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www.renalandurologynews.com JULY 2010 Renal & Urology News 25 ■ AUA Annual Meeting, San Francisco Reports from the American Urological Association’s Annual Meeting. Dogs Can Detect PCa by Sniffing Urine Findings could set the stage for developing a highly speciﬁc screening tool, researchers say DOGS CAN BE trained to detect pros- PCa and 33 did not, as determined by sensitivity and speciﬁcity was 100% and principle” study by British researchers, tate cancer (PCa) by smelling urine sam- prostate biopsy. 91%, respectively. The positive and trained dogs had a mean success rate ples and signaling the presence of certain The dogs used in the study were trained negative predictive values were 92% of 41% in selecting urine from patients volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in three phases. In the ﬁrst phase, which and 100%, respectively. with bladder cancer compared with 14% produced by cancer cells, according to lasted ﬁve months, dogs were trained to “These results suggest that VOCs pro- expected by chance alone, according to French researchers. recognize cancer urine. In the second duced by cancer cells can be detected in a report in the British Medical Journal Jean-Nicolas Cornu, MD, of Tenon phase, which lasted 11 months, dogs urine samples,” the authors concluded. (2004;329:712-716). Hospital in Paris, and colleagues were trained to discriminate cancer urine “Identiﬁcation of these substances could The authors concluded that their ﬁnd- obtained fresh urine samples that had from control urine. In the ﬁnal phase, lead to a highly speciﬁc screening tool ings suggest that tumor-related volatile been frozen for preservation from dogs were presented with five urine for prostate cancer.” compounds are present in urine and they 66 men referred to a urologist be- samples and prompted to select the one Previous studies have shown promis- impart a characteristic odor signature cause they had an elevated PSA level or sample that was cancer urine. ing results using dogs to detect blad- distinct from those associated with sec- abnormal findings on digital rectal Dogs correctly classified 63 of 66 der and breast cancer by smelling urine ondary effects of the tumor, such as bleed- examination. Of the 66 men, 33 had samples, with three false-positives. The samples. For example, in a “proof of ing, inﬂammation, and infection. ■ Data Support High-Grade PCa Linked to Diabetes Inﬂammation, AMONG OBESE white men, those with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more above 7). The association was stronger among obese men, in whom diabetes radical prostatectomy was associated with worse outcomes for obese white OAB Link likely than non-diabetics to have high- grade prostate cancer (PCa) discov- conferred a 3.76 times increased risk of high-grade disease. The researchers, led men, including a 2.5-fold increased risk of biochemical recurrence. Black INCREASING levels of C-reactive protein ered on prostate biopsy, according by Stephen J. Freedland, MD, observed men and non-obese white men had (CRP) are associated with increasing to researchers. no signiﬁcantly increased risk among better outcomes. Investigators at Duke University non-obese men. “These two relatively independent odds of overactive bladder (OAB), ac-
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