Update on cryptogenic organising pneumonia idiopathic

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					Review article                                                           S W I S S M E D W K LY 2 0 0 2 ; 1 3 2 : 5 8 8 – 5 9 1 · w w w . s m w . c h   588
Peer reviewed article




                    Update on cryptogenic organising pneumonia
                    (idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organising
                    pneumonia)
                    Jean-François Cordier
                    Hôpital Louis Pradel, Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France



                    Summary
                         Organising pneumonia, defined by intra-               teristic clinical and imaging features and especially
                    alveolar buds of connective tissue, may be a dis-          an excellent response to corticosteroids.
                    order secondary to a determined cause (infectious               Key words: organising pneumonia; bronchiolitis
                    agents, drugs) or occurring in a specific context          obliterans organising pneumonia; idiopathic interstitial
                    (as the connective tissue disorders). It may also be       pneumonias
                    a cryptogenic interstitial pneumonia with charac-




                    Introduction
                         Organising pneumonia is characterised by the          cause called cryptogenic organising pneumonia
                    presence of buds of granulation tissue in the lumen        (COP), a terminology currently preferred to the
                    of the distal pulmonary airspaces (alveoli and alve-       other name of this condition, idiopathic bronchi-
                    olar ducts) [1]. Buds of granulation tissue may also       olitis obliterans with organising pneumonia
                    be present in the bronchiolar lumen (bronchiolitis         (BOOP).
                    obliterans). Although this pathological pattern                 COP was recognised as a distinct disorder with
                    may be encountered in a variety of inflammatory            characteristic features in the 1980s [2–5], and is
                    pulmonary disorders, it is the hallmark of the char-       now accepted as a rare but quite characteristic clin-
                    acteristic clinico-radiological entity of unknown          icopathologic entity in pulmonary medicine.




                    Clinical description
                    Clinical manifestations [3–9]                              acteristic in typical cases, and thus strongly suggest
                        Men and women are equally affected and are             the diagnosis when consisting of multiple patchy
                    usually aged between 50 and 60 years.                      alveolar opacities with a peripheral and bilateral
                        The onset of symptoms (fever, nonproductive            distribution. The size of the opacities varies from
                    cough, malaise, anorexia and weight loss) is usually       a few centimeters to a whole lobe, and their den-
                    subacute. Haemoptysis, bronchorrhea, chest pain,           sity from ground glass to consolidation with an air
                    arthralgia and night sweats are uncommon. Dys-             bronchogram.
                    pnea is usually mild. Symptoms develop over a few               Other less characteristic imaging patterns
                    weeks (sometimes after a viral-like illness). At           consist of either diffuse bilateral infiltrative opac-
                    physical examination sparse crackles may be pres-          ities associating both interstitial opacities and
                    ent. The diagnosis of COP is usually made only             small alveolar opacities, or solitary focal lesions di-
                    after 6 to 10 weeks, especially after the patient does     agnosed at pathological examination of specimen
                    not improve with antibiotics given for a possible          excised in the suspicion of lung carcinoma.
                    infectious pneumonia.
                                                                               Lung function tests [3, 10, 11, 14]
                    Imaging [2–6, 8, 10–13]                                         Patients with COP usually have a mild or
                        There are three main types of imaging profiles         moderate restrictive ventilatory defect. Airflow
                    of COP.                                                    obstruction may be present in smokers. The trans-
                        The imaging features of COP are very char-             fer factor for carbon monoxide is reduced. Mild
                                                                           S W I S S M E D W K LY 2 0 0 2 ; 1 3 2 : 5 8 8 – 5 9 1 · w w w . s m w . c h   589

                       hypoxaemia at rest and/or on exercise is common.          and particularly infections (as Pneumocystis carinii
                       Hypoxaemia is occasionally severe but is not a            pneumonia). The differential white cell count in
                       characteristic feature of COP (in contrast with the       COP may show a characteristic “mixed pattern”
                       usual airflow obstruction observed in patients with       with increased lymphocytes (20–40%), neu-
                       constrictive bronchiolitis especially after lung          trophils (about 10%), eosinophils and sometimes
                       transplant or bone marrow graft).                         the presence of some plasma cells or mast cells [3,
                                                                                 8, 15].
                       Bronchoalveolar lavage and laboratory                         The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-re-
                       findings                                                  active protein level are increased, and there is a
                           Broncholveolar lavage helps especially to             moderate leucocytosis at blood cell count, with an
                       identify possible causes of organising pneumonia          increased proportion of neutrophils.




                       Diagnosis of cryptogenic organising pneumonia
                            The diagnosis of COP requires both typical           out any possible cause of organising pneumonia
                       pathological and clinicoradiological features (al-        (and especially infection using special stains).
                       lowing the diagnosis of organising pneumonia),                Video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy is
                       and the lack of any recognised cause or significant       now the best technique for obtaining the large lung
                       associated disorder.                                      specimens necessary to make the diagnosis of COP
                            Lung biopsy specimens show intra-alveolar            with confidence. Transbronchial lung biopsy may
                       buds of granulation tissue consisting of fibroblasts,     show organising pneumonia but does not allow the
                       myofibroblasts, and loose connective tissue. Bron-        exclusion of associated disorders. Diagnosing or-
                       chiolar lesions (when present) consist of similar         ganising pneumonia by transbronchial biopsy is
                       buds of granulation tissue inside the airway lumen        acceptable in quite typical cases, but careful fol-
                       [1, 16, 17]. Organising pneumonia is the most con-        low-up is necessary in order to prompt a surgical
                       spicuous pathological feature in COP, and not just        biopsy if the evolution under treatment is unusual.
                       a minor associated lesion as seen in other condi-             The diagnosis of COP seems to be increas-
                       tions like vasculitis (especially Wegener’s granulo-      ingly made without biopsy in clinical practice. This
                       matosis), eosinophilic pneumonia, hypersensitiv-          may be risky since other disorders like primary pul-
                       ity pneumonitis, or nonspecific interstitial pneu-        monary lymphomas may mimic COP on imaging.
                       monia. Careful examination is necessary to rule




                       Differential diagnosis of cryptogenic organising pneumonia
Table 1                Bacteria                                                       Once the diagnosis is proven histopathologi-
Infectious causes of   Chlamydia pneumoniae                                      cally, organising pneumonia is further called cryp-
organising pneumo-
nia (adapted from      Coxiella burnetii
                                                                                 togenic only in cases where no determined cause
reference [21]).                                                                 is found, and where no specific context is present
                       Legionella pneumophila
                                                                                 in association with organising pneumonia.
                       Mycoplasma pneumoniae
                       Nocardia asteroides                                       Organising pneumonia of determined cause
                       Pseudomonas aeruginosa                                         Several types of infection may cause organis-
                       Serratia marcescens                                       ing pneumonia (table 1), when the inflammatory
                       Staphylococcus aureus                                     process remains active with further organisation of
                                                                                 the intra-alveolar fibrinous exudate, despite con-
                       Streptococcus pneumoniae
                                                                                 trol of the infectious organism by antibiotics.
                       Viruses
                                                                                      Drugs may also cause organising pneumonia
                       Herpes virus                                              (table 2). Resolution of organising pneumonia typ-
                       Human immunodeficiency virus                              ically occurs after stopping the drug.
                       Influenza virus                                                A syndrome quite similar to cryptogenic or-
                       Parainfluenza virus                                       ganising pneumonia may develop in women re-
                                                                                 ceiving radiation therapy to the breast for cancer
                       Parasites
                                                                                 [18–20]. In contrast with usual radiation pneu-
                       Plasmodium vivax
                                                                                 monitis, pulmonary infiltrates occur or migrate
                       Fungi                                                     outside of the radiation field and regress with cor-
                       Cryptococcus neoformans                                   ticosteroids without sequelae.
                       Penicillium janthinellum
                       Pneumocystis carinii (in AIDS)
Update on cryptogenic organising pneumonia                                                                                      590

Table 2                 5-aminosalicylic acid                                  Organising pneumonia of unknown cause
Drugs identified as     Acebutolol                                             occurring in a specific context [21]
cause of organising                                                                Organising pneumonia may occur in associa-
pneumonia (adapted      Acramin FWN
from reference [21]).                                                          tion with inflammatory and/or systemic disorders,
                        Amiodarone
                                                                               especially the connective tissue disorders as the id-
                        Amphotericine                                          iopathic inflammatory myopathies syndrome. Or-
                        Bleomycin                                              ganising pneumonia also occurs in rheumatoid
                        Busulphan                                              arthritis and Sjögren’s syndrome.
                        Carbamazepine
                        Cocaine
                                                                               Disorders mimicking organising pneumonia
                                                                                   The main disorders resembling the typical im-
                        Fluoxetine
                                                                               aging features of COP (patchy alveolar opacities
                        Gold salts
                                                                               with air bronchogram) consist mainly of the low
                        Interferon alpha                                       grade pulmonary lymphomas and bronchioloalve-
                        Interferon beta-1a                                     olar carcinoma. These must be carefully excluded,
                        L-tryptophan                                           especially primary pulmonary lymphomas which
                        Mesalazine
                                                                               may initially markedly improve with corticosteroid
                                                                               treatment.
                        Minocycline
                        Nilutamide
                        Paraquat
                        Phenytoin
                        Sotalol
                        Sulfasalazine
                        Ticlopidine




                        Treatment of organising pneumonia
                            Corticosteroids are the current standard treat-    COP have been occasionally reported [24, 25].
                        ment of COP [9, 11, 21], although spontaneous          Such cases may more likely represent acute inter-
                        improvement and slow improvement after pro-            stitial pneumonia or organising acute respiratory
                        longed treatment with erythromycin have been re-       distress syndrome (ARDS). Some patients with se-
                        ported. Clinical manifestations improve within 48      vere disease requiring assisted ventilation may im-
                        hours with corticosteroids. Radiographic pul-          prove completely with corticosteroids. Factors re-
                        monary infiltrates usually disappear within a few      ported to be associated with a poor outcome in
                        weeks.                                                 COP include a predominantly interstitial pattern
                            In patients with typical COP we start with a       on imaging, lack of lymphocytosis at BAL differ-
                        dose of about 0.75 mg/kg/day. After 2 to 4 weeks,      ential cell count, associated disorders [23], and a
                        the dose is gradually tapered. Relapses occur fre-     finding on histology of scarring and remodelling
                        quently as the dose of corticosteroids is reduced or   of the lung parenchyma in addition to organising
                        after stopping treatment [22]. The final outcome       pneumonia [26].
                        is not significantly affected by the occurrence of          Cytotoxic drugs (cyclophosphamide, azathio-
                        relapses [22]. The duration of treatment is usually    prine), occasionally used to treat COP [24, 27, 28],
                        between 6 and 12 months, but some patients have        have not been evaluated. Cyclophosphamide may
                        successive relapses and require treatment for much     be used only exceptionally in severely ill patients
                        longer.                                                who do not improve with corticosteroid treatment
                            The prognosis in typical COP is excellent in       within a few days and in patients who fail to im-
                        the vast majority of patients treated with corticos-   prove despite a prolonged course of corticos-
                        teroids [21–23].                                       teroids.
                            Patients with severe and rapidly progressive
                                                                  S W I S S M E D W K LY 2 0 0 2 ; 1 3 2 : 5 8 8 – 5 9 1 · w w w . s m w . c h   591


Conclusion
    COP is now a rare but well-recognised entity,                             Correspondence:
with characteristic clinical and radiological fea-                            Professor J. F. Cordier
tures and pathological diagnostic criteria.                                   Service de Pneumologie
    Whether the cause of COP is unique or                                     Hôpital Louis Pradel
whether it is the common inflammatory denomi-                                 BP Lyon Montchat
nator of several distinct triggers is not known.                              F-69394 Lyon Cedex, France
    Corticosteroid treatment is very effective, but                           E-Mail: germop@univ-lyon1.fr
the dose and length of treatment have not been
clearly established. Some patients are probably
overtreated whereas others would benefit from
longer treatment.




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Description: Update on cryptogenic organising pneumonia idiopathic