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Sculptures in the Philippines

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					Sculptures in the Philippines

          A NARRATIVE OF FORM
 IDEAS, BELIEF SYSTEMS, AND WORLDVIEWS
   Indigenous Art

PRE-COLONIAL ART IN SCULPTURE
The Indigenous Art of the Cordilleras



                     Sculpture pervades
                     the daily life of the
                     Ifugao, the Kalinga,
                     and other Cordillera
                     mountain groups in its
                     numerous figurative
                     forms.
The bulul is an upright
nude figure for both
male and female carved
in a standing or sitting
position.


When standing upright,
its knees are slightly
flexed with its hands
resting on the kneecaps.




                                Bulul
                           (anito figures)
It is just as often found
in sitting position, with
knees drawn up, arms
parallel and hands
resting on the opposite
knees or crossed upon
the chest, as is the
custom of the folk when
gathering outdoors by
an open fire.




                                 Bulul
                            (anito figures)
Considered as both a
granary god and
ancestral figure.

Often found in pairs,
male and female,
among the Ifugaos as
symbols of fertility.




                             Bulul
                        (anito figures)
As rice guardians of the
rice granary which is the
tribe’s measure of
wealth, some bulul have
been found with a sheaf
of rice stalks springing
from the head or a stalk
hanging from a pierced
ear.
As ancestral figures, they
take their place as mute
witnesses among
humans during healing
rituals or rites of passage
marked by spirit
offerings of food and
liquor.
Often generations-old,
they were usually carved
by unknown craftsmen
in relation to the healing
ritual and then bathed in
the blood of a sacrificial
animal to secure their
spiritual potency.
As carven figures, they
are simplified into basic
planes of shapes.

The head is big, while
the face itself is slightly
indicated by incised
articulation.

The limbs are tubular,
bent at the joints in a
somewhat fetal position.

The genitals are
schematically rendered
with a suggestion of
nipples for both male
and female.
Their feature is
generalized as it does
not intend any particular
likeness.

Their overall expression
is archaic and austere,
implying a spiritual
power, of existing in a
plane apart from daily
human existence though
participating in it
through ritual.
Traditionally,
sculpture has been
                              K
in close relation             I
with architecture,
the house providing           N
the general
framework for the             A
sculptural pieces.            B
These are standing            B
human figures carved in
a relief along the posts of   I
the entrance to the hut
or granary, functioning       G
as guardians.
                              A
                              T
This is the status bench
of the kadangyan or
wealthy members of
society.

Made from a single
massive log, usually with
carved boar or carabao
heads oranamenting
both ends.




                                Hagabi
                            (wooden bench)
Indigenous Art of Mindanao and Sulu



                    For the Maranao and
                    Tuasog, woodcarving
                    design is the most
                    vibrant of all in the
                    traditional sculpting
                    arts.
Traditional woodcarving
designs are called as the
following:

Okir – by the Maranao

Ukkil – by the Tausog

Both words relate to the
Tagalog word ukit,
meaning “to carve.”




                            Sari-Manok
Principal okir designs
are the sari-manok,
the naga, and the pako
rabong.
Primarily a symbol of
the Maranao’s distinct
culture, it is also a status
object when it shows
remarkable refinement
in execution.

The bird with fish is
widely believed to stand
for Maranao life and
culture, which flourishes
by the waters of Lake
Maranao.

It also has its source in
the old epics on Rajah
Indarapatra.
May have originated
from ancient India.

Can usually be found as
a design in in the
exterior of a datu’s
house.

May be mounted on top
of poles along with
colorful streamers and
buntings in communal
festivities.
Belongs to the area of
ancient Indian
influences.

Simply means “snake” or
“serpent.”

In Eastern lore, they are
considered as sacred
guardians and
protectors.




                            Naga
In reference to myths,
Buddha was once
protected by a seven-
headed serpent as he sat
in profound meditation.
      Other Indigenous Art on Sculpture

Tagbanwa of Palawan         T’boli Bronze Art


 Carved figures of birds    Miniature 8 inch brass-
  and animals made of        bronze figures of men
  soft wood.                 and women in acts that
 Figures become part of     reflect their rich
  the pagdiwata ritual as    culture.
  spirit offerings.
 Often considered as
  toys for children.
Religious Sculptural Heritage

     THE FILIPINO AND THE CHURCH
Holy Relics Under The Colonial Period



                     The first recorded
                     image in the colonial
                     period is the Sto. Niño
                     given by Magellan to
                     Juana, the wife of
                     Humabon, chieftain of
                     Cebu.
                   The santos were first brought over
Holy Relics
Under The           from Spain and later from
Colonial Period     Mexico.
                   Served as models for local
                    sculptors.
                   Woodcarvers work under close
                    supervision of the friars as the
                    Church is the sole patron of the
                    arts.
 Holy Relics
 Under The
 Colonial Period

 During the
  centuries of the
  Manila-Acapulco
  trade, each galleon
  carried a statue of
  its patron saint to
  guide and protect it
  during the long sea
  voyage.
The Art of the Santero



             With the increasing
              demand for holy
              figures in the 19th
              Century, the number of
              woodcarvers likewise
              grew, especially in the
              Quiapo and Santa Cruz
              districts in Manila.
Gremios de               Paete, Laguna
Escultores
                           Became the active center of regional
Rise of the Sculpture       woodcarving.
Guilds

                         With increasing ilustrado
                         patronage, numerous local
                         santeros gained fame during this
                         period.
Graciano
Nepomuceno
1881-1974
Jose Rizal
The Triumph of Science
Over Death




Model
Gertrude Beckett
Mariano
Madriñan
A lowly sculptor from
Paete.

Was not from the
Academia yet won a
medal from King
Alfonso II of Spain in
1882 for this
masterpiece.




                         Mater Dolorosa
Mariano
Madriñan
In the same year, it was
exhibited in the
Amsterdam
International
Exposition
Santos for Churches



            With their initial
            association with
            church-building,
            santos were integrated
            as important elements
            of religious
            architecture.
Santos occupy the
hollow incurving space
of niches on both sides
of the portal.

Others display the
patron saint in a niche
in the middle of the
pediment or above the
portal.
Retablos are the upright
carved and decorated
wooden screen or frame
containing ledges and
panels just behind and
above the altar table.

It displays the patron
saint in the middle
flanked by secondary
saints.




                           Example of a Retablo
Rebulto: Form and Process



               Santos are free-
               standing figures, often
               enclosed in glass
               domes called virinas or
               in ornate glass cases
               called aparadors.
These are often regarded
as altar figures fixed on
walls.

Created as a low relief
art called relleves.




                            The Last Supper
The Craft of
Carving Saints
Mostly sculpted out of
wood or ivory.

Types of woods are the
narra, molave and
batikuling (the last one
being the most favorite
for its natural
resistance to termites).

Typical tools include
the paet, or native
chisel, a name that
might come from the
local but highly durable
chisels of Paete.
Crafting santos from
ivory is a technique
learned from the
Chinese.

First envisioned and
designed by a dibuhista,
santos are either carved
from a single piece of
wood or in parts

(quita y pone)
The technique of
encarnacion largely
maintained the
tradition of giving a fair
complexion (from milky
white to rose hues) to
holy figures, since its
standards for flesh
tones were Caucasian.
In colonial societies,
this gave both the saints
and the colonial rulers a
common cast and
became influential in
setting local standards
of beauty.
  Styles of Santo


 Recounts the Greek
  traditional style
  (similar
  characteristic to
  native anitos).
 Of wood or stone.
 Block-like, rigid,     Archaic
  simple and stylized.

 Somewhat ominous
  and frightening to
  look at.

                                   Archaic
Styles of Santo

Plays down human
qualities and
expressions, but instead
emphasizes the
otherworldly and
divine.

Appears to have a
crown or halo with
garments of gold and
silver ornaments,
suggesting its holiness.

Its eyes are usually
either focused forward
or looking straight up.
                           Hieratic
The Archaic and the Hieratic


   Both the archaic and the hieratic santos
   have the common quality of frontality
   in which the figure is presented from its
   main or front view.




      Their frontality is explained by the
      fact that they are figures for
      veneration and are placed on altar
      tables, retablos, or in niches before
      which the viewer kneels and prays.
Styles of Santo
Carved from a single
piece of wood,
polychromed or
unpainted but polished
to a high sheen.
Its regular static lines as
in the treatment of
drapery give it a formal
appearance , conveying
serenity and emotional
restraint.
Shows the influence of
the Academia de
Pintura, Escultura, y
Grabado de Manila.
(a school of classical
aesthetics)                   Classical
Styles of Santo

Gives the
impressionthat the
saint is made of flesh
and blood like ordinary
human beings.

The expression is more
human and familiar.

Realistic elements
include wrinkles, bald
pates, bare feet, and
tattered garments.



                          Realistic
Styles of Santo

Realism in the santo is
a significant, religious
experience as Christ, for
instance, is not only
divine, but also Word-
made-Flesh.
Likewise, Christ, the
Virgin Mary, and the
saints, become
accessible to the masses
of worshippers, and in
this context, a personal,
even familial,
relationship between
the holy personages and
man becomes possible.
Styles of Santo

Allows familiar
costumes of the locality

Figures can be given a
native cast on facial
features, complexion,
and general
appearance.

Thus, it is in the realist
style that the
indigenization of the
santos could take place.
Styles of Santo

Emphasizes on the
emotional quality of the
figure.

Prototype were the
baroque sculptures of
the Italian Bernini and
the Spanish sculptors
Pedro de Mena and
Alonso Cano.
Styles of Santo

A religious impulse to
move the viewer to
greater faith, represent
his sins, and mend his
ways at the sight of the
suffering of the saints.

Expression shows
intense grief or pain.
Styles of Santo

Full expressionism
involves the entire body
of the figure in dynamic
movement, showing
tension and strong
feeling.
          Woodcarving for Churches

San Agustin Church


                        19th century Filipino
                        woodcarvers were
                        engaged in designing
                        and decorating church
                        interiors.
Woodcarving
for Churches
Isabelo Tampinco
(1850-1933)

One of the most notable
of artists during his
time.
Woodcarving
for Churches
Popularized the estilo
Tampinco which
replaced European
baroque and rococo
with native motifes
such as the pineapple,
anahaw, sampaguita,
and bamboo.
Early Secular Sculpture
Early Secular Sculpture



              Secularization of art
              had been announce by
              royal decree at the
              close of the 19th
              Century.
Early Secular
Sculpture
The Academia added
genre subjects to the
earlier portraits and
tipos del pais or country
types.
First secular sculptures
were busts and relief
portraits which
captured the physical
likeness of the models.
Symbolic subjects were
also much in favor in
the 19th Century.

Risen from the
moralistic bent of neo-
classical art as taught in
the Academia.

                             The Triumph
                               of Science
                              Over Death
                              -Jose Rizal-
Jose Rizal




             The Triumph of Death Over Life
                  The Folk Style

Woodcarving


 The people of Paete      This gives respect to
 take pride in carving      the integrity of the
 from a single block a      material and value is
 masterful sculpture.       placed on the organic
                            wholeness of the work
            Ability to visualize the entire
Expected    figure within the dimensions of
Skills      the block of wood and to carry out
            his original concept successfully.

            Ability to interweave space into
            the figure.
Taka: Papier Mache Sculpture



                Taka means “mold.”
                Carved from a wooden
                 mold, they often depict
                 animals like carabaos
                 and horses.
                Of bright colors with
                 decorative motifs that
                 give a childlike quality.
Philippine Classical Sculpture
Classical Sculpture



            1855 – Academia de
            Pintura, Escultura y
            Grabado opened.

            Classic style has been
            done under the
            guidance of the
            Academia.
Classical proportion =
71/2 to 8 heads in
height.

General expression of
mildness and serenity.

Minimum in detail and
gesture.
Corresponds to works
of Early Renaissance
period.
Classicism did not take
hold during the late 19th
and early 20th Century
due to the effect of
ecclesiastical and
religious prudery.

Academia gave little to
no teaching in terms of
human anatomy
including the use of live
male and female
models.
Guillermo
Tolentino
(1890-1976)
Studied in a local
Academia and later in
Ecole de Beaux-Arts in
New York.

Took further studies in
Rome.
Erected in the campus of
the University of the
Philippines.

Example of classical
pose.

Represents youth
offering himself to the
country or to an ideal
such as academic
freedom.

The human figure as
symbol of an idea or
value is of classical
tradition.




                           Oblation
Erected in Caloocan.

Considered as
Tolentino’s masterpiece.

A group of composition
ranged around the base
of an obelisk
culminating the Spirit of
Liberty.

Portrays the figure of
Bonifacio with nobility
and resoluteness of
purpose and charged
with energy and tension.


                            Bonifacio
                            Monument
The entire sculpture
emanates more the art
of romanticism as it
portrays deep set
emotions.

The work was
completed on the eve of
the Commonwealth,
once more stirring the
hope for independence
from colonial rule.
Modernist and Contemporary
         Sculpture
Modernist and Contemporary Sculpture



                    Was recognized only
                     after the postwar 50’s.
                    Guillermo Tolentino’s
                     student, Napoleon
                     Abueva, pioneered
                     modernist sculpture in
                     the Philippines.
 Created a shift in
 treatment of:
    Sculptural materials
    Stylized figures
    Human figure
    Shapes
    Symbols
    Human figure
Sculptural
Materials
Napoleon Abueva
experimented on
different kinds of wood,
and combined different
materials in a variety of
techniques proper to
the materials used.
Some sculptors who
prefer wood have found
ways to solve the
problem of scarcity
such as using discarded
wood from railroad
tracks.




                          Rey Contreras
                            -artwork-
There was also the
rising trend in using
indigenous materials
such as banana pulp,
coconut shells, and
acacia bark. They are
prized not only for their
alternative colors but
also for their varying
scents.




                              Angud
                            Luis Yee Jr.
Stylized
Figures
Stylization of natural
shapes render the
chosen material into
geometric forms.

This is quite similar to
the Cubist art
movement.




                              Harpoon
                           Antonio Abueva
The Human
Figure
Human figures are also
given a stylistic
approach.




                           Kaganapan
                         Antonio Abueva
The 70’s reacted against
the classicizing tendency
by their large scale.

The Pieta of Castillo
does not build around
the graceful lines of
mother-cradling-son but
rather conveys in the
jagged figures a sense of
brokenness and rupture,
sharply evoking the
feeling of loss.




                            Pieta
                            Eduardo Castillo
Geometric and
Planimetric
Shapes
Evokes for sculptors a
classical clarity and
simplicity in form.




                            Supa
                         Arturo Luz
Organic
Shapes
A method of having
organic shapes in a
sculpture is through
casting.

Many sculptors of
organic shapes draw
their materials from the
immediate
environment.




                           Cactus for John
                             Julie Lluch
Sometimes familiar
shapes are seen beyond
the original organic
shape and are given
emphasis.
Symbolic
Sculpture




            Ang Sarimanok
            Abdulmari Imao
Sculptures as Social Comment

   LIKE PAINTING, SCULPTURE HAS ALSO
    CONVEYED SOCIO-POLITICAL IDEAS.
Eduardo Castrillo
    GMA 7
 Since the religious aspect of sculpture, where the
rituals mediate between God and Man, the art has
evolved in virtually inexhaustible variety of forms ,
             mediums and techniques.

  Yet underlying all these , sculpture nonetheless
 represents the continuing quest for personal and
social values, challenging the old and giving rise to
 the new in the course of historical development.

				
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Description: Contains a selection of sculptures and a brief history of Philippine Sculpture, dating back from the indigenous, colonial religion, secular and to the most recent trends.
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