COMMON DISORDERS OF THE EYE EYELIDS DISORDER CHALAZION BLEPHARITIS HORDEOLUM (stye) ECTROPION ENTROPION EYELID DROOP (PTOSIS) BLEPHAROSPASM XANTHELASMAS CHALAZION Chronic granulomatous inflammation of the meibomian glands Appear singly or multiple in the superior and inferior eyelids disorder occurs for unknown reasons most common in people with rosacea and blepharitis. Probably due to blocked ducts CHALAZION manifestation eyelid becomes swollen, irritated, or red painless swelling develops on or under the eyelid. A chalazion that is large enough can rub against the eyeball, causing irritation or, rarely, vision changes. management Warm compress TID-QID x 10-15 mins Surgical excision to drain the chalazion using a special spoon-shaped instrument (curettage). Corticosteroid injection to the lesion BLEPHARITIS Chronic bilateral inflammation of the eyelid margins 2 types: Staphylococcal- usually ulcerative, more serious due to involvement of hair follicles Seborrheic- chronic, usually resistant to treatment BLEPHARITIS MANIFESTATION sensation of having something in the eye; itching, burning, swelling, and redness of the eyelid edges; watery eyes and sensitivity to bright light; loss of eyelashes. Dried secretions may make the eyelids sticky after sleep. BLEPHARITIS MANAGEMENT warm compresses LID HYGIENE- gently washing the eyelashes and eyelid edges with a dilute solution of baby shampoo use of antibiotic ointment or drops Blepharitis is a chronic condition and can only be controlled, not cured. However, although blepharitis may be inconvenient or unattractive, it usually does not damage the eye. HORDEOLUM (STYE) Acute suppurative infection of the glands of the eyelids Staphylococcus aureus Often difficult to distinguish from chalazion HORDEOLUM (STYE) manifestion small, round swellings of the eyelid that may have a pinpoint yellow or white spot where the duct of the gland is blocked often accompany blepharitis cause redness, tenderness at the edge of the eyelid sensation that something is in the eye. management Warm compresses can open the infected gland. Antibiotic drops or ointments Surgery may be necessary for styes that do not respond to compresses or antibiotics Incision and drainage ECTROPION the lower eyelid grows lax and droops The edge of the eyelid often turns outward (becomes everted). the lower eyelid can no longer distribute tears across the eyeball or drain tears, tears fall onto the face instead ECTROPION the lower eyelid may not close completely, thus the eye is exposed to the air and may become dry, red, and irritated Artificial tears and ointments used at night may help the irritation surgery. ENTROPION the lower eyelid turns inward into the eye. The lower eyelashes may rub against the eyeball, causing : Tearing Irritation Infection ulceration of the cornea scarring. ENTROPION MANAGEMENT Carefully placed stitches can pull the eyelid outward when scar tissue develops along the stitch. Botulinum toxin can pull the eyelid outward by paralyzing the muscle around the eye these procedures offer only temporary solutions to the problem entropion eventually recurs. Correction with surgery offers the best hope of a permanent cure. PTOSIS (EYELID DROOP) The nerve that supplies the muscle of the upper eyelid may be paralyzed CAUSES: diabetes neurologic diseases, such as Horner's syndrome and myasthenia gravis. Separation or stretching of the eyelid muscle where it connects to the eyelid can also result in eyelid droop Surgery and injury to the eye are additional causes. Clinical manifestation usually causes no symptoms some people experience obstruction of vision,headache and fatigue from using their brow muscles while attempting to elevate their eyelids management Surgery is the only treatment available for eyelid droop necessary only if a person has symptoms Complications of surgery include difficulty closing the eyes, dry eyes, and ulcers on the cornea. BLEPHAROSPASM spasm of the muscles around the eye involuntary blinking and closing of the eyes. In severe cases, people with blepharospasm cannot open their eyes Spasms are often made worse by fatigue, bright light, and anxiety occur as a result of other eye diseases cause is more often unknown affects women more than men tends to occur within families also more common in people with thyroid disease botulinum toxin injection into the muscles Antianxiety drugs Surgery to cut the muscles is also effective but causes more complications than botulinum toxin Sunglasses help decrease the light sensitivity that may cause or accompany blepharospasm. XANTHELASMAS are flat yellow or white growths of the upper eyelid that appear thick and fatty Xanthelasmas in older people can occasionally be a sign of high cholesterol levels therefore warrant a blood test.