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                                     Project Safe Neighborhoods and Gangs—an Expansion of Focus. . . . . . . . 1
                                        By Tate Chambers
       Volume 56                     The Department of Justice's Gang Squad, Gang Targeting Enforcement
       Number 4                      and Coordination Center, and National Gang Intelligence Center. . . . . . . . 7
          United States                 By David Jaffe
      Department of Justice
      Executive Office for           Tools for Gang Prosecutions Available Through the Office of Enforcement
     United States Attorneys
        Washington, DC               Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
                                        By Thomas Taylor
       Kenneth E. Melson
                                     Use of Federal Statutes to Attack Street Gangs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   Contributors' opinions and
    statements should not be            By Joseph Alesia and John Lausch
 considered an endorsement by
EOUSA for any policy, program,       When Children Commit Adult Crimes: Demystifying Federal Prosecution
           or service.
                                     of Juveniles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
  The United States Attorneys'
 Bulletin is published pursuant to       By Nancy Oliver
        28 CFR § 0.22(b).

  The United States Attorneys'       Gangs and the Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Bulletin is published bimonthly by
 the Executive Office for United        By Bruce Ferrell
States Attorneys, Office of Legal
Education, 1620 Pendleton Street,    New Methods for Solving Old Problems: Combating Gang Criminality in a
Columbia, South Carolina 29201.
                                     St. Louis Community. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
       Managing Editor                   By Carlos A. Canino, Kurt Franzi, and Dave Joyce
        Jim Donovan

       Program Manager               No Panacea, Some Promises, Much Potential: A Review of Effective Anti-
        Nancy Bowman
                                     Gang Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
           Law Clerk
           Will Grove
                                        By Brendan Groves
       Internet Address

  Send article submissions and
  address changes to Program
Manager, United States Attorneys'
   National Advocacy Center,
   Office of Legal Education,
    1620 Pendleton Street,
     Columbia, SC 29201.
Project Safe Neighborhoods and
Gangs—an Expansion of Focus
Tate Chambers
National Coordinator, Project Safe Neighborhoods
Legal Initiatives Staff
Executive Office for United States Attorneys

I. Introduction                                            2007 alone, the USAOs prosecuted 12,087
                                                           defendants for federal gun crimes. The conviction
    In May 2001, President Bush announced the              rate in FY 2007 for firearm defendants was a
implementation of Project Safe Neighborhoods               record 92 percent. The percentage of defendants
(PSN), a comprehensive initiative to reduce gun            sentenced to prison, nearly 94 percent, was also a
violence in America. Over the next several years,          record high. Almost 75 percent of those offenders
the Administration spent over $2 billion to attack         received prison terms of more than 3 years and
the problem. More than 200 federal prosecutors             over 50 percent received sentences of 5 or more
and 550 state and local prosecutors were hired to          years. These statistics indicate that the USAOs are
prosecute firearms cases. Nearly 33,000                    prosecuting significant violent criminals in their
prosecutors, law enforcement officers, community           districts and putting them behind bars.
service providers, and others were trained in gun
violence reduction strategies. The United States                In 2006, the Department of Justice
Attorney's Office (USAO) in every district formed          (Department) initiated an expansion of PSN. The
partnerships with state and local authorities to           Attorney General increased the scope of the
develop gun violence reduction strategies and              program to combat gangs and gang violence. This
oversee their implementation.                              enhancement was accompanied by grant funds for
                                                           state and local programs in support of the new
     The result was the development and                    effort.
implementation of a wide variety of programs to
attack gun violence. Some of the programs were                 Would the PSN model work against gang
immediately effective, as evidenced by the                 violence as it had against gun violence? The anti-
decreased violence in the communities where they           gang efforts are young and have been funded for
were used. Others met with challenges that the             only 2 years. The early results, however, are
partnerships had to overcome. With the continued           promising.
support of PSN grant monies, the districts'                     This article will briefly review the history of
strategy teams and crime research professionals            PSN and the five elements of its successful
reviewed and refined the programs to increase              strategy. It will then look at the expansion of the
their effectiveness.                                       program to include gang violence. Finally it will
     The PSN program has been a success. Since             survey some of the promising anti-gang violence
PSN's inception in 2001, the number of federal             strategies and programs being used across the
firearms prosecutions has increased significantly.         country today.
From FY 2001 through FY 2007, the USAOs filed                  This article relies heavily on the work of the
68,543 cases against 83,106 defendants. That is            core PSN players in the Department, especially
more than a 100 percent increase over the 7-year           Robyn Thiemann (Office of Legal Policy) and
period prior to the implementation of PSN. In FY           Jennifer Lowery (Office of the Deputy Attorney

J U LY 2008                        U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                    1
General), past PSN National Coordinator, Natalie             the PSN task force and to serve as liaison with the
Voris (USAO, Eastern District of Virginia), and              National PSN Coordinator and the FEAT team.
the members of the Department's Firearms
                                                                 The creation of the PSN task force and the
Enforcement Assistance Team (FEAT). Much of
                                                             inclusion of state and local members set a clear
the work on successful strategies was collected by
                                                             tone for the initiative. It was not another federal
Edmund McGarrell and Tim Bynum of PSN's
                                                             answer to a local problem. It was a true
national research partner, Michigan State
                                                             partnership between federal, state, and local
                                                             players with a focus on finding local solutions to
                                                             the violence problems faced in each area.
II. Project Safe Neighborhoods
                                                             B. Strategic planning
    PSN was built on the foundation of earlier,
successful gun violence reduction programs such                   The principal tasks of the districts' PSN task
as Richmond, Virginia's Project Exile, Boston's              forces were to develop, implement, and, when
Operation Ceasefire, the Alabama Project ICE                 necessary, readjust the gun violence reduction
(Isolate the Criminal Element), and the                      strategy. Gun violence problems, in all localities,
Department's Project Triggerlock. Department                 have their own characteristics, but often share
personnel familiar with these programs combined              common traits. To manage the initiative and
various elements from each program and created               ensure that successful strategies are shared
Project Safe Neighborhoods— a new initiative to              between districts with similar problems, the
combat gun violence.                                         Department created FEAT. The team is comprised
                                                             of representatives from components with expertise
    From inception, PSN had five elements:                   in the battle against gun violence and is chaired by
•   partnership;                                             the PSN National Coordinator. FEAT works to
                                                             identify "promising practices" and to encourage
•   strategic planning;                                      peer-to-peer learning, so districts that have
•   training;                                                common gun crime problems can learn from one
•   community outreach; and
                                                             C. Training
•   accountability.
                                                                  National training is conducted at the PSN
But the true genius of PSN was the realization that
                                                             National Conference where the most successful
violent crime is, in the final analysis, a local
                                                             strategies are showcased. Regional training is
problem that requires local solutions. Because
                                                             provided by PSN's National Partners. Local
crime is different in every community, the
                                                             training is coordinated at the district level by the
response must be different. The focus on the local
                                                             USAO. What is unique about PSN training (and
nature of gun violence was the overarching theme
                                                             has since been picked up by other training
that played out in the execution of all five PSN
                                                             programs) is its assistance to cross-training.
                                                             Whenever feasible, community members, crime
A. Partnerships                                              prevention specialists, researchers, law
                                                             enforcement personnel, and prosecutors are in one
    The PSN strategy required that each U.S.                 room together and are trained to work as a team.
Attorney create a PSN task force comprised of
federal, state, and local prosecutors, as well as law        D. Community outreach
enforcement personnel. Task forces also included
                                                                 PSN is not just another prosecution strategy.
community members, crime researchers, and
                                                             The community outreach programs that carry the
media specialists. Each U.S. Attorney also
                                                             gun violence reduction message into the
appointed a district PSN coordinator to work with
                                                             neighborhoods are as important as the prosecution

2                                    U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
statistics cited above. Community leaders are                    The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms
actively involved in violence prevention programs           and Explosives (ATF), Federal Bureau of
targeting all areas of the community. The work              Investigation (FBI), Drug Enforcement
with school-age children has proven especially              Administration (DEA), and the Bureau of
effective. PSN, working with the Ad Council, also           Immigration and Customs Enforcement at the
uses television, radio, print, and billboard public         Department of Homeland Security were
service announcements to spread the gun crime               traditional members of many PSN task forces.
reduction message.                                          Several task forces moved to include the
                                                            United States Marshals Service (USMS) and
E. Accountability                                           incorporated the USMS Violent Fugitive Task
     The coordinators and PSN task forces are               Forces into their strategies. These task forces
encouraged to review the success of their                   concentrate on the most violent fugitives, who are
strategies and programs on a regular basis. Each            often gang members. By prioritizing their efforts
year, every district must submit a PSN report               to focus on these violent gang members, the
summarizing the program in that district and                USMS task forces brought many gang members to
highlighting its successes and challenges. These            justice.
reports are reviewed by the National Coordinator                 Several PSN task forces also partnered with
and the FEAT team who summarize the results for             their state Department of Corrections and the U.S.
the Deputy Attorney General and the Attorney                Bureau of Prisons to identify gang members in
General. The National Coordinator and the FEAT              prison, monitor their visitors, and notify local
team also provide feedback and assistance to the            communities of their release.
                                                                Many districts include state and federal
III. Adding gang violence to PSN                            probation and parole officers in their task forces.
                                                            Probation and parole sweeps not only produce
    In 2006, the focus of PSN was expanded to               new charges against gang members, but also
include attacking violent gangs. Building on the            produce potential gang witnesses. A few PSN task
partnerships and strategies developed in the gun            forces learned to rely on the wealth of expertise
crime reduction efforts of the previous 5 years, the        and intelligence found in national anti-gang
Department dedicated more than $31 million in               organizations such as the International Outlaw
additional PSN grant money to combat violent                Motorcycle Gang Investigators Association.
                                                                 A few districts found natural partners in the
    PSN's expansion to address gang crime had a             prosecutors and agents working Organized Crime
good foundation on which to build. Each USAO                and Drug Enforcement (OCDETF) cases. In many
had already named an Anti-Gang Coordinator and              places, OCDETF and PSN share the same
developed a localized anti-gang strategy.                   targets— violent gangs involved in large-scale
                                                            drug distribution. OCDETF personnel have
IV. Anti-gang partnerships                                  refined their strategies, and their expertise has
                                                            proven very helpful to PSN prosecutors and
     During the first 5 years of PSN, the building          agents as they take on anti-gang responsibilities
and developing of partnerships proved to be one             and tackle the same gangs.
of the most important elements of its success. In
2006, PSN task forces responded to their added                   Weed and Seed is another federal program
responsibilities by expanding those partnerships.           that is a valuable partner to PSN in some districts.
Additionally, the Department funded an Anti-                Weed and Seed steering committees have
Gang Summit in every district that focused on               addressed gang issues and gang violence in their
preventing gangs and gang violence.                         areas for years. The steering committees

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                    3
developed numerous successful anti-gang                      financial investigations that result in conspiracy,
strategies, many of which translated well to the             Continuing Criminal Enterprise, and Racketeer
PSN efforts. For example, after using weeding                Influenced Corrupt Organizations charges.
strategies to rid the areas of violent gang                  Combining both strategies provides the best
members, the Weed and Seed steering committees               chance of dismantling the gang's presence in the
then execute seeding strategies. These strategies            area.
are designed to prevent the area children from
                                                                  Several districts use the Top Ten Program,
replacing the weeded gang members by offering
                                                             which was proven to be one of the most
them alternatives to the gang lifestyle.
                                                             successful PSN gun crime reduction strategies.
    In sum, as the PSN task force's scope                    When this strategy is used, the task force brings
enlarged, they moved to expand their partnerships            all of its intelligence resources together to identify
by reaching out to those agencies and programs               the top ten most violent gang members with
with experience in combating gangs. The                      serious histories of criminal violence. Those ten
expansion is ongoing, but the partnerships                   are then targeted for investigation and prosecution
established are bringing anti-gang experience and            on whatever charge, state or federal, will result in
proven anti-gang strategies into the PSN program.            the longest period of incarceration. New names
                                                             are added to the list as subjects are removed by
V. Anti-gang strategies                                      successful prosecution.

     PSN task forces have started adding new                      Other proven PSN gun crime reduction
anti-gang strategies to their arsenals. Two of the           strategies also translate well to anti-gang efforts.
common denominators in the gang violence                     •    High profile gang sweeps produce large
problem are drug trafficking and juvenile                         numbers of gang-member defendants and
involvement. Consequently, many of the districts                  community awareness of the anti-gang efforts.
are using similar strategies to combat these two
elements.                                                    •    Probation and parole sweeps often have the
                                                                  same impact as high profile gang sweeps.
     Several districts use specialized gang
investigation units that are directed by, and report         •    Saturation patrols in high-intensity gang areas
to, the PSN task force. Although these units use a                at peak times of drug activity are also a
lot of investigative resources, they allow the PSN                proven strategy.
task force to focus directly on the gangs and to             •    Firearms traces on all recovered firearms from
shift resources as the problem changes. Several                   gang members often lead to identifying the
districts are using a two-pronged strategy against                gangs' straw purchasers.
the gangs. One prong is a short-term, reactive
strategy where every case against a gang member              •    Gang injunctions and use of federal criminal
is screened for federal prosecution. These                        civil rights statutes have proven successful,
prosecutions are often for drug possession with                   although this strategy is not employed in as
intent to distribute, distribution offenses, or                   many districts as the other strategies
firearm offenses. The USAOs apply stricter                        mentioned.
policies to these prosecutions, such as mandatory                The "road trip" strategy has also proven
pretrial detention requests and restrictions on plea         successful in districts with several small to
bargaining. The policies are relaxed for                     medium-sized cities with gang problems. It is a
cooperation against the gang. The short-term                 standard PSN gun crime reduction strategy that
strategy is very effective at producing gang                 translates well to the anti-gang efforts. The
witnesses. The second prong is a long-term,                  United States Attorney, often with the Law
proactive strategy, often using the same tools               Enforcement Coordinating Committee
found in an OCDETF case—Title IIIs and

4                                    U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                         J U LY 2008
Coordinator and the Anti-Gang Coordinator,                   drug dealing to start a new life. If they agree, they
travels to every city in the district and meets with         are provided community support. If they are later
the local prosecutor, sheriff, and chief of police to        caught participating in a gang, selling drugs, or
discuss the gang problem. The U.S. Attorney                  committing other crimes, the offer is revoked and
makes a public commitment to support the local               they are prosecuted. This strategy has proven
efforts to fight gang violence. A follow-up                  extraordinarily successfully in reducing violence
meeting is held a week or two later, at which the            in several communities and expectations for its
Anti-Gang Coordinator, key members of the PSN                success against gang violence are high.
task force, and the officers who work the gang
cases devise and begin to execute a strategy for             VI. Anti-gang training
the community. The Anti-Gang Coordinator
reports on the progress to the United States                     As the PSN task forces shifted their focus to
Attorney and the PSN task force, and the progress            include gangs, the PSN National Partners
of the strategy is periodically reviewed and                 provided training and technical assistance to
adjusted by the task force.                                  support that effort. The U.S. Attorneys were also
                                                             encouraged to conduct local anti-gang training.
     Another of the most successful gun crime                The National PSN Conference, held in Atlanta in
reduction strategies— offender notification                  2007, provided anti-gang training. In late 2007,
meetings—is now being used against gangs. In                 the Department launched a comprehensive PSN
one incarnation of this strategy, the PSN task               anti-gang training program. The 3-day program
force targets a specific high crime area in a                provides training on various intervention,
community. The law enforcement authorities                   prevention, suppression, and re-entry strategies,
identify the gang threat in that area and, using all         and briefings on national and regional gang
of their resources, conduct an aggressive                    trends. The training also brings together law
undercover operation to make drug and firearms               enforcement executives and community leaders in
cases against as many of the gang members as                 an executive session to conduct a community
possible. They then review the results of the                gang-problem assessment and develop strategic
undercover operation and divide the potential                plans to address those problems. The Department
defendants into two categories:                              will host 12 training sessions in various locations
•   Category one defendants are those with long              across the nation in 2008 and 2009.
    criminal histories involving violence and drug
    distribution, or who have been involved in               VII. Anti-gang community outreach
    large-scale drug dealing, or have committed
                                                                 Under "pregang" PSN, the community
    violent acts. They are identified for
                                                             outreach strategies focused on gun crime
                                                             reduction messages. Now they have added anti-
•   Category two defendants are those with little            gang violence messages to the focus.
    or no criminal histories and with no history of
                                                                  In partnership with the Ad Council, the
    violence or large-scale drug dealing. These
                                                             Department developed public service
    individuals are identified for the offender
                                                             announcements (PSAs) which are intended to
    notification process.
                                                             educate youth about the perils of gun crime and
    The category one defendants are arrested and             the consequences of joining gangs. Some districts
the category two defendants are invited to a                 worked with media partners to create local PSAs,
meeting with both law enforcement authorities                often using national celebrities living or working
and community leaders. At that meeting they are              in the area. One PSN task force sponsored the
notified of the potential charges they are facing            production of a short film depicting the perils of
and given an opportunity to leave the gang and               gang life. Some districts implemented anti-gang

J U LY 2008                          U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                     5
graffiti measures. At least one district used PSN            VIII. Anti-gang assessment
money to hire neighborhood coordinators to
develop anti-gang partnerships in local                           The Department is presently working on
neighborhoods. Many districts used                           improving its ability to assess the success of PSN
Crimestoppers to deliver an anti-gang violence               anti-gang efforts. The success of some programs
message. A few districts worked with their state             is evident—gang violence is decreasing. The
and local governments to have proclamations                  communities' attitudes in favor of the anti-gang
issued announcing anti-gang days or weeks. Some              efforts and against gang violence are improving.
districts went a step further and held local or              PSN's efforts are also supporting the Department's
statewide anti-gang forums. In a few districts the           other anti-gang efforts such as the 10-Site
PSN task force worked with local community                   Comprehensive Antigang Initiative, GangTECC,
groups to organize gang hotlines where citizens              National Gang Intelligence Center, Criminal
could call and report gang crime and violence.               Division's Gang Squad, and the Antigang
                                                             Coordination Committee. Also joining the fight
     There are several very strong and active                are ATF's Violent Crime Impact Teams, FBI's
outreach programs targeted toward children.                  Safe Streets Task Forces, and DEA's Mobile
Several districts started anti-truancy programs and          Enforcement Teams.
anti-bullying programs. There are many types of
after-school programs. Some districts have
                                                             IX. Conclusion
computer labs in high risk areas for the children's
use. Other districts have mentoring programs with                Even though PSN's expansion to include the
street-level outreach for at-risk youth. There are           fight against gang violence is in its infant stage, a
numerous sports camps for basketball, baseball,              considerable amount of work has been
boxing, and other sports. Anti-gang rap contests             accomplished. However, a good deal of work
and poster art contests have been held in districts.         remains to be done to match the success of the
There are parent groups, faith-based groups,                 gun crime reduction strategies. Drawing on the
school groups, and public housing groups, all                experience and expertise of numerous individuals
brought together by PSN to address the issue of              and groups, PSN jump-started its anti-gang
gang violence.                                               program and the early successes are promising.
                                                             Gang violence continues to present one of the
     There are several re-entry programs sponsored
                                                             most serious threats to the quality of life in many
by PSN across the country. These programs help
                                                             of our communities. Each day young men and
offenders transition into the community after their
                                                             women must choose between gang membership
release from incarceration and encourage them to
                                                             and their personal safety. A choice for the gang
avoid gangs. The focal points of these programs
                                                             often leads to violence and misery not only for the
                                                             young people, but for their families and the
•   juveniles;                                               communities where they live. To decrease the
                                                             violence, anti-gang strategies and programs that
•   female offenders;
                                                             produce results must continue to be developed.˜
•   intensive parole programs for the worst
    offenders; and                                           ABOUT THE AUTHOR
•   transitional housing programs.
                                                             ‘Tate Chambers is currently serving as the
All of the programs spread the same                          National Coordinator for Project Safe
message—avoiding gangs and gang violence is                  Neighborhoods as a detailee from the Central
the best way to avoid going back to prison.                  District of Illinois to the Legal Initiatives Staff at
                                                             EOUSA. Tate joined the United States Attorney's

6                                    U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                          J U LY 2008
Office in the Central District of Illinois in 1984.
During his time in the U.S. Attorney's Office, Tate
has served as Branch Chief, Appellate Chief,
OCDETF Lead Task Force Attorney, District PSN
Coordinator, and Anti-Gang Coordinator. He is
also retired from the Illinois Army National Guard
where he served in the JAG Corps.a

The Department of Justice's Gang
Squad, Gang Targeting Enforcement
and Coordination Center, and
National Gang Intelligence Center
 David Jaffe                                               three entities—the Gang Squad; the Gang
 Deputy Chief                                              Targeting, Enforcement and Coordination Center
 Gang Squad Unit                                           (Gang TECC); and the National Gang Intelligence
 Criminal Division                                         Center (NGIC)—each provide unique resources
                                                           that AUSAs and other local, state, and federal
                                                           prosecutors can use to obtain assistance in gang
 I. Introduction
                                                           prosecutions or to enhance investigations,
      Prosecuting gang cases often requires an             indictments, or trials.
 extraordinary commitment of resources. An
 Assistant United States Attorney (AUSA) can be            II. The Gang Squad
 pulled in many directions while marshalling
 several homicides, assaults, narcotics cases, and              The Criminal Division's Gang Squad Unit is a
 other acts, from multiple jurisdictions or                specialized group of federal prosecutors charged
 countries, into one seamless gang indictment or           with developing and implementing strategies to
 trial.                                                    attack the most significant national and
                                                           transnational gangs operating in the United States.
      The Department of Justice (Department)               These prosecutors assist and coordinate with local
 recognizes the increasingly daunting task of              United States Attorneys' offices (USAOs) on legal
 building a complex gang case, especially in an            issues and multidistrict cases. They also work
 era of smaller prosecutorial staffs and reduced           with numerous domestic and foreign law
 litigation budgets. In this regard, three new             enforcement agencies to construct effective and
 Department entities were specifically designed to         coordinated prevention and enforcement
 support and enhance the Department's mission to           strategies, formulate policy, and prosecute select
 reduce gang violence and gang crime through               gang cases of national importance. The Gang
 aggressive, thorough prosecution of local,                Squad is also charged with providing legal
 regional, national, and transnational gangs. These

J U LY 2008                        U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                               7
expertise on a variety of federal domestic violent         Salvador are alleged to have ordered murders in
crime offenses and on violations of federal                Maryland from their Salvadoran jail cells, while
firearms and explosives laws.                              the third was alleged to have traveled from El
                                                           Salvador to Maryland to commit murder.
     Since its inception, the Gang Squad has
actively recruited experienced prosecutors with                In another case, the Gang Squad, working
diverse backgrounds in order to fulfill its varied         together with the Middle District of Tennessee,
mission. The Squad, therefore, can draw on an              identified and targeted for federal prosecution a
experienced pool of talent to answer questions             local clique of MS-13, which had been
from the field on a variety of legal and technical         responsible for at least 4 murders and at least 20
matters. To that end, the Gang Squad and the               shootings in the Nashville metropolitan area. That
Executive Office for United States Attorneys               joint investigation resulted in the indictment of the
recently activated a list server dedicated to gang         14 worst MS-13 offenders in the district,
issues. The list server—GangLink—is an online              including the entire regional leadership of MS-13,
community of gang coordinators from every                  on racketeering charges. To date, 11 defendants
USAO and Gang Squad attorney in the country.               have pled guilty to RICO offenses. The remaining
Through GangLink (or through a simple                      three defendants are scheduled for trial on August
telephone call to Chief Kevin Carwile (202-514-            5, 2008.
3705)), a prosecutor can pose any question
                                                                Further, on August 28, 2007, the Gang Squad
related to a gang case or cases involving crimes
                                                           and the USAO for the Eastern District of
of violence. So far this year, the Gang Squad has
                                                           Michigan announced the indictment of 16
fielded questions concerning proof requirements
                                                           members of the Outlaws Motorcycle Club on
under certain gun statutes and procedures for
                                                           charges including violent crime in aid of
transferring a juvenile to adult status, and
                                                           racketeering, illegal drug distribution, and gun
provided help with information related to a gang
                                                           violations. The indictment is part of an ongoing,
expert identified by the defense in a racketeering
                                                           nationwide law enforcement initiative targeting
case. Through either GangLink or by telephone,
                                                           this violent gang.
the Gang Squad is always available to answer
any gang or violent crime question a prosecutor                By providing advice, information, and/or
may have.                                                  experienced trial attorneys, the Gang Squad seeks
                                                           to support the USAOs, and state and local
     The Gang Squad is also active in joining
                                                           prosecutors, in their efforts to disrupt and
with USAOs in prosecuting select gang cases of
                                                           dismantle violent street gangs in the United States.
national importance. For example, starting in
April 2006, the Gang Squad joined with the
District of Maryland in their ongoing MS-13                III. Gang TECC
Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization                       The Department's National Gang Targeting,
(RICO) case. The goal of the partnership was to            Enforcement & Coordination Center (Gang
identify and indict the international leadership of        TECC) began operations in the summer of 2006
the transnational street gang La Mara                      as the national anti-gang task force created by the
Salvatrucha, otherwise known as MS-13, and to              Attorney General. In accordance with the
dismantle the leadership of MS-13 in the                   Attorney General's directive, Gang TECC is a
Maryland/Washington, D.C./Virginia                         multiagency center designed to serve as a critical
metropolitan area. This partnership resulted in            catalyst in a unified federal effort to help disrupt
the grand jury returning a superseding indictment          and dismantle the most significant and violent
that added three Salvadoran nationals to the               gangs in the United States. The center is headed
RICO conspiracy indictment on June 4, 2007.                by a senior Criminal Division prosecutor with
Two of the defendants incarcerated in El                   extensive experience in multiagency and multi-

8                                  U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 district investigations and prosecutions, as well           Department and with the analysts and others at the
 as information sharing.                                     National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC).
     The senior investigators at Gang TECC come                  Mr. Adam W. Cohen, Director, Gang TECC,
 from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms               may be contacted at (703) 414-8516, or via e-mail
 and Explosives (ATF), the Federal Bureau of                 at
 Prisons (BOP), the Drug Enforcement
 Administration (DEA), the Federal Bureau of                 IV. National Gang Intelligence Center
 Investigation (FBI), the United States Marshals
 Service (USMS), and the United States                            Since its inception, the National Gang
 Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) at                Intelligence Center (NGIC) has made great strides
 the Department of Homeland Security.                        in collecting, consolidating, and analyzing
                                                             disparate pieces of intelligence from multiple
     The four primary goals of Gang TECC are:                federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies.
 •   to assist in the initiation of gang-related             Designed to be a one-stop-shop for gang
     investigations and enhance existing                     intelligence, the NGIC has developed an
     investigations and prosecutions;                        integrated approach to networking contacts,
                                                             information systems, and raw intelligence.
 •   to aid in the coordination, deconfliction, and
     effectiveness of gang-related initiatives,                   Currently, the NGIC is comprised of analysts
     investigations, and prosecutions;                       from seven federal agencies (ATF, BOP, FBI,
                                                             DEA, ICE, USMS, and the National Drug
 •   to develop an enhanced understanding of the             Intelligence Center). Working together, these
     national gang problem and propose strategies            analysts strive to understand the trends, patterns,
     to neutralize the most violent and significant          and threats that gangs pose across the nation.
     threats; and                                            Analysts focus mainly on multijurisdictional
 •   to coordinate with, and support, the National           gangs, many with regional or national
     Gang Intelligence Center.                               connectivity, to provide both tactical and strategic
                                                             support to federal, state, and local law
       The goal is to achieve maximum impact at              enforcement agencies. Over the past several years,
 the national level against the most violent gangs           NGIC analysts have prepared threat assessments
 in this country. To further this goal, Gang TECC            in several states, documented emerging threats in
 is intended to provide "one stop shopping" via              the military and across the country, and provided
 phone and e-mail for local, state, and federal              tactical case support for high-profile operations
 investigators and prosecutors engaged in                    and prosecutions. A customer-oriented entity,
 significant anti-gang efforts. Gang TECC,                   NGIC analysts utilize their networks and
 through the participation of its member agencies,           technology to address a variety of requests for
 can offer either direct support for those engaged           information, support, and training.
 in anti-gang initiatives or can connect interested
 parties to appropriate officials to provide                      To ensure the rapid exchange of intelligence
 guidance or assistance. In many instances,                  among law enforcement agencies, NGIC
 specific assistance, coordination, or access to             continues to identify and develop new technology
 information developed in related cases is                   that will enable law enforcement across the
 invaluable to an ongoing gang investigation or              country to have access to many different
 prosecution.                                                intelligence products and tools. To that end, the
                                                             NGIC has acquired, or is in the process of
     The senior agents assigned to Gang TECC                 acquiring, access to several databases utilized by
 work in close collaboration with the Gang Squad             law enforcement nationwide, including,
 prosecutors in the Criminal Division of the                 GangNET, CalGang, I-CLEAR, and R-Dex.

J U LY 2008                          U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                  9
Additionally, the NGIC is developing a tattoo    , or via the NGIC SIG site on
and graffiti database that will enable users to  ˜
search and identify unknown images using
advanced image recognition technology.                     ABOUT THE AUTHOR
    The NGIC will continue to evolve to meet
the needs of federal, state, and local law                 ‘David Jaffe is the Deputy Chief of the Gang
enforcement agencies across the country.                   Squad. Prior to joining the Gang Squad, he was an
                                                           Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern
    Requests for intelligence, strategic analytical        District of New York.a
support, tactical support, training, or general
information can be directed to the NGIC at (703)
414-8600 (phone); (703) 414-8554 (fax);

Tools for Gang Prosecutions Available
Through the Office of Enforcement
Thomas Taylor                                               testimony, attorney subpoenas, and court
Criminal Division                                           closures. OEO has been tasked by Congress and
Associate Director for Policy                               the Attorney General with overseeing the use of
Office of Enforcement Operations                            these sensitive investigative techniques by the
                                                            federal law enforcement community, including
                                                            the United States Attorneys' offices (USAOs),
I. Introduction
                                                            federal investigative agencies, and the sections
     Gangs consist of close-knit,                           and offices of the Criminal Division.
highly-connected individuals or subgroups
engaged in a wide variety of crimes. Gang                   II. Wiretaps
members frequently threaten and intimidate
witnesses and are particularly violent against                   One of the most effective investigatory tools
former gang members who cooperate with law                  to combat gang violence is the wiretap, fashioned
enforcement. This article briefly describes some            by the aptly named "Omnibus Crime Control and
of the tools, uniquely available through the                Safe Streets Act." Most types of electronic
Criminal Division's Office of Enforcement                   surveillance, such as the interception of wire,
Operations (OEO), used to address challenges                oral, and/or electronic communications pursuant
often found in gang prosecutions. This article is           to Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and
compiled and edited from a series of articles by            Safe Streets Act of 1968, as amended, (Title III),
other authors in OEO.                                       court-authorized video surveillance, and certain
                                                            sensitive uses of consensual monitoring, come
    There are many indispensable tools available            under the purview of OEO. Congress passed Title
through OEO for the investigation and successful            III to legalize and regulate the use of electronic
prosecution of gang violence. Those discussed               surveillance by federal law enforcement agencies
here are wiretaps, dual prosecutions, compelled             in criminal investigations. As originally enacted,

10                                 U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                       J U LY 2008
 Title III authorized electronic surveillance of wire         evaluate the applications and prepare
 (electronically transmitted voice) and oral (face-           recommendations regarding approval for the
 to-face) communications to investigate certain               Assistant Attorney General (AAG) for the
 listed crimes. This authorization remained                   Criminal Division.
 relatively unchanged until 1986 when Congress
                                                                   For Title III warrants, as with any search
 amended the statute to permit the interception of
                                                              warrant, the government must show that there is
 electronic communications (data transmission,
                                                              probable cause to believe that evidence of the
 such as facsimile machine, computer, pager, and
                                                              specified crimes will be obtained from the seizure
 text messages). Congress also allowed, for the
                                                              of intangible evidence, such as communications.
 first time, the interception of criminals using
                                                              Title III merely codified that basic Fourth
 changing facilities or locations, without first
                                                              Amendment principle. Attorneys in OEO's
 having to specify the particular facility or
                                                              Electronic Surveillance Unit are eager and
 location to be tapped, known as the "roving tap."
                                                              available to assist any Assistant United States
      When Congress granted law enforcement the               Attorney (AUSA), or other Department attorney,
 use of these powerful investigative tools in 1968,           in the preparation of applications for Title III
 it also recognized the potential for abuse.                  warrants and to help identify the particular facts
 Therefore, it mandated that a high-ranking                   that give rise to probable cause in the arena of
 official in the Department of Justice                        electronic evidence. Title III warrants also differ
 (Department), specially designated by the                    from other search warrants in one important
 Attorney General, approve and authorize all                  aspect—a Title III order may be issued only if
 federal wiretap applications before their                    certain enumerated crimes are being investigated.
 submission to a federal court for consideration.             Luckily for the trial prosecutor, most gang
 When the government fails to obtain Department               prosecutions invariably include one or more of
 approval for applications to intercept wire or oral          the enumerated offenses.
 communications before the court issues the order,
                                                                    Not only does Title III require a
 the wiretap evidence will be suppressed.
                                                              probable-cause showing for each facility or
 United States v. Reyna, 218 F.3d 1108, 1112 (9th
                                                              location to be tapped, but the government must
 Cir. 2000).
                                                              also show that each tap is necessary to achieve
     In contrast, because Title III does not require          the goals of the investigation. Title III requires
 prior Department approval before the government              the government to provide a full and complete
 seeks an order to intercept electronic communica-            statement as to whether or not other investigative
 tions, unlike oral or wire interceptions, there is no        procedures have been tried and failed, or why
 suppression remedy for failure to do so.                     they reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed
 Nonetheless, a government attorney can face                  if tried, or to be too dangerous. 18 U.S.C.
 disciplinary action if he or she does not obtain             § 2518(3)(c). Moreover, the investigative agency
 approval for those applications; prior approval is           conducting the wiretap should have jurisdiction
 mandated by Department policy. USAM 9-7.100.                 over the offenses.
      As a result of these statutory and policy                   Typically, investigative techniques employed
 obligations and the large number of                          or considered in criminal investigations include
 authorizations, the Department assigned the OEO              the use of confidential sources/cooperating
 the responsibility of vetting these applications to          witnesses, the use of undercover
 ensure compliance with Title III and the                     agents/operations, physical surveillance of the
 Department's policies regarding the use of                   subjects or known locations, the analysis of
 electronic surveillance. OEO's oversight is                  telephone records and call data, grand jury
 accomplished through the work of dedicated                   investigations, and the analysis of documentary
 attorneys in the Electronic Surveillance Unit, who           evidence. Failure to establish legal necessity is,

J U LY 2008                          U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                               11
by far, the most common reason courts suppress               crimes based on substantially the same acts or
wiretap evidence. The issue of suppression                   transactions involved in a prior state or federal
typically arises when an affiant does not pursue             prosecution. In recent years, however,
facts material to the necessity determination, fails         cooperation between federal and state
to consider or employ common investigative                   prosecutors, and the rise of joint
techniques, or misrepresents what investigative              federal/state/local task forces, has resulted in a
avenues have been pursued. A wiretap affidavit               growing number of "split" cases involving violent
must contain an accurate, particularized showing             gang members and other defendants. For
of investigative necessity, based on the facts of            example, in an arrest in which illegal narcotics
each individual case. The affidavit must justify             and a weapon are recovered, the state might
the use of electronic surveillance. This                     prosecute the defendant for the narcotics offense
justification must be updated in every extension             and the federal prosecutors might prosecute the
request to reflect why the previously obtained               weapons offense. Also, on occasion, a locally
communications are not sufficient.                           prosecuted case might leave a compelling federal
                                                             interest unvindicated.
    Currently, the most frequently enumerated
offenses to justify wire or electronic surveillance              In cases "split" with a state prosecutor or in
are crimes involving:                                        cases which leave a federal interest otherwise
                                                             unvindicated, the federal prosecutor must obtain
•    controlled substances;
                                                             the Criminal Division's authorization to proceed
•    use of communication facilities in the                  with the case if the state case involves
     commission of narcotics offenses;                       substantially the same acts or transactions and an
                                                             attachment of jeopardy. Requests for waiver of
•    engaging in a continuing criminal enterprise,
                                                             the dual prosecution policy should be in a
     attempt, and conspiracy, in violation of 21
                                                             memorandum or letter and sent to the Policy and
     U.S.C. §§ 841, 843, 846, and 848;
                                                             Statutory Enforcement Unit (PSEU) of OEO.
•    interstate travel in aid of a racketeering              Upon receipt of a request, the PSEU will
     enterprise, money laundering, and conspiracy            determine whether the proposed federal case is
     to launder money, in violation of 18 U.S.C.             substantially based on the same acts or
     §§ 1952, 1956, and 1957; and                            transactions and, if so, evaluate whether waiver of
                                                             the policy is appropriate.
•    alien smuggling, in violation of 8 U.S.C.
     § 1324.                                                      In order to evaluate a request, the PSEU must
                                                             be advised of the facts behind the criminal
For in-depth information on this useful tool in
                                                             incident, the charges that were filed in the prior
gang prosecutions, see USAM 9-7.000 and Julie
                                                             prosecution, the prior sentence, the proposed
Wuslich, Survey of Title III, U NITED S TATES
                                                             federal charges, and the likely federal sentence.
A TTORNEYS ' B ULLETIN , Jan. 2007, at 2.
                                                             The request should contain background
                                                             information on the defendant, including criminal
III. Dual prosecutions                                       history, and any other significant information that
     Generally, the federal government does not              would support a conclusion that there is a
prosecute defendants for crimes if they have                 compelling federal interest warranting federal
previously been prosecuted by another sovereign              prosecution. Upon completion of its review, the
entity for the same criminal acts. The policy of             PSEU sends a recommendation to the AAG, who
prohibiting these dual prosecutions (known as the            is the deciding authority. The AAG normally will
Petite Policy, after Petite v. United States, 361            grant a waiver if he or she determines that there is
U.S. 529 (1960)) applies when a federal                      a compelling federal interest in prosecuting the
prosecutor seeks to prosecute an individual for

12                                  U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 defendant and that the prior proceeding did not               survive a Kastigar inquiry in which the
 vindicate that federal interest.                              investigating district is not exposed to the
                                                               immunized testimony.
      For more information on this useful tool, see
 the USAM, Section 9-2.031.                                         The PSEU also considers the "close family
                                                               relative exception" to a request for a compulsion
 IV. Compelled testimony by grant of                           order. The Department usually denies an
 immunity                                                      application that seeks to compel testimony from a
                                                               close relative of the target/defendant. USAM
      Particularly useful in gang cases in which               9-23.211. The purpose of this internal policy is to
 some gang members may have minimal                            preserve family unity. The close family exception
 culpability, a prosecutor can compel grand jury               does not apply if the testifying relative is also
 and trial testimony of recalcitrant witnesses who             culpable or if the prosecutor only plans to
 have legitimate Fifth Amendment privileges                    question the relative about a business that he or
 against self-incrimination by grants of use                   she operated in conjunction with the
 immunity. Where a witness is granted use                      target/defendant. Otherwise, the close family
 immunity, prosecutors cannot make direct or                   exception cannot be overcome unless the matter
 indirect use of immunized testimony against the               under investigation has overriding prosecutorial
 witness except to prosecute the witness for                   concerns.
 perjury, giving a false statement, or otherwise
                                                                    Upon receiving authorization, the AUSA may
 failing to comply with the compulsion order. 18
                                                               file a motion with the court seeking a compulsion
 U.S.C. §§ 6001-6006.
                                                               order to testify. The statute requires a showing
      To obtain permission to apply for a                      that a Department official approved the
 compulsion order, AUSAs should submit a                       application for a compulsion order and, for this
 compulsion order request form, signed by the                  reason, most USAOs attach the authorization
 United States Attorney, to the PSEU. To                       letter to the motion. For more information, see the
 authorize a compulsion order, the requesting                  USAM, Section 9-23.100.
 AUSA must establish that the testimony being
 sought is necessary to the public interest. The               V. Attorney subpoenas
 Department closely focuses on several factors, the
 most obvious of which is relative culpability.                     The prosecution of gangs, especially if they
 Usually, a request for use immunity will not be               are large and well-funded, sometimes requires
 authorized for a witness who is more culpable                 subpoenas directed to attorneys (e.g., subpoenas
 than the person against whom he or she will                   for billing records). If a subpoena is involved, and
 testify. In such situations, the Department insists           the information sought relates to the
 that a highly culpable witness first be prosecuted            representation of a client, the AUSA must request
 before immunity will be considered.                           authorization through OEO. Subpoenas directed
                                                               at attorneys representing parties (in criminal or
      If the witness is being investigated by another          civil matters) must first be authorized by the
 district, the AUSA seeking immunity must                      AAG for the Criminal Division, unless the
 consult with the assigned AUSA in the other                   information sought falls into a discrete set of
 district to determine if there is an objection. If the        exceptions.
 witness is being investigated for crimes related to
 the proposed immunized testimony, the                              Because subpoenas to attorneys are an
 Department ordinarily will not authorize the                  extremely sensitive matter, prosecutors should
 immunity unless the witness's testimony is                    first attempt to obtain the information from
 absolutely essential to a very important case. The            another source. If that is not feasible, and a
 two districts must work out a procedure that will             subpoena is necessary, the prosecutor should

J U LY 2008                           U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                13
narrowly draw the subpoena and not seek                     activities and composition often can only be
information within the protection of the attorney-          obtained through the cooperation of a gang
client privilege. If a subpoena is needed relative          member, who may also be a codefendant.
to the representation of a client, and the AUSA             Because notice of the cooperation would likely
believes that an exception to the privilege applies         endanger an investigation or the safety of the
(such as the crime/fraud exception), the                    cooperator, prosecutors often seek (or would
authorization request should set out the reasons in         consent to a defense request for) the closure of a
support of that belief.                                     judicial proceeding in the cooperating
                                                            codefendant's case. Court proceedings involving
     Prosecutors should submit requests for
                                                            nondefendants may also require closure for
authorization to the PSEU using the form set out
                                                            similar reasons. Federal law and Department
in the Criminal Resource Manual at 264. The
                                                            policy, however, recognize a strong presumption
request should make clear whether testimony or
                                                            against closing proceedings. Such court closures
documents, or both, will be sought under the
                                                            require the express prior authorization of the
subpoena. When documents are sought in
                                                            Deputy Attorney General (DAG). 28 C.F.R.
addition to the testimony of the attorney-witness,
                                                            § 50.9.
the prosecutor must also submit a draft of the
subpoena duces tecum, listing the documents                     The PSEU assists USAOs by providing
sought. The wording of the demand for                       advice in the area of court closures, reviewing
documents must also be set out.                             requests to close proceedings, and making
                                                            recommendations to the DAG regarding the
     Not all subpoenas to attorneys come under
                                                            application to move for (or consent to) a
the authorization requirement. If the subpoena
                                                            courtroom closure. Closure of a courtroom, in
seeks information that is unrelated to the
                                                            connection with a criminal proceeding, may only
representation of a client, such as information
                                                            constitutionally occur under limited
about the nonlegal business operations of a firm
                                                            circumstances. Such circumstances exist where
that also happens to be engaged in the practice of
                                                            closure is narrowly tailored toward preserving an
law, or information regarding activities unrelated
                                                            important interest such as protecting the safety of
to the practice of law, there is no need to contact
                                                            an informant, the integrity of an ongoing
the Department. Further, if the attorney is willing
                                                            investigation, or the identity of an undercover
to supply the information without being served
                                                            police witness.
with a subpoena, authorization is not needed.
However, authorization is required for a so-called               Whenever closure is sought in a case or
"friendly subpoena," in which an attorney-witness           matter under the supervision of the Criminal
indicates that he or she is willing to provide the          Division, the request, and any related questions,
information but asks for a subpoena.                        should be directed to the PSEU. In addition to
                                                            setting forth the relevant factual and procedural
    For additional guidance on attorney
                                                            background, the request should include a detailed
subpoenas, see the USAM, Section 9-13.410, and
                                                            explanation of the need for closure. The request
Kathleen N. Coleman, The Witness Immunity
                                                            should address how an open proceeding will
Unit in the Office of Enforcement Operations, in
                                                            create a substantial likelihood of danger to
                                                            specified individuals, how ongoing investigations
2007, at 10.
                                                            will be jeopardized, or how a person's right to a
                                                            fair trial will be impaired. The request should also
VI. Court closures                                          consider whether there are any reasonable
     Because it is difficult to place undercover            alternatives to closure, such as delaying the
officers or confidential informants inside a gang           proceeding, if possible, until the reasons for
structure, information regarding the gang's                 closure cease to exist. The request should be

14                                 U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 submitted sufficiently in advance of the                    Other tools available through OEO include S-
 proceeding in question to allow time for its                Visas for noncitizen witnesses, entry into the
 adjudication through the PSEU, OEO, the Office              Federal Witness Security Program, imposition of
 of the AAG for the Criminal Division, and the               more restrictive confinement conditions known as
 DAG.                                                        Special Administrative Measures, or investigative
                                                             in-prison special operations against incarcerated
      If, after approval by the DAG and an order of
                                                             gang members, and more. AUSAs can remain
 the court, proceedings are closed, the government
                                                             confident that OEO is always available to assist
 attorney has the obligation to review the records
                                                             in investigations and prosecutions, address
 of the closed proceedings every 60 days to
                                                             questions, and advance the AUSAs efforts to
 determine whether the reasons for closure still
                                                             combat gang violence. All OEO units and
 apply. 28 CFR § 50.9(f). As soon as the
                                                             program supervisors can be reached at (202)
 justification for closure ceases to exist, the
 government must file a motion to have the
 records unsealed. AUSA's should acknowledge                 ABOUT THE AUTHOR
 this obligation in their closure requests and advise
 the PSEU when the records are unsealed. The                 ‘Thomas Taylor is the Associate Director for
 PSEU will periodically seek updates from                    Policy at OEO. He served previously as an AUSA
 USAOs regarding the status of closed                        in the USAO for the District of Columbia, as a
 proceedings.                                                JAG Officer in the U.S. Air Force Reserve, and as
                                                             an attorney-advisor on the staffs of the White
     For more information on this tool, often                House Counsel's Office, the Executive Office for
 essential in successful gang prosecutions, see              U.S. Attorneys, and the Board of Veterans'
 USAM 9-5.150 and Mary Healy, Office of                      Appeals. He has served the federal government
 Enforcement Operations’ Policy and Statutory                since 1978.a
 Enforcement Unit, U NITED S TATES A TTORNEYS '
 B ULLETIN , Jan. 2007, at 17.

 VII. Conclusion
     These are only a few of the helpful tools
 available through OEO for gang prosecutions.

 Use of Federal Statutes to Attack
 Street Gangs
 Joseph Alesia                                               I. Introduction
 Assistant United States Attorney
                                                                  Some street gangs are comprised of hundreds
 Northern District of Illinois
                                                             of members that are led by a group of individuals
                                                             who rule through a rigid, hierarchical structure
 John Lausch                                                 and are guided by organizational bylaws. These
 Assistant United States Attorney                            organizations often exist for the sole purpose of
 Northern District of Illinois                               facilitating the commission of various crimes, or,
                                                             in the alternative, using the proceeds of their

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                               15
crimes to fund other activities. Other gangs are              § 846. Section 846 makes it a crime for an
better described as "street crews," i.e., a handful           individual to conspire with others to distribute or
of individuals who work together to deal drugs,               to possess with intent to distribute controlled
rob and extort, or commit other crimes for the                substances. A conspiracy is simply an agreement
common benefit of the gang's members.                         between two or more people to do something
                                                              illegal—in this case, to distribute drugs or possess
    In both types of entities, there exists an
                                                              drugs with intent to distribute them. A defendant
unholy alliance of gangs, guns, and drugs—any
                                                              is responsible for that conspiracy if he or she
combination of which can be found in cities
                                                              knowingly becomes a member of the conspiracy
throughout the country. For many years, law
                                                              with the intention to further it.
enforcement has been working tirelessly to
investigate and prosecute these criminal                          Drug trafficking tends to be the one of the
organizations.                                                primary activities of many street gangs. Some
                                                              gangs exist for the sole purpose of selling drugs
     The federal criminal code provides several
                                                              so the gang's members can make money. Other
tools that prosecutors and law enforcement can
                                                              gangs exist mainly to protect turf:
use to dismantle criminal street gangs and bring
to justice the members of those gangs who wreak               •   to control street corners, city blocks, or entire
havoc on communities. This article sets forth                     neighborhoods, for the purpose of taxing
some of the statutes that can be used to attack                   business owners in those areas;
criminal street gangs and their members.
                                                              •   to control the drug trade and/or other illegal
                                                                  activity contained therein; or
II. 21 U.S.C. §§ 841 & 846—Drug
offenses                                                      •   to simply keep out rival gang members,
                                                                  against whom the controlling gang has a feud.
     The money derived from drug trafficking is
                                                              For gangs involved in these turf wars, drug
often the lifeblood of street gangs. It is, therefore,
                                                              money is often used to help fund the gang's
not surprising that the drug offenses found in
Title 21 of the United States Code supply some of
the most used and most effective tools to combat                  Gang members often work together to sell
gang activity.                                                drugs in order to make money for the benefit of
                                                              the gang, which may include:
     The federal drug statutes provide at least two
major benefits in fighting street gang activity.              •   buying guns;
First, the drug conspiracy statute—21 U.S.C.
                                                              •   bonding incarcerated gang members out of
§ 846—allows prosecutors to allege a broad range
of conduct, including violence and threats of
violence, when such activities are part of the                •   paying for the lawyers of fellow gang
methods and means used by a street gang to help                   members awaiting trial;
obtain and sell drugs. Second, the statutory
                                                              •   protecting and promoting their drug dealing
penalties for federal drug crimes—in particular
the mandatory minimum sentences set forth in 21
U.S.C. § 841(b)— are stiff and very appropriate               •    providing countersurveillance for each other;
for street gang members who sell drugs and
                                                              •   sharing customers and drug suppliers;
acquire and maintain their drug turf through
violence and threats of violence.                             •   maximizing their ability to obtain personal
                                                                  profits; and
    One of the best statutes to combat street gang
activity is the drug conspiracy statute, 21 U.S.C.            •   realizing profits that will go to their leaders.

16                                   U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                          J U LY 2008
 In all of these scenarios, however, the simple fact         the existence of the conspiracy and the
 that the gang members band together for the                 interrelationship between defendants and the
 common purpose of making money by selling                   witnesses who participated in the drug
 drugs makes them susceptible to a drug                      distribution operation); United States v. Johnson,
 conspiracy charge.                                          28 F.3d 1487, 1497 (8th Cir. 1994) (allowing
                                                             gang evidence to show the connection between
      Drug conspiracy is a particularly effective
                                                             defendants involved in a drug conspiracy);
 statute for prosecuting gang members because it
                                                             United States v. Robinson, 978 F.2d 1554, 1562
 allows the prosecutor to hold a gang member
                                                             (10th Cir. 1992) ("[A]ssociational evidence may
 responsible for the entirety of the gang's illegal
                                                             be directly relevant on the issues of formation,
 conduct. Charging a gang member with one or
                                                             agreement and purpose of a conspiracy.");
 two narcotics charges allows the prosecutor to
                                                             United States v. McKinney, 954 F.2d 471, 479
 present evidence of the defendant's actions
                                                             (7th Cir. 1992) (evidence of gang affiliation
 involving those deals. Charging that same gang
                                                             admissible to show that the gang had control over
 member with drug conspiracy (if the evidence
                                                             its members and disciplined them).
 allows it) permits the prosecutor to present
 evidence of a broad range of the drug dealing                    Evidence of violent acts committed to protect
 gang members' conduct. This conduct may                     and promote the ongoing drug trafficking activity
 include:                                                    may also be admissible. See United States v.
                                                             Hicks, 368 F.3d 801, 806 (7th Cir. 2004)
 •   the drug dealer and the gang's regular sale of
                                                             (evidence of violent acts, including murder,
     drugs over a period of time;
                                                             admissible in drug conspiracy case to show how
 •   the gang's use of violence and acts of                  defendants defended and controlled their
     violence to protect current, and gain new,              territory). One way to increase the likelihood of
     drug territory;                                         being able to introduce such evidence is to use a
                                                             speaking indictment and specifically allege how
 •   the use of guns and other weapons to protect
                                                             the gang played a role in protecting or promoting
     the gang's drugs and money; and
                                                             the drug trafficking operation.
 •   the recruitment of other individuals into the
                                                                 While the drug conspiracy statute is often
     gang to sell drugs, provide security, or carry
                                                             used to attack gang members who work together
     out acts of violence against competitors or
                                                             to operate a wholesale or retail drug distribution
     underperforming gang-member
                                                             network, the drug conspiracy statute is not so
                                                             limited. For example, § 846 can also be used to
     In many jurisdictions, prosecutors may be               charge a crew of individuals whose primary
 able to present evidence of gang membership and             purpose is to steal drugs and then sell those drugs
 gang activity to prove the existence of the                 to others engaged in the wholesale or retail drug
 charged conspiracy. See, e.g., United States v.             trade. Either way, the common purpose of
 Suggs, 374 F.3d 508, 516 (7th Cir. 2004)                    possessing and distributing drugs in order to
 (admitting gang evidence to show existence of               make money is what places this conduct firmly
 drug conspiracy, noting that "[g]ang affiliation is         within the ambit of the drug conspiracy statute.
 particularly relevant, and has been held
                                                                 Several additional considerations make § 846
 admissible, in cases where the interrelationship
                                                             an attractive charge in drug conspiracy cases. To
 between people is a central issue[,] such as in a
                                                             prove the drug conspiracy charge, the government
 conspiracy case."); United States v. Thomas, 86
                                                             does not need to:
 F.3d 647, 652-53 (7th Cir. 1996) (testimony
 regarding gang's prohibition on cooperating
 against fellow gang members helped demonstrate

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                               17
•    prove that any overt acts were committed               locations, such as schools or public housing
     (although there will almost certainly be many          projects.
     of them);
                                                                 Finally, the Continuing Criminal Enterprise
•    demonstrate that each gang-member                      (CCE) provision, 21 U.S.C. § 848, provides
     defendant knows all of the other gang                  increased punishment in the form of either a 20-
     members or their activities; or                        year minimum sentence, or a mandatory life
                                                            sentence, for certain drug offenders. In general,
•    show that each member defendant was in the
                                                            the CCE penalties apply to drug offenders who
     conspiracy at the beginning or stayed until
                                                            occupy organizer or leadership positions over a
     the end.
                                                            group of at least five individuals engaged in
Rather, the government need only show the                   committing a series of at least three controlled
existence of an agreement to distribute (or to              substance violations, and from which that leader
possess with intent to distribute) drugs—which              or organizer obtains a substantial amount of
can be (and often will be) an informal agreement            income or resources. Section 848 sets forth, in
proved via circumstantial evidence—and that                 much greater detail, the specific requirements the
each defendant joined the conspiracy knowing its            government must prove in order for these
common purpose and became a willing                         enhanced penalties to apply. Given the new
participant in that activity. See, e.g., 7th Cir.           advisory nature of the Sentencing Guidelines, the
Federal Jury Instruction Crim. 5.08 (1999).                 enhancements built into Title 21, in particular the
                                                            CCE provision, are likely to play an even greater
     As noted above, a second major benefit to
                                                            role in future gang prosecutions.
charging drug conspiracy—or other drug offenses
for that matter— is that such offenses typically
carry stiff penalties, which are often appropriate          III. 18 U.S.C. §§ 922 & 924—Firearms
for gang members. These penalties apply not only            offenses
to drug conspiracy, but to the other more basic
                                                                In this time of limited law enforcement
drug offenses of distributing a controlled
                                                            resources, statutes aimed at those who use guns
substance, or possessing a controlled substance
                                                            during, and in furtherance of, crimes of violence
with intent to distribute, both of which are
                                                            or drug trafficking, and at felons who possess
chargeable under 21 U.S.C. § 841(a). The
                                                            guns, should be arrows in the quiver of gang
prosecution of a high-ranking or particularly
violent gang member for a distribution (or
possession with intent to distribute) offense                    There are several options available. Perhaps
provides the prosecutor with a powerful tool that           the most powerful firearms statute falls under 18
can be used to remove his fellow gang members               U.S.C. § 924(c). This section makes it a crime for
from the streets, even where it is not feasible to          an individual to use or carry a firearm during, or
charge those individuals (and their criminal                in relation to, or to possess a firearm in
associates) in a larger, overarching conspiracy.            furtherance of, a drug trafficking crime or a crime
                                                            of violence. The force behind this section is its
     It is important to keep in mind that repeat
                                                            penalty. A violation of § 924(c) carries a
drug offenders face increased penalties under 21
                                                            mandatory 5-year prison term that must be served
U.S.C. § 841(b), once the prosecutor files notice
                                                            consecutive to any other term of imprisonment
that he or she will seek such additional penalties
                                                            the defendant receives for the underlying drug
pursuant to the provisions of 21 U.S.C. § 851.
                                                            trafficking crime or crime of violence. See 18
Further, 21 U.S.C. § 860 provides for enhanced
                                                            U.S.C. § 924(c)(1)(A)(i). The mandatory
penalties for persons who commit certain drug
                                                            consecutive sentence climbs to 7 years if the
offenses within 1,000 feet of stipulated, protected
                                                            firearm is brandished (18 U.S.C.

18                                 U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 § 924(c)(1)(A)(ii)) and 10 years if the offender            furtherance of a drug trafficking crime . The
 discharges the firearm (18 U.S.C.                           Director would be responsible for the 18 U.S.C.
 § 924(c)(c)(1)(A)(iii)). Further, if the § 924(c)           § 924(c)(1)(A) violation, at a minimum, under a
 offense involves a murder (as defined in 18                 Pinkerton theory of accountability, given that his
 U.S.C. § 1111), the offender may be punished by             or her coconspirators (the security members)
 death, or by imprisonment for any term of years             committed the § 924(c) offenses in furtherance
 or life (18 U.S.C. § 924(j)).                               of, and as a foreseeable consequence, of the drug
       Additionally, a second or subsequent                  conspiracy. Thus, even though the Director's
 violation of any of the subsections in 18 U.S.C.            hands never touched the weapons carried and
 § 924(c)(1)(A) carries a 25-year mandatory                  used by his underlings, he ordered those under
 consecutive sentence of imprisonment. The                   him to carry and discharge firearms when
 ramifications for gang members who carry or use             necessary. Therefore, he is equally culpable.
 guns in the course of drug trafficking offenses or          There is also a separate statute for conspiring to
 crimes of violence is profound. For instance, if a          violate 18 U.S.C. § 924(c), which carries a
 gang member is charged and convicted of a drug              maximum 20-year term of imprisonment. See 18
 trafficking offense involving over fifty grams of           U.S.C. § 924(o).
 crack cocaine (a 10-year mandatory minimum                      The felon-in-possession statute, 18 U.S.C.
 sentence under 21 U.S.C. § 841(b)(1)(A)) and                § 922(g), provides further ammunition for
 two counts of violating § 924(c), his mandatory             charging gun-toting gang bangers, whether or not
 minimum sentence of imprisonment would be 10                those members are the subject of a large,
 years for the drug offense, plus 5 years for the            overarching gang investigation. Consider a
 first § 924(c) conviction and 25 years for the              situation in which agents developed cooperating
 second § 924(c) conviction for a total of 40 years.         witnesses, conducted Title III interceptions, and
 It is important to note, however, that a single drug        made controlled purchases of drugs from gang
 trafficking or violent offense will support only            members, during the course of a months-long
 one § 924(c) charge. In other words, even if a              investigation into the drug trafficking-activity
 defendant possessed firearms on multiple                    controlled by a gang. After analyzing the
 occasions in furtherance of a drug conspiracy,              accumulated evidence, however, it is found that
 only one § 924(c) charge may be brought against             there is not enough to charge the most violent
 that defendant using the drug conspiracy as the             member, "Shooter." Can additional investigation
 underlying drug trafficking offense.                        lead to obtaining actionable evidence to charge
      Section 924(c) may also be used to charge              and convict Shooter and protect the public? The
 gang members who never actually possess a gun.              answer is an emphatic "yes" and § 922(g)
 For example, assume evidence shows that an                  provides a possible avenue.
 important midlevel manager in the gang                          Assume Shooter has a recent state court arrest
 (Director) orders other gang members to arm                 and/or conviction for possession of a firearm by a
 themselves with guns and work shifts to provide             felon. The federal prosecutor can obtain and
 security protecting the drug-selling members of             review the file for Shooter's state gun case, not
 the gang from rival gangs, robbers, and law                 only to assess the evidence but also to determine
 enforcement. The security members, themselves,              the potential federal sentence if Shooter were
 would be held accountable for violating 18                  charged and convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 922(g).
 U.S.C. § 924(c)(1)(A) because during, and in                This vetting of state gun cases to determine
 relation to, a drug trafficking crime, they used            whether federal prosecution is both viable and
 and carried a firearm. Those members could also             worthwhile is the backbone of the Project Safe
 be responsible under the possession prong,                  Neighborhoods programs operating across the
 because they also possessed firearms in                     country. It is also an excellent practice to always

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                               19
request that a trace be performed on any firearms           dangerous scenario and every effort should be
recovered in a state or federal investigation,              made to ensure that the individual is brought to
regardless of the prosecutive decision. Traces              justice.
often yield investigative leads or other important
                                                                 Finally, while §§ 924(c) and 922(g) are
                                                            perhaps the most used statutes for combating
     As with a § 924(c) charge, the benefit of              street gangs and their members, a thorough
bringing the § 922(g) charge is often in the                review of §§ 922 and 924 is a must for any gang
punishment. Specifically, a felon convicted under           investigator and prosecutor. There are numerous
§ 922(g) who is also an armed career criminal               additional firearms offenses set forth in those
(ACC), i.e., an individual who has three prior              sections, which may provide the prosecutor's only
convictions for serious drug offenses, violent              avenue to bring a gun-toting gang member to
felonies, or some combination thereof, is subject           justice. Section 922 sets forth several additional
to a 15-year statutory minimum sentence. See 18             crimes, including, by way of example, the
U.S.C. § 924(e). The prosecutor should obtain               following:
certified copies of the prior felony convictions
                                                            •    disposing of a firearm to various individuals,
and consult § 924(e) and any relevant case law in
                                                                 including a felon, a person under indictment
order to ensure that the defendant indeed qualifies
                                                                 for a felony, a fugitive from justice, or an
as an ACC, as the number and type of a
                                                                 unlawful drug user (18 U.S.C. § 922(d));
defendant's qualifying ACC convictions is often
challenged by the defense.                                  •    transferring a firearm to any person who the
                                                                 transferor knows, or has reasonable cause to
     If satisfied that Shooter is worthy of federal
                                                                 believe, does not reside in the state in which
prosecution, the evidence is sufficient, and upon
                                                                 the transferor resides (18 U.S.C. § 922(a)(5));
conviction a substantial sentence could be
imposed (whether the defendant is an ACC or                 •    transporting, shipping, or receiving in
not), strong consideration should be given to                    interstate commerce any firearm with an
adopting Shooter's state court gun case as a                     altered or obliterated serial number (18
federal § 922(g) prosecution. If Shooter had                     U.S.C. § 922(k)); and
already been convicted of the gun case in state
                                                            •    making a false statement in connection with
court, the federal prosecutor can request a waiver
                                                                 the purchase of a firearm or ammunition (18
of the Dual or Successive Prosecution Policy
                                                                 U.S.C. § 922(a)(6)).
from the Department of Justice (Department),
commonly known as the Petite policy, (USAM 9-
2.031). This permits the prosecutor to bring a              IV. 18 U.S.C. § 1951—Hobbs Act
subsequent federal charge based upon the same                    If the activity of the gang being prosecuted
conduct. If the waiver is granted, Shooter can              involves the robbery of money or property from
then be charged with being a felon in possession            drug dealers, business owners, or other
of a firearm, in violation of 18 U.S.C.                     individuals, or the extortion of a tax from these
§ 922(g)(1).                                                victims, then the prosecutor might be able to
    Felon-in-possession counts should also be               charge a violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1951. An
included in multicount indictments in which gang            individual who commits robbery or extortion
members are charged with drug conspiracy and                affecting commerce, or attempts or conspires to
various other offenses. While the sentence handed           do so, is chargeable under § 1951.
down to a felon in possession may pale in                        Robbery involves the "unlawful taking or
comparison to a potential drug conspiracy                   obtaining of personal property from the person or
sentence, (especially if the defendant is not an            in the presence of another, against his will, by
ACC), a gun in the hand of a gang member is a               means of actual or threatened force, or violence,

20                                 U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 or fear of injury, immediate or future, to his                   While individual robberies/extortions, or
 person or property. . . ." See 18 U.S.C.                    attempted robberies/extortions, can be charged
 § 1951(b)(1). The robbery offense in 18 U.S.C.              under § 1951, it is important to note that the
 § 1951 is to be utilized only in instances                  statute also permits the prosecutor to charge a
 involving organized crime, gang activity, or                conspiracy or an attempt to commit such
 wide-ranging schemes. In certain circumstances,             robberies and extortions. In that regard, § 1951 is
 the appropriate section of the Criminal Division            a powerful statute, similar to the drug conspiracy
 must be consulted before prosecution is initiated.          statute (21 U.S.C. § 846), in that it provides a
 See USAM 9-131.030. An example of robbery                   vehicle for the prosecutor to present evidence of a
 might include a crew of gang members                        lengthy pattern of conduct covering several
 brandishing guns who enter into a rival drug                victims and acts, along with any relevant gang
 dealer's stash house and physically threaten and            evidence, thereby allowing the jury to observe a
 restrain him so that they can steal the drugs and           full picture of the crew's illegal activity.
 money stored there.
                                                                  Finally, given that the above-mentioned
      In extortion, the victim drug dealer consents          § 1951 robberies and extortions (by the wrongful
 to the taking of his drugs and money as a result of         use of fear and actual or threatened force) fit the
 the wrongful use of fear and actual or threatened           "crime of violence" definition found at 18 U.S.C.
 force. See 18 U.S.C. § 1951(b)(2). In this                  § 924(c)(3), these offenses, like the drug
 extortion scenario, the crew enters the rival               trafficking offenses under 21 U.S.C. § 841 and
 dealer's stash house with guns drawn and                    846, can serve as predicates for 18 U.S.C.
 threatens to hurt him. The rival dealer hands over          § 924(c) charges. As described above, the prison
 his stash and money.                                        sentences for such § 924(c) weapons offenses
                                                             must be served consecutive to the sentences
      Under either robbery or extortion, the
                                                             imposed for the robbery/extortion crimes of
 prosecutor must be able to show that the
 defendant's actions had an affect on interstate
 commerce, which is one of the key elements that
 makes this a federal crime. This element is met if          V. 18 U.S.C. § 1959—VICAR
 the defendant's actions affected, or had the                    In the context of gang prosecutions, VICAR
 potential to affect, interstate commerce. See 7th           counts can be included in an indictment where
 Circuit Federal Jury Instructions Crim. (1999), 18          there is evidence of a shooting, or other violent
 U.S.C. § 1951 (Interstate Commerce Definition.)             assault, as a result of which a victim is seriously
 This is typically proven through a depletion of             injured or killed at the hands of gang members.
 assets theory, i.e., the victim of the robbery or           All VICAR indictments must be approved by the
 extortion operates a business, such as a grocery            Organized Crime and Racketeering Section
 store or a drug distribution operation, and                 (OCRS). VICAR can be charged under the
 purchases products from a state other than the one          Pinkerton theory of accountability as well.
 in which he operates. As a result of the robbery or         VICAR is an effective tool to employ in a typical
 extortion, that victim now has fewer assets from            attempted murder case, such as a gang retaliation
 which he can purchase his product in interstate             shooting, because there is no federal attempted
 commerce. As is set forth in more detail below              murder statute.
 under the violent crime in aid of racketeering
 (VICAR) offenses, there is case law holding that                 In satisfying the elements of a VICAR count,
 evidence showing that cocaine and heroin come               common hurdles to overcome in a gang crimes
 from outside the United States (which is often              setting include:
 introduced through an expert) is sufficient to              •    proving an enterprise exists;
 meet this interstate commerce element.
                                                             •    proving that the enterprise is engaged in, or

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                   21
     its activities affect, interstate or foreign               and affected interstate commerce, will satisfy this
     commerce; and                                              element. See, e.g., United States v. Westbrook,
                                                                125 F.3d 996, 1009-10 (7th Cir. 1997); see also
•    proving motive—did the person commit the
                                                                United States v. Moore, 363 F.3d 631, 637 (7th
     act for pecuniary gain or did he do it to join
                                                                Cir. 2004), vacated on other grounds at 73 U.S.
     the enterprise, maintain his position in the
                                                                3437 (2005) (court recognizing stipulation of
     enterprise, or increase his position in the
                                                                parties that heroin and cocaine are not produced
                                                                from substances in the United States); Marerro,
     In the gang world, the "enterprise" is usually             299 F.3d at 654, 655 ("[A]ll cocaine originates
defined as "a group of individuals associated in                overseas."). The reasonable inference to be drawn
fact although not a legal entity." See 18 U.S.C.                from such testimony is that the drugs had to move
§ 1959(b)(2). Proving that a gang/enterprise                    across the national border and state borders, if
exists is the foundation for a VICAR charge.                    applicable, to reach the destination where they
Types of evidence that can establish, beyond a                  were recovered by law enforcement. Additional
reasonable doubt, that a gang/enterprise exists                 evidence to marshal in support of the expert
include:                                                        testimony includes:
•    copies of gang laws;                                       •    cooperator testimony;
•    consensual or Title III recordings of gang                 •    undercover purchases of cocaine, heroin, or
     meetings, during which orders from ranking                      crack cocaine;
     members are issued;
                                                                •    Title III recordings; and
•    evidence of gang initiation rights; and
                                                                •    seizures of these drugs from members of the
•    testimony of cooperating members of the                         gang during the investigation.
     targeted gang, or from rival gangs, showing
                                                                     Most courts have held that a slight effect on
     the structure of the gang, how orders are
                                                                interstate commerce is all that is required, see
     given and carried out, how gang discipline is
                                                                United States v. Miller, 116 F.3d 641, 674 (2d
     meted out, and how revenues from the gang's
                                                                Cir. 1997) (interstate commerce nexus satisfied
     illicit activities are managed.
                                                                where RICO enterprise's business was narcotics
VICAR is a predicate offense for Title III                      trafficking even if individual acts of racketeering
interception. See 18 U.S.C. § 2516(1)(c).                       occurred solely within a state); United States v.
                                                                Farmer, 924 F.2d 647, 651 (7th Cir. 1991), and
     The government must establish that it has
                                                                that the burden of proving a nexus between the
jurisdiction to prosecute a VICAR charge as 18
                                                                alleged drug trafficking actions of defendants and
U.S.C. § 1959 requires that the enterprise be
                                                                interstate commerce is minimal. United States v.
engaged in, or that its activities affect, interstate
                                                                Wilkerson, 361 F.3d 717, 726 (2d Cir. 2004);
or foreign commerce. While certain gangs may
                                                                United States v. Marerro, 299 F.3d 653, 655 (7th
derive their income from organized vehicle or
                                                                Cir. 2002).
jewelry theft, the most common income source of
street gangs is trafficking in cocaine, crack                       The biggest obstacle to a successful VICAR
cocaine, or heroin, which generally will satisfy                prosecution in the gang crimes context, and
the "interstate or foreign commerce" element.                   where Title III and other recorded evidence often
                                                                becomes critical, is proving the motive element.
    In the typical case, expert testimony from an
                                                                VICAR allows prosecutors to prove that the
experienced agent establishing that the raw
                                                                violent act was done for pecuniary gain or was
materials of cocaine and heroin are not
                                                                done to join, maintain, or increase the offender's
indigenous to the United States, but are imported
                                                                position in the gang/enterprise. In the street gang
into this country and therefore have traveled in

22                                     U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 world, the vast majority of acts covered by                 hand, if the gang is involved in various types of
 VICAR are done without the promise or payment               crimes including drug dealing, kidnapping,
 of money, but are carried out to protect the                extortion of protection money from local business
 enterprise's continued viability—shootings to               owners, and murder, it might make sense to
 protect turf from rival gangs and/or law                    include all of this activity in a substantive RICO
 enforcement, internal gang violations to maintain           or RICO conspiracy charge. The NAC course on
 discipline in the gang, or assaults to protect the          RICO is excellent, as are the materials that are
 drug-selling operation.                                     given to course attendees, and the individuals
                                                             working at OCRS and at the Department's Gang
      Often, younger, lower-ranking members are
                                                             Squad are also an excellent resource in helping
 given orders to retaliate through shootings against
                                                             decide whether a RICO charge makes sense in a
 rival gangs, protect turf from other gang members
                                                             particular gang case.
 or robbers, and act as security for the gang's drug-
 selling operations. Gang members working
 security arm themselves with guns to protect their          VII. Other statutes
 territory. A recording of the shooter, the get-away              The statutes set forth above are by no means
 driver, or the chief who ordered the shooting, in           the only statutes that may apply in gang
 which a gang member brags about his exploits or             prosecutions. There are numerous other drug and
 discusses the disposal of a firearm can be                  weapons offenses that can be found under Titles
 devastating evidence.                                       21 and 18, which may be helpful in gang cases.
      VICAR can carry a stiff prison sentence in             In addition, there are statutes that specifically
 certain cases, especially when charged in                   relate to gang members, for example:
 conjunction with § 924(c) counts. The National              •    the drive by shooting statute (18 U.S.C.
 Advocacy Center (NAC) VICAR and RICO                             § 36), which makes it a crime for any person
 materials, supplied to RICO course attendees, are                who, in furtherance of or to escape detection
 an excellent resource for more information about                 of any major drug offense, and with intent to
 charging VICAR. The VICAR statute lists                          intimidate, harass, injure, or maim, fires a
 different statutory maximum sentences that vary                  weapon into a group of two or more persons
 based on the type of acts committed and the                      causing grave risk to human life; and
 degree of injury suffered by the victim. Please
 note that if the only charge that can be mustered           •    the criminal street gangs provision (18 U.S.C.
 is a VICAR conspiracy or attempt to commit a                     § 521), which increases the maximum
 murder or kidnapping, the statutory maximum                      sentence by up to 10 years for an individual
 penalty is only 10 years. 18 U.S.C. § 1959(a)(5).                who commits various controlled substance
                                                                  offenses or crimes of violence while
 VI. 18 U.S.C. § 1962—RICO                                        participating in a criminal street gang, as
                                                                  defined by that section.
      Last, but certainly not least, is the RICO
                                                                  Given that street gangs often impose rules of
 statute, 18 U.S.C. § 1962. This is perhaps the
                                                             silence upon its members, or otherwise prohibit
 most powerful statute to combat street gangs.
                                                             their members from cooperating with law
 While the application of RICO to gang cases goes
                                                             enforcement authorities, several additional
 beyond the scope of this article, there are a few
                                                             statutes might be helpful in gang prosecutions,
 things to keep in mind in deciding whether to
                                                             such as:
 charge a RICO offense in a gang prosecution. If,
 for example, the gang is primarily involved in              •    witness tampering (18 U.S.C. § 1512);
 drug dealing or in robbing drug dealers, the
                                                             •    obstruction of justice (18 U.S.C. § 1510);
 statutes set forth above might supply all the tools
 needed for an effective prosecution. On the other           •    perjury (18 U.S.C. § 1623); and

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                23
•    false statement (18 U.S.C. § 1001).                     ABOUT THE AUTHORS

VIII. Conclusion                                             ‘John Lausch is an Assistant United States
                                                             Attorney, Criminal Division, in the Northern
     There is not a federal law enforcement
                                                             District of Illinois. He serves as a Deputy
solution to every street gang problem. There are
                                                             Supervisor in the Narcotics and Gangs Section
several federal statutes that can be used to
                                                             and is the Antigang Coordinator. Mr. Lausch has
prosecute street gang members and to attack them
                                                             provided instruction to prosecutors and law
as a criminal organization. It is important,
                                                             enforcement at courses relating to the
however, to develop and maintain solid working
                                                             enforcement of gang crimes.
relationships with state and local prosecutors'
offices in order to ensure that the most effective           ‘Joseph Alesia is an Assistant United States
tools are being used to prosecute gangs. Certain             Attorney, Criminal Division, in the Northern
crimes (robberies and murders) may be                        District of Illinois. He serves as a Deputy
prosecuted as either state or federal crimes, but it         Supervisor in the Narcotics and Gangs Section.
may be more beneficial, for proof or sentencing              Mr. Alesia has taught courses relating to the
purposes, to charge the case in state court rather           enforcement of gang crimes at the National
than federal court.                                          Advocacy Center and for the FBI and IRS. Mr.
                                                             Alesia previously served as an Assistant Cook
     The problems caused by criminal street gangs            County, Illinois State's Attorney for 10 years and
are real, and ones that cannot be handled by                 was a Deputy Chief in the Gang Crimes Unit for
federal law enforcement alone, especially given              almost 2 years.a
the limited resources. As such, federal
prosecutors must work with state and local
prosecutors as part of the mission to keep the
citizens of the respective districts safe from the
activities of criminal street gangs.˜

When Children Commit Adult
Crimes: Demystifying Federal
Prosecution of Juveniles
Nancy Oliver                                            the age of 18. The percentage of underage
Trial Attorney                                          gang members increases to over 60 percent in
Domestic Security Section                               smaller cities and rural counties. Anecdotal
Criminal Division                                       evidence also indicates that adult gang
                                                        members increasingly use juveniles to commit
                                                        serious violent crimes, in part because the
I. Introduction
                                                        juveniles are unlikely to be prosecuted as
    The most recent statistics indicate that            adults and receive adult sanctions for their
approximately 40 percent of gang members in             actions.
larger cities and suburban counties are under

24                                  U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                       J U LY 2008
      Federal law dealing with juvenile                 to whom he had admitted the Diaz murder.
 proceedings presumes that the vast majority            Paz had agreed to cooperate and testify against
 of juvenile cases will be brought by the states,       Rivera but was murdered approximately 4
 not the federal government. Without question,          months before the Diaz murder trial. See
 the majority of cases do belong in state court.        United States v. D.R., 225 F. Supp. 2d 694
 Statistics from the Administrative Office of           (E.D. Va. 2002); Rivera v. United States, 494
 the United States Courts indicate that,                F. Supp. 2d 383 (E.D. Va. 2007).
 between 2003 and 2007, the total number of
                                                             The purpose of this "practice pointer"
 juvenile defendants per year ranged from 200
                                                        piece is to demystify the federal procedures
 to 128. These numbers reflect defendants in
                                                        for juvenile offenders sufficiently so that
 federal juvenile delinquency proceedings, as
                                                        prosecutors will consider taking the rare, but
 opposed to the number of juvenile defendants
                                                        appropriate case, and, just as importantly, to
 for whom the government sought a transfer to
                                                        provide resources to ease prosecutors through
 adult prosecution. Further, the majority of
                                                        the process.
 these cases arose in areas of exclusive federal
                                                        II. Process and procedures
     That said, federal prosecutors should be
 prepared to pursue the exceptional juvenile            A. Fundamental #1: Every case
 case, when appropriate. In most instances, the         involving a juvenile begins as a juvenile
 goal will be to prosecute the juvenile as an           delinquency proceeding
 adult rather than adjudicate him or her a
                                                             Anyone who commits a federal crime
 delinquent. In a case from the Southern
                                                        before his or her 18th birthday and who has
 District of New York, the United States
                                                        not yet reached age 21 is considered a
 Attorney's Office (USAO) pursued, and
                                                        "juvenile" under federal law. There are no
 successfully obtained, transfers of two
                                                        exceptions. It does not matter that the juvenile
 juveniles for adult prosecution. The juveniles
                                                        is an adult under state law or that the state has
 were members of a violent drug dealing group
                                                        prosecuted him as an adult previously for
 called the 165th Street Organization, which
                                                        other criminal acts. As discussed in more
 had been the subject of a series of
                                                        detail below, a prior conviction can be very
 prosecutions by the USAO for interstate
                                                        relevant to getting the juvenile into adult
 narcotics trafficking and a number of crimes
                                                        court, but the case must still start as a juvenile
 of violence. The juveniles were implicated in
                                                        proceeding under the Juvenile Justice and
 armed robbery, kidnapping and murder, and
                                                        Delinquency Prevention Act (the Act). 18
 the possession and distribution of crack
                                                        U.S.C. § 5031-5042.
 cocaine. See United States v. Ramirez, 297
 F.3d 185 (2d Cir. 2002).                               B. Fundamental #2: The United States
      More recently, in the Eastern District of         Attorney must personally certify the
 Virginia, MS-13 member Denis Rivera was                basis for federal jurisdiction over the
 transferred and prosecuted as an adult for the         juvenile
 murder of Joaquin Diaz. Rivera and five other
                                                             A juvenile proceeding is commenced with
 MS-13 members were charged in Diaz'
                                                        the filing of two pleadings: a juvenile
 murder. Rivera was three days shy of his 18th
                                                        information alleging that the individual has
 birthday at the time of the murder. Rivera was
                                                        committed an act of juvenile delinquency
 convicted of the Diaz murder and was
                                                        (which should include an affidavit) and a
 subsequently prosecuted and convicted for the
                                                        certification signed by the United States
 murder of his former girlfriend, Brenda Paz,
                                                        Attorney setting forth the basis for federal

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                              25
jurisdiction over the juvenile. Although the             C. Fundamental #3: A juvenile can
statute states that the Attorney General shall           waive juvenile status and agree to adult
make the certification, the authority to make            prosecution
the certification was delegated to all
United States Attorneys, which is reflected in                The easiest way to move a case into adult
a memorandum from the Assistant Attorney                 court is through a juvenile's voluntary waiver
General for the Criminal Division, dated July            of his status as a juvenile. Surprisingly, this
20, 1995. A copy of the delegation                       happens more frequently than one might
memorandum should be attached to the                     expect, typically as part of a plea agreement
certification filed with the court.                      and under circumstances in which the juvenile
                                                         is likely to be transferred by the court anyway.
     The Act provides three bases for the                Under the statute, a juvenile waives his status
certification by the United States Attorney.             "in writing upon advice of counsel." 18 U.S.C.
Unless the crime occurs on land under                    § 5032 ¶ 4. The waiver form needs to be
exclusive federal jurisdiction (basis #1), the           completed and filed with the court along with
certification will be based on the third                 the certification, delegation memorandum, and
provision, which states that the crime is a              juvenile information. Nevertheless, the best
federal felony crime of violence, enumerated             practice is to have the juvenile appear in court
drug offense, or other enumerated offense and            with counsel in order to assure that he or she is
that there is a substantial federal interest in the      apprised of the consequences of the waiver.
crime. 18 U.S.C. § 5032, ¶ 1 (setting forth all          The court then enters the order transferring the
3 bases for jurisdiction). Drug conspiracy is            juvenile to adult status. Once that occurs, the
not one of the enumerated drug offenses.                 juvenile case can be closed and an indictment
What constitutes "a substantial federal                  returned. In other words, once the juvenile is
interest" should be evaluated based on the               officially transferred to adult status, the case
principles of federal prosecution set forth in           begins anew as an adult prosecution instituted
USAM § 9-27.230. The Fourth Circuit is the               through indictment, information, or criminal
only circuit—out of the nine circuits who                complaint.
have addressed the question so far— to hold
that the presence of a substantial federal               D. Fundamental #4: The court must
interest is subject to judicial review. See              transfer a juvenile to adult status under
United States v. F.S.J., 265 F.3d 764, 768 (9th          certain circumstances
Cir. 2001) (collecting cases).
                                                              The second (and still relatively easy) way
    The first and third bases are not mutually           to transfer a juvenile to adult status is upon
exclusive and both can be used in appropriate            motion of the government for a mandatory
cases. The second basis, that "the State does            transfer. See 18 U.S.C. § 5032, ¶ 4. The
not have available programs and services                 delegation memorandum referred to above
adequate for the needs of juveniles ..." is              should also be attached to any motion for
almost never used. 18 U.S.C. § 5032 ¶ 1.                 transfer filed with the court. Under the
     The certification and juvenile information          mandatory transfer provision, the court must
begin a juvenile delinquency proceeding,                 transfer the juvenile to adult status if:
which culminates in a determination of the               •    the juvenile is alleged to have committed
individual's status as a juvenile delinquent.                 the crime after his 16th birthday; and
But, the juvenile's case can move from the
delinquency proceeding before a final status             •    the crime charged is a federal felony
determination to an adult criminal case in one                against a person (not property) that
of three ways.                                                involves the use of force or a substantial

26                                   U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                           J U LY 2008
     risk of force (as determined by the                      prior delinquency record;
     language of the statute itself rather than
                                                         •    the juvenile's present intellectual
     the underlying facts) or is one of the other
                                                              development and psychological maturity;
     enumerated crimes; and
                                                         •    the juvenile's response to past treatment
 •   the juvenile "has previously been found
                                                              efforts and the nature of those efforts; and
     guilty" (which includes an adjudication of
     delinquency in the state or federal system)         •    the availability of programs designed to
     of a specified felony offense, including a               treat the juvenile's behavioral problems.
     felony crime of violence against a person
                                                              In essence, anything that can be learned
     or property.
                                                         about the juvenile will fit into one of the six
 E. Fundamental #5: The court may                        factors. Consequently, considerable effort can
 transfer a juvenile to adult status if                  (and should) be expended to obtain the
 transfer is in the interest of justice                  information. Further, the court must have
                                                         sufficient information to make a finding on
     Finally, a juvenile can also be transferred         each factor. A reviewing court will give
 for prosecution as an adult upon motion of the          significant deference to a district court's
 government for a discretionary transfer. The            decision, but it is reversible error for the court
 cases cited above from the Southern District            not to make a finding on each factor. It is also
 of New York and the Eastern District of                 important to note that the nature of the crime
 Virginia both involved discretionary transfers.         itself can outweigh all the other factors and
 The juvenile must have reached age 15 at the            alone be a basis for the transfer. For purposes
 time of the crime and the crime must be a               of the transfer hearing, the court may assume
 felony crime of violence, substantive drug              that the juvenile committed the crime. The
 offense, or other offense enumerated under              foregoing legal principles arise from case law
 the statute. 18 U.S.C. § 5032, ¶ 4.                     and are not explicitly set forth in the statute.
      In this process, the court must evaluate six       See, e.g., United States v. Juvenile, 451 F.3d
 factors set forth in the statute and determine          571, 574 (9th Cir. 2006).
 whether it is in the interest of justice to                  Once the juvenile is transferred to adult
 transfer the juvenile for adult prosecution. 18         status (and any interlocutory appeal is
 U.S.C. § 5032, ¶ 5. The discretionary transfer          exhausted), the juvenile is not entitled to any
 is the most onerous one for the government as           of the protections under the Act, discussed in
 it requires the government to put on evidence           more detail below, with one exception: an
 as to each of the six factors and to convince           individual who is under 18 years of age may
 the court that the transfer is in the interest of       not be housed in a facility in which he or she
 justice.                                                will have regular contact with adults. As noted
     The six factors are:                                above, after the transfer and appeal, the case
                                                         essentially starts over as an adult prosecution,
 •   age and social background of the juvenile;          beginning with an indictment by the grand
 •   the nature of the alleged offense,                  jury or other appropriate charging instrument.
     including the juvenile's leadership role in
     a criminal organization or the extent to            III. Protections afforded juveniles
     which he or she influenced others to                under the Act and potential
     participate in criminal conduct involving           prosecutorial pitfalls
     drugs or firearms;
                                                              The Act has several built-in protections
 •   the extent and nature of the juvenile's             for juveniles that also give rise to potential

J U LY 2008                          U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                              27
pitfalls, of which AUSAs should be aware.                   at every turn and therefore, upon arrest,
Among these is the statute's own speedy trial               the juvenile may not be fingerprinted or
provision.                                                  photographed for routine booking
                                                            purposes. Additionally, filings should be
A. Fundamental #6: The government's                         under seal, courtroom proceedings should
transfer motion must be filed promptly                      be closed, and arrest warrants should not
to avoid speedy trial problems                              routinely be entered into databases.
     The statute provides that a juvenile who is       •    Upon federal arrest, the juvenile and his
detained must be brought to trial within 30                 parents must be advised of his rights and
days from the beginning of the detention. 18                the nature of the charges, and the juvenile
U.S.C. § 5036. Case law has firmly                          must be brought "before a magistrate
established that filing a motion to transfer the            judge forthwith." 18 U.S.C. § 5033.
juvenile to adult status for prosecution will               Prosecutors and agents in the Ninth
toll the clock. Therefore, it is strongly                   Circuit should be aware that the court has
recommended that the motion to transfer the                 read into this provision an additional
juvenile to adult status be filed concurrently              requirement that the arresting officer
with the juvenile information and certification             "affirmatively inform the parents that they
by the United States Attorney, unless the                   will have the opportunity to confer with
juvenile is not detained.                                   and to advise their child before the child is
     If the motion to transfer is based on the              interrogated." A violation of this statutory
six factor analysis, this can also afford the               provision can result in not only
prosecutor the opportunity to apprise the court             suppression of statements made by the
of some important issues that can impede the                juvenile but a reversal of a finding of
progress of the case and that may require the               guilt. See, e.g., United States v. Jose D.L.,
court's involvement. For example, information               453 F.3d 1115, 1121 (9th Cir. 2006);
collected about the juvenile may likely                     United States v. C.M., 485 F.3d 492, 505
include, in addition to any prior juvenile                  (9th Cir. 2007) (adjudication of
delinquency and/or arrest records, social                   delinquency reversed even though
services records; school records, including                 confession was not used at trial).
any disciplinary records; and medical records.         •    A juvenile cannot be detained in a facility
Custodial agencies may be reluctant to release              in which he has regular contact with
such records without a request from the court.              adults. 18 U.S.C. §§ 5035, 5039. The
In addition, a psychological evaluation is                  federal government does not have any
necessary to support a finding about the                    facilities for housing juveniles and,
juvenile's present intellectual development                 therefore, all juveniles are housed in
and psychological maturity, and may entail                  contract facilities provided by state, local,
evaluations by experts for both the defense                 or private entities. Accordingly, the U.S.
and prosecution. Once the information is                    Marshals should be given as much notice
gathered, a memorandum in support of the                    as possible that a juvenile will be brought
government's motion to transfer can be filed                into federal custody. This notice is
in advance of a hearing on the issue.                       particularly critical when dealing with
B. Other protections under the Act                          older juveniles who may not be considered
                                                            "juveniles" under the state law and whom
    The Act provides a number of other                      it may be illegal for the state to house with
protections, among which are the following :                its own state juveniles.

•    The juvenile's identity must be protected         •    Juvenile court records or other records

28                                 U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                         J U LY 2008
     related to the six factors used to determine            In cases involving foreign nationals,
     a discretionary transfer should not be             agents and prosecutors should be aware of a
     obtained through the grand jury process.           growing trend in which defendants give
                                                        conflicting information as to whether they are
 •   The court's decision on the motion to
                                                        adults or juveniles. In many instances, the
     transfer is subject to an interlocutory
                                                        offender will provide a date of birth indicating
     appeal. Both the defense and the
                                                        that he or she is 18 years of age or older at
     government are entitled to such an appeal.
                                                        arrest, only to claim otherwise during a
     If an appeal is sought, the government
                                                        subsequent interview or court appearance. In
     should ask the court to review the
                                                        this situation, it can be difficult to ascertain the
     decision on an expedited basis.
                                                        identity of the individual, let alone his or her
     Nevertheless, the appeal can significantly
                                                        actual date of birth and age. Any information
     delay the case, and thus may particularly
                                                        provided at arrest by the person or others can
     complicate the government's ability to
                                                        be considered by the court at a hearing to
     bring the juvenile to trial in the same case
                                                        determine whether the arrestee is actually
     with any adult codefendants.
                                                        entitled to juvenile status and the process and
                                                        protections under the Act. Thus, agents are
 IV. Other useful information                           advised to corroborate any foreign national
      As noted above, an individual is                  arrestee's date of birth, statements as to same,
 considered a "juvenile" under federal law only         and his or her age, with as much information
 if he or she is alleged to have committed a            as possible if the arrestee's majority is
 federal crime before his or her 18th birthday          potentially questionable.˜
 and he or she has not yet reached age 21.
 Thus, the Act, and its proceedings and                 ABOUT THE AUTHOR
 protections, do not apply to a person who is
 21 or older, even though the alleged criminal          ‘Nancy Oliver joined the Department of
 conduct occurred before age 18. If the
                                                        Justice in 1997. She was a trial attorney in the
 defendant has turned 21, the government
                                                        Domestic Security Section of the Criminal
 initiates proceedings just as if the conduct had
                                                        Division. One of her primary responsibilities
 occurred after age 18, typically by proceeding
                                                        included providing legal advice to the field
 against the person with an indictment. In
                                                        regarding federal prosecution of juveniles. She
 addition, a person who participates in a
                                                        also gave advice on federal firearms laws and
 conspiracy before reaching age 18 may be
                                                        various violent crime statutes. She is currently
 prosecuted as an adult once the individual
                                                        Division Counsel for the Bureau of Alcohol,
 passes his or her 18th birthday and takes some
                                                        Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives in the
 additional action that ratifies his or her
                                                        Baltimore Field Division.a
 continued participation in the conspiracy.

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                29
Gangs and the Internet
Bruce Ferrell                                               common even as recently as 5 years ago. Gang
Retired, Omaha Police Department                            members often brazenly portray themselves on
Chairman, Midwest Gang Investigators                        the Internet using social-networking and video-
Association                                                 sharing Web sites. The primary sites being
                                                            utilized at this time are:;
     Since the Internet became a reality in 1989, ;;;
law enforcement has had to make a fast-paced      ;; and
transition to keep up with crime and technology.                 Gang members use the Internet to recruit new
This article will identify the reasons and ways             members and disrespect rivals. Members and
criminal street gang members utilize the Internet,          their associates display their money, guns, and
to include their use of social-networking sites             themselves to a mass audience to obtain their
such as, in furtherance of their                goals. This is heightened by a false sense of
criminal activities. This article will also briefly         security that rival gangs and their members will
discuss the Internet's exploitation with respect to         not be able to identify individuals when these
perpetrators of school violence.                            "shout outs" are being played on personal Web
     Over the past 10 years, criminal street gang           pages or on video-sharing sites, such as
members have increasingly been using the          
Internet to operate criminal enterprises. Part of                Violent online video games, such as "25 to
the reason gangs are able to succeed is that                Life," pit gang members against law enforcement.
content on the Internet is protected by the First           While playing the game, participants can create
Amendment and, therefore, content oversight                 their own group of up to 16 members to play
receives little government regulation. Controls on          with, essentially creating their own "hood." This
content are addressed at the system administrator           game play breeds the gang mentality and the use
level. While many of the sites have their own               of violence in the community and against law
security divisions, they are often comprised of             enforcement.
individuals who do not possess prior law
enforcement experience. Consequently, they rely         has also been utilized by
on key words or phrases to determine whether the            students perpetrating school violence. It is crucial
content is objectionable. Issues further arise              that investigators use every tool available to
inside the home with parents who did not grow               intervene before a tragedy occurs. In the Jokela,
up with the Internet and are either not familiar            Finland school shooting on November 7, 2007,
with the technology or not sufficiently adept in its        the shooter allegedly had a account
use to monitor or control it.                               under the pseudonym of Sturmgeist89 and had
                                                            posted a video on just prior to the
     Criminal gang members who have been                    event. The Web page and video were removed
exposed to this technology from an early age are            quickly by the providers, due to content issues,
committing crimes that are very different from              and later determined that the
those committed by gangs in the past (for                   Sturmgeist89 site was fraudulent and had been
example, drive-by shootings and narcotics                   posted after the event. issued the
distribution). Today, gang members are                      following statement after the incident: "Even
sophisticated and use the Internet to carry out             though we were unable to locate any connection
crimes such as identity theft, bank fraud, check            on our site, we are in contact with local law
kiting, criminal impersonation, and a host of               enforcement in Finland to provide any assistance
other technology-related crimes that were not

30                                 U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 needed. The alleged profile of Pekka-Eric                        A personal page on, or any of
 Auvinen was an imposter and has been deleted."              the other social-networking sites, allows a gang
                                                             member to recruit new members through his
                                                             "friends" list. Through these lists, one member is
      However, on November 10, 2007, the                     connected to other members in the local area, as
 London Times reported that Auvinen and a                    well as in other states and countries. In addition,
 Pennsylvania teenager, Dillon Cossey, who was               gang members can display their gang signs and
 being held in jail for conspiracy for planning a            symbols, artwork and/or graffiti, weapons, drugs,
 school shooting, were believed to have chatted              and guest books. Gang members also post tales of
 online on a Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris RIP               their crimes and/or produced music to promote
 message board. Roger Boyes, The cyber school                their criminal activities. It is left up to the social
 for killers, L ONDON T IMES , Nov. 10, 2007, at A2,         networking companies to make sense of the
 available at              volume of information pouring into their site to
 news/world/europe/article2842356.ece.                       decipher improper content.
      In October 2007, estimated            has been, and continues to be,
 that one in four Americans visited their site,              proactive in attempting to assist law enforcement
 which makes the largest social                  with their investigations, while simultaneously
 networking Web site. has                        protecting the privacy of legitimate users. As
 approximately 110,000,000 monthly users in the              recently as November 2007,
 United States, with approximately 300,000 new               updated their Law Enforcement Investigator's
 registrants daily—60,000 videos and over 8                  Guide and subsequently distributed over 1,200
 million images are uploaded to the site, with an            copies to officers. This guide is an excellent
 additional 50,000,000 messages sent per day. The            source of information for law enforcement and is
 Web site reaches more than twenty countries                 available at
 where its pages are localized and translated. The           MySpace%20Law%20Enforcement%20Guide.
 phenomenon of was featured in the               pdf. The guide includes contact numbers on a
 December 12, 2005, cover story of Business                  variety of topics and information
 Week magazine. While gang activity is endemic               on when and what type of subpoena, court order,
 to all social networks, specifically            or search warrant may be necessary.
 is referenced heavily. While one must realize      has also reached out to experts in
 "MySpace" is often used synonymously for                    Internet investigations and facilitated cooperative
 "social network," it should be noted that often             information-sharing with respect to gang-related
 sites such as,, and                terms and slang so that security are equally susceptible to having such             screeners can better ascertain inappropriate
 content posted.                                             content.
      It is very easy to activate an account on these   representatives have been
 sites. By providing simple contact information              invited to speak at a gang training seminar in
 such as name, gender, and date of birth, an                 September 2008 sponsored by the San Mateo
 individual can create a free e-mail account on              County Sheriff's Office Gang Intelligence Unit in
 search engines such as or                California. It is anticipated that over 200
 Using that same information, a prospective user             members of law enforcement will be in
 can then create a account and later,            attendance. In addition, has
 a page. One of the main issues law              organized an Antigang Task Force comprised of
 enforcement encounters is that there is no penalty          twenty-one investigators and prosecutors from
 for providing a false or nonexistent e-mail                 sixteen law enforcement agencies across the
 account.                                                    nation to examine this issue. At the time of this

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                  31
article's publication, the author is unaware of any              Ian Bird, project leader for Cern's high-speed
other social- networking site that has taken this                computing project, said GRID technology
step.                                                            could make the internet so fast that people
                                                                 would stop using desktop computers to store
     Gang members, their associates, and students
                                                                 information and entrust it all to the internet.
currently in school have been brought up in the
                                                                 It will lead to what's known as cloud
Internet age. Law enforcement must be proactive
                                                                 computing, where people keep all their
to impede their attempts to perpetrate crimes.
                                                                 information online and access it from
Computer investigations will continue to increase
and law enforcement and prosecutors will need to
educate themselves about new criminal patterns               Jonathan Leake, Coming soon: superfast internet,
and trends being conducted by street gang                    L ONDON T IMES , Apr. 6, 2008, at A2, available at
organizations to effectively investigate these     
technology crimes. Because providers or the                  europe/article3689881.ece.
suspects themselves may take down their
                                                                  As technology moves forward, law
postings, such as in the Finland incident, it is
                                                             enforcement personnel must educate themselves
imperative that investigators move quickly to
                                                             on the local gang connections to the Internet and
preserve any evidence of these events from the
                                                             external gang influences. Law enforcement
sites. Investigators, however, must also check and
                                                             personnel have reported conducting narcotics
carefully corroborate their information prior to
                                                             investigations through Web pages. It is now
bringing a case to prosecution.
                                                             possible for an MS-13 member in El Salvador to
     Law enforcement executives need to allow                communicate with members in the United States
their officers to conduct these types of                     through e-mails, text messaging, photos, and
investigations. It is especially critical that               videos, simply using Bluetooth technology and a
corrections and probation/parole officers be                 cell phone, with no formal computer training or
allowed access to the Internet. Both from                    access to a computer.
personal observation and reports from agencies
                                                                  While gangs use the Internet for nefarious
across the country, gang members are becoming
                                                             purposes, law enforcement agencies can use it for
more careful about self-admission and overt
                                                             Web investigations, information sharing, and
displays of gang tattoos and graffiti in an effort to
                                                             intelligence gathering.˜
hamper identification by law enforcement.
Corrections and probation/parole personnel are
                                                             ABOUT THE AUTHOR
now locating more of their charges on the Internet
and monitoring them through this means than
ever before. Some agencies have discovered that              ‘Bruce Ferrel recently retired after more than
their officers have posted pages                 22 years of service with the Omaha Police
which revealed inappropriate contact with street             Department. Mr. Ferrell's last assignment was as
gang members or linked the officers to criminal              a detective for the Gang Intelligence Squad for
street gang organizations.                                   more than 8 years. Mr. Ferrell has lectured
                                                             extensively nationally about various gang
     On April 7, 2008, the London Times reported             subjects, including Hispanic street gangs, MS-13,
that the "GRID" may be launched as soon as                   Gang Intelligence, Gang Investigation, Gang Unit
Summer 2008. The spin-offs from this                         Management, and Gangs and the Internet. Mr.
technology will make processing power and                    Ferrell has also had assignments in Burglary,
access speed unparalleled. As discussed in the               Narcotics, and spent 5 years as a detective in the
article,                                                     Homicide Unit. Mr. Ferrell was the 1996
                                                             Crimestoppers Officer of the Year for a gang

32                                  U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                       J U LY 2008
 homicide/drug conspiracy case, "Operation Crew
 Cut." Mr. Ferrell also has received the 2007
 Midwest High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas
 Regional award for Interagency Cooperative
 effort as a case officer for "Operation Broken
 Machete," a year long MS-13 investigation. Mr.
 Ferrell has been the Chairman of the Midwest
 Gang Investigators Association since 2007 and
 was previously Vice-Chairman from 2005 until
 his election as Chairman. Mr. Ferrell has been a
 board member of the National Alliance of Gang
 Investigators Association since 2005 and serves
 as the Association Parliamentarian.a

 New Methods for Solving Old
 Problems: Combating Gang
 Criminality in a St. Louis Community
 Carlos A. Canino                                             jumped to 12 murders and 31 nonfatal shootings.
 Resident Agent in Charge                                     A similar trend was seen in firearm assaults on
 St Louis Field Office                                        police officers.
 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and                          This was an extremely high level of crime
 Explosives                                                   and violence for such a geographically small
                                                              jurisdiction with a population of only 15,000.
 Kurt Franzi                                                  Jennings is situated on the northern border of St.
 Special Agent                                                Louis, along the St. Louis Police Department's
 St Louis Field Office                                        6th and 7th districts, and was caught in the gang
 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and                     crossfire. Much of the violence came from the 10-
                                                              20 Murderville Crips street gang.
                                                                  The graffiti "hit lists" and plans to ambush
 Dave Joyce                                                   officers signaled a raising of the stakes. Although
 Detective Sergeant                                           the Jennings Police Department (JPD) was not
 Jennings, Missouri Police Department                         structured or equipped to combat this level of
                                                              violence, they decided to do something about it.
 I. Introduction
     In the years 2000-2003, Jennings, Missouri
 experienced no murders and 11 nonfatal
 shootings. In the next four years, those statistics

J U LY 2008                          U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                33
II. An entrenched criminal enterprise                      III. Old problems
     The 10-20 Murderville Crips are the oldest,               In the past, investigations into the criminal
most established criminal street gang operating in         activities of the 10-20 Murderville Crips were
Jennings. Originally the 10-20's operated as a             focused on three fronts:
neighborhood-based drug crew involved in
                                                           •   Investigations into either specific criminal
cocaine trafficking. They align themselves as a
                                                               incidents, such as shootings or robberies, or
set of the Rolling 60's Crips, a major Los
                                                               into drug trafficking activities of the group,
Angeles-based gang. The 10-20's have the usual
                                                               particularly criminal acts by identified leaders
rivals and enemies, as well as allies. They are
                                                               of the gang.
very territorial, and will shoot members of other
gang sets who openly declare or advertise their            •   Proactive enforcement that primarily centered
membership. They use the following methods to                  on organized gang sweeps aimed at
enforce control over their turf:                               disrupting the gang's activities and preventing
                                                               acts of violence, particularly during periods
•    homicides;
                                                               of high tension between the 10-20's and rival
•    assaults;                                                 gangs.
•    shootings;                                            •   Reactive enforcement that involved a police
                                                               officer during a routine traffic stop finding a
•    robbery;
                                                               firearm on a member who was a convicted
•    weapons offenses;                                         felon and who would be later charged in
                                                               federal court with felon in possession of a
•    drug trafficking;
•    fire-bombings;
                                                                These investigations were successful in that
•    auto theft;                                           they led to the arrest and conviction of traditional
                                                           leaders and members. However, they were not
•    burglary; and
                                                           used as an organized part of an overall strategy
•    tampering with witnesses and victims.                 aimed at prosecuting the most active members,
                                                           disrupting the ability of the gang to function as an
     With the imprisonment of several founding
                                                           organization, or as a deterrent to reduce the
gang leaders, drug trafficking became limited to
                                                           recruiting of new members. In one sense, the
small amounts of marijuana and cocaine. In
                                                           success of these efforts in disrupting the
addition, the arrest of several of the most active
                                                           leadership and organization of the gang led to
gang members for some of the shootings
                                                           new difficulties combating the resulting loosely-
temporarily placed the leadership and structure of
                                                           structured gang that emerged. The weakness of
the gang in a state of flux. The change in the
                                                           the investigations was felt when dealing with the
organization and leadership of the 10-20
                                                           new generation of armed gang members who did
Murderville Crips gave rise to a new generation
                                                           not have any felony convictions.
of loosely organized gang members ready to use
violence to maintain their status as the dominant              During the summer and fall of 2005,
criminal street gang in Jennings. The next                 numerous shootings, aggressive expansion of
generation employed the same methods to                    gang membership and visibility, and the
enforce control over their turf.                           imminent threat and attempted violence upon
                                                           police officers prompted the JPD and the Bureau
                                                           of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
                                                           (ATF) to review their gang enforcement efforts.

34                                U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                         J U LY 2008
     In addition to the threats on officers, two              gang members. This informant was able to
 other incidents were catalysts for action.                   greatly impact the 10-20 Murderville Crips. Not
                                                              only was he a member, but he was considered one
 •   A gun burglary committed by the gang
                                                              of the top three leaders of the gang.
     resulted in the theft of at least 30 firearms.
 •   In another incident, a parolee, chased by                      The U.S. Attorney's Office (USAO), Eastern
     police after a gun buy, fled into the basement           District of Missouri, provided support and
     of a nearby residence where the entire gang              counsel in developing this strategy. The Assistant
     was having a going-away party for one of its             U.S. Attorneys (AUSAs) were understandably
     members, who was being sentenced the next                skeptical about employing it at first. There was
     morning for shooting a person in the head                little experience applying the statute, and the
     with a shotgun.                                          AUSAs were uneasy about working with an
                                                              informant with a worse criminal record than any
 Both the JPD and ATF realized that almost                    of the targets. The attorneys agreed to use the
 everyone present was previously involved in at               strategy and came fully on board as early efforts
 least one violent crime and that the traditional             proved successful.
 methods of investigation would no longer work.
 They were now dealing with volatile, loosely-                     The targets had to know that the buyer was a
 organized gang members armed to the teeth                    felon for any charge to stick. This required that
                                                              the informant be carefully trained in making a
                                                              gun buy that would result in a prosecutable
 IV. A new strategy
                                                              offense. The new strategy culminated in the
     The arrest of the leader of the 10-20                    federal indictment of 8 gang members on firearms
 Murderville Crips would not disrupt the gang,                and/or narcotics charges. All were successfully
 because they had abandoned the traditional                   prosecuted and convicted. Another result was that
 hierarchy found in criminal street gangs. It was             officers and agents seized the following:
 clear that a noncoordinated approach to gang                 •   5 assault rifles;
 crimes, handled on a case-by-case basis, would
 not be effective in reducing the supply of firearms          •   3 stolen sniper rifles;
 and drugs or in decreasing gang gun violence.                •   2 scoped hunting rifles;
      In a joint partnership with ATF, the JPD                •   3 combat shotguns;
 created an ATF/JPD Violent Crime Task Force to
 coordinate the work of patrol officers and                   •   2 short-barreled shotguns;
 detectives to identify the most active members               •   1 hunting shotgun; and
 and prosecute them as key drug and firearms
 suppliers. However, many of the most dangerous               •   10 handguns.
 members did not have felony convictions. The                 These were weapons that had been put to
 traditional Gun Control Act violation of a gang              dangerously active use. Of the 26 firearms seized,
 member being charged as a felon in possession of             24 showed up in National Integrated Ballistics
 a firearm was not a charging option.                         Information Network/Integrated Ballistics
      In discussions, the task force members noted            Identification System. The ballistics matches tied
 that the maximum sentence for knowingly selling              the 24 firearms to shootings or homicides. Three
 a firearm to a convicted felon was the same as a             of the handguns were used in St. Louis
 felon being in possession of a firearm—10 years              homicides. Another handgun was tied to the
 in prison— under 18 U.S.C. § 922(d). The task                shooting of a St. Louis police officer. A stolen
 force found a convicted felon willing to act as an           handgun was used in an armed robbery, an assault
 informant and to purchase firearms from violent              rifle was used in a drive-by triple shooting in St.

J U LY 2008                          U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                               35
Louis County, and an assault rifle was used in a            Nevertheless, the sale revealed the magnitude of
drive-by shooting in St. Louis City.                        the potential violence that the 10-20 Murderville
                                                            Crips would be willing to use against law
V. Tragedy averted                                          enforcement. In fact, following the sale of the
                                                            Claymore mine, JTTF agents offered to sell a
     The most dramatic result of the coordinated            case of hand grenades to the arms dealer, who
effort of the ATF/JPD task force was preventing             promptly approached members of the 10-20
the assassination of JPD officers. Task force               Murderville Crips with offers to sell them. When
interviews of gang members revealed plans to                one of the members was asked what he intended
ambush and murder police officers with sniper               to do with the hand grenades, he stated that he
rifles, assault weapons, and home-made spike                would use them to blow up the JPD.
strips. An actual set of improvised spike strips,
along with several firearms, were recovered from            VI. Innovation brings results
the home of one of the most active gang members
during the execution of a search warrant. It was                 There has been a 60 percent drop city-wide in
also discovered that the gang developed                     "shots fired" calls since the conclusion of the
intelligence by calling the police station to               JPD/ATF Violent Crime Task Force investigation
determine who was on duty. They learned the                 in March 2007. To date, there have been no gang-
name, vehicle description, and place of                     related murders since the arrests of the defendants
employment of an officer's girlfriend. One senior           in this case, and the turf of the 10-20 Murderville
member of the gang, arrested following a                    Crips has become the slowest patrol sector in
shooting, threatened a JPD detective and told him           Jennings. All of the defendants arrested during
that he would be lying in wait for him with a               the 10-20 Murderville Crips investigation have
sniper rifle.                                               pled guilty and are currently serving federal
                                                            prison time.
     Task force members became especially
concerned when it was discovered that one of the                 Other crime has been reduced as well. One
gang's senior members was attempting to broker              burglary ring, prosecuted on state charges as part
the sale of a Claymore mine to members of the               of this investigation, had been committing as
gang. The JPD/ATF task force knew that the                  many as 15 residential burglaries a week.
mine was inert and wired with a tracking device             Following the arrest of the gang members
as it had been sold to a local arms dealer by the           comprising that burglary crew, the burglary rate
FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) in                    in the affected area dropped off dramatically,
relation to another case. That defendant had                freeing up patrol officers to focus more on
already been identified through the JPD/ATF task            proactive enforcement activities.
force investigation as a key source of firearms for
                                                                 In addition to the significant reduction in
local gangs. Detectives and agents in Jennings
                                                            gang violence achieved as a result of this
feared that the mine might be used as part of the
                                                            investigation, the JPD, using overtime funding
gang's plan to lure police officers into an ambush.
                                                            provided by ATF, has established a Gang
They were afraid that the gang would attempt to
                                                            Investigation Team staffed by officers at all levels
detonate the mine and then use assault and sniper
                                                            of the department, including patrol officers,
rifles to complete the assault. Even if the mine
                                                            school resource officers, and detectives. This
did not explode, the gang would still be armed
                                                            team, as part of a cohesive gang intelligence and
and ready to kill.
                                                            enforcement strategy, allows the department to
    The incident never occurred because, through            ensure that specially-trained gang officers are
the use of their informant, the JPD/ATF Task                available to quickly respond to, and investigate,
Force was able to purchase the Claymore mine                gang crimes as they occur, as opposed to the
and safely remove it from the street.                       previous "take a report and refer it to the

36                                 U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 detectives" method of policing. The overtime                      A neighborhood which had been overrun by
 funds also made it possible for team members to              violent gang members is now safer because of the
 prevent retaliatory incidents while conducting               dedicated teamwork of ATF agents, JPD
 general street enforcement patrols. These                    investigators, and the AUSAs assigned to this
 proactive patrols have resulted in numerous                  investigation. In addition, a model has been
 arrests and federal prosecutions for gun crimes.             created which is now being used to begin taking
 The JPD has also instituted a gun crime telephone            back the streets from gang members in other
 and e-mail hotline and is in the process of                  neighborhoods. Criminal street gang members in
 producing posters advertising the hotline in                 metropolitan St. Louis have been placed on notice
 partnership with ATF, the USAO for the Eastern               that gun crime means hard time.˜
 District of Missouri, and Project Safe
 Neighborhoods.                                               ABOUT THE AUTHORS

 VII. Conclusion                                              ‘Carlos A. Canino is the Resident Agent in
                                                              Charge of the St. Louis, Missouri Field Office,
      For ATF, the success of the joint task force
                                                              Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and
 with the JPD represents an excellent sales tool to
                                                              Explosives. Agent Canino has worked in the
 generate additional partnerships with local law
                                                              Bureau for 18 years. He worked as a street agent
 enforcement. The JPD/ATF Violent Crime Task
                                                              dealing specifically with gangs and violent
 Force case against the 10-20 Murderville Crips
 was the first case of its kind in St. Louis County
 in which investigators worked together to                    ‘Kurt Franzi is a special agent in the St. Louis
 successfully conduct a long-term investigation,              Missouri Field Office, Bureau of Alcohol,
 resulting in crippling a neighborhood drug crew.             Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives and has been
 This partnership and its results have received               with the Bureau for 8 years. He is assigned to the
 attention in the local media, as well as among               St. Louis Violent Crimes Task Force.
 other local law enforcement. After seeing a
 presentation on the JPD/ATF Task Force by ATF                ‘Dave Joyce is a Detective Sergeant with the
 Assistant Special Agent in Charge Jeff Fulton, the           Jennings, Missouri Police Department. Detective
 North St. Louis County Municipal Police Chiefs               Joyce has been with the Police Department for 10
 Association (which represents chiefs from more               years and is currently assigned to the Bureau of
 than 30 local police agencies) voted to form a               Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms/JPD Violent
 joint task force with ATF to address the emerging            Crimes Task Force.a
 gang problem in north St. Louis County. Though
 this task force is in its infancy, early results have
 demonstrated the effectiveness of the JPD/ATF
 Task Force model.

J U LY 2008                          U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                 37
No Panacea, Some Promises, Much
Potential: A Review of Effective
Antigang Strategies
Brendan Groves                                                success or failure of a program? If success does
Law Student                                                   not lie in statistics, is it found instead in lives
Duke University School of Law                                 changed? In a certain number of lives changed?
                                                              And what does 'lives changed' really mean?
                                                                   Researchers and practitioners reach divergent
I. Introduction: Picturing the problems
                                                              conclusions when answering these questions.
     Many accounts of the modern gang problem                 These diverse answers prevent this review from
paint a bleak picture. One notable group of                   presenting model anti-gang solutions that enjoy
researchers describes the "current cycle of gang              uniform support or success. Even so, this collage
activity [as] different than in previous eras as it is        of understanding sheds light on the nature of anti-
spread across more cities, is more violent, and is            gang strategies. Just as there is no one way to
more deeply entrenched than was the case                      comprehend success in responding to gangs, there
earlier." T HE M ODERN G ANG R EADER : P UBLIC                is no one way to respond to gangs.
                                                                   This review evaluates, primarily by way of
O UTCOMES 330 (Arlen Egley Jr. et al. eds.
                                                              evidence-based, analytical studies, which
Roxbury Publishing Co. 2006). To make matters                 strategies and programs are most successful in
worse, an estimated 700,000 gang members                      responding to gangs and gang violence. These
operate in the United States. A. Campo-Flores,                strategies and programs fall under four broad
The Most Dangerous Gang in America,                           penumbras:
N EWSWEEK , Mar. 28, 2006 at 23. Besides the
gang problem itself, a number of difficult                    •   prevention (those that seek to prevent or deter
problems confront those who seek effective                        at-risk persons from gang involvement);
solutions to gangs and gang violence.                         •   intervention (those that seek to discourage
    Most notably, there remains "no accepted                      gang involvement in youth that may already
standard definition" of a gang. James C. Howell,                  be involved);
Gangs, Recent Gang Research: Program and                      •   suppression (those that involve law
Research Implications is available at http://www.                 enforcement or other legal authority to Lacking a shared                   suppress gang involvement); and
idea of what a gang is, law enforcement and
government officials may have difficulty                      •   comprehensive programs (those that draw
understanding all the nefarious things that gangs                 upon the combined resources of community-
do. Once local authorities decide on a definition                 partners to coordinate and direct efforts to
and implement strategies based on that                            decrease crime and increase positive
understanding, they face an arduous question:                     outcomes for youth).
What defines success? Other questions follow,
such as: Can quantitative measurements —for
example, a reduction in gang-related crime in a
certain area—comprehensively illustrate the

38                                   U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                         J U LY 2008
 Each approach features a discussion of its                  A CTION : A C ASE FOR A C OMPREHENSIVE
 purpose, helpful principles in implementation, and          S OLUTION TO LA'S G ANG V IOLENCE E PIDEMIC 1
 a showcase of promising programs.                           (2006), available at
                                                             doc/p3_recom.pdf. The outside experts wrote
      Analyzing the efficacy of a wide-variety of
                                                             that, "In short, Los Angeles needs a Marshall
 preventive, intervention-based, suppressive, and
 comprehensive measures reveals no panacea,                  Plan to end gang violence ." Id. Their conclusion
 some promises, but much potential. Research                 insinuates that the needs of Los Angeles and its
 suggests that policymakers and practitioners are            citizens would be best served by ending its war-
 best served by pursuing a broad-based,                      on-gangs and instead making peace by forming
 coordinated, and multifaceted response to gangs             supportive partnerships with neighborhoods and
 that strongly emphasizes what should be regarded            at-risk or affected citizens.
 as the twin pillars of any anti-gang                             Marshall Plans of a similar sort, but perhaps
 strategy—prevention and intervention. Measures              not of a similar scale, are needed nationwide.
 which seek to prevent gangs or interdict those              Done well, and implemented in accordance with
 youth that are already involved generally                   the following principles of preventive programs,
 experience greater success than those measures              these programs offer immense potential.
 which seek to suppress present gang involvement.
 The best way to stop a speeding car, it seems, is to        B. Principles
 prevent the car— and more importantly, its                       Hands-on leadership: Effective prevention
 driver—from speeding in the first place.                    programs often employ leaders who are closely
                                                             connected with the program. One evaluation
 II. Preventive measures                                     concluded that the "most successful programs in
                                                             this evaluation and others studied by two of the
 A. Purpose                                                  authors were operated by nonprofit organizations
     Stated succinctly, the "primary focus of gang           with strong 'hands-on leadership.'" W INIFRED L.
 prevention programs is to keep youths from                  R EED & S COTT H. D ECKER , N ATIONAL INSTITUTE
 L EARNED F ROM E VALUATIONS OF G ANG                        (2002). Hands-on leadership enables program
 P ROGRAMS /S TRATEGIES ?, available at http://              managers to dynamically alter program content               and methods in order to better serve their
 ngs2.htm. Other objectives, such as academic                clientele. Funding sources or oversight agencies
 engagement and prosocial behavior, operate in               should also strive to minimize leadership
 addition to the main thrust of these programs.              turnover in individual programs. Losing leaders
                                                             can mean losing positive results. Id. at 227.
      Preventive measures have not been the tactic
 of choice for many localities. Enhanced research                 Minimal bureaucracy: Individual programs
 on the efficacy of preventive means, and the                should be concentrated and semiautonomous,
 realization that these measures may be more cost-           much like an army platoon on patrol—still
 effective than suppressive measures, has lately             controlled by headquarters, but able to exercise a
 increased their popularity. Los Angeles, the                fair amount of autonomy while in the field.
 acknowledged "gang capital of the world," and a             Overwhelming bureaucracy can stifle
 city traditionally known for its "get tough"                performance and drown smaller programs in a
 responses to gangs, recently received a stark               sea of responsibilities for which they are not
 recommendation from an outside firm hired to                prepared or equipped.
 formulate its gang reduction strategy. C ITY OF L OS           Tied to the community: Those programs
 A NGELES , A DVANCEMENT P ROJECT : A C ALL TO               whose employees and leaders were drawn from

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                               39
the community tended in some (though not all)                (2003), available at
studies to perform better than those programs in             sppd/ced/GRIP_Evaluation.pdf. GRIP engages
which this was not the case. The Boys and Girls              youth while they are young, perhaps while they
Club enhanced the success of its gang prevention             are most easily influenced by the program's
and intervention programs by hiring "new staff               message of gang resistance. The classroom
from the youth's communities." A MY J.A.                     instruction teaches self-esteem and alternative
A RBRETON & W ENDY S. M C C LANAHAN ,                        outlets of involvement besides gangs. GRIP
T ARGETED O UTREACH : B OYS AND G IRLS C LUBS                provides for recreational opportunities, showing
OF A MERICA 'S A PPROACH TO G ANG P REVENTION                students a particularly attractive form of
AND INTERVENTION P UBLIC /P RIVATE V ENTURES                 belonging and involvement. GRIP implements a
42 (2002), available at             follow-up program when participants reach the
/mpg2.5/TitleV_MPG_Table_Ind_Rec.asp?id=30                   ninth grade. That program discusses topics
4. This practice "helped build a tie to the youth            directly relevant to gang involvement, such as
and draw" normally difficult-to-reach youth into             the consequences of criminal activity.
the program. Id.                                             Importantly, many of those who deliver the
                                                             training grew up in the local community and are
     Know the nature and extent of the local
                                                             uniquely committed to discouraging gang
gang problem: It is not enough for community
                                                             involvement in the next generation.
programmers to believe that there is "a substantial
gang problem." Such vague notions often confuse                  Results: The first two of the six studies of
fears with reality. Any "organization has to be              the GRIP program showed fairly remarkable
aggressive in its efforts to gather data, interpret          results. The initial studies tested the longitudinal
the problem, and determine what should be done."             effects of the in-school curriculum. Fifty percent
IRVING S PERGEL , O FFICE OF J UVENILE J USTICE              of elementary school students were undecided
AND D ELINQUENCY P REVENTION , U.S.                          about gangs before the program. Following
D EPARTMENT OF J USTICE G ANG S UPPRESSION AND               completion, 90 percent responded negatively
INTERVENTION : C OMMUNITY M ODELS                            toward gangs. Id. (2004). Subsequent studies
(R ESEARCH S UMMARY ) 24 (1994), available at                showed that the average disapproval rating of                  gangs—90 percent—lasted through the
Community meetings and knowledge from                        participants' ninth grade year. A later study
experts in the field, such as the reports referenced         "cross-checked the names of program
in this article, can be instrumental in this regard.         participants with police records and found that 96
Obtaining a detailed understanding of community              percent were not identified as gang members."
crime and other issues may be made easier by                 Id.
recourse to independent firms that "map" crime
                                                                  Linking the Interests of Families and
levels, such as the Justice Mapping Center. J.L.
                                                             Teachers (LIFT): LIFT is a research-based
John, A Road Map to Prevention, T IME , Mar, 26,
                                                             intervention program that aims to prevent
2007, at 56.
                                                             antisocial and harmful behaviors in youth in
C. Programs                                                  elementary school. LIFT seeks to control and
                                                             limit two factors that often contribute to later
    Gang Resistance is Paramount (GRIP): A                   antisocial behavior: aggressive behavior with
broad-based program with multiple points of                  peers or teachers and ineffective parenting. The
contact with at-risk youth, including a school-              program "has three main components:
based curriculum for grades two and five and                 1) classroom-based child social skills training,
parent-counseling, GRIP showed promising                     2) the playground Good Behavior Game, and
results under evaluation. A NGELICA S OLIS , ET AL .,        3) parent management training." C ENTER FOR

40                                  U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 L INKING THE INTERESTS OF F AMILIES AND                      of risk-seeking than their peers in the control
 T EACHERS (2004) available at              group. Id. At the same time, the control group               and treatment group showed little differences
 354. LIFT operates in Eugene, Oregon.                        concerning reported gang membership,
                                                              delinquent activity, or drug use.
      Results: LIFT received an "Exemplary"
 rating from the Office of Juvenile Justice's Model               Preventive Treatment Program:
 Programs Guide. Youth that entered the program               Otherwise known as the Montreal Prevention
 with the highest rate of aggressive behavior were            Experiment, this program attempts to reduce
 shown to have experienced the most                           antisocial, aggressive behavior in kindergarten-
 improvement. The program appeared to stimulate               age males. Prevention Treatment Program,
 enhanced prosocial behavior well after students              overview of program available at http://www.
 completed the training.                            
                                                              cfm?id=395. The program has comprehensive
       Results 3 years postintervention revealed that
                                                              undertones, as both the boys and their parents
       relative to fifth grade youths in the LIFT
                                                              received 2 years of counseling in the hopes of
       group, fifth grade youths in the control group
                                                              reducing disruptive behavior and preventing
       were 2.2 times as likely to affiliate with
                                                              long-term delinquency and gang involvement.
       misbehaving peers, 1.8 times as likely to be
                                                              Based on a model developed by the Oregon
       involved in patterned alcohol use, 1.5 times as
                                                              Social Learning Center, parents receive a
       likely to have tried marijuana, and 2.4 times
                                                              program of instruction that centers on the
       as likely to be arrested by age 14.
                                                              effective use of punishment, ably monitoring
 Id.                                                          children's activities, and handling family crises.
                                                              The boys participated in a novel school-based
      Gang Resistance Education and Training
                                                              program that places several non-disruptive
 Program (G.R.E.A.T.): G.R.E.A.T. intends to
                                                              children with one or two disruptive boys. They
 equip adolescents with the proper tools to resist
                                                              learn anger management, how to positively
 the peer pressure to join gangs and engage in
                                                              interact with others, and other skills. Caseworker
 other antisocial behaviors. Finn-Aage Esbensen,
                                                              interaction with the disruptive boys and their
 et al., How Great is G.R.E.A.T.? Results from a
                                                              parents lasts for 2 years.
 Longitudinal Quasi-Experimental Design,
 C RIMINOLOGY AND P UBLIC P OLICY , Nov. 1, 2006,                 Results: Three years after the program
 at 87-118. The program employs a structured, 13              concluded, treated youth were reported as
 session curriculum that is taught by uniformed               fighting less often than untreated boys. Also, "29
 police officers. Students learn conflict resolution,         percent of the treated boys were rated as well-
 cultural sensitivity, the consequences of criminal           adjusted in school, compared with 19 percent of
 involvement, and a host of other issues geared to            the untreated boys; and treated boys were less
 negatively dispose them to gangs or criminal                 likely to report committing minor status
 activity. The program is similar in methodology              offenses." Id. Six years after the program
 and style to the Drug Abuse Resistance Education             concluded, treated youth were less likely than
 program, as it is facilitated by police officers and         their untreated peers to report delinquent acts,
 depends upon participatory lessons.                          gang involvement and drug use within the past
                                                              12 months. Id. The Office of Juvenile Justice's
     Results: Like many preventive programs,
                                                              Model Programs Guide awarded the program an
 G.R.E.A.T. showed mixed results upon
                                                              exemplary rating.
 evaluation. One national study of the program
 showed that former G.R.E.A.T. students held                       Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways
 more positive views about police, more negative              (RIPP): RIPP involves a school-based system of
 views about gangs and reported decreased levels              instruction that targets the universal population

J U LY 2008                          U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                                41
of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders. Students learn of the          yet offended or joined a gang, those on probation
correlation between one's self-image and gang                or in detention, and those in a gang or involved
behavior, the importance of strong mentors and               in other criminal activity. Some intervention-
strong friends, and peaceable responses to                   based programs offer a wide variety of services
conflict. Albert D. Farrell, et al., Evaluation of the       designed to affect the diverse situations of those
Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways                     they serve. For instance, the Broader Urban
Seventh Grade Violence Prevention Curriculum,                Involvement Leadership Development Program
J OURNAL OF C HILD AND F AMILY S TUDIES , Mar.               (BUILD) in Chicago, Illinois, works with youth
2003, at 101-20. The curriculum also allows                  in detention centers and also provides assistance
students to experience peer mediation, in which              and instruction to youth in schools that have not
youth apply the knowledge they have learned.                 yet offended. This "wide-net" approach allows
Originally intended for the public schools in                programs to affect a large number of individuals.
Richmond, Virginia, RIPP has since been                      The BUILD program alone has worked with at
implemented in at least 50 middle schools                    least 77,000 youth in the Chicago area since its
nationwide. N ATIONAL R EGISTRY OF E VIDENCE -               origination. Broader Urban Involvement and
BASED P ROGRAMS AND P RACTICES ,                             Leadership Development Program overview of
INTERVENTION S UMMARY : R ESPONDING IN                       the program is available at
P EACEFUL AND P OSITIVE W AYS (2007), available    
                                                                  The intervention programs highlighted in this
                                                             article represent only a small showing of these
                                                             varied programs. These programs use differing
    Results: Multiple studies reveal that RIPP is
                                                             means to achieve the same end. Some programs,
effective in both ethnically diverse rural schools
                                                             for instance, began as local enterprises inspired
and majority African American urban schools. An
                                                             to meet local needs, namely, the need for
examination of these studies shows that RIPP
                                                             decreased violence or enhanced access to
students reported fewer school suspensions,
                                                             legitimate opportunities. Homeboy Industries,
increased utilization of peer-mediation, fewer
                                                             described below under "Programs," is one such
injuries from fights, and an enhanced
                                                             program. Other programs, such as the
understanding of problem-solving skills. Albert D.
                                                             Philadelphia Youth Violence Reduction
Farrell, et al., Evaluation of the Responding in
                                                             Partnership also described below, represent a
Peaceful and Positive Ways Seventh Grade
                                                             broader community effort to tackle crime and
Violence Prevention Curriculum, J OURNAL OF
                                                             gang violence. Whatever the inspiration behind
C HILD AND F AMILY S TUDIES , Mar. 2003, at 101-
                                                             specific programs, certain principles apply to
20. "Students also reported significantly lower
                                                             intervention-based programs.
approval of violent behavior, more peer support
for nonviolent behavior, and less peer pressure to           B. Principles
use drugs." Id. at 103.
                                                                 Partnerships are often critical for progress.
                                                             Just as "no man is an island," few programs can
III. Intervention-based measures
                                                             successfully operate independently of their
A. Purpose                                                   community context. The recent report to the Los
                                                             Angeles City Council on effective responses to
     Intervention programs seek both to reduce the           the gang problem notes presciently that, "The
likelihood that at-risk youths will join gangs or            challenge is not what to do, but finding the will
engage in delinquent activity and to moderate or             to do it." C ITY OF L OS A NGELES , A DVANCEMENT
stop such activity for those already involved. Such          P ROJECT 7 (2006), available at http://www.
programs work within a broad population,            Individual
including those who are only at-risk and have not            programs should strive to ensure that their

42                                  U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                       J U LY 2008
 communities possess the will necessary to                     recidivated at 57 percent during the first year
 intervene in the lives of at-risk youth. Neglect of           following treatment. A RTHUS L URIGIO , ET AL .,
 partnerships within their community and with                  L OYOLA U NIVERSITY D EPARTMENT OF C RIMINAL
 other initiatives, may result in greater difficulty in        J USTICE , A P ROCESS AND O UTCOME E VALUATION
 achieving their goals.                                        OF P ROJECT BUILD: Y EARS 5 AND 6
                                                               (Unpublished Report) (2000).
      Establish an integrated record keeping system.
 Programs wishing to demonstrate their success                      BUILD has received much praise for its
 and court possible funders, especially the federal            dedicated staff, to whom much of the credit for
 government, must submit to evaluations on a                   its success is owed. BUILD staffers possess an
 regular basis. Programs lacking suitable records              extra degree of dedication because many of them
 will find it extraordinarily difficult to showcase            are strongly connected to the local community.
 their results, however, positive program                      Some staff members are even former gang
 administrators may believe them to be. W INIFRED              members. Broader Urban Involvement and
 L. R EED & S COTT H. D ECKER , N ATIONAL                      Leadership Development Program overview
 INSTITUTE OF J USTICE , G ANG P REVENTION                     available at
 P ROGRAMS FOR F EMALE A DOLESCENTS : A N                      reaching/hl_college_prep.htm.
 E VALUATION 239-40 (2002), available at http://
                                                                    Parenting With Love and Limits® (PLL): A simple
                                                               Combining family and group therapy into an
 adage holds true for programs of any size: written
                                                               organized system of care for youth diagnosed as
 records speak louder than words alone.
                                                               "oppositional defiant" or having "conduct
 C. Programs                                                   disorder," PLL teaches youth and parents a broad
                                                               spectrum of behavioral and parenting skills.
      Broader Urban Involvement Leadership                     Parenting With Love and Limits, available at
 Development Program (BUILD): BUILD offers            Role playing is used
 a full gamut of programming designed to deter or              extensively in the curriculum. PLL varies the
 prevent gang involvement or violent activity in               number of sessions that families attend based
 several of Chicago's most depressed and violent               upon the nature of their youth's problems. If the
 neighborhoods. The program employs skilled                    youth has committed serious offenses, for
 street workers trained to interact with and mediate           instance, the program might extend as long as 20
 disputes between various gangs in the area. In                sessions within an outpatient setting. The
 addition, BUILD runs broad-based after-school                 program is novel in its ability to reach a
 sports and recreational programs for both gang                population of parents and guardians that are often
 involved and at-risk youth. They also provide                 difficult to involve in programming.
 directed college counseling, financial aid, and
 career training to students from low-income                       Results: One study of PLL revealed its
 schools. See                     strong ability to discourage substance abuse in
 reaching/hl_college_prep.htm. BUILD also plays                youth. The study credits the marked shift in
 a prominent role in local antiviolence campaigns,             substance abuse, buoyed by the fact that 85
 working with community and area leaders to                    percent of the youth did not relapse into abuse
 stimulate and direct support for BUILD and other              within 1 year, to parental involvement in the
 initiatives.                                                  program. However, even though the youths' use
                                                               of substances fell markedly, their "defensiveness
     Results: A 1999 Loyola University study on                toward drugs or alcohol did not significantly
 the effect of BUILD's detention center programs               change." Parenting With Love and Limits
 showed a significantly decreased rate of                      overview is available at http://guide.helping
 recidivism for treated youth—33 percent—when
 compared to their untreated counterparts, who

J U LY 2008                           U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                              43
     A second study showed that the treatment               District, another area in which YVRP operates,
group experienced a "significant reduction in               youth homicides have dropped substantially, but
aggressive behaviors, depression, attention deficit         homicides overall have risen more quickly than
disorder problems, and externalizing problems as            before the implementation of YVRP. Even so,
measured by the [Child Behavior Check List]." Id.           the homicide rate in this district is still
PLL also decreased the negative attitudes of many           "significantly lower than the increase citywide."
treated mothers about their youths. One of the              Id.
more remarkable conclusions of the study showed
                                                                 Movimiento Ascendencia: A unique and
that the recidivism level of the treated youth
                                                            successful program out of Pueblo, Colorado,
declined significantly, from 55 percent to only 16
                                                            Movimiento Ascendencia works with referred
percent over a 1-year period. Id.
                                                            and recruited girls ages 8 to 19. Girls in gangs
     Philadelphia Youth Violence Reduction                  and those at-risk for joining gangs are served
Partnership (YVRP): YVRP is best described as               equally. The program's voluntary activities aim
a multiagency initiative that assists individuals           to deepen the girls' support networks and teach
ages 14 to 24 at the greatest risk of being killed or       them cultural awareness and conflict mediation
killing others. W ENDY S. M C C LANAHAN A LIVE AT           skills. Girls can participate in numerous
25: R EDUCING Y OUTH V IOLENCE T HROUGH                     activities, such as extended mentoring with adult
M ONITORING AND S UPPORT (2004). Most YVRP                  women, afterschool tutoring and day trips to
youth are court supervised, having been                     cultural sights. The strong networks formed by
"convicted or adjudicated on a violent or drug-             the program encourage girls to cling to positive
related charge at least once." Philadelphia Youth           outlets for social involvement. The alternative
Violence Reduction Partnership overview is                  environment fostered by the program appears to
available at               have stimulated a notable degree of success. YVRP
                                                                 Results: Movimiento Ascendencia spurred a
provides participating youth with a collage of
                                                            sizable gain in participants' academic
services, among them employment, mentoring,
                                                            achievement. Compared with a control group, the
healthcare, and drug treatment. Id.
                                                            treated girls' academic performance, as measured
    YVRP also extends services to the parents of            by GPA, rose significantly. Even with the rise,
participants, helping them find jobs and receive            the treated girls still had, on average, grades
the services they need to stabilize their lives.            below those in the control the group, but the
Probation officers for YVRP enjoy much smaller              difference between the two had decreased to
caseloads than their counterparts not affiliated            below a statically significant level. K ATHERINE
with the program, allowing them to focus more               W ILLIAMS , ET AL ., E VALUATION OF Y OUTH
time and energy on the youth to whom they are               G ANG D RUG INTERVENTION /P REVENTION
assigned. Altogether, well over 10 private and              P ROGRAMS FOR F EMALE A DOLESCENTS 256
public organizations comprise YVRP and the                  (1999). Beyond academic changes, the treated
organization is staffed by over 50 individuals.             girls experienced a greater decline in delinquent
                                                            acts than those in the control group. An overview
    Results: Based on crime data collected from
                                                            of the Movimiento Ascendencia is available at
Philadelphia police districts from 2000 to 2003,
those districts served by YVRP showed a fairly
                                                            detail.cfm?id=643. No difference in self-esteem
significant average decrease in youth homicides
                                                            was noted between treated and untreated girls. Id.
per quarter, compared with districts not served by
YVRP. Particularly in the 25th Police District,                  Job Training Programs: Intervention-
where the program is fully implemented, "youth              based programs that provide youth, and
homicides dropped after the inception of YVRP               particularly youth offenders, with employability
and have continued to drop." Id. In the 24th Police         skills training and employment opportunities

44                                 U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                       J U LY 2008
 deserve their own analysis. Job training programs           in the form of illicit drug sales— for legitimate
 are few and far between. Such programs often                employment. Some prominent experts disagree,
 encounter two suffocating difficulties: (1)                 writing that "[m]any gang members would give
 recruiting the right youth and (2) finding the right        up drug selling for reasonable wages." T HE
 youth the right jobs. Perhaps due to these                  M ODERN G ANG R EADER : P UBLIC P OLICY
 difficulties, "No significant national policies or          R ESPONSES TO G ANGS : E VALUATING THE
 programs have been established to deal                      O UTCOMES 256 (Arlen Egley, Jr. et al. eds.,
 specifically with the employment problems of                Roxbury Publishing Co. 2006). The authors note
 inner-city gang or gang-prone youth." IRVING                that job training and employability programs
 S PERGEL , ET AL ., G ANG S UPPRESSION AND                  offer gang members the positive alternatives to
 INTERVENTION : C OMMUNITY M ODELS R ESEARCH                 gang life that they need so badly. Id. One
 S UMMARY 19 (1994), available at http://www.                program excels at providing alternatives to gang Job training               involvement in the form of meaningful
 programs possess significant potential, because             employment.
 "[m]uch street activity, including an increasing
                                                                  Homeboy Industries: The hallmark of job
 proportion of gang activity, may serve as a form
                                                             training and employment programs, Homeboy
 of self-employment that fills part of the vacuum
                                                             Industries offers job counseling and job
 created by the depressed levels of unemployment
                                                             opportunities to gang members, at-risk
 and underemployment." Id. at 19-20.
                                                             individuals, and other offenders from across Los
      This hypothesis finds able support in research.        Angeles. Located in arguably the most gang-
 The Los Angeles gang report, cited above, notes             afflicted area of Los Angeles, Boyle Heights,
 that a 1997 University of California at Los                 Homeboy Industries operates its own bakery, silk
 Angeles study found that the "only two factors              screening company, a graffiti removal service, a
 having a significant correlative relationship with          maintenance company, a landscaping operation,
 the level of violence in an area were per capita            and a merchandising company. Father Gregory
 income and proportion employed. In other words,             Boyle, the organization's founder, offers
 areas with lower per capita incomes and higher              compassion and a job to even the hardest of
 youth unemployment rates exhibited higher levels            gang-involved youth, hoping to fulfill the
 of gang violence." C ITY OF L OS A NGELES ,                 program's motto, "Nothing stops a bullet like a
 A DVANCEMENT P ROJECT 17 (2006), available at               job." Homeboy Industries overview can be found;              at
 Demetrios N. Kyriacou, et al., The Relationship             gregg.php . Homeboy Industries works in
 Between Socioeconomic Factors and Gang                      partnership with the Department of Justice
 Violence in the City of Los Angeles, J OURNAL OF            (Department) Office of Juvenile Justice and
 T RAUMA : INJURY , INFECTION , AND C RITICAL                Delinquency Prevention's Gang Reduction
 C ARE , Feb. 1999, at 334-39. An overview of this           Program, recently receiving a $650,000 federal
 article can be found at           grant.
                                                                 Results: Homeboy Industries serves a
                                                             remarkable 1,000 individuals a month in its
                                                             myriad programs. Its free tattoo removal service,
                                                             which eliminates, at no charge, tattoos which
      Job training might be the largely unexplored           hinder one from gaining employment, has a
 avenue that leads the way to greater success in             substantial waiting list. Father Boyle has been
 rehabilitating gang members. Even so, one often             very successful in securing his hard-to-place
 hears the contention that gang members would not            clientele in meaningful employment. Many
 likely abandon their current 'employment'—often             former gang members, assisted by Homeboy

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                              45
Industries, are now members of Los Angeles area             and community involvement." T HE E VOLUTION
trade unions and are making sizable salaries.               OF S TREET G ANGS : A N E XAMINATION OF F ORM
Patrick Mcgreevy, L.A. to boost jobs for young              AND V ARIATION R ESPONDING TO G ANGS :
people as part of anti-gang effort, mayor says,             E VALUATION AND R ESEARCH 55 (Winifred L.
L OS A NGELES T IMES , Mar 3, 2007, at 3B. His              Reed and Scott H. Decker eds., 2002), available
proposal would increase employment to                       at
10,000—four times the number two years ago.                 On the contrary, "policing that involves only
                                                            enforcement will solidify gangs by increasing
IV. Suppressive measures                                    cohesion among members." Id. The Problem of
                                                            Street Gangs and Problem-Oriented Policing,
A. Purpose                                                  P ROBLEM O RIENTED P OLICING : C RIME -S PECIFIC
                                                            P ROBLEMS C RITICAL ISSUES AND M AKING POP
     Suppressive approaches to gang violence have
                                                            W ORK 57-88 (Anne Grant and Tara O'Conner
long overshadowed other measures. However,
                                                            Shelley eds., 1997).
enforcement efforts alone will not solve a
community's gang problem in the long term.                       Do not give gangs what they want:
According to a survey of law enforcement, "the              Months ago, the Los Angeles Police Department
response [against gang violence] that was                   announced that they had compiled a list of the
employed most often, suppression, was viewed as             "Top 10" worst gangs. This strategy, and others
the least successful intervention strategy." T HE           like it, may be giving the gangs what they want
M ODERN G ANG R EADER : P UBLIC P OLICY                     most—attention and notoriety—both of which
R ESPONSES TO G ANGS : E VALUATING THE                      increase their street clout. Father Greg Boyle
O UTCOMES 330 (Arlen Egley, Jr. et al. eds.,                responded to the news of the "Top 10" list by
Roxbury Publishing Co. 2006).                               remarking that "It's the wildest dream of any
                                                            gang to make the top ten list.... Obviously, [the
     Suppressive approaches are one essential
                                                            LAPD] are going to target gangs that are
component of an effective anti-gang strategy.
                                                            somewhat notorious. But you don't want to
Focused enforcement and comprehensive
                                                            popularize that with some huge graphic. Here are
measures do what preventive and intervention-
                                                            the ten gangs that we hate the most!" R. W.
based measures largely cannot—dismantle
                                                            Dellinger, Gang Crackdown or Crack Up?, T HE
existing gang networks and stop ongoing violent
                                                            T IDINGS (2007).
acts. Exercised in accordance with the following
principles, enforcement measures can be                         Though it is wise for law enforcement to
especially effective as part of a comprehensive             tackle the gangs which spawn the most violence,
strategy against gang violence.                             such a strategy might be best conducted without
                                                            such fanfare. Otherwise, law enforcement
B. Principles
                                                            agencies run the risk of enhancing gang cohesion
     Partner with preventive and intervention-              through vigorous enforcement measures that
based means: Though law enforcement measures                operate without regard to other, nonpunitive
can be very successful in combating ongoing                 means.
violence, the long-term success of their efforts
often depends upon forming positive relationships
                                                            C. Programs
with other organizations that aim to prevent or                  Kansas City Gun Experiment: Motivated
decrease crime. As stated in a National Institute of        to test the "hypothesis that gun seizures and gun
Justice report, "Policing strategies are most               crime are inversely related"—"as gun seizures
effective when teamed with intervention programs            increase, gun crime decreases"—the Kansas City
such as providing economic opportunities, job               Gun Experiment placed increased police patrols
training, remedial education, and other services            on certain hot spots for gun crime. An overview

46                                 U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                      J U LY 2008
 of the Kansas City Gun Experiment is available at          the most violent and recidivist gang offenders The                appears to have had a meaningful effect on gang
 experiment lasted for 29 weeks in the early 1990s,         crime in Orange County. Douglas R. Kent, et al.,
 in a relatively small neighborhood that posted a           Evaluating Criminal Justice Programs Designed
 1991 homicide rate 20 times greater than the               to Reduce Crime by Targeting Repeat Gang
 national average. Law enforcement officers                 Offenders, E VALUATION AND P ROGRAM
 working the program were not "required to                  P LANNING , Feb. 2000 at 115-24. In the first year
 respond to calls for service"; they concentrated           of TARGET's operation, gang crime decreased
 solely on reducing gun crime in the area. Id.              by 11 percent. Steeper increases followed this
 Officers used various tactics (including Terry v.          initial decline. In the fourth year of TARGET's
 Ohio searches) to find illegal guns and their              operation, gang crime had cumulatively
 owners, seeking to prevent future crimes.                  decreased by 47 percent. Other explanations for
                                                            the marked drop in gang crime were ruled out by
     Results: During the program period, police
                                                            the researchers that evaluated the program. Tri-
 increased gun seizures in the area upwards of 65
                                                            Agency Resource Gang Enforcement Team
 percent. Moreover, gun crimes in the target area
                                                            overview is available at http://guide.helping
 decreased by some 49 percent. Data from a
 control area showed no measurable change in the
 number of guns seized or in gun crimes.                         Hardcore Gang Investigations Unit
 Following the program's completion, gun crimes             (formerly Operation Hardcore): Housed in the
 again began to increase, but soon decreased                Los Angeles County District Attorney's Office,
 substantially in comparison to the control area            the Hardcore Gang Investigations Unit is a path-
 when the program resumed operation in 1993.                breaking enterprise that seeks to enhance the
 Kansas City Gun Experiment overview is                     prosecution of gang cases by promoting early
 available at                prosecutorial involvement, vertical prosecution,
 kang.pdf.                                                  reduced caseloads, and resources for victims. An
                                                            overview of the Hardcore Gang Investigations
      Tri-Agency Resource Gang Enforcement
                                                            Unit—Los Angeles County District Attorney's
 Team (TARGET): TARGET coordinates the
                                                            Office is available at http://guide.helping
 efforts of the police and sheriff's departments in
 Orange County, California, the Orange County
                                                            The office employs a considerable number of
 Probation Department, and the Orange County
                                                            prosecutors and fosters close collaboration
 District Attorney. Tri-Agency Resource Gang
                                                            among them, enabling them to perceive linkages
 Enforcement Team overview is available at
                                                            between gang crimes that may have gone
                                                            unnoticed by 'regular' prosecutors. Originally
 detail.cfm?id=683. The initiative seeks to remove
                                                            entitled Operation Hardcore, the unit has existed
 the county's most violent and repeat gang
                                                            since the 1970s and is generally considered very
 offenders through collaboration among multiple
 parties. Gang members selected for scrutiny are
 closely monitored for continuing offenses and are               Results: A 1981 study compared Operation
 subject to intensive supervision while on parole.          Hardcore cases from 1979-1980 with similar
 Other gang members are targeted at certain hot             cases before the birth of the unit and those cases
 spots where and when known gang activity                   that would have been handled by the unit, had
 occurs. TARGET operates a unique facility in               enough resources been available. The results are
 which the involved agencies share a space,                 compelling. Those prosecuted by Operation
 enhancing their coordination and decision-making           Hardcore were prosecuted at a much higher rate
 ability.                                                   than the other comparison groups: "95 percent
                                                            by Operation Hardcore verses 78 percent non-
     Results: TARGET's policy of incarcerating

J U LY 2008                        U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                               47
Hardcore and 71 percent pre-Hardcore." See                 sponsored a number of different programs, each
Hardcore Gang Investigations Unit—Los Angeles              based on differing analytical and methodological
County District Attorney's Office available at             understandings of the gang problem and how              best to counter it.
detail.cfm?id=596. Notably, the unit established a
                                                                Many of these models are based on, or share
100 percent conviction rate during its year-long
                                                           much in common with, the Spergel Model, so
evaluation. Twenty-six percent of those
                                                           named for its creator, Dr. Irving Spergel of the
prosecuted by Operation Hardcore were convicted
                                                           University of Chicago. The model has a "flexible
of the most serious charge against them. This
                                                           format" that focuses on "the formation of
contrasts sharply with the 14 percent of non-
                                                           partnerships between local private and public
Hardcore defendants convicted of the most serious
                                                           agencies (including law enforcement) to provide
charge and the 15 percent of pre-Hardcore
                                                           educational, emotional and treatment services for
defendants that were convicted of such a charge.
                                                           youth at risk of or already involved in gangs."
                                                           T HE M ODERN G ANG R EADER : P UBLIC P OLICY
                                                           R ESPONSES TO G ANGS : E VALUATING THE
V. Comprehensive measures                                  O UTCOMES 334 (Arlen Egley, Jr. et al. eds.,
A. Purpose                                                 Roxbury Publishing Co. 2006). A related model
                                                           is the Comprehensive Gang Prevention,
    The Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice          Intervention, and Suppression Model
Assistance has commented that, "The most                   implemented in five cities during the 1990s.
effective approaches to addressing gang-related            Other approaches abound.
problems involve several agencies or groups
                                                                OJJDP's Gang Reduction Program (GRP) is
handling a number of facets of local gang
                                                           a successful program currently operating in small
problems and focusing on suppression,
                                                           sections of four cities: Los Angeles, California;
intervention, and prevention." B UREAU OF J USTICE
                                                           Richmond, Virginia; Miami, Florida; and
                                                           Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The four target cities
                                                           share two factors in common—a high level of
                                                           violent crime and a high level of community
available at
                                                           activism around their gang problem. Each GRP
                                                           site, with assistance from the federal government,
     Comprehensive programs are organized                  implements a five-pronged approach, consisting
differently in each community. No two cities               of primary prevention, secondary prevention,
share the same gangs or gang problem; thus, no             intervention, suppression, and reentry. These five
two cities will share the same anti-gang strategy.         strategies appear in some form in nearly every
Comprehensive gang strategies must be tailored to          comprehensive strategy. The program summary
fit the contours of a given community. The true            may be found at
scale of the variances that exist between                  ProgSummary.asp?pi=38.
community gang problems and community
                                                                Apart from the GRP is the Comprehensive
responses is evident in the long line of federal
                                                           Anti-Gang Initiative, a program begun by
government-supported programs.
                                                           Attorney General Gonzales. Recently expanded,
    The Department has led the way in                      the initiative operates in ten cities nationwide and
developing and implementing community-                     shares many of the same strategies as the GRP.
centered, comprehensive strategies to gangs and            Overview of the Department's Antigang Initiative
gang violence. During the past two decades, the            is available at
Department, often guided by its Office of Juvenile         programs/anti-gang/. As this grew from the
Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), has            Project Safe Neighborhoods national initiative,

48                                U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 some PSN overview is warranted.                              analyze the problem as a series of interconnected
                                                              pieces. Once dissected into its component parts,
      Every comprehensive strategy, including
                                                              the management group can methodically evaluate
 those listed above, must confront and overcome a
                                                              which organizations or agencies should be
 series of steep hurdles in order to achieve efficacy.
                                                              responsible for dealing with which parts of the
 Adhering to the principles below, gleaned from
                                                              problem. The result is a symbiotic process that
 the trials-and-errors of the past, will assist these
                                                              may avoid the bureaucratic scuffles that often
 efforts. These principles are derived from a report
                                                              occur when multiple organizations share
 by the Bureau of Justice Assistance. B UREAU OF
                                                              responsibility for fixing one large problem, each
                                                              believing in the supremacy of its particular
                                                              efforts. Id.
 (1999), available at                   C. Programs
 pdffiles/156059.pdf. The report is recommended
 reading for all those attempting to formulate or                  The Safe Futures Initiative: The above
 improve community-centered, comprehensive                    principles represent only a small fraction of the
 anti-gang programs.                                          guidelines which ought to direct the
                                                              implementation of comprehensive programs.
 B. Principles                                                Evaluations of the national Safe Futures
                                                              Program, an OJJDP-sponsored initiative
      Develop definitions: Community coalitions
                                                              intending to "prevent and control youth violence"
 must decide upon suitable definitions of "gang"
                                                              by creating a "continuum of care" for at-risk and
 and "success," among other terms. B UREAU OF
                                                              offending youth, set forth a number of principles
                                                              relating to program implementation. E LAINE
                                                              M ORLEY ET AL ., O FFICE OF J USTICE P ROGRAMS ,
                                                              C OMPREHENSIVE R ESPONSES TO Y OUTH A T R ISK :
 (1999), available at
                                                              INTERIM F INDINGS F ROM THE S AFE F UTURES
 files/156069.pdf. Without shared definitions,
                                                              INITIATIVE S UMMARY (2000), available at http://
 coalitions have no way of measuring the success
 of their efforts. Joint goals, in turn, depend upon
 joint ideas of the problem and of success.
      Colloborate closely: Though not every                       The lengthy list of principles presented in
 coalition will be able to share the same physical            OJJDP's summary of the Safe Futures
 operating space, the involved agencies must act as           evaluations should be required reading for those
 though this were the case. A "management group"              planning comprehensive programs. Id. at 9-14
 (or steering committee), endowed with sufficient             and 68-79. These principles are outlined
 strategic authority, is often the most effective             according to the following three categories
 means of executing a comprehensive strategy. Id.             •    Funded Demonstration Programs: Small
 at 8. Such a management group must have the                       programs often need more training and
 political muscle, usually in the form of support                  assistance than larger, more established
 from all levels of government in their area,                      programs. Id. at 11. Smaller programs may
 required to direct sufficient resources to tackle the             lack the resources or processes necessary, for
 gang problem. In short, a comprehensive effort                    instance, to keep detailed records of their
 without concentrated collaboration is no                          work. An outside organization may need to
 comprehensive effort at all.                                      assist small programs in order for their
      Break the problem into pieces: The gang                      operations to be wholly integrated into the
 problem is too large and too nebulous a concept to                broader, comprehensive scheme.
 attack altogether. Great care must be taken to                    Individual sites must implement programs

J U LY 2008                          U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                               49
     within their cultural context. Id. at 70. In the               serving programs as meant for younger
     Safe Futures Program, one-on-one mentoring                     children. This stigma can be altered by
     was a required aspect of every program.                        carefully tailoring programs to suit older
     However, mentoring programs failed in some                     youth and their interests. The clear
     communities because mentoring was not a                        insinuation from the difficulty of
     culturally-accepted practice. Program policies                 involving older youth is that it is much
     and standards must adapt to diverse cultures                   easier to take a youth and create for her
     within reasonable limits.                                      a positive peer group than it is to take a
                                                                    youth out of a negative peer group.
     "Replication of programs that worked in other
     communities [or under different                               The Little Village Gang Violence
     circumstances within the local community]                 Reduction Project: The forerunner of many
     does not guarantee similarly positive results in          other comprehensive strategies, the Little Village
     a new setting." Id. at 71. Successful programs            Gang Violence Reduction Project (GVRP),
     are often creatures of their environments.                targeted the hardest-to-reach and most gang-
     When "transplanted," they may not adapt                   involved youth in a particularly dangerous area
     well. Id.                                                 of Chicago. Extending from 1992 to 1997,
                                                               GVRP provided full-spectrum services to
•    Community-Based Collaborations: Solid
                                                               specific offending youth, most of whom were
     collaborations take "considerable" time to
                                                               between the ages 17-24. Noted social scientist,
     form. Id. at 72. Organizational relationships
                                                               Dr. Irving Spergel played a leading role in the
     require significant and ongoing investments in
                                                               program's implementation. The program
     terms of time and communication. Turnover
                                                               corresponds generally to his method of program
     among key organizational staff, and even
                                                               design, focusing on the provision of social
     among committed elected officials, can
                                                               services within the context of community
     negatively affect overall performance. Id. at
     73. Successful program implementation took
     much longer than "either the local                             GVRP sought to integrate the work of the
     communities or the funders originally                     Chicago Police Department (CPD) with grass-
     anticipated." Id.                                         roots organizers and social service providers. The
                                                               leadership of the CPD, however, did not embrace
•    Services provision: In implementing
                                                               the program. Even so, the police officers
     innovative programs, some of which had
                                                               assigned to GVRP implemented innovative
     succeeded elsewhere, "there was no formulaic
                                                               tactics that enhanced their ability to target
     approach to success that could be followed."
                                                               especially violent gang members. IRVING
     Id. at 74.
                                                               S PERGEL ET AL ., T HE L ITTLE V ILLAGE G ANG
     Programs often struggle to involve parents                R EDUCTION P ROJECT IN C HICAGO 97-97 (2003),
     and families, though their participation is               available at
     critical to program success. Id. Providing food           pdf/ResearchReports/LittleVillageGVRP.pdf.
     and transportation can attract those who                  These officers worked in conjunction with a
     would not otherwise attend program activities.            cadre of trained outreach workers employed by
     Offering food was found, in general, to be                the program. Former gang members assisted
     very effective, especially to low income youth            gang members in acquiring social services and
     and their families.                                       worked with the police to identify certain gang
                                                               members, often those who were specifically
     It is especially difficult to attract older
                                                               involved in criminal incidents. The outreach
     youth, particularly those that are gang
                                                               workers mediated disputes. Id. at 10-14. Overall,
     involved. Id. at 78. Many older youths
                                                               GVRP succeeded in pulling together a diverse
     perceive after-school and other youth-

50                                    U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                        J U LY 2008
 coalition of social service providers, "street-level
 police, probation, and community youth workers,"            Riverside was one of five sites selected to
 but failed to secure sufficient support from either         implement the Comprehensive, Community-
 the CPD or the community at large. Id. at 97.               Wide Approach to Gang Violence Prevention,
                                                             Intervention and Suppression Model designed by
      Results: Project evaluators largely relied
                                                             OJJDP. The model relies upon a local steering
 upon a survey administered 3 times over a 2-year
                                                             committee to coordinate and direct a broad array
 period, to a large section of the served gang
                                                             of services to assist gang-involved or at-risk
 population. Id. at 52. Program youth experienced
                                                             youth. The Committee was comprised of local
 a vast change in the way in which they perceived
                                                             politicians, school representatives, police
 their community. They tended to feel that the
                                                             officers, grassroots organizations, and service
 community was "getting better" and thought that
                                                             providers, among others. Id. at 1.19.
 "community gang and nongang crime" was down.
 Id. However, those surveyed also "did not see                   Eventually, the Riverside Police Department
 local organizations, residents, or police as                assumed control of overall program operations
 changing or doing much during the project period            and excelled in its role. In addition, Riverside's
 to address the gang problem." Id. at 53.                    program was greatly assisted by the local
                                                             probation department, which referred the
     Some youth surveyed reported that they were
                                                             majority of youth to the program. Id. at 14.10.
 no longer actively involved with their former
                                                             Riverside organized a novel Service Needs
 gang. In particular, self-reported membership in
                                                             Assessment Team (SNAT) to evaluate referred
 the Latin Kings gang dropped
                                                             youth and tailor services to meet their needs. Id.
 substantially—"from 46.0% to 29.7%." Id. at 54.
                                                             at 14.5.
 At the same time, self-reported income and
 employment increased by significant amounts.                    SNAT had at its disposal a number of
                                                             interesting programs, many of which were very
      Importantly, evaluators "found a general and
                                                             well-administered. Evaluators were particularly
 extensive reduction of frequencies and categories
                                                             impressed by an employment training program
 for all self-reported offenses and arrests of
                                                             operated by the Riverside Department of Human
 program youth between" the first and third
                                                             Resources. Participating youth received a $150
 surveys. Id. These reductions correlated, in
                                                             stipend to complete a 6-week curriculum. Youth
 general, to police records.
                                                             also benefitted from a pool of job opportunities
     Finally, program youth experienced reduced              specially arranged for those in the program. Id. at
 levels of arrests for violent crimes compared to a          14.7.
 control group. Id. at 71. Arrests for property
                                                                 Results: Evaluators concluded that the
 crimes, however, did not appear to be affected by
                                                             Riverside Program probably achieved the
 program involvement. Id. at 72.
                                                             "greatest measure of positive change and positive
      Riverside Comprehensive, Community-                    development" out of the four other sites testing
 Wide Approach to Gang Violence Prevention,                  the OJJDP model. Id. at 14.8. Overall, "an
 Intervention and Suppression: The town of                   extraordinarily high degree of involvement,
 Riverside, California requested and received a              commitment, and support by city administration,
 federal grant in response to rising gang crime              the criminal-justice system, the schools, and
 coupled with the largest population growth of any           increasingly by community-based agencies
 city in California "between 1983 and 1994."                 appeared to predict success in reducing key
 IRVING S PERGEL ET AL ., E VALUATION OF THE                 aspects of the gang problem." Id. at 14.8-9. This
 RIVERSIDE C OMPREHENSIVE C OMMUNITY -W IDE                  organizational synergy made an impact. The
 A PPROACH TO G ANG P REVENTION , INTERVENTION               Riverside Project successfully reduced "serious
 AND SUPPRESSION 3.2 (2005), available at http://            violent arrests" for program youth, when

J U LY 2008                         U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                               51
compared to the pre-program period. During the              intervention-based options can become all-the-
program period, "serious violent arrests increased          more successful.
for comparison youth." Id. at 14.12. However, no
                                                                 This heightened efficacy is evident in
significant difference was found between program
                                                            programs across the nation. Washington, D.C.
and comparison youth in total arrests during the
                                                            recently experienced this sort of success when, in
program period. The highest drops in total violent
                                                            2003, Chief of Police Charles H. Ramsey
arrests were experienced in youth who received
                                                            instituted the Gang Intervention Partnership Unit.
coordinated services from police, probation, their
                                                            The Unit formed partnerships with activists,
school, and their employment service. Id. at 14.14.
                                                            neighborhoods, and schools to reduce violence.
Also, individual counseling, though effective, was
                                                            The results, especially on the Latino population,
not as effective as when the "full range of
                                                            were stunning. "The number of Latino gang-
services" were provided. Id. at 14.13. The youth
                                                            related homicides in [Washington, D.C.] dropped
that remained in the program for at least two years
                                                            from 21 between 1999 and 2003 to zero between
"did much better in reducing arrests" than those in
                                                            2003 and 2006." T. Jackson, Social Programs to
the program for less time. Id.
                                                            Combat Gangs Seen as More Effective Than
D. Other comprehensive programs: As with                    Police, W ASHINGTON P OST , July 18, 2007, at
the other categories of programs (prevention,               B03.
intervention, and suppression), comprehensive
                                                                 The nuance in programs like Chief Ramsey's
programs are numerous and varied. It would not
                                                            is that success somewhere does not guarantee
be helpful to list the whole of these programs in
                                                            success somewhere else. This is likely caused by
this article. The two programs highlighted above
                                                            a paucity in our knowledge of successful anti-
were intensely evaluated and chosen to showcase
                                                            gang strategies. Though researchers constantly
differences in program management,
                                                            acquire more information, overall, "Very little
implementation, and outcome.
                                                            progress has been made in learning or
    Evaluations are still underway of several               demonstrating how to deal with the [gang]
ongoing comprehensive programs. For example,                problem successfully." IRVING S PERGEL ET AL .,
the Gang Reduction Project (GRP) appears to                 E VALUATION OF THE RIVERSIDE C OMPREHENSIVE
have produced positive preliminary results. The             C OMMUNITY -W IDE A PPROACH TO G ANG
City of Los Angeles' 2007 Gang Reduction                    P REVENTION , INTERVENTION AND SUPPRESSION
Strategy credits the GRP with reducing crime in             1.4 (2005), available at
the Boyle Heights neighborhood by an astounding             pdffiles1/nij/grants/209188.pdf.
                                                                What is known, however, is instructive.
                                                            Communities can respond directly and
(2007), available at
                                                            dynamically to their gang problems. Well-
                                                            organized, synthesized solutions can make a
                                                            tremendous difference—a difference manifested
                                                            in decreased crime, lives changed, and lives
VI. Conclusion                                              saved. Effectively countering gangs means
     Solutions to gangs and gang violence, like             confronting the problem head-on by accurately
gangs themselves, remain nebulous. Research                 analyzing the nature and extent of the issue and
asserts that those programs which seek to prevent           coordinating a community-wide response.
at-risk youth from joining gangs, or interdict those             Built upon the body of research described in
who have already joined gangs, often appear more            this review, community-centered responses to
effective than suppressive measures alone.                  gang violence, though they cannot promise
Carefully managed in the context of a community-            success, possess potent potential.˜
based anti-gang program, preventive, and

52                                 U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN                       J U LY 2008

 ‘Brendan Groves is a student at Duke
 University School of Law. He is the founder and
 director of Step Up Employment Training
 Program, an initiative that teaches employability
 skills to convicted juveniles. Brendan has twice
 interned for the Department of Justice, most
 recently for the Office of the Deputy Attorney

J U LY 2008                        U N ITED S TATES A TTO RN EY S ' B U LLETIN   53

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