Saber A. Chowdhury
Department of Peace & Conflict Studies
University of Dhaka.
Roll-26, 3rd year, 6th semester
Department of Peace & Conflict Studies
University of Dhaka.
SUBMITTED DATE: 15-03-10
Today, environment is a sensitive issue. Global warming,
deforestation, nuclear weapons, generic engendering, climate
change, sea level rise, river erosion etc all those are related or
responsible for environmental degradation. These are affecting
human security and peace. Now the world‟s environment is
vulnerable and we the inhabitant of this world are under vulnerable
position. And the only thing that changes this situation is peace by
peaceful means. By establishing positive peace which is similar to
development or state of harmony we can ensure a peaceful world for
living being. And to bring peace the most essential way is movement
which is further known as peace movement work for environmental
peace. History is related to peace movement. The idea of peace is as
old as humanity. Peace movement has some categories or principles
in which way they work for peace. There are different types of peace
movement in history. Greenpeace movement is one of them. The
idea of Greenpeace movement was emerged in Canada and
established the first Greenpeace organization in 1970s. Now it has
about 27 countries. There are some core values or principle which is
very much important for the activities of Greenpeace movement.
This movement has some current priorities also which has been gain
popularity all over the world. It is a matter of great surprise that the
Green peace relies wholly upon the voluntary donations of individual
supporters and on grant support from foundations. Since the
beginning Greenpeace movement achieve many victories against
genetic engineering, oil explosion, PVC, chlorin-bleaching, whaling,
cutting down trees etc. Beside the Greenpeace movement in Canada
there are some other organisation who works for Green peace in
whole world such as: German Green peace, Greenpeace in USA,
India, Italy etc. There are also some organization who works For
Greenpeace movement such as: Green belt, Chipko, Green party, etc.
It is important to mention that German Greenpeace is a famous
organisation for Greenpeace movement. German Greenpeace
organisation, the Federal Republic of Germany was emerged to
criticize the Greenpeace organisation of United States and quickly it
became the most well known environmental groups in the world.
Later the Germany Greenpeace branch became the most influentical
member of the Greenpeace international family. Chipko those Indian
Greenpeace organisation mainly works for developing in remote
villages in the southern foothills of the Himalayas. It also work for
protecting the cultural heritage. The Chipko strategy is used to save
other natural areas in India. Green party works for the reunified
Germany to gain political prominence forming past of a coalition
government with social democrat with its benefits there are some
criticisms also. The funding system is ridicule for supposedly over
the top protesting, evolved with lobbying elected officials, today it is
motivated by politics rather than science, incurred real or perceived
environmental damage activities. Though Green peace movement is
not free from criticism it has been campaigning till now against
environmental degradation. It also speaks to take action everyday
and encourages millions of people world wide.
The loss of forests and greenery to encroaching farmland and
housing needs are of concern all around the world. It is a difficult
thought that halting the onslaught on the environment that forms the
very basis of our lives. In third world countries, the line between
starvation and conservation is not enough. The Earth is fragile and
harts everyone, including man, when we go on exploiting and
modifying it. The Greenpeace Movement was born as a voice of the
fragile earth. The movement is most famous for its activism, where
volunteers visit sites of activities that are harmful to the earth or
threaten the life of a group to extinction.
The word “peace” has been defined in dictionary both in positive and
negative peace. Positive definition is “a state of harmony”,
development. Negative peace means absence of structural violence
such as: war, conflict. Peace is related to social justice. Peace is too
important to leave to the generals, to leave to states, for shallow
According to Johan Gattung, “peace is a revolutionary idea; peace by
peaceful means defines that revolution as nonviolent. That revolution
is taking place all the time; our job is to expand it in scope and
domain. The tasks are endless; the question is whether we are up to
To work for peace is to work against violence. Peace includes a
situation when everyone in the world lives peacefully and every
single person has an equal opportunity to have access to the world‟s
resources and opportunities.
Peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideas
such as the ending of a particular war or all wars, to minimize inter-
human violence in a particular place or type of situation often linked
to the goal of achieving world peace. Peace movement usually
include advocacy of non-violent resistance, diplomacy,, boycotts,
moral purchasing, supporting anti-war political candidates,
demonstrations and national political lobbying groups to create
legislation. At present, it is not just a social movement. Economic,
political and other movements which influence to create peace are
also peace movement. Peace movement begins from personal level
to state level such as:
Peace movement towards a more peaceful world has been uneven
and painful slow. Terrorist activities and peace movement are now
controversial. Some people are see terrorist activities or war as peace
movement. But some seen, some situation as different perspectives.
There are some theories that attempt to explain why peace
movement originate and why people participate in them. They are:
Political party failure
Fear of war
New social movement
Beside these there are some principles of peace movement. These
First : Peace seekers have limited their commitment to specific war
Second: To set up international institutions to settle inter-state
Third: Peace seekers have subscribed to various pacifist ethnic on
the ground that peace underpins the human relationships.
Forth: The existence of large standing army constitutes a threat to
Fifth : To promote civil rights, feminism, ecological safety and
equitable distribution of national income among people with in a
There are three categories of peace movement.
Movement to eliminate war in general
To stop particular aspect of war
To stop particular war.
Infact, peace movement is an anti-war movement. There were raised
different types of protest against the invention of Iraq. It is also a
kind of peace movement. Basically it is the loosely affiliated single
Peace Movement in History:
Historical view is related to peace movement. “Those who forget the
past are condemned to repeat it”- wrote philosopher George Santay
ana. Any one with hopes and goals for the future would be wise to
consult the past, if only because in certain basic ways, all that has
happened- mistakes as well as triumphs- is a valuable guide to what
is likely to take place. Probably, the idea of peace is as old as
humanity. But secular or political movements for peace what we
have called peace movements are not more than two hundred years
old, and have evolved largely in the western and northern countries.
The first secular peace groups in Europe- circa 1815.
Environmental peace Movement:
Environment is closely related to peace movement. Environmental
cooperation can promote peace through its approaches.
Environmental peace movement is the protection of environment by
conservation and green movement. Environmental movement is a
diverse scientific, social and political movement for addressing
environmental issues. The movement is centered on ecology, health,
and human rights. Many organizations are the representative of the
environmental movement from the large to grassroots. It has
speculative nature for its large membership. Private citizens,
professionals, religious devotes, political and extremists those are
included in environmental peace movement.
The most ecological peace initiatives fall into one of three party
overlapping categories such as:
Initiatives to prevent conflicts that are directly related to the
Efforts to initiate and sustain a dialogue on transbounadary
environmental cooperation between parties to a conflict and
Initiatives that seeks a lasting peace by promoting conditions
for sustainable development.
The roots of the modern environmental movement in 19 th century
Europe and North-America, wide-spread air, water pollution and
notable disease are exposed for the negligence of environment. The
awareness of environment has been grown after the second world
war. There have many environment related organizations which are
movement for environment. Green peace movement is one of them.
Green peace movement :
Greenpeace is one of the world‟s largest environmental
organizations. It is a proactive group working hard to draw attention
to serious environmental issues. It carries out major international
campaigns to stop global warming and commercial whaling,
conserve the world‟s forests, reduce environmental toxins promote
economic quality in international trade, and abolish nuclear
weapons. Green peace is also an independent organization that uses
non-violent, creative confrontation to expose global environmental
problems, and force solutions for a green and peaceful future.
Greenpeace movement was emerged from the peace movement and
campaign for Nuclear disarmament generally and particularly in the
„Don‟t Make a wave committee co-founded by Jim and Marie
Bohlen and formed by an assortment of Canadian and expatriate
American peace activists in Vancouver in 1970. The committee had
come together with the objective of stopping a U.S nuclear bomb test
code named Cannkin beneath the Aleutian Island of Amehitka,
Alaska. Many of the founding members were members of the society
of friends. The committee was affiliated with the sierra club, the
Audubon society, and the National wildlife Federation. And today,
Greenpeace is a genuinely international organization, as well as
being the great icon of the environmental movement.
Greenpeace movement consisting of Greenpeace international
(Stiching Greenpeace Council) in Amsterdam, and 27 national and
regional offices around the world, providing a presence in 41
countries. These national and regional offices are largely
autonomous in carrying out jointly agreed global campaign strategies
within the local context they operate in and in seeking the necessary
financial support from donors to found this work.
National and regional offices support a network of volunteer run
local groups. Local groups participate in campaigns to their area and
mobilise for larger protests and activities elsewhere. Millions of
supporters who are not organised into local groups support
Greenpeace by making financial donations and participating in
campaigns as citizens and consumers. Captain Paul Watson was the
1st director of Greenpeace and led the Harp seal campaigns.
There are some core values or principle of Greenpeace movement.
To ensure the ability of the earth to nurture life in all its
It is organises public campaigns for: the protection of oceans
and ancient forests.
The phase out of fossil fuels and the promotion of renewable
energy to stop climate change.
The elimination of toxic chemicals.
The prevention of genetically modified organisms being
released into nature.
An end to the nuclear threat and nuclear contamination.
To ensure safe and sustainable trade etc.
Priorities and campaigns:
Greenpeace runs campaigns and projects which fit into the “issues”
as campaign areas are called within Green peace categories below.
Besides exposing problems such as over fishing or threats linked to
nuclear energy such as harmful radiation and proliferation,
Greenpeace campaigns for alternative solutions such as marine
reserves and renewable energy. The organisations currently
addresses many environmental issues with a primary focus on efforts
to stop global warming and the preservation of the world‟s oceans
and ancient forest. In addition to conventional environmental
organisation methods, such as lobbying business and politicians and
participating in international conference, it use non-violent direct
action in many of its campaign. Other initiatives include the
development of a fuel efficient car, the smile.
Current priorities :
In March 2007, there are some current priorities of Greenpeace
movement such as:
Stopping catastrophic climate change (global warming),-
Greenpeace climate page,
Preserving the oceans (including stopping whaling and Bottom
trawling), Greenpeace ocean page;
Saving ancient Forests,- Greenpeace Forest page;
Peace and nuclear disarmament,- Green peace Nuclear page;
Promoting sustainable agriculture (and opposing ge),-
Greenpeace GE page;
Eliminating toxic chemicals (including from E-waste), many of
which are carcinogens- Greenpeace Toxics page;
The oceans- fisheries issues, whaling and pollution;
Trade rules. etc.
And for these, Greenpeace operates a fleet of several ocean-going
ships used in protest and awareness raising.
Funding and Expenditures:
Greenpeace relies wholly upon the voluntary donations of individual
supporters and on grant support from foundations. It has grown into
an organization with about 2.8 million supporters in more than 150
countries around the world. But it does not accept funding from
governments or corporations. In formation is not been on the website
about the foundations but the financial break down from 2001 for
Greenpeace international alone indicates that 118 millions of 143
millions came from individuals with 3.9 millions from foundations,
4.2 million major donors and 4.4 million other income. 12.5 million
was left in legacies and bequests, so foundations constitute a
relatively small proportion of income, assuming that the same is
roughly true of the subsidiaries. They also provide a break down of
its expenditure and income about $350 million in 2003 for
Greenpeace international and all regional subsidiaries.
There are some sources of the positive environmental changes that
Greenpeace has directly helped to bring about since it began
campaigning in 1971. These are given below:
February 2010: Indian computer manufacturing announces the
launch of a new PVC and BFR. free computer, after several
years pressure by Greenpeace movement on tech campaigns to
provide toxics free electronics;
November 2009: Household chemical gaint clorox announces a
phase out of these and transport of dangerous chlorine gas in
the US, bowing to years of pressure on the industry from
March 2009: The construction of an open pit coal mine in
Poland, where Greenpeace set up a climate Rescue station in
December 2008, is suspended, stopping around 50 million
tones of CO2 from being released into the atmosphere.
July 2008 : Ferrero (Famous for its Nutela brand) becomes the
latest large palm oil user to changes its position to support a
moratorium on cutting down trees in Indonesia for palm oil
March 9, 2006: Electronics giant Hewlett Packard commits to
a phase out plan for a range of hazardous chemicals in its
October 4, 2005: Electronics giant Motorola and health and
body care companies L‟occitance, Melvitacosm and Alqvimia
are the latest companies to drop the most toxic chemicals from
February 15, 2003: 30 million people worldwide create the
largest anti-war protest in the history of humankind.
1999: Nine countries ban the use of harmful phthalates in
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys for children under three and the
EU introduces an “emergency” ban on soft PVC teething toys.
1999: Japan is ordered to stop “experimental” fishing of
southern Bluefin tuna by the international law of the sea
1998: The environmental Protocol to the Antarctic treaty
comes in to force.
1997: Greenpeace collects the UNEP ozone Award for the
development of Green freeze domestic refrigeration free of
ozon depleting and significant global warming chemicals.
1982: EC bans import of seal pup skin in response to public
criticism triggered by Greenpeace actionism in Canada.
1978 : Greenpeace actions halt the grey real slaughter in the or
k--- Island, Scotland.
1975 : France ends atmospheric tests in the South Pacific after
Greenpeace protest at the test site etc.
Other Peace Movement :
Beside Green peace movement in Canada there are some other peace
movements. These are:
In the United States:
Environmental activism takes many forms within the United sates. It
largely expressed through legislation and direct citizen participation
legislative environmentalism involves the passing of laws designed
to protect environmental values, to preserve wild and open space to
restrict pollution typically by establishing air or water standards to
which states and local municipalities are required to comply to
prohibit the sale of materials derive from enduring species, and so
There is the question of direct action, analogous in many ways to
non-violence antiwar resistance. Groups such as Greenpeace have
blockaded whaling. Ships and sewage outfalls, and by a variety of
dramatic a often courageous acts, including boycotts an sit-ins,
called public attention to other environmental abuses, su9ch as the
clubbing of baby seals or improper disposal of nuclear waste. Such
actions often include civil disobedience and can be controverts the
radical environmental organization. Earth First : Sometimes resorts
to ecological sabotage (ecotage), as by vandalizing land clearing
equipment, or “sinking” trees (harassing large nails into then nails
into them thereby making it dangerous to log them).
Peace movement in German :
In contrast to the United States there already had a well established
environmental movement with my real organizations real
organizations representing a host of environmental philosophies and
issues, the Federal Republic of Germany was virgin territory. With
their high-profile, attention grabbing actions, Greenpeace Germany
quickly became the most well known environmental group in the
country. This success rapidly translated into power at the
international level, and by the early 1990s, the German branch
became the wealthiest and most influential member of the
Greenpeace international family, a position it continues to occupy to
this day. The strength of Greenpeace Germany has had a
considerable impact on the rest of Greenpeace, particularly in the
United States. The schism (between America and Germany) in
which the Germans eventually prevailed, is an example of how some
American environmentalists have come to see environmental and
social justice issues as being inextricably bound, a view that has not
yet gained much currency in Germany or in Europe as a whole.
There are some successes of German peace movement. These are:
1991 Major German publishers go Chlorine free after Greenpeace
produces chhlorine free edition of Der spiegel as part of compaign
against chlorine bleaching.
February 2004: Cultural Jamming the Esso logo at the entrance to
a large station near the Germany-Luxembourg borden in
March 31, 2004: Bayer Crop science, a German company
authorised to pant and herbicide-resistant variety of maize and its
activities were acquitted of charges of criminal damage when the
court agreed they were acting in the interest of protecting the
April 2009: Germany announces that it will become the sixth EU
country to ban the cultivation of monsanto‟s genetically
engineered (GE) maize Mon 810-the only GE crop that can be
commercially grown in the region. etc.
Peace movement in India:
Grassroots environmentalism has, if anything, been developing more
strongly in other countries. One of the most remarkable is the
Chipko, or “Hug-the Tree” movement of India. Begining in the
1970s, ch developed in remote villages in the southern foothills of
the Himalays. It arose spontanously, based on a cultural heritage that
help a deep respect for the regions lofly mountain magnificent
forests and clear stress A series of disastrous floods clearly resulted
from extensive deforestation, local activists responded by literally
hugging the great trees, and in time honored Gandhian fashion, lying
down in front of logging operations. The Chipko strategy has since
been used to save other natural areas in India, and it has also spread
to other countries. Where environmental concern is often most
strongly developed among the poor, who rely most deeply on the
Another epic struggle has pitted indigenous anazonian tribes,
rubbertappers (who earn their living extracting latex sapfrom free
growing rubber trees), anthropologists, and environmentalist against
land development interests especially in Brazil. In this case,
ecological exploitation has been intimately connected with violence,
notably genocidal extermination of whole villages and indigenous
tribes, by private “armies” hired by landowners and abetted by the
Small scale, gross roots organizing is occurring worldwide. On
behalf of the environment and its people. There are tens of thousands
of community development groups in India alone, and their focus
increasingly, is one ecologically sensitive, sustainable development.
Similarly, more than 100,000 “Christian base communities have
sprung up in Brazil, while in Africa and Asia in particular, women
have been especially prominent in struggling for ocal reforestation,
soil preservation and the like it can not honestly be said that the tide
has turned. Every years, in fact, the planet seems on balance to be
losing rather than gaining. Beyond this, there has been a worldwide
trend for environmental activists often allied with human rights
workers on behalf of indigenous people to be persocuted by
governmental authorities that stand to make large amounts of money
by following destructive land use and resource extraction policies.
But at least the battle has been joined.
The Green Belt Movement (The Green Belt movement has two
divisions. Green Belt Movements Kenya and Green Belt Movement
Green Belt Movement Kenya :
GBM Kenya is a non-profit grassroots non-governmental
organization (NGO) based in Kenya. You can read a general
overview of its work, find out about its achievements. survey its
partners. Study its annual report and find a list of its staff experts.
The mission of the Green Belt movement (GBM) is to mobilize
community consciousness for self-determination, equity, improved
livelihoods and security, and environmental conservation.
Geographical Information systems (GIS) & Information
Civic & Environmental Education (CEE)
Advocacy & Networking
School Environmental Education (SEE)
Capacity Building & Income Generating Activities (IGAs)
Society of Greens
Climate Change Adaptation
The Langata Learning Center
Planting with Institutions
Green Belt Safaris (GBS)
GBMI has four goals:
Goal 1: T strengthen and expand the Green Belt Movement in
Goal 2: To share the Green Belt Movement‟s program with
other countries in Africa and beyond
Goal 3 : To empower Africans, specially women and girls, and
nurture their leadership and entrepreneurial skills
Goal 4: Advocate internationally for the environment good
governance, equity and cultures of peace
The goal of CEE seminars is to raise awareness about the linkage
between poverty and environmental degradation. Seminars range in
topic to address a community‟s basic needs, from human rights to
resource management Global Campaigns:
It has been criticized drastically for being too radical, too
mainstream. The criticisms are:
Funding system is not accept by the government or
government are not involved in this system which is ridicule
for supposedly over the top protesting.
Involved with lobbying elected officials and various bodies
such as the United Nations through events such as the
conference on the Human Environment and with the
international \whaling commission;
Today it is motivated by politics rather than science;
Incurred real or perceived environmental damage in it‟s
activities which are not environmentally or economically
Greenpeace has been campaigning till now having it‟s criticisms
against environmental degradation. Since 1971 when a small boat of
volunteers and journalists sailed into Amchitka, an area north Alaska
where the US government was conducting underground nuclear test
and they protested it and this tradition of „bearing witness in a
nonviolent manner continues today and the ships of Green peace are
an important part of all its campaign work.
Green peace speaks to take action everyday and encourages millions
of people worldwide. It expos environmental criminals and to
challenge government and corporations when they fail to live up to
their mandate to safeguard our environment and our future.
Greenpeace slogan that summed things up, “When the last tree is cut,
the last river poisoned, and the last fish dead, we will discover that
we can‟t each money ....” So it is time to think about the diversity of
these words and the government of the world‟s states should
involved to this Greenpeace movement. Not only government but
also every individuals should come and join with Greenpeace
movement to save our environment and create a pollution free world
to lead a better live in near future.
1) Searching for peace. Thoe Road to transcend; Johan Galtung,
Carl G. Jacobsen and Kai Frithj of Bran- Jacobsen.
2) An Introduction to peace and conflict studies; Harun Ur
6) http://www.solarnavigator. net / greenpeacehtm.