ZOONOSES OF FISH, AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES PATHOGEN TRANSMISSION ANIMAL DISEASE HUMAN DISEASE Salmonella spp. direct contact, fish, amphibian and reptile carriers rarely abdominal pain, acute gastroenteritis, handling, and show any clinical disease bloody mucoid diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, ingestion of animal intermittent shedding fever and/or water meningitis, osteomyelitis, urinary tract remains virulent in tap infections water for 3 months increase prevalence and severity in and pond water for 4 immunocompromised individuals months Aeromonas spp. puncture wounds, ulcerative stomatitis in snakes wound infections, fever lacerations, and fatal hemorrhagic septicemia in snakes diarrhea ingestion and fish septicemia if immunocompromised common isolate of fish skin ulcers Campylobacter spp. handling and fish, amphibian, and reptile carriers rarely diarrhea, acute gastroenteritis, nausea, ingestion of animal show any clinical disease vomiting, cramps, fever and/or contaminated water Klebsiella spp. direct contact, fish and reptile carriers rarely show any urinary tract infections, septicemia Enterobacter spp. handling clinical disease pulmonary infections in snakes Yersinia spp. handling fish and enteric “red-mouth” disease acute painful gastroenteritis reptiles mesenteric adenitis, nephritis, arthritis Mycobacterium spp. handling, puncture affects fish and reptiles circumscribed cutaneous granulomatous wounds, scratches granulomatous disease affecting skin, disease at infection site and/or inhalation subcutis, oral mucosa, lungs, liver, spleen, immunocompromised individuals may gonads, bones, and/or CNS (“fish tank develop disseminated respiratory disease, granuloma”) lymphadenitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis hemorrhages, exophthalmos, and skeletal and/or tenosynovitis deformities in fish ulcerative stomatitis in snakes Zygomycosis inhalation, ingestion, saprophytic fungi are common isolates upper respiratory infections and Phycomycosis or inoculation with from fish, amphibian, and reptile conjunctivitis may lead to meningitis Mucormycosis spores gastrointestinal tracts dermatitis or subcutaneous infection if may produce upper respiratory disease wound contamination and pneumonia gastritis or enteritis if ingested Aspergillus spp. direct contact, isolated from skin, pulmonary, and immunocompromised patients are highly inhalation systemic lesions of reptiles susceptible to disseminated disease bronchopneumonia, disseminated infections (thyroid, brain, myocardium), and/or hypersensitivity Candida spp. direct contact, isolated from pulmonary and hepatic immunocompromised patients are inhalation lesions of reptiles and skin lesions of fish susceptible to hematogenous spread to eyes, kidneys, and bones white plaques on oral mucosa, skin-fold dermatitis Cryptosporidium fecal / oral isolated from reptiles and fish immunocompromised patients are highly susceptible to severe, persistent diarrhea Gnathostomiasis handling or ingestion infected fish shed infective nematode nausea, salivation, pruritus, edema, of contaminated water larvae into water urticaria, and stomach discomfort amphibians and reptiles may be transport larvae may migrate to other organs hosts leading to localized inflammation and/or specific organ disease Mites direct contact with heavy infestations on reptiles may lead to papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions with infested animal severe anemia, lethargy, and death variable pruritus References Nemetz, TG and EB Shotts, Jr. 1993. Zoonotic Diseases. In: Fish Medicine. MK Stoskopf, ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp. 214- 20. Johnson-Delany, CA. 1996. Reptile Zoonoses and Threats to Public Health. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. DR Mader, ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp. 20-33. nd Acha, PN and B Szyfres. 1989. Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals. 2 Ed. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C.