A congenital by benbenzhou

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          How does the “Bat-ears” assist navigation among people with blindness?

               Chetwyn Chana, Alex Wongb, Kin-hung Tinga, Jufang Hec, Tatia Leed,
a
 Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong
Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China; b Department of Kinesiology and Community
Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA; c Applied Neuroscience Laboratory,
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong,
China; d Neuropsychology Laboratory and Institute of Clinical Neuropsychology, The University
of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Corresponding Author: Prof. Chetwyn Chan; Tel: 852-2766-6727; Fax: 852-2330-8656
E-mail: Chetwyn.Chan@inet.polyu.edu.hk

                                             Abstract

Purposes: The “Bat-ears” is an ultrasonic navigation device patented by The Hong Kong
Polytechnic University. This paper covers two studies which explored and evaluated the
functionality of the “Bat-ears” by the people with blindness in Hong Kong.

Methods: The first study involved people with early blindness navigated in an enclosed space
with and without wearing the “Bat-ears”. The performance of the subjects in the navigation task
was quantified in terms of accuracy of the walking along different designated path. The second
study involved people with blindness (both congenital and acquired) completing
custom-designed questionnaire on evaluating the design and functions of the “Bat-ears”. Each
participant was given the opportunity to use the device and navigate within an indoor and an
outdoor space. The questionnaire consisted of seven subscales which tapped on different aspects
related to universal design of assistive device.

Results: The results of the first study revealed that, after wearing the “Bat-ears”, the subjects
with blindness showed improvements in their navigation within an enclosed space. When
compared with the baseline, the subjects increased the accuracy on the initial turn, closest
position and final position. Their performances were compared to those with normal vision (i.e.
the control group). The results of the second study indicated that the participants expressed that
the “Bat-ears” would be helpful for assisting navigation around the environment. The evaluations
showed significant differences in the participants between the congenital and acquired blindness
groups. After controlling for education level, significant differences in scores were revealed on
the “Low Physical and Mental Effort”, “Size and Shape Appropriate for Approach and Use” and
“Tolerance for Error” subscales (p<0.05).

Conclusion: These findings suggest that the “Bat-ears” has high potential for use by the people
with blindness for assisting their maneuver in the environment. Nevertheless, the design of the
“Bat-ears” appears to favor those who have congenital blind. This could be attributable to the
superior auditory and cross-modal functions (i.e. spatial and tactile) developed among the
congenital blind individuals recruited in this study. Further study will focus on further enhancing
the universal design of the “Bat-ears” and devising training programs for improving the skills of
using the “Bat-ears” among the individuals with blindness.

Topic Code: C.2
                           「蝙蝠耳」如何協助失明人士定向?

           Chetwyn Chana, Alex Wongb, Kin-hung Tinga, Jufang Hec, Tatia Leed, (香港)

a
 Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong
Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China; b Department of Kinesiology and Community
Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA; c Applied Neuroscience Laboratory,
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong,
China; d Neuropsychology Laboratory and Institute of Clinical Neuropsychology, The University
of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Corresponding Author: Prof. Chetwyn Chan; Tel: 852-2766-6727; Fax: 852-2330-8656
E-mail: Chetwyn.Chan@inet.polyu.edu.hk

                                            摘要

研究目的

「蝙蝠耳」是由香港理工大學研發的專利超聲波定向儀。本論文將涵蓋兩項探討及評估「蝙
蝠耳」對香港失明人士的功能性之研究。

研究方法

第一項研究關係到初期失明人士於封閉地方,在有及沒有配備「蝙蝠耳」下之定向表現。
研究對象於定向的表現,是以行走不同指定路線的準確性量化。第二項研究須失明人士(先
天及後天) 完成評估「蝙蝠耳」之設計及功能的問卷。每位參加學員均有機會使用定向儀
及於室外及室內空間定向行走。問卷共有七項量度標準,針對輔助儀器之通用設計的不同
範疇。

結果:

第一項研究結果顯示,蝙蝠耳能協助研究對象於封閉空間改善定向。相比起底線數值,研
究對象於初次轉彎、最接近及最終位置的定向值均有改善。研究亦將其表現與正常視力人
士作出比較(即控制組) 。第二項研究結果顯示參加者認為蝙蝠耳有助於周圍環境定向。先
天及後天失明人士的評估更出現重大分歧。在教育程度因素經控制後,  「低程度的體能及
     、
精神需求」 「方法使用適當的大小及形狀」 ,以及「錯誤容忍度」三個量度標準的分數有
重大差異。

結論:

以上結果顯示「蝙蝠耳」極有可能協助失明人士於四周環境中活動。雖然, 「蝙蝠耳」的
設計似乎更適用於先天失明人士,可能因為本研究訪問的先天失明人士有更敏銳的聽覺及
跨感官功能(空間及觸覺) 。研究將來會進一步探討改良通用設計的「蝙蝠耳」,並為失明
人士設計改善「蝙蝠耳」使用技巧的訓練計劃。
題目編碼:C2
                           「蝙蝠耳」如何协助失明人士定向?

           Chetwyn Chana, Alex Wongb, Kin-hung Tinga, Jufang Hec, Tatia Leed, (香港)

a
 Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong
Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China; b Department of Kinesiology and Community
Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA; c Applied Neuroscience Laboratory,
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong,
China; d Neuropsychology Laboratory and Institute of Clinical Neuropsychology, The University
of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Corresponding Author: Prof. Chetwyn Chan; Tel: 852-2766-6727; Fax: 852-2330-8656
E-mail: Chetwyn.Chan@inet.polyu.edu.hk

                                            摘要

研究目的

「蝙蝠耳」是由香港理工大学研发的专利超声波定向仪。本论文将涵盖两项探讨及评估「蝙
蝠耳」对香港失明人士的功能性之研究。

研究方法

第一项研究关系到初期失明人士于封闭地方,在有及没有配备「蝙蝠耳」下之定向表现。
研究对象于定向的表现,是以行走不同指定路线的准确性量化。第二项研究须失明人士(先
天及后天) 完成评估「蝙蝠耳」之设计及功能的问卷。每位参加学员均有机会使用定向仪
及于室外及室内空间定向行走。问卷共有七项量度标准,针对辅助仪器之通用设计的不同
范畴。

结果:

第一项研究结果显示,蝙蝠耳能协助研究对象于封闭空间改善定向。相比起底线数值,研
究对象于初次转弯、最接近及最终位置的定向值均有改善。研究亦将其表现与正常视力人
士作出比较(即控制组) 。第二项研究结果显示参加者认为蝙蝠耳有助于周围环境定向。先
天及后天失明人士的评估更出现重大分歧。在教育程度因素经控制后,  「低程度的体能及
     、
精神需求」 「方法使用适当的大小及形状」 ,以及「错误容忍度」三个量度标准的分数有
重大差异。

结论:

以上结果显示「蝙蝠耳」极有可能协助失明人士于四周环境中活动。虽然, 「蝙蝠耳」的
设计似乎更适用于先天失明人士,可能因为本研究访问的先天失明人士有更敏锐的听觉及
跨感官功能(空间及触觉) 。研究将来会进一步探讨改良通用设计的「蝙蝠耳」,并为失明
人士设计改善「蝙蝠耳」使用技巧的训练计划。
题目编码:C2
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