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									Harvey/PA CTE Jobs                                                        1

Employment Opportunities and Enrollment
Patterns for Students with Disabilities in
CTE: The Pennsylvania Perspective
Michael W. Harvey
Ball State University

                                  Abstract
     Pennsylvania’s career and technical education (CTE) enrollment
trends are reported for school years 1995 through 2000. Six (6)
classifications of instructional programs (CIP) were identified with the
highest levels of participation (>50% ) for students with disabilities.
Data for these six CIP areas are compared to Pennsylvania’s demand for
labor. Labor statistics include current employment, labor demand, and
entry-level wage earning by Pennsylvania’s 22 Workforce Investment
Areas (WIA). Findings reveal that the six CIP areas with the highest
percentage of participation for students with disabilities have demand
for labor in Pennsylvania. The critical question becomes whether these
traditional occupational areas for persons with disabilities yield real
quality of life. Recommendations for practice, policy, and future
research are presented.


                                Introduction
      The field of special education has a long-standing interest in
providing appropriate educational services to students with disabilities.
The broad array of educational services includes the mandate for
transition services. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Amendments of 1997 (P.L. 105-17) states that transitional services are
“a coordinated set of activities for a student with a disability that – is
designed within an outcome-oriented process, that promotes movement
from school to post-school activities” (34 C.F.R. Parts 300 and 303,
Sec. 300.29 (a)[1]). For students with disabilities, transition planning
starts as early as age 14. The student’s individualized education program
(IEP) must include a statement of the transition service needs of the
student with IEP focus concerning the student’s course of study,

Author Note: Appreciation is extended to Rosemary Tatkovski and Ron Hoerner,
Bureau of Information Systems at the Pennsylvania Department of Education.

Workforce Education Forum, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 1–21.
2                            Workforce Education Forum, Spring 2003

including the option to participate in career and technical education (34
C.F.R. Parts 300 and 303, Sec. 300.347).
     Career and technical education (CTE) is designed to provide
exploratory and occupationally specific training to students at the
secondary level. The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical
Education Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-332) states that “members of special
populations – will be provided with equal access to activities assisted
under this title...will not be discriminated against...and will be provided
with programs designed for further learning and for high skill, high
wage careers” (20 U.S.C. 2301, Sec.122 (c)[8]). Career and technical
education is a viable program of study for students with disabilities
(Gray & Herr, 1995; Harvey, 2001a; Kraska, 1997; Masters, Mori, &
Mori, 1993; Wagner, 1991). Researchers in several follow-up studies
have concluded that secondary CTE provides benefit for students with
disabilities with postsecondary employment (Harvey, 2001a; Hasazi,
Gordon, & Roe, 1985; Schalock, Holl, Elliott, & Ross, 1992; Wagner,
1991). Congressional intent is to meet the individual needs of students
with disabilities in assisting them in moving from school to adult life,
including opportunities for successful postsecondary education and
employment.
      Pennsylvania secondary CTE enrollment data indicates high levels
of participation for students with disabilities (approaching 20%) in
occupational programs across the Commonwealth (Harvey, 2001c). Data
collected by the Department of Education’s Bureau of Information
Systems, Secondary Career and Technical Education Information
System (CATS) show increased enrollment in recent years for students
with disabilities (Pennsylvania Department of Education [PDE], 2001).
Pennsylvania’s CTE instructors have expressed concerned over the high
levels of special population students enrolled in CTE. This trend is not
isolated to Pennsylvania alone. National data from the 1994 National
Assessment of Vocational Education (NAVE) indicate that special
population enrollments have increased. Special population students earn
more credits in CTE than others students (NAVE, 1994a). Students with
disabilities had higher enrollment in area vocational schools (16.1%) and
vocational high schools (13.9%) compared to comprehensive high
schools (5.3%) (NAVE, 1994b).
      Enrollment trends, program services, post-school outcomes, and
successful movement to adult life for students with disabilities have
been concerns in the field of education and among policy makers. Policy
makers, parents, educators, and the American public have a vested
interest in post-school success for students with disabilities. This
Harvey/PA CTE Jobs                                                            3

interest, at the most basic level, is economic. Persons who are gainfully
employed contribute to society in a variety of significant ways.
Secondary CTE occupational programming is seen as a positive
contributing factor to adult life success for persons with disabilities.
Increased participation in secondary CTE for students with disabilities
can be positive given the IEP team has appropriately placed the student
in occupationally specific training that will lead to realistic post-school
employment outcomes.
      Despite the positive effects of secondary CTE for individuals with
disabilities, persons with disabilities have lower employment rates than
their non-disabled peers (Wagner, 1991; NOD, 1998). Lower
employment, wage earning, and job status has been reported for persons
with disabilities across the employment spectrum (Blackorby & Wagner,
1996; Frank, Sitlington & Carson, 1991; Harvey, 2001b; Harvey, 2001d;
Sitlington, Frank, & Carson, 1993; Wagner, 1991). Several researchers
reported employment for persons with disabilities in labor, service, and
sales with low-end, low-status, low-wage positions. Employment and
successful transition to adult life for students with disabilities is an on-
going concern.

                          Purpose of the Study
     The purpose of this study was to investigate the high levels of
disability enrollment in Pennsylvania’s secondary CTE. This study is the
second investigation of Pennsylvania CTE enrollment trends for students
with disabilities (for a comprehensive analysis of PA CTE enrollment
and Pennsylvania’s reported demand for labor see Harvey, 2001c). The
focus in the present study is on CTE programs with the highest
percentage (> 50%) of students with disabilities in Pennsylvania
between school years 1995-2000. This study raised the question: Do
CTE occupational programs with the highest percentages of students
with disabilities align with competitive employment opportunities in
Pennsylvania’s workforce?
      The CTE enrollment in secondary occupational programs is
reported by grades 9-12 participation and the number of students ages
15-21 served under the IDEA in Pennsylvania who participated in CTE
for the five-year period of 1995-2000. Pennsylvania offered between 94
and 102 classifications of instructional programs (CIP) in CTE at the
secondary level across the Commonwealth during the study period (PDE
[CATS], 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001). The six CIP areas with the
highest percentages (> 50%) of participation by students with disabilities
during this five-year period are compared with Pennsylvania’s current
4                            Workforce Education Forum, Spring 2003

labor statistics and projected demand for labor. Analysis aligns CTE
occupational training and related job opportunity for students with
disabilities in the Commonwealth.


                           Research Questions
1. What is the enrollment status of students with disabilities participating
in secondary CTE in Pennsylvania during school years 1995-2000?
2. What secondary occupational programs have the highest percentage
(> 50%) of student with disabilities enrolled in CTE in Pennsylvania
during school years 1995-2000?
3. What are the current labor market trends and demand for labor in
Pennsylvania?
4. Do CTE occupational programs with the highest percentage of
students with disabilities provide occupational training that leads to
employment opportunities as measured by Pennsylvania’s demands for
labor?


                                 Method
     This study used data from Pennsylvania’s Departments of
Education (PDE) and Labor and Industry (PDLI). Date from PDE
Bureau of Information Systems, Secondary Career and Technical
Education Information System (CATS) was used to analyze CTE
enrollment trends. Labor force statistics were drawn from the PDLI
Center for Workforce Information and Analysis (CWIA) information.
Analysis focused on high levels of disability enrollment in secondary
CTE as measured by CATS using Pennsylvania’s CIP areas offered
during school years 1995-2000 (PDE, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001).
Trends in CTE participation by students with disabilities age 15-21
served under IDEA were calculated using the U.S. Department of
Education’s Annual Reports to Congress on the Implementation of the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (U.S. DOE, 1997, 1998,
1999, 2000, 2001). Secondary CTE enrollment included all grades 9-12
occupational students enrolled in Pennsylvania’s approved
comprehensive high schools and area vocational-technical centers
(AVTS) for the study five-year period.

Sample
    The PDE Bureau of Information Systems compiles and reports
CTE program enrollment data annually in the Career and Technical
Harvey/PA CTE Jobs                                                       5

Education: Secondary Occupational Programs publication.
Pennsylvania secondary CTE enrollment for 1995-2000 is reported in
Table 1. The data represent the sample used in this study as identified by
the CATS database. Data were collected from a range of 399-422
approved secondary schools in the Commonwealth. The schools
consisted of 316-340 comprehensive high schools and 80-83 AVTS
offering secondary CTE between 1995 and 2000. The number of CTE
occupational programs (CIP) ranged from 102 (1995-96) to 94 (1998-
99). Secondary occupational program enrollment ranged from 85,418 to
95,510, with 1999-00 having 92,799 students enrolled in CTE across the
Commonwealth.


Secondary Career and Technical Education Information System (CATS)
      Pennsylvania’s PDE CATS data for school years 1995-2000 was
used for this investigation. The CATS student system involves
comprehensive data collection from all approved secondary CTE
programs in the Commonwealth, with the exception of Comprehensive
Consumer and Homemaking Education (CIP 20.0101) (PDE, 2002,
Instruction Manual for Data Submission, p. 1). The Pennsylvania
Department of Education collects CATS data annually as required by the
federal government for CTE accountability, program planning,
budgeting, and policy development. This study reports CATS descriptive
enrollment data in the form of aggregate data by CIP, students with
disabilities, and school year.
      Pennsylvania’s employment by sector and demand for labor within
the 22 Workforce Investment Areas (WIA) in the Commonwealth are
reported using CWIA data. Pennsylvania’s labor market trends and
demand for labor by geographic regions (22 WIA) were drawn from the
CWIA short-term industry forecast and demand occupations projections.
Labor demands, as identified in Pennsylvania’s CWIA 2002 Demand
Occupations and Pennsylvania Labor Force, were used as benchmarks
for analysis.


Center for Workforce Information and Analysis (CWIA)
     Pennsylvania’s Workforce Development Program was developed in
accordance with the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-220).
The Team Pennsylvania Workforce Investment Board, was developed by
PDLI, working in partnership with Pennsylvania’s Departments of
Aging, Community and Economic Development, Education, and
Welfare (PDLI, 1998). The board develops comprehensive workforce
6                            Workforce Education Forum, Spring 2003

services for the 22 Workforce Investment Areas (WIA) in Pennsylvania.
The Department of Labor and Industry’s CWIA develops short-term
industry forecasts and demand occupation projections for the 22 WIA in
Pennsylvania. Demand occupations are identified by employment data
for the top 25 growth industries, regional hiring trends, job growth
projection per annual openings, and regional occupations analysis
(PDLI, 2001). This study reports CWIA industry forecast information as
descriptive data for Pennsylvania’s 22 WIA regions.


Data Analysis
      Secondary research methods were used to analyze and report data
gathered from Pennsylvania’s Departments of Education CATS and
Labor and Industry CWIA. Aggregate data for CTE occupational
programs and disability enrollment between school years 1995 and 2000
is reported. The study focused on CTE occupational programs that had
annual enrollment of 50% or more of students with disabilities during
the five-year period. PDE annual publications, Career and Technical
Education: Secondary Occupational Programs, provided baseline data
for this investigation (PDE, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001).
     Approved Secondary Occupational Career and Technical
Education Programs are occupational training programs that have been
approved by PDE in accordance with applicable State Board of
Education regulations. Occupational programs are classified as
Agriculture; Business; Diversified Occupations; Family and Consumer
Sciences; Health Occupations; Marketing and Distributive; Technology;
or Trade and Industrial.
     CATS Disability Classification includes persons with a physical/
mental impairment as specified in their Individualized Education
Program (IEP) as defined by section 300.7 of IDEA (34 CFR 300 and
303). These disability classifications include: Autism; Deaf-Blindness;
Emotional Disturbance; Hearing Impaired; Multiple Disabilities;
Orthopedic Impairment; Other Health Impairment; Specific Learning
Disability; Speech or Language Impairment; Traumatic Brain Injury;
Visual Impairment including Blindness.
      Classification of Instructional Program (CIP) is a national six-digit
numerical coding system established by the U.S. Department of
Education to identify CTE occupational programs. The CIP code
numbers and associated program names provide a consistent
classification system to identifying CTE programs (Van Beaver, Kohler,
& Chadsey, 2000). The CIP system is a uniform method to collect data,
Harvey/PA CTE Jobs                                                           7

identify CTE program title and descriptor, and establish state recording/
reporting of CTE services (Morgan, Hunt, & Carpenter, 1990). The six
(6) CIP titles and codes identified in this study as having the highest
percentage of disability enrollment were: a) General Distribution
Operations – 08.0709; b) Custodial, Housekeeping, and Home Services
Workers and Managers – 20.0601; c) Homemaker’s Aide – 20.0606;
d) Vocational Home Economics – 20.999; e) Construction/Building
Finishers and Managers – 46.0499; and f) Upholsterer – 48.0303.


                                  Results
      The results of this study are reported by the four specific research
questions listed below concerning secondary CTE enrollment,
participation by students with disabilities, and labor demands in
Pennsylvania.

1. What is the enrollment status of students with disabilities
participating in secondary CTE in Pennsylvania during school years
1995-2000?
      Tables 1 and 2 indicate overall enrollment trends for students with
disabilities participating in secondary CTE in Pennsylvania. Data are
reported by total CTE enrollments and the number of students with a
disability ages 15-21 served under the IDEA in Pennsylvania for the
five-year period of 1995-2000.

Table 1
Pennsylvania CTE Enrollment by Year, Students with Disabilities,
Percentage and Enrollment Percentage Change Between 1995-2000
                      1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00
Total Enrollment      85,418 94,076 93,499 95,510 92,799
Disability Enrollment 15,727 17,587 17,188 17,725 17,264
Percentage %           18.41    18.69     18.38     18.56      18.60
% Change                ––      +0.28     –0.31     +0.18 +0.04
Source: Pennsylvania Department of Education, CTE (1997-2001).

      Table 1 shows that enrollment for students with a disability
increased in secondary CTE proportionately to the total CTE enrollment
over the five-year period. Enrollment data revealed that slightly more
than 18.5% of all students participating in secondary CTE occupational
training programs in Pennsylvania during this period were students with
a disability. Enrollment trends during this period showed proportional
8                               Workforce Education Forum, Spring 2003

increases compared with total CTE enrollments. Pennsylvania CTE
enrollment data suggests higher percentages of disability participation in
CTE than reported nationally (NAVE, 1994 a; NAVE 1994b). Further
investigation concerning workforce development and transition is
warranted.

Table 2
Pennsylvania IDEA Enrollment for Students Ages 15 to 21 by CTE
Enrollment, Percentage and Percentage of Enrollment Change
Between 1995-2000
                       1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00
Total Enrollment        52,690 54,363 56,689 57,707 58,294
CTE Enrollment          15,727 17,587 17,188 17,725 17,264
% Enrollment             29.85   32.35    30.32     30.71   29.62
% Change                 ––      +0.25     –2.03 +0.39 –1.09
Source: U.S. Department of Education (1997-2001) and PDE, CTE (1997-2001).


      Table 2 reports the number of students with a disability age 15-21
served by IDEA in the Commonwealth and those who participated in
secondary CTE between 1995 and 2000 (U.S. DOE, 1997, 1998, 1999,
2000, 2001). The number of students age 15-21 with disabilities in
Pennsylvania has steadily increased while those participating in
secondary CTE have shown variation. Almost a third (30.5%) of all high
school age students with disabilities (15-21) served under IDEA
participated in secondary CTE occupational programming. There was a
slight decline (-0.23) for students with disabilities participating in
secondary CTE during the five-year period compared to the total number
of students served under the IDEA in the Commonwealth.


2. What secondary CTE occupational programs have the highest
percentage (50% >) of student participation with disabilities in
Pennsylvania during school years 1995-2000?
     Pennsylvania offered between 102 and 94 occupational programs
(CIP) in secondary CTE in approved comprehensive high schools and
AVTS across Pennsylvania during the five-year study period (PDE,
1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001). Pennsylvania CTE enrollment data
showed more than 40% of all CIP areas had 20% or more enrollments by
students with disabilities (Harvey, 2001c). Table 3 presents CTE
occupational programs with annual enrollments of 50% or more between
1995 and 2000. Six CIP areas met the criteria: a) General Distribution
Operations – CIP 08.0709; b) Custodial, Housekeeping, and Home
Harvey/PA CTE Jobs                                                         9

Services Workers and Managers – CIP 20.0601; c) Homemaker’s Aide –
CIP 20.0606; d) Vocational Home Economics – CIP 20.999;
e) Construction/Building Finishers and Managers – CIP 46.0499; and
f) Upholsterer – CIP 48.0303.
     Students with disabilities enrolled in General Distribution
Operations (CIP 08.0709) had an approximately 52% participation rate
during the five-year period. School year 1995-96 had the highest total
enrollment and disability enrollment (308 and 154). Although the
enrollments were the highest for this school year, proportionately this
was the lowest percentage (50%) of disability participation. The 1997-98
school year had the lowest enrollments (247 and 132), but the highest
percentage of disability participation (53.44%). Steady increases were
the enrollment trend over the last three-year period (1997-2000) for
students with and without disabilities.
      Custodial, Housekeeping and Home Service Workers (CIP
20.0601) had the highest rate of participation (94%) by students with
disabilities in the Commonwealth during the study period. The highest
level of program enrollment (51) occurred during 1998-99, with 100%
of the students enrolled identified as having a disability. Disability
enrollment for the 1997-98 school year (36) was also 100%. There was a
noted decline in total enrollment and disability enrollment between the
1998-1999 and 1999-2000 school years. It is important to note that this
CIP area had the second lowest total enrollment annually across
Pennsylvania during the five-year study period.
      Homemaker’s Aide (CIP 20.0606) also had low overall enrollment
during the study period (51-34 total enrollment and 36-23 disability
enrollment) across the Commonwealth. This CIP had the third lowest
total enrollments of all occupational areas offered in Pennsylvania
during the study period. Approximately 66% of all students enrolled in
this CIP area were students with a disability. The 1998-99 school year
had the highest enrollments (51 and 36) with a 70% participation rate for
students with disabilities. The most recent year (1999-00) had the lowest
enrollments, but had a 68% disability participation rate. The 1995-96
school year had the lowest level of disability participation (57%) during
the study period. The last two school years indicate the most sweeping
changes with the highest levels in 1998-99 and the lowest levels for
1999-00.
      Approximately 68% of all students enrolled in Vocational Home
Economics (CIP 20.9999) were students with a disability during the
five-year study period. Enrollment trends showed a decline in the total
population and for students with disabilities. Total enrollments dropped
10                            Workforce Education Forum, Spring 2003

approximately 25% (-26), while disability enrollments decreased 21%
(-15) between 1995 and 2000. The participation rates for students with
disabilities ranged from a low of 65% (1997-98) to a high of 73% (1996-
97). Enrollment for 1999-00 was the lowest during the study period (78
and 55), which represented a 71% disability participation rate. These
enrollments were some of the lowest across Pennsylvania.
      Construction and Building Finishers CIP (46.0499) had higher
levels of enrollment between 1995 and 2000 compared to the other CIP
areas reported in this study. Approximately 82% of all students enrolled
in this CIP had a disability. Data for the five-year period show the
highest levels of enrollment for school year 1995-96 (580 and 463). The
lowest enrollments were for school year 1999-00 (383 and 325).
Participation rates for students with disabilities ranged from 87% (1996-
97) to 79% (1998-99). Enrollment over the past three years indicate an
overall decline (-32% total and –31% disability enrollments).
      The Upholsterer CIP (48.0303) had the lowest level of enrollment
for all secondary CTE occupational programs offered in Pennsylvania
during the five-year study period. Total enrollment ranged from a high of
38 (1996-97) to a low of 35 (1999-00), while disability enrollment
ranged from a high of 22 (1995-96) to a low of 19 (1999-00). The
participation rate for students with disabilities was 54% with the range
varying from a high of 59% (1995-96) to a low of 51% (1998-99).
Enrollment in this CIP area basically remained consistent during the
five-year period.
      Table 3 reports enrollment data for the six CIP areas representing
some of the smallest levels of enrollment of all CTE across the
Commonwealth. Conversely, students with a disability enrolled in these
six CIP areas represent the highest percentages of participation (50% >)
in secondary CTE during the five-year study period. This data supports
reported high levels of participation in CTE occupational programs by
students with a disability in Pennsylvania. A key question remains: Does
occupational training in these six CIP areas provide labor market
advantaged to the students with disabilities who participate in secondary
CTE?


3. What are the current labor market trends and demand for labor in
Pennsylvania?
    Pennsylvania’s Bureau of Labor and Industry publishes
employment data for the non-farm labor force by employment sector
(PDLI, 2002). Employment sectors are broken into goods producing and
Harvey/PA CTE Jobs                                                                11

Table 3
Pennsylvania CTE Six CIP High Percentage Disability Enrollments from
1995 to 2000 by Occupational Area, Enrollment, Percentages, and Totals
CTE Program Area                           Five Year Enrollment Data
                                     1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 Total
General Distribution    Enrollment     308      286     247      257   267   1365
Operations              Disabilities   154      146     132      137   139    708
CIP 08.0709             Percent       50.00 51.06 53.44         53.31 52.05 51.87

Custodial, Housekeeping Enrollment       39      39     36        51      44     209
& Home Service Workers Disabilities      35      35     36        51      39      196
CIP 20.0601             Percent        89.74   89.74 100.00    100.00   88.63   93.78

Homemaker’s Aide        Enrollment       47      38      44       51      34    214
CIP 20.0606             Disabilities     27      25      31       36      23    142
                        Percent        57.45   65.79   70.45    70.59   67.64 66.36

Vocational Home         Enrollment      104      96      85       86      78      449
Economics               Disabilities     69      70      55      56       55     305
CIP 20.9999             Percent        66.35   72.92   64.71    65.12   70.51   67.93

Construction and        Enrollment      580     467     565      549     383     2544
Building Finishers      Disabilities    463     405     471      431     325     2095
CIP 46.0499             Percent        79.83   86.72   83.36    78.51   84.85   82.35

Upholsterer             Enrollment      37      38      37      37        35     184
CIP 48.0303             Disabilities    22      20      20       19       19     100
                        Percent       59.46 52.63 54.05        51.35    54.28   54.38
Source: Pennsylvania Department of Education, CTE (1997-2001).


service producing industries (Table 4). Approximately 80% of current
non-farm employment in Pennsylvania is in the service-producing
industries. The services sector, within the service-producing industries,
represents about 34% of all employment in the Commonwealth. Goods
producing industries represent less than 20% of all non-farm
employment in Pennsylvania. Manufacturing accounts for approximately
15% of all current non-farm employment in the Commonwealth. Table 4
presents all non-farm employment by sector and percentage of
employment in Pennsylvania. Employment trends have remained
relatively constant (80% within the services producing industries and
20% for goods producing industries [PDLI, 2002]).
      Pennsylvania’s long-term demand for labor projected to 2005
includes food services, construction, automotive services, social/
educational services, trucking and warehousing, amusement and
recreation services, and general merchandising (PDLI, 1998). Many of
the long-term demand occupations identified by PDLI (1998) offer
12                                    Workforce Education Forum, Spring 2003

Table 4
Pennsylvania Non-farm Labor Force by Employment Sector
Employment Sector                           Number of                    Percentage of
                                            Employees                    Non-farm Jobs
GOODS PRODUCING
INDUSTRIES                                   1,119,300                        19.78%
 Mining                                         19,000                         0.33%
 Contract Construction                         251,100                         4.44%
 Manufacturing                                 849,200                        15.01%
  Durable Goods                                486,600                         8.60%
  Nondurable Goods                             362,600                         6.41%
SERVICE PRODUCING
INDUSTRIES                                   4,538,800                       80.22%
 Transportation & Public Utilities             293,500                        5.19%
 Wholesale Trade                               262,800                        4.64%
 Retail Trade                                  998,500                       17.64%
 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate               325,100                        5.74%
 Services                                    1,922,100                       33.97%
 Total Government                              736,800                       13.04%
TOTAL NON-FARM JOBS                          5,658,100                      100.00%
Source: Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, Pennsylvania Labor Force (2002).



employment opportunities where students with disabilities are gaining
CTE occupational skills training (see Table 3).


Question 4. Do CTE occupational programs with the highest percentage
of students with disabilities provide occupational training that leads to
employment opportunities as measured by Pennsylvania’s demands for
labor?
      Pennsylvania’s demand for labor, as reported by the 22 Workforce
Investment Areas, and the six CTE occupational areas (CIP) with the
highest percentages of disability participation between 1995-2000 were
compared. The six CIP areas were compared with Pennsylvania’s short-
term demand for labor forecasted by Pennsylvania’s CWIA. The
comparative data are reported in Table 5. Demand for labor by WIA
region for the six CIP areas identified in this study show a strong
connection with employment opportunities, with the exception of
Upholsterer. This CIP area was not specifically identified in the CWIA
data. Construction and Building Finishers (CIP 46.0499) had related jobs
projecting for employment opportunities (b = related/included trades) in
several of the 22 WIA regions. Additionally, Upholsterer (CIP 48.0303),
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Table 5
Pennsylvania Demand for Labor by PA 22 Workforce Investment Areas
and the Six CTE CIP Occupational Areas with Highest Percentage of
Disability Participation
                               CIP Occupational Program Area
                        Custodial,
PA                     Housekeeping
Workforce     General   and Home Home- Vocational Construction
Investment Distribution Services    maker’s     Home     & Building
Areas        Operations Workers      Aide    Economics Finishers    Upholsterer
Berks Co.            1       2          3           3        3         –
Bucks Co.            1       1          2           3        3         –
Central Reg.         2       1          3           2        3         –
Chester Co.          2       1          2           3        3         –
Delaware Co.         2       3          3           3        3         –
Lackawanna Co.       2       2          3           3        b         –
Lancaster Co.        1       1          3           2        b         –
Lehigh Valley        1       1          3           3        a         –
Luzerne and
 Schuylkill Co.      2       2          3           3        b         –
Montgomery Co.       2       1          2           2        3         –
North Central Reg. 3         2          3           3        b         –
Northern Tier Reg. 3         3          3           3        b         –
Northwest Region 2           1          3           3        –         –
Philadelphia         1       1          1           2        b         –
Pocono Reg.          3       2          2           2        b         –
South Central Reg. 1         1          1           1        2         –
So. Alleghenies Reg. 3       1          3           3        3         –
Southwest Corner     3       1          2           3        3         –
Three Rivers Reg. 1          1          1           1        3         –
Tri-County Reg.      3       2          2           2        3         –
West Central Reg. a          2          3           3        b         –
Westmoreland
 and Fayette Co.     3       2          2           2        3         –
Source: Pennsylvania Bureau of Labor and Industry, 2002 Demand Occupations (2002).
Note:     1 = > 100 Annual Openings
          2 = > 50 Annual Openings
          3 = > 15 Annual Openings
          a = Significant Employment Opportunity, No Specific Data on Annual Openings
          b = Significant Employment Opportunity in Related/Included Trades
          – = Occupational Demand Not Specifically Identified by CWIA



not represented in Table 5, has job opportunities in Pennsylvania’s
homemaker’s aide occupations have high demand for labor as reported
by CWIA. Pennsylvania’s labor demand suggests opportunity for
employment in several of the CIP occupational areas as noted by the
high number of 1’s (> 100 annual openings) and 2’s (> 50 annual
openings) in Table 5.
14                               Workforce Education Forum, Spring 2003

      Wage earning data was reported for related demand occupations
within the 22 WIA regions. Entry-level annual wage earnings are
presented in Table 6 by CIP area, job types, and entry-level annual
earning estimates across Pennsylvania’s 22 WIA regions. Annual wage
earning for entry-level positions within six CIP areas in this study vary
by occupational area. Data suggests that distribution operations jobs
have the highest entry-level income earning potential ($12,160-
$20,257). Employment in positions related to vocational home
economics (CIP 20.999) had the lowest entry-level wage earnings
($12,414-$14,776). Upholsterer was not specifically identified in CWIA
data, but related positions had entry-level earnings ranging from $12,189
to $19,260. All entry-level wages started at $12,000 or more for annual
income across the Commonwealth.

Table 6
Pennsylvania Entry-level Annual Wage Earnings by the
Six CTE CIP Occupational Areas with Highest Percentage of
Disability Participation and Job Type
CTE CIP Area      Occupational Cluster by Job Type      Entry-level Salary Range
General            Stock Clerks, Hand Packers,          $12,160–20,257
Distributions      Shipping & Receiving Clerks,
Operations         Traffic Clerks
(CIP 08.0709)
Custodial,          Janitors, Cleaners, Maids,          $12,124–15,028
Housekeeping &      Housekeeping Cleaners
Home Service
Workers
(CIP 20.0601)
Homemaker’s         Personal Care Aides,                $13,401–18,558
Aide                Home Care Attendants
(CIP 20.0606)
Vocational          Cleaners, Servants,                 $12,414–14,776
Home                Private Household Servants
Economics
(CIP 20.9999)
Construction        Carpenters and Related              $13,046–18,070
and Building        Helpers, Carpenter Helpers
Finishers
(CIP 46.0499)
Upholsterer         Sewing Machine Operators,           $12,189–19,260
(CIP 48.0303)       Assemblers, Furniture Finishers
Source: Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, 2002 Demand Occupations
(2002).
Harvey/PA CTE Jobs                                                     15

                               Discussion
      This study used secondary data from the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania’s Department of Education CATS and Department of
Labor and Industry CWIA. The analysis reported is limited to the
parameters of the original databases. All analysis represents aggregate
data. Enrollment trends for CTE programs do not extend beyond the five
year study period (1995-2000). Pennsylvania’s CWIA labor statistics
came from the Pennsylvania Workforce 2005 (long-term labor demands)
and the 2002 Demand Occupations and Pennsylvania Labor Force
(short-term labor projections).
     Occupational analysis for entry-level jobs annual wage earning
represents a range of jobs and salaries as identified by CWIA. This
analysis provides an overview of occupational employment for the six
CIP areas investigated in this study. This study does not report the
employment status of students with disabilities who have participated in
CTE. Pennsylvania does not currently conduct comprehensive
systematic post-school follow-up for students with disabilities.
      Occupational skills training and transitional services are provided
to students with disabilities through IDEA and the Perkins Act mandates.
Students with disabilities in Pennsylvania are participating in secondary
CTE at higher rates (18.5%) than those reported at the national level
(Harvey, 2001c; NAVE 1994b). Approximately 30.5% of all students age
15-21 served under the IDEA in Pennsylvania participated in secondary
CTE. Forty percent or more of all CTE occupational programs offered in
the Commonwealth had disability enrollments of 20% or more (Harvey,
2001c). Enrollment data suggests that students with disabilities are
accessing and participating in CTE in the Commonwealth.
      This study identified six CIP occupational areas that met the
criteria of high levels (> 50%) of participation for students with a
disability. Additionally, this study sought to identify employment
opportunities and demand for labor in the Pennsylvania workforce that
would supported CTE training efforts. These six CIP areas represent
“traditional” areas of employment and training for persons with
disabilities as identified by the literature. The six CIP areas align with
current employment opportunity and demand for labor by WIA region in
Pennsylvania. Positions in service, wholesale and retail trades,
manufacturing, and construction, are strong sectors of employment in
Pennsylvania’s non-farm labor force with a wide range of entry-level
wage earnings by occupational area across the Commonwealth. These
findings suggest that the six CIP areas with the highest percentages of
16                             Workforce Education Forum, Spring 2003

students with disabilities enrolled do afford CTE participants with
occupational skills training that match Pennsylvania’s workforce
demand for labor.
     These results are positive in that CTE occupational training in
these six CIP areas offers labor market advantage and competitive job
opportunities in Pennsylvania across the 22 WIA regions.
      The analysis suggests that the Commonwealth is meeting the most
basic labor economic dynamic, an alignment between skill training and
labor demand for students with disabilities participating in the six CIP
areas identified in this study. This is not to suggest that individuals with
disabilities be relegated to low-skill, low-wage, low-status employment
and CTE training. This study was undertaken to validate high levels of
participation in CTE by students with disabilities, identify specific
occupational skill training in the CIP areas most enrolled, and verify
alignment with competitive job opportunities in Pennsylvania’s
workforce. It is important to note that IEP transition planning teams
consider students’ interests and preferences, meet their individual needs,
and maximize post-school outcomes for students with disabilities.
Participation in high-skill and high-wage CTE training areas should be a
given. CTE enrollment data, as reported by Harvey (2001c), suggests
that Pennsylvania is offering a wide range of occupational skills training
to students with disabilities within the Commonwealth. The critical
question is whether CTE occupational training for students with
disabilities yields related post-school employment and quality of life!
The Commonwealth needs to engage in comprehensive systematic post-
school follow-up of students with disabilities conducted by PDE’s
Bureau of Special Education.


                            Recommendations
      Several researchers recommend on-going CTE instructor training
to effectively meet the needs of special populations students enrolled in
secondary CTE (Custer & Panagos, 1996; Harvey, 1999; Harvey, 2000;
Kraska, 1997). High quality pre-service and in-service special needs
training should be a high priority for CTE professionals in Pennsylvania.
Training should focus on instructional strategies, program modifications,
and accommodations that have “proven practice” in secondary CTE
programs.
      CTE instructors should develop a strong professional network with
their high school special education counterparts. Communication and
collaboration between special educators and CTE instructors is essential
Harvey/PA CTE Jobs                                                         17

in establishing appropriate program placements, effective support
services, and delivering CTE instruction that will meet the needs of
students with disabilities.
     It is recommended that on-going comprehensive assessment and
evaluation of student progress in CTE be conducted to assure
appropriate program modifications and IEP adjustments are made.
Appropriate secondary CTE occupational training for realistic post-
school employment is essential in meeting student transition needs and
maximizing labor market advantage for students with disabilities.
      Empirical data collected from specific systematic post-school
follow-up is needed to validate post-school transition outcomes for
students with disabilities. Research in this area will provide hard data
concerning special education transition services and CTE occupational
training efforts related to workforce development in Pennsylvania. This
data can also identify needed services for individuals with disabilities for
Pennsylvania’s One-Stop Service Centers concerning workforce
development.
     Systematic follow-up research should address IEP program
placement decisions, high school course selections, occupational skill
development, CTE program efficacy, and post-school transition
outcomes for students with disabilities. Some of the most important
questions in follow-up research should include:
     a) Are students accessing competitive employment in jobs that are
        related to their CTE occupational training?
     b) What is the employment status of students with disabilities in
        Pennsylvania’s workforce?
     c) What is the quality-of-life status of students with disabilities
        who participated in CTE in Pennsylvania?
      The Pennsylvania Department of Education should develop an
outcomes accountability process for students with disabilities. The
Bureau of Special Education, working with the Bureau of CTE, should
develop and implement a comprehensive systematic follow-up data
collection system. Researchers in higher education who have expertise
in transition and follow-up research could assist PDE in this effort.

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Michael W. Harvey is the Director of the Doctoral Program and an
Assistant Professor of Special Education at Ball State University in
Muncie, Indiana.

								
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