# Quantitative Research Proposal

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```					Quantitative Research Proposal

A study which basically uses an inductive-deductive approach. The approach departs from a
theoretical framework, the notion of experts, or understanding the researcher based on her
experiences, later developed into the problems and his solutions are presented for justification
(verification) in the form of empirical data support in the field.

Quantitative Research Proposal Format

1. Background Problem
Inside this section noted the discrepancy between expectation and reality, both theoretical
gap or gaps behind the practical problem is being investigated. In the background of this issue
briefly described the theory, research results, conclusions and discussion of scientific seminars
or experience / personal observations are closely associated with the principal issue is being
investigated. Thus, the problem of getting chosen for the research foundation more solid
footing. (See the introduction)

2. Problem formulation
Formulation of the problem is an attempt to declare explicitly to the questions find answers.
Formulation of the problem is a complete and detailed statement about the scope of issues to
be investigated based on the identification and restriction problems. Problem formulation
should be prepared in a short, solid, clear, and put in the form interrogative sentence. A good
formulation of the problem will reveal the variables studied, the type or nature of the
relationship between these variables, and the subject of research. In addition, the formulation
of the problem should be tested empirically, in the sense that allows collected data to answer
the questions posed. Example: Is there a relationship between intelligence level of junior high
students with their learning achievement in Mathematics matapelajaran?. (Tip to make the
formulation of the problem)

3. Objective
The purpose of research revealed the target to be achieved in the research. The content and
formulation of research objectives based on the content and formulation of research problems.
The difference lies in how to formulate it. Research problems are formulated using
interrogative sentence, while the formulation of research goals outlined in the form of
declarative sentences. Example: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship
between intelligence level of junior high school students with their learning achievement in
Mathematics matapelajaran.

4. Research Hypothesis (if any)
Not all quantitative research requires hypotheses. Kluantitatif research that is exploratory
and descriptive, does not require the hypothesis. Therefore the research hypothesis section
should not exist in paper, thesis, or dissertation results of quantitative research. Proposed
research hypotheses procedurally after researchers conducted literature review, because the
research hypothesis is a summary of the theoretical conclusions obtained from literature
review. The hypothesis is a temporary answer to the problem of research that is theoretically
considered the most likely and highest level of truth. But technically, the research hypotheses
stated in Chapter I (Introduction) that examined the relationship between the problems and
possible answers become clearer. Based on this, then in the background there must have
exposure problems about the study of relevant literature in a concise form.
The formulation of the hypothesis should be definitive or directional. That is, in the
formulation of the hypothesis is not only mentioned the existence of relationships or
differences antarvariabel, but has shown the nature of relationships or circumstances that
difference. Example: There is a positive relationship between level of intelligence of junior high
students with their learning achievement in Mathematics matapelajaran.
If formulated in the form of a difference to: the level of junior high school students of high
intelligence have higher academic achievement in Mathematics matapelajaran compared with
the level of intelligence is. The formulation of a good hypothesis should be: (a) declare linkage
between two or more variables, (b) set forth in the form of a question sentence, (c) formulated
a brief, dense, and clearly, and (d) can be tested empirically.

5. Research Purpose
In this section demonstrated usefulness or importance, especially for the development of
scientific research or implementation of development in a broad sense. In other words, the
description section usefulness in containing the reason for the feasibility study on the problems
being investigated. From the description in this section is hoped it can be concluded that
research on selected problems are feasible to be done.

6. Research assumptions (if necessary)
Assumption of research is the basic assumption about something that made footing think and
act in conducting the research. For example, researchers propose the assumption that a
person's attitude can be measured using the attitude scale. In this case he did not need to
prove the truth of things diasumsikannya it, but it can immediately take advantage of the
attitude measurement results obtained. Assumptions can be either substantive or
methodological. Substantive Assumptions related to the research problem, while the
assumption regarding the methodology of the research methodology.

7. Scope and Limitations Research
Expressed on the scope of variables studied, the population or the subject of research, and
research sites. In this section the translation of variables can also be presented along with
indicators subvariables. Limitations of the study should not exist in the thesis, theses, and
dissertations. However, limitations are often required so that readers can address the findings
of the study in accordance with existing conditions. Limitations of research points to a situation
that can not be avoided in the study. Limitations often faced regarding two things. First, the
limited scope of review that must be done for reasons of procedural, technical research, or due
to logistical factors. Second, the limited constraints of the research are sourced from customs,
traditions, ethics and beliefs that are not possible for researchers to find the desired data.

8. Operational Definition of Terms or Definitions
Definition of terms or the operational definition is needed if the differences are expected to
arise kekurangjelasan understanding or affirmation of the meaning of the term if not given.
Terms that need to be given emphasis are terms associated with basic concepts contained in
that paper, thesis, or dissertation. Criteria that a term containing basic concept is that if the
term is closely related to the problem under study or research variables. Definition of terms
conveyed directly, in the sense described their origins. More focused definition of the term in
the sense given by the researchers.
Definition of terms may take the form of operational definitions of variables to be studied.
Operational definition is a definition based on attributes defined thing that can be observed.
Indirectly it will appoint an operational definition of data-making tool suitable for use or
reference to how to measure suatui variables. Examples of operational definitions of the
variables "arithmetic achievement" is competence in the field of arithmetic which include add,
subtract, multiply, divide, and use a decimal. Preparation of an operational definition was
necessary because teramatinya concepts or constructs being investigated will facilitate
measurement. In addition, the preparation of an operational definition allows others to do
similar things so that what is being done by the researcher open to be tested again by other
people. (See Glossary)

9. Research Methods
The main points contained in the chapter discussion of research methods do not cover most
aspects (1) research design, (2) population and sample, (3) research instruments, (4) collecting
data, and (5) data analysis.
a. Study Design
A description of the design or designs used in research should be given for each type of
research, especially experimental research. The research design is defined as a strategy to
regulate the setting researchers obtain valid data in accordance with variable characteristics
and research purposes. In experimental research, the study design chosen was the most
memungkinkkan researchers to control other variables that allegedly involved influence the
dependent variables. Selection of research in experimental research design is always based on
the hypothesis to be tested. At noneksperimental research, discussion in the study design
section contains an explanation of the types of research done in terms of the purpose and
nature, whether exploratory research, descriptive, eksplanatoris, survey, or historical research,
correlational, and causal comparison. In addition, in this section also indicate that the variables
included in the study and the nature of the relationship between these variables. (See some
errors in the design penelitiian)

b. Population and Sample
Population and sample accurate term used if the research took the sample as a research
subject. But if the goal of the study was all members of the population, would be more suitable
term research subjects, especially in experimental research. In the survey, respondents
commonly known sources of data and in qualitative research informants or subjects referred to
depending on how the retrieval of data. Accurate explanations about the characteristics of the
study population should be given to sample size and the way of uptake can be precisely
determined. The aim is that the selected sample truly representative, meaning it accurately
reflects the state population. Sample representativeness is an important criterion in selecting a
sample in relation to the intention to generalize the results of the study sample to the
population. If the state of the different samples with kakarteristik population, the greater the
possibility of errors in its generalizations. So, things are discussed in the population and the
sample is (a) the identification and the limits of the study population or subject matter, (b)
procedures and techniques of sampling, and (c) sample size.

c. Research instruments
In this section presented the instruments used to measure the variables studied. After that
described the procedures of data collection instrument development or selection of equipment
and materials used in research. In this way will be seen whether the instruments used in
accordance with the variables measured, at least in terms of content. A good instrument must
meet the requirements juag reliability. In the thesis, dissertation, especially, should have a part
that explains the process of instrument validation. If the instruments used are not made by the
researchers, there is an obligation to report the level of validity and reliability of the
instruments used. Another thing that needs to be disclosed in the research instrument is a way
of scoring or codes for each of the questions / statements. For tools and materials should be
carefully noted the technical specifications of the equipment used and the characteristics of
materials used.
In terms exact science research instruments are sometimes seen as less appropriate because
it has not cover all the things used in the study. Therefore, the section on research instruments
can be replaced with equipment and materials.

d. Data Collection
This section outlines (a) the steps taken by dab technique used to collect data, (b) the
qualifications and number of personnel involved in the process of data collection, as well as (c)
timetable for implementation of data collection. If researchers use another person as executor
of data collection, needs to be explained how the selection and effort to prepare them for the
task. The process of getting permission to study, meet with the authorities, and other similar
things do not need to be reported, although can not be passed in the process of conducting
research.

e. Data Analysis
In this section described types of statistical analysis used. Viewed from the method, there are
two types of statistics that can be chosen, namely descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
In inferential statistics have parametrikdan nonparametric statistics. Selection of data analysis is
largely determined by the type of data collected with a fixed orientation on goals to be
achieved or that the hypothesis to be tested. Therefore, the principal to be considered in the
analysis of data is the accuracy of the analysis technique, not its sophistication. Some
parametric statistical analysis techniques are more sophisticated and therefore capable of
providing more accurate information compared to similar analysis techniques in nonparametric
statistics. Proper application of parametric statistics must meet several requirements
(assumptions), whereas the application of nonparametric statistics do not require certain
conditions.
In addition to explanations about the type or data analysis techniques used, it should also
explain why his election. If the chosen data analysis techniques already well known, then the
discussion need not be made at length. Conversely, if the data analysis techniques used are not
often used (less popular), then the description of this analysis should be given more detailed.
When used in this analysis should be mentioned computer program, such as SPSS for Windows.
(See analysis)

10. Base
In the theory of scientific activities, suspected or temporary answer to a problem must use
scientific knowledge (science) as the basis for arguments in assessing the problem. This is
intended to be obtained with reliable answers. Before applying a hypothetical researcher shall
examine the theories and research results relevant to the issues under study are presented in
the Library Foundation of theory or study. For thesis and dissertation, which examined not only
the theory that supports the theory, but also contrary to the theory of mind researchers.
Literature review contains two main points, namely the theoretical description of the object
(variable) under study and the conclusions of the study which, among other arguments in the
form of hypotheses have been proposed Chapter I.
To be able to provide the theoretical description of the variables studied, it is necessary to in-
depth study of the theory. Furthermore, the arguments for the hypothesis requires researchers
to integrate the selected as the foundation of the theory with the results of research studies on
relevant research findings. Discussion of the results of the study was not conducted separately
in a separate section. Literature review of materials can be lifted from various sources such as
research journals, dissertations, theses, theses, research reports, textbooks, papers, reports
and discussion of scientific seminars, official government publications and other institutions. It
would be better if the theoretical study and a review of research findings based on primary
literature sources, namely the contents of library materials based on research findings.
Secondary literature sources can be utilized as a support. For the dissertation, it can be
identified based on literature review the position and role of research being conducted in the
context of the broader issues as well as contributions that may be given to the development of
related science. The final section on literature review in thesis and dissertation should have a
separate section that contains an explanation of the views or frame of mind that used by
researchers who studied theories. Selection of library materials will be reviewed based on two
criteria, namely (1) Currency principles (except for historical research) and (2) the principle of
relevance. Currency Principle is important because science developed rapidly. An effective
theory at one period may have been abandoned in the next period. With Currency principle,
researchers could argue, based on theories that were deemed most representative time. The
same applies also to review research reports. The principle of relevance is needed to produce a
literature review which is closely related to the problem being investigated.

11. Referral List
Library materials are included in the list of references should have been mentioned in the
text. This means that library materials are only used as reading material but not referenced in
the text are not included in the reference list. Conversely, all library materials mentioned in the
thesis, a thesis, and dissertation must be included in the reference list. Procedure for writing
the reference list. Elements that are written in sequence include: 1. author's name written in
this order: last name, first name, middle name, without academic degrees, 2. third year of
publication. title, including subtitle 4. city where the publishing, and 5. name of the publisher.

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 views: 7399 posted: 7/25/2010 language: English pages: 6