Operational Intelligence and Electronic Warfare
Operational intelligence is the link between strategic and tactical
intelligence. Commanders use IEW support to anticipate the battle,
understand the battlefield, and influence the outcome of operations.
They also use it to support force protection. IEW enables
commanders to focus, leverage, and protect their combat power and
resources. CSS commanders use IEW to identify the vulnerability of
CSS sites and operations to enemy action, in both forward and rear
areas. They also use intelligence to anticipate friendly logistics
requirements and to locate routes and sites for CSS operations. Like
logistics, operational IEW functions occur at theater level.
THE INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONICS
The Army intelligence mission is to provide shield his intentions, present false images to
timely, concise, accurate, relevant, and the enemy commander, and protect his force.
synchronized IEW support to tactical, Force protection intelligence-
operational, and strategic commanders across •Identifies and counters enemy intelligence-
the range of military operations. The theater collection capabilities.
support commander uses the intelligence •Assesses friendly vulnerabilities from the
battlefield operating system (BOS) to support enemy’s perspective.
his intelligence requirements. The intelligence
BOS is seamless and includes all levels of •Identifies the enemy’s perception of friendly
intelligence, from tactical to national. It is a centers of gravity and how he will attack or
flexible, tailorable, multiechelon, and influence them.
multidiscipline architecture of procedures, •Identifies potential countermeasures to
organizations, and equipment that responds to deny enemy access to friendly critical areas.
commanders’ priorities and direction. Military •Contributes to threat avoidance once the
intelligence personnel accomplish their risk is identified.
mission by performing six primary tasks:
•Providing indications of hostilities •Enables the commander to plan for both
intelligence and warning. passive and active OPSEC, deception, and
other security measures.
•Performing situation development. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT
•Supporting target development and IEW organizations provide the intelligence
targeting. that is used to determine resource
requirements in preparation for war and
•Performing BDA. MOOTW. BDA is useful in identifying the need
•Developing force protection intelligence. for additional resources. The intelligence BOS
supports force protection from the factory to
FORCE PROTECTION the end user on the battlefield.
The commander also uses the intelligence
BOS to support force protection. It is active and COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
proactive, identifying, locating, and targeting CI counteracts foreign intelligence and
an enemy’s ability to target and affect friendly terrorist threats to the friendly force. Its
forces. With this intelligence, the commander specialty is support to force protection. CI
decides which countermeasures he must use to supports force protection by conducting
REAR AREA OPERATIONS
activities categorized under the four functional IEW contributes to the rear battle by
areas of investigations, operations, collection, assisting in identifying, analyzing, wargaming,
and analysis and production. These activities and early warning of potential threats to the
are conducted during peacetime and war. For friendly rear area and identifying terrain that
additional information, see FM 34-60. supports friendly rear area operations.
THE TENETS OF INTELLIGENCE AND
The tenets of Army military intelligence elements (ACES) at brigade, division, corps,
and electronic warfare are: and theater form a seamless bridge linking the
The commander drives the intelligence commander with higher and lower echelons.
effort. He focuses the intelligence system by They are the commander’s primary
clearly designating his priority intelligence organization for pulling information from the
requirements, targeting requirements, and broadcast system. The theater commander
priorities. He ensures that the intelligence must ask specific questions to focus his
BOS is fully employed and synchronized with intelligence team. Specific intelligence
his maneuver and fire support BOSs. He requirements act as filters between the
demands that the intelligence BOS provide the commander pulling intelligence and the vast
intelligence that he needs, when he needs it, amount of information available. To efficiently
and in the form he needs. answer the commander’s questions, the
Intelligence must be synchronized with operational-level ACE element staff must know
operations. The CINC's intelligence staff specifically where to pull the desired
synchronizes intelligence collection, analysis, information from in the broadcast system.
and dissemination with operations to ensure Intelligence operations are split-based.
the commander receives the intelligence he Split-based intelligence opertions provide
needs, in the form he can use it, in time to deploying tactical commanders with high-
influence the decision-making process. resolution intelligence until their organic
Intelligence synchronization is a continuous intelligence-collection assets are employed and
process that keeps IEW operations tied to the augment their organic intelligence production.
commander’s critical decisions and concept of Split-based intelligence operations employ
operations. collection and analysis elements from all
Intelligence must receive broadcast echelons, national to tactical, in sanctuaries
dissemination. Broadcast dissemination of from which they can operate against the target
intelligence is the simultaneous broadcast of area.
near-real-time intelligence from collectors and Intelligence must be tactically tailored. In
processors at all echelons. It permits all force projection operations, the commander
commanders at all echelons to simultaneously tactically tailors IEW support for each
receive the same intelligence, thereby contingency based on the mission and
providing a common picture of the battlefield. availability of resources. He must decide which
It allows commanders to skip echelons and pull key intelligence personnel and equipment to
intelligence directly from the echelon deploy early and when to phase in his
broadcasting it. The analysis and control remaining MI assets.
THE INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC
WARFARE FORCE STRUCTURE
The operational-level IEW force structure that theater. All theater intelligence staffs
is part of the total IEW architecture within perform the same basic IEW staff functions
each theater. The intelligence staff of each and tasks. Army IEW operators at the
theater is specifically tailored to the needs of operational level receive their directional
guidance from the theater commander. Each changed with the scope of the supported
mature theater has an operational IEW operation. The operational-level IEW
organization under the command of organization serves as a C headquarters for
Headquarters, USAINSCOM, and under the subordinate and attached MI elements. The
OPCON of the respective theater commander operational-level ACE is the principal
during peacetime. During conflict, they revert organization for producing all-source
to the command of the theater commander. intelligence. It controls, manages, tasks,
processes, analyzes, synthesizes, and
The deployable IEW organization at the disseminates intelligence. It supports OPSEC
operational level is scalable. It can conduct and deception, sensor cueing, target
split-based operations in force projection development, and situation development. The
missions by early deployment of the small, ACE coordinates with and provides
highly technical deployable intelligence connectivity to US national, joint, and
support element (DISE). The DISE is a conduit multinational intelligence sources. FM 34-37
for theater- and national-level intelligence. The addresses operational-level IEW operations.
size and capabilities of the DISE can be