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Chapter 1: Dairy and beef production systems in     Chapter 14: Disorders of the skin
    Australia and New Zealand                       JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson
CW Holmes, C Grainger, PMV Cusack, ST Morris

                                                    Chapter 15: Ectoparasites
Chapter 2: Clinical examination                     JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson
J Malmo, JJ Vermunt, TJ Parkinson

                                                    Chapter 16: Disorders of the head
Chapter 3: Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
                                                    TJ Parkinson, JJ Vermunt, J Malmo
J Malmo, JJ Vermunt, TJ Parkinson

Chapter 4: Diseases causing diarrhoea               Chapter 17: Calves: management and diseases
TJ Parkinson, JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, N Anderson       TJ Parkinson, JJ Vermunt, J Malmo

Chapter 5: Respiratory conditions                   Chapter 18: Lameness: causes and management
JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson                   JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson

Chapter 6: Disorders of the cardiovascular system   Chapter 19: Diseases of cattle in tropical regions of
JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson                       Australia
                                                    WP Tranter, J Malmo, JJ Vermunt, TJ Parkinson

Chapter 7: Diseases of the hepatobiliary system
JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson
                                                    Chapter 20: Exotic diseases
                                                    MJ Nunn, JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson
Chapter 8: Diseases of the urinary tract
JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson
                                                    Chapter 21: Genetic diseases of cattle
                                                    RD Jolly, PA Windsor
Chapter 9: Neurological disease
RA Laven, J Malmo, JJ Vermunt, TJ Parkinson
                                                    Chapter 22: Raising young stock well
                                                    JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson
Chapter 10: Mastitis
J Malmo, JJ Vermunt, TJ Parkinson, KR Petrovski
                                                    Chapter 23: Causes of sudden death
                                                    JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson
Chapter 11: Reproduction and disorders of the
    reproductive system
TJ Parkinson, JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, JF Weston
                                                    Chapter 24: Miscellaneous disorders
                                                    JJ Vermunt, J Malmo, TJ Parkinson
Chapter 12: Metabolic disorders
J Malmo, JJ Vermunt, TJ Parkinson
                                                    Chapter 25: Practical therapeutics for the cattle
Chapter 13: Trace elements and vitamin nutrition    J Malmo, JJ Vermunt, TJ Parkinson
CT Westwood, IJ Lean

                                                                                         CHAPTERS       v
Foreword                                                iii    Chapter 3: Diseases of the gastrointestinal
Contributors                                            iv       tract
Chapters                                                v
                                                                  Examination of the gastrointestinal tract         75
Contents                                                vii
                                                                    Percussion, auscultation and ballottement       75
Preface                                                 xii
                                                                    Collection and assessment of rumen contents     76
Acknowledgements                                        xiii
                                                                  Disorders of the forestomachs                     80
About the principal authors                             xiv
                                                                    Rumen acidosis                                  80
Contributors of illustrations                           xv
                                                                    Rumen tympany (bloat)                           85
List of acronyms and abbreviations                      xvi
                                                                    Indigestion                                     89
                                                                    Traumatic reticuloperitonitis                   90
                                                                    Vagus indigestion                               92
Chapter 1: Dairy and beef production                                Other disorders of the forestomachs             94
  systems in Australia and New Zealand                            Diseases of the abomasum                          96
                                                                    Displaced abomasum                              96
    Dairy production systems in Australia and           1
                                                                    Ulceration of the abomasum                      106
          New Zealand
                                                                    Other disorders of the abomasum                 108
      Dairying in Australia and New Zealand             1
                                                                  Disorders of the intestines not associated        109
      Dairy systems                                     5
                                                                       with enteritis
      Future dairying                                   12
                                                                    Abdominal pain in cattle                        109
    Beef production systems in Australia                14
                                                                    Disorders of the intestines                     111
      Overview of Australian Systems                    15
                                                                    Neoplasia                                       122
      Northern Australia                                16
                                                                    Other rare abdominal disorders                  122
      Southern Australia                                17
                                                                  Miscellaneous abdominal disorders                 123
      General                                           21
                                                                    Conditions involving other abdominal organs     123
    Beef production systems in New Zealand              23
                                                                    Other conditions resulting in abdominal
      Overview of New Zealand beef                      23
                                                                       distension                                   125
          production systems
      Beef production in New Zealand                    24
      Farm production levels                            25
      Issues facing the beef industry                   28     Chapter 4: Diseases causing diarrhoea
                                                                  Aetiological agents                               127
                                                                  Bacterial causes                                  129
Chapter 2: Clinical examination                                      Salmonellosis                                  129
                                                                     Yersiniosis                                    135
    Diagnosis                                           33           Clostridium perfringens                        136
       Making a diagnosis                               33           Johne’s disease (paratuberculosis)             136
       Veterinary information management                36        Viral causes                                      143
    Clinical examination of the individual animal       37           Bovine viral diarrhoea                         143
       Presentation                                     37           Malignant catarrhal fever                      151
       Complete examination                             37           Enteric leukosis                               154
       Close physical examination of the                40           Winter dysentery                               154
          standing cow                                               Rinderpest                                     154
       Diagnostic ultrasound in cattle                  51        Nematodes and cestodes                            155
    Investigating herd disease outbreaks and            54           Parasitic gastroenteritis                      155
          productivity problems                                      Other nematodes and cestodes                   172
       The aims and objectives of disease               54        Protozoan parasites                               175
          investigations                                             Coccidiosis                                    175
       Approach to the problem                          54        Conditions of organs other than the               178
       Principles of investigating a herd problem       55              gastrointestinal system that may
       When, where and why is the disease occurring?    57              present with diarrhoea
       Analysing the data and arriving at a diagnosis   58
       Reporting the findings                           59
       Summary                                          59
    Laboratory tests used in cattle practice            60     Chapter 5: Respiratory conditions
       Biochemistry                                     60        Pathophysiology of the respiratory tract          182
       Clinical haematology in cattle                   62           The respiratory tract                          182
       Acid-base balance                                68           Pneumonia                                      182
       Electrolyte imbalances                           69           Dyspnoea                                       183
    Zoonoses and cattle                                 70           Bovine respiratory disease in Australia and    184
       Introduction                                     70             New Zealand
       Specific conditions                              70           Special examination of the respiratory tract   184

                                                                                                      CONTENTS            vii
       Respiratory diseases of calves and young stock      186      Chronic hepatotoxicities                             262
          Enzootic calf pneumonia                          186      Chronic, non-fatal hepatotoxicities                  263
          Oral and laryngeal necrobacillosis               188      Chronic, fatal hepatoxicities                        264
          The Histophilus somni disease complex            189      Facial eczema                                        267
          Lungworm infection                               191      Neoplastic liver disease                             272
       Respiratory diseases primarily affecting growing    194      Other conditions affecting the liver                 272
             and adult cattle
       Respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: bovine       194
             respiratory disease complex
          Bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis                  197
                                                                 Chapter 8: Diseases of the urinary tract
             (‘shipping fever’)                                     Pathophysiology of the urinary system                273
          Other conditions                                 199         Functions of the urinary tract                    273
       Other conditions of the lungs                       207         Infections of the kidney                          274
          Interstitial pneumonias                          207         Character and distribution of nephritic lesions   274
          Tuberculosis                                     209         Principles of treating urinary tract disease      275
       Miscellaneous conditions of the respiratory tract   211      Assessment of the urinary system                     275
          Disorders of the upper airway                    211         Rectal palpation of parts of the urinary tract    275
          Other rare respiratory disorders                 213         Collection and examination of urine               275
       Systemic conditions that present with               214         Serum biochemistry                                277
             respiratory signs                                         Other tests of renal function                     278
          Anaphylaxis                                      214      Diseases of the kidney                               278
          Congestive heart failure                         215      Diseases presenting with haematuria                  281
                                                                    Diseases presenting with haemoglobinuria             283
                                                                       Leptospirosis                                     283
                                                                       Other causes of haemoglobinuria                   289
Chapter 6: Disorders of the cardiovascular                          Conditions of the bladder                            291
  system                                                               Cystitis                                          291
       Clinical examination of the cardiovascular system   216         Prolapse and eversion of the bladder              291
          Examination of the heart                         216         Other bladder conditions                          292
          Examination of the peripheral circulatory        218      Urolithiasis                                         292
             system                                                 Toxicities affecting the urinary system              296
          Assessment of the lymphatic system               220         Oak or acorn poisoning                            296
          The spleen                                       221         Oxalates                                          297
       Diseases of the heart and pericardium               221         Mercury                                           297
          Pericardium                                      221         Superphosphate poisoning                          297
          Heart                                            224
       Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs      231
          Leukosis                                         231   Chapter 9: Neurological disease
          Other retrovirus infections                      235      Causes of neurological disease                       298
          Anaemia                                          236      Special examination of the nervous system            299
       Oedema                                              241        Head                                               300
          Conditions causing localised or generalised      242        Cerebral disease                                   300
             oedema                                                   Cerebellar disease                                 300
       Miscellaneous conditions                            245        Brain stem and cranial nerves                      300
          Haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma                     245        Gait and posture                                   302
          Venous thrombosis                                246        Spinal cord and spinal reflexes                    303
          Dihydroxycoumarin (dicoumarol) toxicity          247        Peripheral nerve dysfunction                       305
                                                                      Additional tests                                   305
                                                                    Neurological diseases of neonatal calves             306
Chapter 7: Diseases of the hepatobiliary                              Congenital neurological disease                    306
                                                                      Viral causes                                       307
  system                                                              Bacterial causes                                   308
       Pathophysiology                                     248        Other causes                                       312
          Liver form and function                          248      Neurological diseases of weaned calves and           312
          Failure of liver function                        249            older cattle
          Disease processes of the liver                   251        Infectious causes                                  312
          Post-mortem evidence of grossly impaired         252        Disorders due to deficiencies                      325
             liver circulation                                        Disorders due to toxicities                        328
          Biochemical assessment of liver function         252      Other disorders causing neurological signs           339
             and damage
          Liver biopsy                                     254
       Inflammation of the liver and biliary tract         254
             (hepatitis)                                         Chapter 10: Mastitis
          Bacterial liver disease                          255      Pathogenesis                                         340
          Viral liver disease                              256      Epidemiology                                         341
          Parasitic liver disease                          256         Incidence of clinical mastitis                    341
       Hepatotoxicities                                    261         Prevalence of subclinical mastitis                341
       Acute hepatotoxicities                              261         Exposure to mastitis pathogens                    342

     Defence mechanisms of the mammary gland          343     Other congenital and acquired abnormalities         480
     Risk factors for mastitis                        346          affecting reproduction
  Economics of mastitis and mastitis control          349       Congenital abnormalities                          480
     Direct costs                                     349       Acquired lesions                                  483
     Indirect costs                                   349     Male fertility                                      484
     Production losses from mastitis                  350       Management of bulls                               484
  Detection and diagnosis of mastitis                 351       Reproductive abnormalities of bulls               488
     Monitoring mastitis at the herd level            351       Conditions of the penis                           488
     Detection of mastitis at the individual          353       Lesions of the prepuce preventing extension       494
        cow level                                                  of the penis
     Investigating a mastitis problem in a            361       Penile neoplasia                                  495
        dairy herd                                              Failure of ejaculation                            495
  Mastitis control programmes                         366       Disorders associated with fertilisation failure   496
     Minimising the number of new infections          366
        that occur
     Minimising the duration of mastitis infections   373
  Treatment of infected quarters                      375
                                                            Chapter 12: Metabolic disorders
     Pharmacological considerations                   375     The transition cow                                  503
     Antibiotics used for the treatment of mastitis   376     Disorders of energy metabolism                      506
     Specific mastitis treatments                     379       Energy metabolism in the pregnant and             506
  The major mastitides                                384           lactating cow
     Staphylococcal mastitis                          384       Energy deficiency syndromes                       510
     Streptococcal mastitis                           388     Disorders of calcium, magnesium and                 520
     Coliform mastitis                                394           phosphorus metabolism
                                                                Hypocalcaemia                                     520
     Less common causes of mastitis                   397
                                                                Disorders of magnesium metabolism                 532
     Uncommon causes of mastitis                      399
                                                                Disorders of phosphorus metabolism:               538
     Heifer mastitis                                  399
     Udder oedema                                     401
                                                                Recumbency and the downer cow syndrome            541
  Teat lesions                                        401
                                                              Metabolic imbalances                                548
     Milking machine-induced teat lesions             401
                                                                Electrolyte imbalances                            548
     Infectious causes of teat damage                 403
     Environmental injury                             406
     Dermatitis of the udder and teats                407
                                                            Chapter 13: Trace elements and vitamin
Chapter 11: Reproduction and disorders of                     Minerals in nutrition                               551
  the reproductive system                                        Classification of minerals                       551
                                                                 Trace minerals                                   551
  Management of reproduction                          414
                                                              Specific trace elements                             552
    Reproductive outcomes                             414
                                                                 Copper                                           552
    Reproductive technologies                         422
                                                                 Selenium                                         559
    Assessing herd reproductive performance           423
                                                                 Cobalt                                           564
    Pharmacological tools for managing                424
                                                                 Iodine                                           568
                                                                 Zinc                                             570
  Disorders of reproduction in the female             433
                                                                 Manganese                                        572
    Non-observed oestrus                              433        Chromium                                         573
    Cystic ovarian disease                            438     Vitamin requirements of Australasian dairy cattle   573
  Uterine infections                                  440        Fat-soluble vitamins                             573
    Metritis complex                                  440        B complex vitamins                               573
    ‘At-risk’ and repeat breeder cows                 451
    Irregular intervals to returns to service         453
  Venereal diseases                                   453
    Venereal diseases of major importance             454   Chapter 14: Disorders of the skin
    Minor venereal pathogens                          459     Common skin lesions of cattle                       577
  Embryonic and fetal loss                            461        Clinical examination of the integument           577
    Occurrence                                        461     Diseases due to infectious agents                   578
    Approach to investigation of abortions in         461        Dermatophilosis                                  578
       cattle herds                                              Other bacterial skin diseases                    580
    Bacterial infections causing abortion             464        Fungal skin diseases                             581
    Abortion due to mycoplasmas and related           468        Major viral causes of skin diseases              582
       organisms                                                 Other viral skin diseases                        584
    Viral causes of abortion                          468     Neoplastic skin disease                             585
    Protozoal causes of abortion                      471     Skin disorders due to deficiencies and toxicities   586
    Fungal causes of abortion                         474     Photosensitisation                                  588
    General infectious causes                         475     Other physical skin disorders                       590
    Non-infectious causes of embryonic loss/fetal     476     Allergic skin conditions                            591
       abortion                                               Congenital skin disorders                           592
    Fetal mummification and maceration                479     Parasitic skin conditions                           592

                                                                                                   CONTENTS             ix
Chapter 15: Ectoparasites                                           Prevention and control                            652
    Mites                                                593      Other diseases caused by bacteria                   654
       Non-burrowing mites                               593        Navel infections                                  654
       Burrowing mites                                   594        Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides               657
       Follicular mites                                  595           (Large Colony) infection
       Other mites                                       595        Fusobacterium necrophorum infection               657
    Lice                                                 596      Umbilical hernia                                    658
    Flies                                                598      Other diseases of calves                            659
       Stable flies                                      599        Respiratory diseases                              659
       The Australian bush fly                           600        Neurological diseases                             659
       Blowflies                                         600        Genetic disorders                                 659
       Midges                                            601
       Warble flies                                      601
    Tropical ectoparasites                               602   Chapter 18: Lameness: causes and
       Flies                                             602
       Screw-worm flies                                  603     management
       Ticks                                             604      Incidence and economics                             660
                                                                     The incidence of lameness                        660
                                                                     The types of lameness                            661
                                                                     The cost of lameness                             661
Chapter 16: Disorders of the head                                    The animal welfare implications of lameness      663
    Diseases and disorders of the alimentary system      608      The causes of lameness                              663
      The palate                                         608         The multifactorial concept                       663
      The incisors                                       609         Cow comfort                                      664
      The molars                                         609         Nutritional factors and lameness                 665
      Fluorosis                                          609         Genetics and lameness                            668
      Disorders of the jaw and surrounding tissues       610         Environmental influences on lameness             668
      Oral trauma, infections and foreign bodies         612            (rainfall and heat stress)
      Choke                                              615         Other factors and lameness                       668
      Oral vesicles and erosions                         615      Examination of the lame cow                         669
    Diseases and disorders of the respiratory tract      615         Restraint and handling facilities                669
      Nasal foreign bodies                               616         Examination of the individual lame cow           671
      Abscesses and infections                           616         Anaesthesia of the bovine digit                  672
      Miscellaneous conditions                           616      Examination of herd lameness                        674
    Conditions of the eye                                616         Climate                                          675
      Infectious conditions                              616         Locomotion scoring                               675
      Squamous cell carcinoma (cancer eye)               620      Lower limb lameness                                 675
      Other lesions of the eyes                          624         Conditions of the digital skin and subcutis      675
    Conditions of the ear                                625            (dermis)
      Otitis externa                                     625         Conditions of the horn and sensitive laminae     681
      Otitis media                                       625         Conditions of the deep structures of the digit   692
    Miscellaneous conditions                             626         Treatment of lower limb lameness                 694
      Neoplasia                                          626      Upper limb lameness                                 701
      Facial paralysis                                   626         Conditions affecting the pelvis and hip          701
      In-grown horn                                      626         Conditions affecting other parts of the limb     703
                                                                     Wounds                                           708
                                                                     Conditions affecting the axial skeleton          709
                                                                  Peripheral nerve injuries                           709
Chapter 17: Calves: management and                                Control and prevention of lameness                  713
  diseases                                                           Farm tracks                                      714
    Calf management                                      627         Effects of management on cow behaviour           715
       Feeding                                           627            and lameness
       Housing                                           633         Nutritional effects                              716
       Acquisition of calves for calf-rearing units      634         Genetic effects                                  717
       Bobby calves                                      635         Additional measures to reduce the impact         717
    Clinical examination of the calf                     636            of lameness
    Diseases of the gastrointestinal system associated   637      Transport of lame cows for slaughter                717
          with abdominal distension
       Left-sided abdominal distension                   637
       Right-sided abdominal distension                  638
       Bilateral abdominal distension                    639   Chapter 19: Diseases of cattle in tropical
    Undifferentiated neonatal diarrhoea                  640     regions of Australia
       Aetiology and pathogenesis                        640      Infectious diseases                                 721
       Consequences of diarrhoea                         643         Blood parasites                                  721
       History, presenting signs, clinical signs and     644         Viral diseases                                   725
          diagnosis                                                  Nematode infestations                            729
       Diagnosis                                         647         Arthropod infestations                           730
       Prognosis and treatment                           647      Other diseases                                      730

     Black soil blindness                                730        Clostridial diseases                              787
     Heat stress                                         731        Other bacterial causes                            797
                                                                    Infectious diseases not primarily characterised   801
                                                                        by sudden death
                                                                  Toxicities                                          801
Chapter 20: Exotic diseases                                         Mineral poisons                                   801
  Major viral and prion diseases                         736        Plant poisons                                     803
     Bluetongue                                          736        Acute bovine pulmonary oedema and                 812
     Bovine spongiform encephalopathy                    737            emphysema
     Foot-and-mouth disease                              739      Nutritional accidents                               813
  Other viral diseases                                   741      Death due to misadventure                           815
     Aujeszky’s disease                                  741
     Borna disease                                       742
     Lumpy skin disease                                  742
     Rabies                                              743
     Rift Valley fever                                   745   Chapter 24: Miscellaneous disorders
     Rinderpest                                          746      Diseases of uncertain aetiology                     819
     Vesicular stomatitis                                747        Diseases characterised by systemic involvement    819
  Bacterial and mycoplasmal diseases                     749        Diseases characterised by alimentary tract        822
     Bovine brucellosis                                  749           involvement
     Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia                   750        Diseases characterised by respiratory tract       823
     Haemorrhagic septicaemia                            751           involvement
     Lyme disease                                        752        Diseases characterised by involvement of          823
  Rickettsial, ehrlichial and protozoal diseases         753           the musculoskeletal system
     Bovine theileriosis                                 753      Diseases due to toxicities                          826
     Heartwater                                          754        Nutrition-related poisonings                      829
     Surra                                               755        Plant poisonings                                  829
  Parasitic diseases                                     755        Feedstuffs                                        832
     Stephanofilarosis and parafilarosis                 757      Other conditions                                    833
  Action to be taken if an exotic disease is suspected   757        Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis                 833
                                                                    Sacrocystosis                                     833
                                                                    Diabetes mellitus                                 834

Chapter 21: Genetic diseases of cattle
  General aspects concerning genetic disorders           759
       of cattle
                                                               Chapter 25: Practical therapeutics for the
    Occurrence and epidemiology                          759     cattle veterinarian
    Modes of inheritance                                 759      Properties of drugs                                 835
    Diagnosis of genetic disorders                       760         Drug absorption                                  835
    Prevalence of genetic disorders                      761         Drug distribution                                836
    Control of genetic disorders                         761         Drug metabolism (biotransformation)              836
    Animal welfare considerations                        762         Drug elimination                                 836
    Emotive and ethical issues                           762         Pharmacokinetics                                 836
  Examples of genetic disorders of cattle with           762         Pharmacodynamics                                 837
       Mendelian inheritance                                      Antibiotics                                         837
    Disorders presenting with neurological signs         762         Penicillins and related b-lactam antibiotics     838
    Diseases presenting with primary signs               765         Cephalosporins                                   839
       of muscle dysfunction                                         Sulphonamides and potentiated                    840
    Diseases affecting functions of blood                766            sulphonamides
    Diseases of bone and joints                          767         Tetracyclines                                    840
    Diseases of skin                                     772         Aminoglycosides                                  841
    Miscellaneous disorders                              775         Macrolides                                       841
                                                                     Fluoroquinolones                                 842
                                                                     Other antibiotics and antibacterials             842
                                                                  Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs               842
Chapter 22: Raising youngstock well                                  Specific drugs                                   843
  Heifer rearing                                    778           Sedatives, tranquillisers, neuroleptics and         843
     Growth rates                                   778                 anaesthetics
     Heifer liveweight and reproductive performance 781           Supportive fluid therapy                            846
     Heifer liveweight and subsequent milk          782              Fluids and electrolytes                          846
        production                                                   Blood transfusion                                847
  Investigating ill-thrift in weaner cattle         782
     Weaner performance                             783
                                                               Index                                                  849

Chapter 23: Causes of sudden death
  Introduction                                           787
  Infectious causes                                      787

                                                                                                      CONTENTS              xi

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