Quantitative Research Proposal A study which basically uses an inductive-deductive approach. The approach departs from a theoretical framework, the notion of experts, or understanding the researcher based on her experiences, later developed into the problems and his solutions are presented for justification (verification) in the form of empirical data support in the field. Quantitative Research Proposal Format 1. Background Problem Inside this section noted the discrepancy between expectation and reality, both theoretical gap or gaps behind the practical problem is being investigated. In the background of this issue briefly described the theory, research results, conclusions and discussion of scientific seminars or experience / personal observations are closely associated with the principal issue is being investigated. Thus, the problem of getting chosen for the research foundation more solid footing. (See the introduction) 2. Problem formulation Formulation of the problem is an attempt to declare explicitly to the questions find answers. Formulation of the problem is a complete and detailed statement about the scope of issues to be investigated based on the identification and restriction problems. Problem formulation should be prepared in a short, solid, clear, and put in the form interrogative sentence. A good formulation of the problem will reveal the variables studied, the type or nature of the relationship between these variables, and the subject of research. In addition, the formulation of the problem should be tested empirically, in the sense that allows collected data to answer the questions posed. Example: Is there a relationship between intelligence level of junior high students with their learning achievement in Mathematics matapelajaran?. (Tip to make the formulation of the problem) 3. Objective The purpose of research revealed the target to be achieved in the research. The content and formulation of research objectives based on the content and formulation of research problems. The difference lies in how to formulate it. Research problems are formulated using interrogative sentence, while the formulation of research goals outlined in the form of declarative sentences. Example: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between intelligence level of junior high school students with their learning achievement in Mathematics matapelajaran. 4. Research Hypothesis (if any) Not all quantitative research requires hypotheses. Kluantitatif research that is exploratory and descriptive, does not require the hypothesis. Therefore the research hypothesis section should not exist in paper, thesis, or dissertation results of quantitative research. Proposed research hypotheses procedurally after researchers conducted literature review, because the research hypothesis is a summary of the theoretical conclusions obtained from literature review. The hypothesis is a temporary answer to the problem of research that is theoretically considered the most likely and highest level of truth. But technically, the research hypotheses stated in Chapter I (Introduction) that examined the relationship between the problems and possible answers become clearer. Based on this, then in the background there must have exposure problems about the study of relevant literature in a concise form. The formulation of the hypothesis should be definitive or directional. That is, in the formulation of the hypothesis is not only mentioned the existence of relationships or differences antarvariabel, but has shown the nature of relationships or circumstances that difference. Example: There is a positive relationship between level of intelligence of junior high students with their learning achievement in Mathematics matapelajaran. If formulated in the form of a difference to: the level of junior high school students of high intelligence have higher academic achievement in Mathematics matapelajaran compared with the level of intelligence is. The formulation of a good hypothesis should be: (a) declare linkage between two or more variables, (b) set forth in the form of a question sentence, (c) formulated a brief, dense, and clearly, and (d) can be tested empirically. 5. Research Purpose In this section demonstrated usefulness or importance, especially for the development of scientific research or implementation of development in a broad sense. In other words, the description section usefulness in containing the reason for the feasibility study on the problems being investigated. From the description in this section is hoped it can be concluded that research on selected problems are feasible to be done. 6. Research assumptions (if necessary) Assumption of research is the basic assumption about something that made footing think and act in conducting the research. For example, researchers propose the assumption that a person's attitude can be measured using the attitude scale. In this case he did not need to prove the truth of things diasumsikannya it, but it can immediately take advantage of the attitude measurement results obtained. Assumptions can be either substantive or methodological. Substantive Assumptions related to the research problem, while the assumption regarding the methodology of the research methodology. 7. Scope and Limitations Research Expressed on the scope of variables studied, the population or the subject of research, and research sites. In this section the translation of variables can also be presented along with indicators subvariables. Limitations of the study should not exist in the thesis, theses, and dissertations. However, limitations are often required so that readers can address the findings of the study in accordance with existing conditions. Limitations of research points to a situation that can not be avoided in the study. Limitations often faced regarding two things. First, the limited scope of review that must be done for reasons of procedural, technical research, or due to logistical factors. Second, the limited constraints of the research are sourced from customs, traditions, ethics and beliefs that are not possible for researchers to find the desired data. 8. Operational Definition of Terms or Definitions Definition of terms or the operational definition is needed if the differences are expected to arise kekurangjelasan understanding or affirmation of the meaning of the term if not given. Terms that need to be given emphasis are terms associated with basic concepts contained in that paper, thesis, or dissertation. Criteria that a term containing basic concept is that if the term is closely related to the problem under study or research variables. Definition of terms conveyed directly, in the sense described their origins. More focused definition of the term in the sense given by the researchers. Definition of terms may take the form of operational definitions of variables to be studied. Operational definition is a definition based on attributes defined thing that can be observed. Indirectly it will appoint an operational definition of data-making tool suitable for use or reference to how to measure suatui variables. Examples of operational definitions of the variables "arithmetic achievement" is competence in the field of arithmetic which include add, subtract, multiply, divide, and use a decimal. Preparation of an operational definition was necessary because teramatinya concepts or constructs being investigated will facilitate measurement. In addition, the preparation of an operational definition allows others to do similar things so that what is being done by the researcher open to be tested again by other people. (See Glossary) 9. Research Methods The main points contained in the chapter discussion of research methods do not cover most aspects (1) research design, (2) population and sample, (3) research instruments, (4) collecting data, and (5) data analysis. a. Study Design A description of the design or designs used in research should be given for each type of research, especially experimental research. The research design is defined as a strategy to regulate the setting researchers obtain valid data in accordance with variable characteristics and research purposes. In experimental research, the study design chosen was the most memungkinkkan researchers to control other variables that allegedly involved influence the dependent variables. Selection of research in experimental research design is always based on the hypothesis to be tested. At noneksperimental research, discussion in the study design section contains an explanation of the types of research done in terms of the purpose and nature, whether exploratory research, descriptive, eksplanatoris, survey, or historical research, correlational, and causal comparison. In addition, in this section also indicate that the variables included in the study and the nature of the relationship between these variables. (See some errors in the design penelitiian) b. Population and Sample Population and sample accurate term used if the research took the sample as a research subject. But if the goal of the study was all members of the population, would be more suitable term research subjects, especially in experimental research. In the survey, respondents commonly known sources of data and in qualitative research informants or subjects referred to depending on how the retrieval of data. Accurate explanations about the characteristics of the study population should be given to sample size and the way of uptake can be precisely determined. The aim is that the selected sample truly representative, meaning it accurately reflects the state population. Sample representativeness is an important criterion in selecting a sample in relation to the intention to generalize the results of the study sample to the population. If the state of the different samples with kakarteristik population, the greater the possibility of errors in its generalizations. So, things are discussed in the population and the sample is (a) the identification and the limits of the study population or subject matter, (b) procedures and techniques of sampling, and (c) sample size. c. Research instruments In this section presented the instruments used to measure the variables studied. After that described the procedures of data collection instrument development or selection of equipment and materials used in research. In this way will be seen whether the instruments used in accordance with the variables measured, at least in terms of content. A good instrument must meet the requirements juag reliability. In the thesis, dissertation, especially, should have a part that explains the process of instrument validation. If the instruments used are not made by the researchers, there is an obligation to report the level of validity and reliability of the instruments used. Another thing that needs to be disclosed in the research instrument is a way of scoring or codes for each of the questions / statements. For tools and materials should be carefully noted the technical specifications of the equipment used and the characteristics of materials used. In terms exact science research instruments are sometimes seen as less appropriate because it has not cover all the things used in the study. Therefore, the section on research instruments can be replaced with equipment and materials. d. Data Collection This section outlines (a) the steps taken by dab technique used to collect data, (b) the qualifications and number of personnel involved in the process of data collection, as well as (c) timetable for implementation of data collection. If researchers use another person as executor of data collection, needs to be explained how the selection and effort to prepare them for the task. The process of getting permission to study, meet with the authorities, and other similar things do not need to be reported, although can not be passed in the process of conducting research. e. Data Analysis In this section described types of statistical analysis used. Viewed from the method, there are two types of statistics that can be chosen, namely descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. In inferential statistics have parametrikdan nonparametric statistics. Selection of data analysis is largely determined by the type of data collected with a fixed orientation on goals to be achieved or that the hypothesis to be tested. Therefore, the principal to be considered in the analysis of data is the accuracy of the analysis technique, not its sophistication. Some parametric statistical analysis techniques are more sophisticated and therefore capable of providing more accurate information compared to similar analysis techniques in nonparametric statistics. Proper application of parametric statistics must meet several requirements (assumptions), whereas the application of nonparametric statistics do not require certain conditions. In addition to explanations about the type or data analysis techniques used, it should also explain why his election. If the chosen data analysis techniques already well known, then the discussion need not be made at length. Conversely, if the data analysis techniques used are not often used (less popular), then the description of this analysis should be given more detailed. When used in this analysis should be mentioned computer program, such as SPSS for Windows. (See analysis) 10. Base In the theory of scientific activities, suspected or temporary answer to a problem must use scientific knowledge (science) as the basis for arguments in assessing the problem. This is intended to be obtained with reliable answers. Before applying a hypothetical researcher shall examine the theories and research results relevant to the issues under study are presented in the Library Foundation of theory or study. For thesis and dissertation, which examined not only the theory that supports the theory, but also contrary to the theory of mind researchers. Literature review contains two main points, namely the theoretical description of the object (variable) under study and the conclusions of the study which, among other arguments in the form of hypotheses have been proposed Chapter I. To be able to provide the theoretical description of the variables studied, it is necessary to in- depth study of the theory. Furthermore, the arguments for the hypothesis requires researchers to integrate the selected as the foundation of the theory with the results of research studies on relevant research findings. Discussion of the results of the study was not conducted separately in a separate section. Literature review of materials can be lifted from various sources such as research journals, dissertations, theses, theses, research reports, textbooks, papers, reports and discussion of scientific seminars, official government publications and other institutions. It would be better if the theoretical study and a review of research findings based on primary literature sources, namely the contents of library materials based on research findings. Secondary literature sources can be utilized as a support. For the dissertation, it can be identified based on literature review the position and role of research being conducted in the context of the broader issues as well as contributions that may be given to the development of related science. The final section on literature review in thesis and dissertation should have a separate section that contains an explanation of the views or frame of mind that used by researchers who studied theories. Selection of library materials will be reviewed based on two criteria, namely (1) Currency principles (except for historical research) and (2) the principle of relevance. Currency Principle is important because science developed rapidly. An effective theory at one period may have been abandoned in the next period. With Currency principle, researchers could argue, based on theories that were deemed most representative time. The same applies also to review research reports. The principle of relevance is needed to produce a literature review which is closely related to the problem being investigated. 11. Referral List Library materials are included in the list of references should have been mentioned in the text. This means that library materials are only used as reading material but not referenced in the text are not included in the reference list. Conversely, all library materials mentioned in the thesis, a thesis, and dissertation must be included in the reference list. Procedure for writing the reference list. Elements that are written in sequence include: 1. author's name written in this order: last name, first name, middle name, without academic degrees, 2. third year of publication. title, including subtitle 4. city where the publishing, and 5. name of the publisher.