"Identify Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Assets"
Identify Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Assets. Student Handout INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE ASSETS The information that follows will enhance your ability to identify Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) Assets. This student handout (SHO) will be used in conjunction with TSP 301-C- 1150. It contains background knowledge that is instrumental in the completion of task 301-371- 1150, Identify Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Assets. 1. The four basic functions of IEW are to conduct 1) Situation Development, 2) Target Development, 3) Electronic Warfare and 4) Counterintelligence. These four functions combined will serve as a means for providing the commander with the best possible intelligence available to enable him to accomplish his mission. Each function has a unique contribution to add to IEW. a. Situation Development provides an estimate of the enemy’s combat effectiveness. It confirms or denies enemy courses of action and explains what the enemy is doing in relation to the friendly force commander’s intent. It helps the commander reduce risk by providing a clear understanding of the battlefield situation. Situation Development is especially demanding for Military Intelligence units. It must anticipate requirements, and be able to redirect immediately when the situation changes. b. Target Development is used to determine both nonlethal electronic attacks and lethal fires. Nonlethal attacks are those conducted by many electronic systems for the purpose of jamming and intercepting enemy communications. Lethal attacks include targets that artillery support can eliminate for the commander. When targets are identified, they are ranked by order of importance. High Value Targets (HVT) and High Payoff Targets (HPT) are attacked first as they are deemed necessary to destroy for the commander’s mission to succeed. c. Electronic Warfare (EW) is a broad term that includes Electronic Attack (EA), Electronic Warfare Support (ES), and Electronic Protection (EP). These three elements cover the full spectrum of EW by providing either offensive or defensive measures, or both. To effectively use EW it must be coordinated and integrated into the commander’s scheme of maneuver and fire support plan if it is to act as a decisive element of combat power. d. Counterintelligence (CI) is an integral part of IEW. CI assets support the commander through force protection operations which encompasses support to operations security (OPSEC), deception directed at the enemy and rear area operations. OPSEC support is provided by CI through analysis of friendly unit conduct and how it could be susceptible to the enemy. CI supports deception plans by providing input both on the enemy’s vulnerability to deception and the friendly unit’s capability to provide the deception. Rear area support is conducted by CI through collection, analysis, and reporting of threats to the rear area. The CI asset works closely with other elements such as Civil Affairs, Psychological Operations, and military police to provide intelligence support to the rear area. 2. To effectively conduct IEW, commander’s must synchronize the use of the four intelligence disciplines to gain the most benefit. No one source of intelligence will provide a complete picture of the situation, therefore they must work in conjunction with one another. The four intelligence disciplines are 1) Human Intelligence (HUMINT), 2) Imagery Intelligence (IMINT), 3) Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) and 4) Signals Intelligence (SIGINT). a. HUMINT is normally employed to confirm, refute, or augment, through human sources, intelligence derived through other disciplines, although in some circumstances it can be used as a sole collection resource. The less technical aspects of HUMINT make it less restricted by weather or the level of enemy cooperation as are some more technical collection devices. HUMINT collection can be hindered by access to targets which require the physical presence of the collector with the target. It includes among its arsenal interrogation of enemy prisoners of war, document exploitation, long-range surveillance units, scouts, and patrols. b. IMINT is the product of imagery analysis and is unique from other disciplines in that it provides Battlefield Visualization. IMINT provides the commander with a quick, accurate look at the battlefield by imaging for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), targeting, and Battle Damage Assessment (BDA). While IMINT can provide unique intelligence through actual pictures of what the commander wants to see, it can be time intensive and is susceptible to certain weather conditions. Two of the main IMINT systems in use by the Army today are the Hunter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS). The Hunter system is a fixed wing aircraft with a multi mission payload that has radar, video, and infrared imagery capability. It is used as a division and brigade asset. The JSTARS system is capable of radar and thermal imagery at the corps level with integration as a division asset. Both systems have immediate relay capability to ground stations who interpret the images for the commander. These systems can be used for IPB, targeting, and BDA. c. MASINT, intelligence collected by technical instruments such as radars, lasers, passive electro-optical sensors, radiation detectors, and seismic sensors is the newest of the four disciplines. It is capable of detecting and identifying items by the unique signature each piece of equipment emits. The primary piece of equipment used for MASINT is the Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System (REMBASS). The REMBASS is a division asset that can be used for surveillance of general areas, along unit flanks for increased security, and in rear area surveillance. The REMBASS can also provide target data such as the direction, location, number, rate of movement, and the length of columns of enemy equipment. d. SIGINT is the result of collecting, locating, processing, analyzing, and reporting intercepted communications and noncommunications such as radar. SIGINT can provide the commander with near real time information on enemy intentions, readiness status and dispositions. In determining locations of enemy communications SIGINT can target those locations for jamming, thereby preventing the enemy from communicating with himself. Some SIGINT collection capabilities can be hampered by weather conditions and by enemy countermeasures to their mission. There are many SIGINT systems in use by the Army today. Among them are the TRAILBLAZER TSQ-138 system, a heavy division asset, which is a direction finding system mounted onto a 5 ton truck. The TEAMMATE TRQ-32 system has intercept and direction finding capability while mounted on a HMMWV and is a division as well as corps asset. The TRAFFICJAM TLQ-17A is an electronic countermeasures set with intercept capabilities. It is mounted on a HMMWV and deployed to division, corps, and echelons above corps (EAC). The TROJAN SPIRIT II system provides secure voice, data, message traffic, and FAX link. It is also mounted on a HMMWV and deployed to division, corps, and EAC. SIGINT assets include a manpack intercept system, the PRD-12 MANPACK, that is deployed to the airborne division. Some airborne SIGINT assets include GUARDRAIL, an intercepting and direction finding system mounted on an RC-12 light aircraft, QUICKFIX, a direction finding system mounted on a Blackhawk helicopter, and QUICKLOOK, also on an RC-12 Fixed wing aircraft which has sidelooking radar capability. The airborne assets enable SIGINT to extend its mission further than the ground alone would allow.