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Lab Research Yields the Biggest Chill


Lab Research Yields the Biggest Chill

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									  Lab Research Yields the Biggest Chill

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Lab Research Yields the Biggest Chill
Boston - Sep 12, 2003
NASA-funded researchers at the                                                     SPACEDAILY EXPRESS
Massachusetts Institute of                                                      June 16, 2005

Technology in Cambridge have                                                    Energia Charts Corporate Strategy

                                                                             q t/Space Drops A Dummy Over Mojave
cooled sodium gas to the lowest
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temperature ever recorded -- one-
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half-billionth degree above absolute                                         q Holographic Movies Show Promise For Medical, Military
zero. Absolute zero is the point                                             Applications
where no further cooling is possible.                                        q Space Shuttle Discovery Successfully Rolls Back To Launch

                                         A view into the vacuum chamber      q EU, Ukraine Initial Galileo Agreement
This new temperature is six times
                                         where sodium atoms were cooled q Atmel And u-Blox Provide New Indoor-Capable GPS Signal
lower than the previous record, and down to 500 picokelvin. The atoms
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marks the first time that a gas was      where magnetically confined by the q EADS Faces Mounting Opposition To Entry Of US Military
cooled below 1 nanokelvin (1             coil in the center which is 1 cm in Market
billionth of a degree). At absolute      diameter. The atoms were •          q Teekay Shipping Signs Up For Connexion by Boeing Maritime
                                         evitated?0.5 cm above the coil.
zero (-273?Celsius or -460?                                                  Internet Service
                                         Ketterle Lab photo. Team Photos     q Microsoft Plays By China's Rules To Block Free Speech
Fahrenheit), all motion stops, except
for tiny atomic vibrations, since the cooling process has extracted all q Teleport Offers Managed Services To iDirect VSAT Operators
                                                                             q Thin Films Of Silicon Nanoparticles Roll Into Flexible Nanotubes
energy from the particles. By improving cooling methods, scientists q Super Predators And Mass Extinctions
have succeeded in getting closer to absolute zero.                           q Antarctica Gets Insurance Cover Against Ecological Disasters

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"To go below 1 nanokelvin is like running a mile below four minutes Study
for the first time," said Dr. Wolfgang Ketterle, a physics professor at q White House Environment Adviser's Move To ExxonMobil
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and co-leader of the
                                                                             q Analysis: Bush Pushes Energy Legislation
research team.                                                               q Analysis: From Gazprom To 'Kremprom'

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"Ultra-low temperature gases could lead to vast improvements in              q Analysis: Japan Balances History, Security

precision measurements by allowing better atomic clocks and                  q Walker's World: Brits isolated again

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sensors for gravity and rotation," said Dr. David E. Pritchard,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology physics professor, pioneer in Earthquake
                                                                             q Iran Hints At No Inspections At Suspect Site Anytime Soon
atom optics and atom interferometry, and co-leader of the team.              q Analysis: Korean Peace, Long Way To Go

                                                                             q Bush, Rice Rein In Neo Cons On Iraq

In 1995, a group at the University of Colorado, Boulder and a                q US Envoy Urges North Korea To Give Date For Nuclear Talks

Massachusetts Institute of Technology group led by Ketterle cooled q Delays In Closing Lithuanian Nuclear Plant Pose Safety Risks:
atomic gases to below 1 microkelvin (one-millionth degree above
                                                                             q Britain Pledges Change After Report Says Military 'Unprepared
absolute zero).                                                              For Battle'
                                                                             q EU needs to reform military to face new challenges: British

In doing so, they discovered a new form of matter, the Bose-                 defence chief
Einstein condensate, where the particles march in lockstep instead
of flitting around independently. The discovery was recognized with
the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics, which Ketterle shared with his (1 of 3)6/16/2005 9:18:16 AM
  Lab Research Yields the Biggest Chill

Boulder colleagues, Drs. Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman.                     - $8.95 Domain Names
                                                                                 www.                         .com         Search
Since the 1995 breakthrough, many groups have routinely reached
nanokelvin temperatures, with 3 nanokelvin as the lowest                                Only $7.85 for domain transfers!
temperature previously recorded. The new record set by the
Massachusetts group is 500 picokelvin, or six times lower.

At such low temperatures, atoms cannot be kept in physical
containers, because they would stick to the walls. Also, no known
container can be cooled to such temperatures.

To circumvent this problem, magnets surround the atoms, which
keep the gaseous cloud confined without touching it. To reach the
record-low temperatures, the researchers invented a novel way of
confining atoms, which they call a "gravito-magnetic trap." The
magnetic fields acted together with gravitational forces to keep the
atoms trapped.

All the researchers are affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology physics department, the Research Laboratory of
Electronics and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Harvard
Center for Ultracold Atoms, funded by the National Science

Ketterle, Leanhardt and Pritchard co-authored the low-temperature
paper, scheduled to appear in the September 12 issue of Science.

Related Links
Center for Ultracold Atoms
Fundamental Physics Made Fun
Ketterle's Research Group
Search SpaceDaily
Subscribe To SpaceDaily Express

Precise Nuclear Measurements Give Clues To Astronomical X-
Ray Bursts
Argonne - Jul 16, 2003
Argonne physicists have precisely measured the
masses of nuclear isotopes that exist for only
fractions of a second or can only be produced in
such tiny amounts as to be almost nonexistent in
the laboratory. Some isotopes had their masses accurately
measured for the first time. (2 of 3)6/16/2005 9:18:16 AM

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