EYELID DISORDERS

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EYELID DISORDERS Powered By Docstoc
					COMMON DISORDERS
   OF THE EYE
EYELIDS DISORDER

    CHALAZION
    BLEPHARITIS
    HORDEOLUM (stye)
    ECTROPION
    ENTROPION
    EYELID DROOP (PTOSIS)
    BLEPHAROSPASM
    XANTHELASMAS
CHALAZION

 Chronic granulomatous inflammation of
  the meibomian glands
 Appear singly or multiple in the superior
  and inferior eyelids
 disorder occurs for unknown reasons
 most common in people with rosacea
  and blepharitis.
 Probably due to blocked ducts
CHALAZION manifestation

  eyelid becomes swollen, irritated, or red
  painless swelling develops on or under
   the eyelid.
  A chalazion that is large enough can rub
   against the eyeball, causing irritation or,
   rarely, vision changes.
management

 Warm compress TID-QID x 10-15 mins
 Surgical excision to drain the chalazion
  using a special spoon-shaped instrument
  (curettage).
 Corticosteroid injection to the lesion
BLEPHARITIS

 Chronic bilateral inflammation of the
  eyelid margins
 2 types:
 Staphylococcal- usually ulcerative, more
  serious due to involvement of hair
  follicles
 Seborrheic- chronic, usually resistant to
  treatment
BLEPHARITIS
MANIFESTATION
 sensation of having something in the eye;
 itching, burning, swelling, and redness of
  the eyelid edges;
 watery eyes and sensitivity to bright light;
 loss of eyelashes.
 Dried secretions may make the eyelids
  sticky after sleep.
BLEPHARITIS
MANAGEMENT
 warm compresses
 LID HYGIENE- gently washing the eyelashes
  and eyelid edges with a dilute solution of baby
  shampoo
 use of antibiotic ointment or drops
 Blepharitis is a chronic condition and can only
  be controlled, not cured. However, although
  blepharitis may be inconvenient or unattractive,
  it usually does not damage the eye.
HORDEOLUM (STYE)

 Acute suppurative infection of the glands
  of the eyelids
 Staphylococcus aureus
 Often difficult to distinguish from
  chalazion
HORDEOLUM (STYE)
manifestion
 small, round swellings of the eyelid that
  may have a pinpoint yellow or white spot
  where the duct of the gland is blocked
 often accompany blepharitis
 cause redness, tenderness at the edge
  of the eyelid
 sensation that something is in the eye.
management

 Warm compresses can open the infected
  gland.
 Antibiotic drops or ointments
 Surgery may be necessary for styes that
  do not respond to compresses or
  antibiotics
   Incision and drainage
ECTROPION

 the lower eyelid grows lax and droops
 The edge of the eyelid often turns
  outward (becomes everted).
 the lower eyelid can no longer distribute
  tears across the eyeball or drain tears,
  tears fall onto the face instead
ECTROPION

 the lower eyelid may not close
  completely, thus the eye is exposed to
  the air and may become dry, red, and
  irritated
 Artificial tears and ointments used at
  night may help the irritation
 surgery.
ENTROPION

 the lower eyelid turns inward into the eye.
 The lower eyelashes may rub against the
  eyeball, causing :
     Tearing
     Irritation
     Infection
     ulceration of the cornea
     scarring.
ENTROPION
MANAGEMENT
 Carefully placed stitches can pull the eyelid
  outward when scar tissue develops along the
  stitch.
 Botulinum toxin can pull the eyelid outward by
  paralyzing the muscle around the eye
 these procedures offer only temporary solutions
  to the problem
 entropion eventually recurs.
 Correction with surgery offers the best hope of a
  permanent cure.
PTOSIS (EYELID DROOP)
 The nerve that supplies the muscle of the
  upper eyelid may be paralyzed
 CAUSES:
   diabetes
   neurologic diseases, such as Horner's
    syndrome and myasthenia gravis.
   Separation or stretching of the eyelid muscle
    where it connects to the eyelid can also result in
    eyelid droop
   Surgery and injury to the eye are additional
    causes.
Clinical manifestation

  usually causes no symptoms
  some people experience obstruction of
   vision,headache and fatigue from using
   their brow muscles while attempting to
   elevate their eyelids
management

 Surgery is the only treatment available
  for eyelid droop
 necessary only if a person has symptoms
 Complications of surgery include difficulty
  closing the eyes, dry eyes, and ulcers on
  the cornea.
BLEPHAROSPASM

 spasm of the muscles around the eye
 involuntary blinking and closing of the
  eyes.
 In severe cases, people with
  blepharospasm cannot open their eyes
 Spasms are often made worse by
  fatigue, bright light, and anxiety
   occur as a result of other eye diseases
   cause is more often unknown
   affects women more than men
   tends to occur within families
   also more common in people with thyroid
    disease
 botulinum toxin injection into the muscles
 Antianxiety drugs
 Surgery to cut the muscles is also
  effective but causes more complications
  than botulinum toxin
 Sunglasses help decrease the light
  sensitivity that may cause or accompany
  blepharospasm.
XANTHELASMAS

 are flat yellow or white growths of the
  upper eyelid that appear thick and fatty
 Xanthelasmas in older people can
  occasionally be a sign of high cholesterol
  levels
 therefore warrant a blood test.

				
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posted:7/24/2010
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