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									                     ZOONOSES OF FISH, AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES
     PATHOGEN              TRANSMISSION                          ANIMAL DISEASE                                     HUMAN DISEASE
Salmonella spp.           direct contact,              fish, amphibian and reptile carriers rarely       abdominal pain, acute gastroenteritis,
                           handling, and                 show any clinical disease                          bloody mucoid diarrhea, nausea, vomiting,
                           ingestion of animal          intermittent shedding                              fever
                           and/or water                                                                    meningitis, osteomyelitis, urinary tract
                          remains virulent in tap                                                          infections
                           water for 3 months                                                              increase prevalence and severity in
                           and pond water for 4                                                             immunocompromised individuals
Aeromonas spp.            puncture wounds,             ulcerative stomatitis in snakes                   wound infections, fever
                           lacerations, and             fatal hemorrhagic septicemia in snakes            diarrhea
                           ingestion                     and fish                                          septicemia if immunocompromised
                                                        common isolate of fish skin ulcers
Campylobacter spp.        handling and                 fish, amphibian, and reptile carriers rarely      diarrhea, acute gastroenteritis, nausea,
                           ingestion of animal           show any clinical disease                          vomiting, cramps, fever
                           and/or contaminated
Klebsiella spp.           direct contact,              fish and reptile carriers rarely show any         urinary tract infections, septicemia
Enterobacter spp.          handling                      clinical disease
                                                        pulmonary infections in snakes
Yersinia spp.             handling fish and            enteric “red-mouth” disease                       acute painful gastroenteritis
                           reptiles                                                                        mesenteric adenitis, nephritis, arthritis
Mycobacterium spp.        handling, puncture           affects fish and reptiles                         circumscribed cutaneous granulomatous
                           wounds, scratches            granulomatous disease affecting skin,              disease at infection site
                           and/or inhalation             subcutis, oral mucosa, lungs, liver, spleen,      immunocompromised individuals may
                                                         gonads, bones, and/or CNS (“fish tank              develop disseminated respiratory disease,
                                                         granuloma”)                                        lymphadenitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis
                                                        hemorrhages, exophthalmos, and skeletal            and/or tenosynovitis
                                                         deformities in fish
                                                        ulcerative stomatitis in snakes
Zygomycosis               inhalation, ingestion,       saprophytic fungi are common isolates             upper respiratory infections and
Phycomycosis               or inoculation with           from fish, amphibian, and reptile                  conjunctivitis may lead to meningitis
Mucormycosis               spores                        gastrointestinal tracts                           dermatitis or subcutaneous infection if
                                                        may produce upper respiratory disease              wound contamination
                                                         and pneumonia                                     gastritis or enteritis if ingested
Aspergillus spp.              direct contact,            isolated from skin, pulmonary, and                   immunocompromised patients are highly
                               inhalation                  systemic lesions of reptiles                          susceptible to disseminated disease
                                                                                                                bronchopneumonia, disseminated
                                                                                                                 infections (thyroid, brain, myocardium),
                                                                                                                 and/or hypersensitivity
Candida spp.                  direct contact,            isolated from pulmonary and hepatic                  immunocompromised patients are
                               inhalation                  lesions of reptiles and skin lesions of fish          susceptible to hematogenous spread to
                                                                                                                 eyes, kidneys, and bones
                                                                                                                white plaques on oral mucosa, skin-fold
Cryptosporidium               fecal / oral               isolated from reptiles and fish                      immunocompromised patients are highly
                                                                                                                 susceptible to severe, persistent diarrhea
Gnathostomiasis               handling or ingestion      infected fish shed infective nematode                nausea, salivation, pruritus, edema,
                               of contaminated water       larvae into water                                     urticaria, and stomach discomfort
                                                          amphibians and reptiles may be transport             larvae may migrate to other organs
                                                           hosts                                                 leading to localized inflammation and/or
                                                                                                                 specific organ disease
Mites                         direct contact with        heavy infestations on reptiles may lead to           papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions with
                               infested animal             severe anemia, lethargy, and death                    variable pruritus

Nemetz, TG and EB Shotts, Jr. 1993. Zoonotic Diseases. In: Fish Medicine. MK Stoskopf, ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp. 214-

Johnson-Delany, CA. 1996. Reptile Zoonoses and Threats to Public Health. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. DR Mader, ed. W.B. Saunders
       Company, Philadelphia. pp. 20-33.
Acha, PN and B Szyfres. 1989. Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals. 2                  Ed. Pan American Health
       Organization, Washington, D.C.

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