinavians are similar, getting quickly to issue. In contrast, Chinese, Italians, French and British prefer more leisuring social amenities. 7. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Verbal A kind of verbal spring occurs when strangers meet. Each seeking to determine with topics are acceptable and noncontroversial. Additionally, the tone vice of one’s initial words can influence your initial reception of weather. The meeting is positive or negative. Nonverbal Facial Expressions vary across cultures. You could get the wrong Expressions when some Filipinos smile and laugh, when underneath this behavioral they are angry or, inscrutable facial expression of Japan dose not suggest disinterest, rather in unwillingness to make the people ones in a thought.
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