Dogs Can Detect PCa by Sniffing Urine by ProQuest


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									                                                                                                          JULY 2010    Renal & Urology News 25

   ■ AUA Annual Meeting, San Francisco       Reports from the American Urological Association’s Annual Meeting.

Dogs Can Detect PCa by Sniffing Urine
Findings could set the stage for developing a highly specific screening tool, researchers say
DOGS CAN BE trained to detect pros-           PCa and 33 did not, as determined by        sensitivity and specificity was 100% and                principle” study by British researchers,
tate cancer (PCa) by smelling urine sam-      prostate biopsy.                            91%, respectively. The positive and                    trained dogs had a mean success rate
ples and signaling the presence of certain      The dogs used in the study were trained   negative predictive values were 92%                    of 41% in selecting urine from patients
volatile organic compounds (VOCs)             in three phases. In the first phase, which   and 100%, respectively.                                with bladder cancer compared with 14%
produced by cancer cells, according to        lasted five months, dogs were trained to       “These results suggest that VOCs pro-                expected by chance alone, according to
French researchers.                           recognize cancer urine. In the second       duced by cancer cells can be detected in               a report in the British Medical Journal
  Jean-Nicolas Cornu, MD, of Tenon            phase, which lasted 11 months, dogs         urine samples,” the authors concluded.                 (2004;329:712-716).
Hospital in Paris, and colleagues             were trained to discriminate cancer urine   “Identification of these substances could                 The authors concluded that their find-
obtained fresh urine samples that had         from control urine. In the final phase,      lead to a highly specific screening tool                ings suggest that tumor-related volatile
been frozen for preservation from             dogs were presented with five urine         for prostate cancer.”                                  compounds are present in urine and they
66 men referred to a urologist be-            samples and prompted to select the one        Previous studies have shown promis-                  impart a characteristic odor signature
cause they had an elevated PSA level or       sample that was cancer urine.               ing results using dogs to detect blad-                 distinct from those associated with sec-
abnormal findings on digital rectal             Dogs correctly classified 63 of 66        der and breast cancer by smelling urine                ondary effects of the tumor, such as bleed-
examination. Of the 66 men, 33 had            samples, with three false-positives. The    samples. For example, in a “proof of                   ing, inflammation, and infection. ■

 Data Support                                 High-Grade PCa Linked to Diabetes
 Inflammation,                                 AMONG OBESE white men, those
                                              with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more
                                                                                          above 7). The association was stronger
                                                                                          among obese men, in whom diabetes
                                                                                                                                                 radical prostatectomy was associated
                                                                                                                                                 with worse outcomes for obese white

 OAB Link                                     likely than non-diabetics to have high-
                                              grade prostate cancer (PCa) discov-
                                                                                          conferred a 3.76 times increased risk of
                                                                                          high-grade disease. The researchers, led
                                                                                                                                                 men, including a 2.5-fold increased
                                                                                                                                                 risk of biochemical recurrence. Black
 INCREASING levels of C-reactive protein      ered on prostate biopsy, according          by Stephen J. Freedland, MD, observed                  men and non-obese white men had
 (CRP) are associated with increasing
                                              to researchers.                             no significantly increased risk among                   better outcomes.
                                                Investigators at Duke University          non-obese men.                                           “These two relatively independent
 odds of overactive bladder (OAB), ac-
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