Operational Intelligence and Electronic Warfare by lso20334

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									                                              Chapter 9
                Operational Intelligence and Electronic Warfare
               Operational intelligence is the link between strategic and tactical
           intelligence. Commanders use IEW support to anticipate the battle,
           understand the battlefield, and influence the outcome of operations.
           They also use it to support force protection. IEW enables
           commanders to focus, leverage, and protect their combat power and
           resources. CSS commanders use IEW to identify the vulnerability of
           CSS sites and operations to enemy action, in both forward and rear
           areas. They also use intelligence to anticipate friendly logistics
           requirements and to locate routes and sites for CSS operations. Like
           logistics, operational IEW functions occur at theater level.

                     THE INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONICS
                             WARFARE MISSION
    The Army intelligence mission is to provide     shield his intentions, present false images to
timely, concise, accurate, relevant, and            the enemy commander, and protect his force.
synchronized IEW support to tactical,               Force protection intelligence-
operational, and strategic commanders across          •Identifies and counters enemy intelligence-
the range of military operations. The theater          collection capabilities.
support commander uses the intelligence               •Assesses friendly vulnerabilities from the
battlefield operating system (BOS) to support          enemy’s perspective.
his intelligence requirements. The intelligence
BOS is seamless and includes all levels of            •Identifies the enemy’s perception of friendly
intelligence, from tactical to national. It is a       centers of gravity and how he will attack or
flexible, tailorable, multiechelon, and                influence them.
multidiscipline architecture of procedures,           •Identifies potential countermeasures to
organizations, and equipment that responds to          deny enemy access to friendly critical areas.
commanders’ priorities and direction. Military        •Contributes to threat avoidance once the
intelligence personnel accomplish their                risk is identified.
mission by performing six primary tasks:
  •Providing indications of hostilities               •Enables the commander to plan for both
   intelligence and warning.                           passive and active OPSEC, deception, and
                                                       other security measures.
  •Performing IPB.
  •Performing situation development.                      COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT
  •Supporting target development and                    IEW organizations provide the intelligence
   targeting.                                       that is used to determine resource
                                                    requirements in preparation for war and
  •Performing BDA.                                  MOOTW. BDA is useful in identifying the need
  •Developing force protection intelligence.        for additional resources. The intelligence BOS
                                                    supports force protection from the factory to
           FORCE PROTECTION                         the end user on the battlefield.
    The commander also uses the intelligence
BOS to support force protection. It is active and           COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
proactive, identifying, locating, and targeting         CI counteracts foreign intelligence and
an enemy’s ability to target and affect friendly    terrorist threats to the friendly force. Its
forces. With this intelligence, the commander       specialty is support to force protection. CI
decides which countermeasures he must use to        supports force protection by conducting

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Chapter 9

                                                           REAR AREA OPERATIONS
activities categorized under the four functional       IEW contributes to the rear battle by
areas of investigations, operations, collection,   assisting in identifying, analyzing, wargaming,
and analysis and production. These activities      and early warning of potential threats to the
are conducted during peacetime and war. For        friendly rear area and identifying terrain that
additional information, see FM 34-60.              supports friendly rear area operations.

                       THE TENETS OF INTELLIGENCE AND
                            ELECTRONIC WARFARE
        The tenets of Army military intelligence elements (ACES) at brigade, division, corps,
 and electronic warfare are:                     and theater form a seamless bridge linking the
        The commander drives the intelligence commander with higher and lower echelons.
effort. He focuses the intelligence system by They are the commander’s primary
 clearly designating his priority intelligence organization for pulling information from the
 requirements, targeting requirements, and broadcast system. The theater commander
 priorities. He ensures that the intelligence    must ask specific questions to focus his
 BOS is fully employed and synchronized with intelligence team. Specific intelligence
 his maneuver and fire support BOSs. He requirements act as filters between the
 demands that the intelligence BOS provide the commander pulling intelligence and the vast
 intelligence that he needs, when he needs it, amount of information available. To efficiently
 and in the form he needs.                       answer the commander’s questions, the
      Intelligence must be synchronized with operational-level ACE element staff must know
 operations. The CINC's intelligence staff specifically where to pull the desired
 synchronizes intelligence collection, analysis, information from in the broadcast system.
 and dissemination with operations to ensure          Intelligence operations are split-based.
 the commander receives the intelligence he      Split-based intelligence opertions provide
 needs, in the form he can use it, in time to deploying tactical commanders with high-
 influence the decision-making process.          resolution intelligence until their organic
 Intelligence synchronization is a continuous intelligence-collection assets are employed and
 process that keeps IEW operations tied to the   augment their organic intelligence production.
 commander’s critical decisions and concept of Split-based intelligence operations employ
 operations.                                     collection and analysis elements from all
       Intelligence must receive broadcast echelons, national to tactical, in sanctuaries
 dissemination. Broadcast dissemination of from which they can operate against the target
  intelligence is the simultaneous broadcast of  area.
 near-real-time intelligence from collectors and     Intelligence must be tactically tailored. In
 processors at all echelons. It permits all force projection operations, the commander
commanders at all echelons to simultaneously tactically tailors IEW support for each
 receive the same intelligence, thereby          contingency based on the mission and
 providing a common picture of the battlefield. availability of resources. He must decide which
 It allows commanders to skip echelons and pull key intelligence personnel and equipment to
intelligence directly from the echelon           deploy early and when to phase in his
broadcasting it. The analysis and control remaining MI assets.

                     THE INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC
                        WARFARE FORCE STRUCTURE
    The operational-level IEW force structure      that theater. All theater intelligence staffs
is part of the total IEW architecture within       perform the same basic IEW staff functions
each theater. The intelligence staff of each       and tasks. Army IEW operators at the
theater is specifically tailored to the needs of   operational level receive their directional

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                                                                                       FM 100-16


guidance from the theater commander. Each           changed with the scope of the supported
mature theater has an operational IEW               operation. The operational-level IEW
                                                                                 2
organization under the command of                   organization serves as a C headquarters for
Headquarters, USAINSCOM, and under the              subordinate and attached MI elements. The
OPCON of the respective theater commander           operational-level ACE is the principal
during peacetime. During conflict, they revert      organization for producing all-source
to the command of the theater commander.            intelligence. It controls, manages, tasks,
                                                    processes, analyzes, synthesizes, and
     The deployable IEW organization at the         disseminates intelligence. It supports OPSEC
operational level is scalable. It can conduct       and deception, sensor cueing, target
split-based operations in force projection          development, and situation development. The
missions by early deployment of the small,          ACE coordinates with and provides
highly technical deployable intelligence            connectivity to US national, joint, and
support element (DISE). The DISE is a conduit       multinational intelligence sources. FM 34-37
for theater- and national-level intelligence. The   addresses operational-level IEW operations.
size and capabilities of the DISE can be




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