Living with earthquakes and volcanoes

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Living with earthquakes and volcanoes Powered By Docstoc
					»1               Living with earthquakes
                 and volcanoes
Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can have disastrous effects,
especially if they happen in places where many people live.
Understanding the causes and effects of earthquakes and volcanoes
can help to reduce their effects on people and environments.


 Learning objectives
 What are you going to learn about in this chapter?
 >    Where earthquakes and volcanoes happen
 >    Why earthquakes and volcanic eruptions happen
 >    The effects of earthquakes and volcanoes in different parts of the world
 >    How the effects of earthquakes and volcanoes can be reduced
                                                                                 A Earthquake in Kobe, Japan
 >    How a tsunami starts
 >    What it is like to live through a tsunami
 >    Why aid is needed after a natural disaster
 >    Why people live in active areas




                                                                                                               5
       What is the earth like?
                                              >    Understanding that the earth is not a solid mass
                                              >    Finding out that inside the earth it is very hot

                                            The earth is made up of three main layers: the crust, the mantle and the
                                            core (A). The crust is a thin surface which forms the land on which we live.
A The earth’s layers                        It floats on the semi-liquid (molten) mantle. The core is the centre of the
                                            earth and is made of iron.

Plates
                                                                                   The core
Huge blocks of the earth’s crust.
                                                                                   Scientists believe that:
                                                                                   • the inner core is solid, because it is so dense
                                                                                   • the outer core is molten rock.




                                                                                             The mantle
Plate boundary                                                                               The mantle is a layer of molten rock
Where plates meet.                                                                           (magma) underneath the crust.



The crust
• Where land is on the surface it is
  called continental crust and is usually
  20–60 km thick.
• Where oceans are on the surface it is
  called oceanic crust and is thinner –
  usually between 8 and 25 km thick.
• In some places the crust is very thin
  and molten material bubbles up to
  the surface through cracks – these
  are called ‘hot-spots’.



Geothermal Power Station Uses                 Hot Springs, Geysers Water heated up                  H O W H OT I S
hot underground rocks to produce              underground rises to the surface under
hot water and electricity.                    enormous pressure.
                                                                                                    IT INSIDE
                                                                                                    T H E E A RT H ?
                                                                                                    No one really knows
                                                                                                    the answer to this
                                                                                                    question, but we do
                                                                                                    know that inside the
                                                                                                    earth is hotter than the
                                                                                                    outside. One way we
                                                                                                    can tell this is when
                                                                                                    volcanoes erupt or red
                                                                                                    hot lava comes to the
                                                                                                    earth’s surface. The
                                                                                                    photographs in source
                                                                                                    B show other evidence
                                                                                                    which tells us that
                                                                                                    temperatures are higher
                                                                                                    inside the earth.
B Evidence to show that temperatures inside the earth are higher

   6        geography 360° Foundation Book 3
                                                                                                                         Key words
T H E E A RT H ’ S C RU S T                                                                                              Continental Plate – plate with
                                                                                                                         land on the surface
The earth’s crust is not one solid mass. It is made up of large pieces                                                   Lava – molten rock on the
called plates (map C). Continental Plates have land on the surface and                                                   earth’s surface
Oceanic Plates have an ocean on the surface. The plates are slowly                                                       Magma – molten rock inside
moved around by currents inside the earth. Notice how in some places                                                     the earth
the plates are moving towards each other and in other places they are                                                    Molten – melted
moving apart. Plate boundaries are the places where plates meet – this is                                                Oceanic Plate – plate with an
where earthquakes and volcanoes often occur.                                                                             ocean on the surface
                                                                                                                         Plate boundary – where the
                                                                                                                         earth’s plates meet

                                                                                                                                                                  N
                                                         N
                                                             or
                                                                  th
                                                                                                                                  Eurasian
                                                                       A
                                                                           m
                                                                               er
                                                                                    ic
                                                                                         an
                                                                                                                                            I ra n
                                                                                                                                                     ian
                P h ili p p in e




                                                                                                                                       Ar
                                   P a c i f i c




                                                                                                                                       ab
                                                                                                                                         ia
                                                                                              Caribbean




                                                                                                                                            n
                                                                                                                           African
                                                                                                                                                           Au Ind
                                                                                                                                                             st o-
                                                                                                           South                                               ra
                                                                                                                                                                  lia
                                                                                                          American                                                    n
                                                                               Nazca
        Indo-Australian




  Key
        Plate boundary (edge)                      Earthquakes
                                                                           Antarctic                                               0            3000 Kilometres
        Direction in which plate is moving         Volcanoes

C The earths’s major plates

  Activities
 1 Copy out the following paragraph. Use the words                                             3 Look at source C.
   in the box below to fill in the gaps. Start by putting                                          a) Which plate does Britain lie on?
   the heading: ‘What is the earth like?’
                                                                                                   b) Why does Britain not have major earthquakes
    The earth is made up of ______layers, the crust,                                                  and volcanoes?
    the _______ and the core. The ______ is the part
                                                                                                   c) Why is the edge of the Pacific Ocean often
    we live on and is between 8 and 60 km thick. The
                                                                                                      called ‘the Pacific ring of fire’?
    mantle is made up of _______rocks called
    _______. The core is in the _______ of the earth                                           4 Below are some sentences that describe the
    and is made of ____________.                                                                 location of volcanoes. Write out the two that
                                                                                                 are correct.
        iron three   molten                  mantle                                                • There are volcanoes along the west coast of
        magma centre    crust                                                                         South America.
 2 How can you tell that it is hot inside the earth?                                               • Britain has lots of active volcanoes.
   Write a brief paragraph, starting with: ‘There are                                              • The east coast of North America has lots of
   many ways you can tell that it is hot inside the                                                   volcanoes.
   earth …’ and go on to mention two ways you can                                                  • East Africa has a line of volcanoes.
   tell it is hot inside the earth.


                                                                                                   1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes                         7
        Why do earthquakes and volcanoes
        occur in certain places?
                                            >         Understanding that the earth’s crust is made up of a number
                                                      of separate pieces called plates
                                            >         Finding out why earthquakes and volcanoes happen near the
                                                      edges of the earth’s plates

                                          The earth’s crust is made up of a number of huge pieces called plates.
                                          These plates are moved by the currents in the hot rocks below the
                                          surface. The edges of plates are called margins or boundaries.

                                          H O W FA S T D O T H E P L ATE S M OV E ?
                                          The plates move between 1 cm and 12 cm a year, which is about the
                                          speed of growing fingernails! This does not sound very fast but don’t
                                          forget that the earth is millions of years old, so a small movement can
                                          make a big difference given enough time.
                                          About 160 million years ago South America and Africa were next to each
                                          other; today they are separated by the Atlantic Ocean (A).

                                          H O W C A N W E TE LL T H AT T H E E A RT H ’ S
                                          P L ATE S M OV E ?

                                                                                      2 Rock formations found in South America
                                                                                        and Africa are exactly the same, so they
                                                 Pl                                     must have been formed near each other
                                                      at
                                                           e
                                                               bo
                                                                    un
                                                                         da
                                                                              ry   Africa

1 Looking at the shape           South America                                                                                     N
  of South America
  and Africa, it is clear                                      A t l a n t i c
  that they fit together                                         O c e a n
  like a giant jigsaw


                                                                                                          3 Identical fossils of land-based
                                                                                                            prehistoric animals have been
                                                                                                            found in South America and
                                                                     Movement                               Africa, so these continents
                                                                                                            must have been joined
0              4000 Kilometres                                                                              together 200 million years ago


A Plate movement



                                          W H AT H A P P E N S W H E R E P L ATE S M E E T ?
                                          Plates can move apart, push together or slide past each other. This
                                          means that the area where plates meet is very unstable.



    8       geography 360° Foundation Book 3
W H AT H A P P E N S W H E N T WO P L ATE S M OV E A PA RT ?

                                                                                                    4 The tops of some of the mountains stick
                                                                                                      up out of the ocean to form islands


                     3 Mountain ridges form under the sea                                 Iceland




                                                                            ge
                                                                           id
                                                                       R
                                                                      ic
                                                                   nt
                                                                tla
                                                              -A
                                                                                 A t l a n t i c




                                                           id
                                                          M
                                                                                   O c e a n
                                                                                                                                    E u r o p e
           N o r t h
         A m e r i c a                                                                    2 The molten rock cools into solid rock

                                        1 Molten rock rises into the gap


                                Plate                                            Molten                                   Plate
                                                                                  rock



                                                                                                                              B Plates moving apart
W H AT H A P P E N S W H E N A N O C E A N I C P L ATE
A N D A CO N T I N E N TA L P L ATE P U S H TO G E T H E R ?
                                                           5 Volcanic eruption
                 4 Liquid rock (magma)
                   rises to the surface


                                  Japan
                                                                                               Pacific Ocean


                               Eurasian Plate



2 The plates push together,
  causing earthquakes                                                                                              Pacific Plate


                                                                                                                                   1 The heavier Pacific Plate
                                                                                                                                     pushes under the Eurasian Plate
                                                                   3 Rock begins to melt


                                                                                                            C Oceanic and continental plates pushing together

  Activities
1 Copy and complete the following sentences using                                          3 Write out these statements in the correct order to
  the words in the box below.                                                                show what happens when plates move apart.
     a) The earth’s crust is made up of a number of                                             • Undersea ridges and mountains are formed
        ______.                                                                                 • Molten rock rises to the surface and cools
     b) The plates are moved about by the ________                                              • Two plates move apart
        below.
                                                                                           4 Draw a diagram to show what happens when
           currents           plates                                                         oceanic and continental plates push together.
                                                                                             Mark on:
2 Explain how you can tell that South America and
                                                                                                – Volcano                      – Melting rock
  Africa haved moved apart.
                                                                                                – Rising magma                 – Start of an earthquake
                                                                                                1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes                         9
      What happens in an earthquake?
                                                                             >   Finding out why the earth shakes
                                                                             >   Learning about how earthquakes are measured
Key words
Epicentre – the point on the
earth’s surface above where
                                                                         Most earthquakes happen when two of the earth’s plates stick as they
an earthquake starts                                                     push past each other (A).


              1 Two plates moving                                                                         2 Suddenly the plates move, causing the
                past each other get                                                                         plate to jolt apart – sending vibrations
                jammed together                                                                             through the crust – an earthquake

                                                                                                                                         The point on the surface
                                                                                                                                         directly above the focus
                                                                                                                                         is called the epicentre
                         Pla
                             te   mo
                                    vem
                                        ent
           Pla
               te   mo
                      vem
                          ent
                                                                        st
                                                                 Cr u

                                                st                                                                                                                        us
                                                                                                                                                                               t
                                         Cr u                                                                                                                        Cr
                                                          ntle
                                                     Ma                                                                                            us
                                                                                                                                                        t
                                                                                                                                              Cr
                                                                                                                                                              ntle
                                                                                                                                                            Ma




                                                                                                     The point underground where the
                                                                                                     earthquake started is called the focus
A How an earthquake can happen
                                                                         W H AT A B O U T T H E S T R E N G T H O F A N
                                                                         E A RT H Q UA K E ?
      FAC T F I LE
                                                                         The strength of an earthquake is measured by the Richter scale. The
The word seismic is Greek for                                            higher the number on the scale the greater the damage.
‘shake’. As earthquakes cause
the ground to shake, anything                                                The Richter scale
to do with earthquakes is
called seismic!                                                              Measures the amount of energy released.
                                                                             1   Only noticed by instruments
                                                                             2   Barely felt
               The Richer scale is                                                                                                              Each number is ten
                                                                             3   Slight vibrations
               calculated using a                                                                                                              times more powerful
                                                                             4   Windows rattle, some movement, minor damage                       than the last
              mathematical equation
               so is very accurate                                           5   Some damage to buildings
                                                                             6   Walls crack, some buildings collapse
                                                                             7   Ground cracks – many buildings collapse
                                                                             8   Large areas destroyed                                            8.9 Strongest
                                                                             9   Widespread destruction                                        recorded earthquake



 10      geography 360° Foundation Book 3
H O W A R E E A RT H Q UA K E S M E A S U R E D ?
An instrument called
                                                                                       Strong earthquake
a seismometer is
                                                                            Calm                           Smaller eathquake
used to record the
shaking of the earth
(photo B).
The information
collected is shown
on a seismograph
(C). Comparing
seismographs from
different places can
help to tell where an                                                                       Time
earthquake started.       B A seismometer                               C A seismograph


H O W D O E A RT H Q UA K E S C AU S E DA M A G E ?
Shaking causes                              Electrical cables damaged causing fires            Buildings destroyed
buildings to collapse                                                                          by the earthquake



 River banks broken causing flooding
                                                                                        Shaking causes landslides
 Gas pipes broken causing fires




                                                                                   Large trees fall causing damage
                                  Earth movements cause bridges to collapse

  Activities
 1 What does the word ‘seismic’ mean?                       4 Describe three ways in which earthquakes can
 2 Draw a diagram like the one on the right.                  cause damage.
    Add the words from the box below to explain how
    an earthquake happens.
      Crust   Mantle       Vibrations
      Plate movement       Focus      Epicentre

 3 Copy out and              Type of damage           Richter scale
   complete the table,
   which describes the       Barely felt              2
   effects of                                         4
   earthquakes of
   different strengths.                               6

                             Widespread destruction   9


                                                                1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes               11
         Case study: the Kobe earthquake – Japan
                                                           >       Understanding the effects of an earthquake
                                                           >       Finding out how people respond to earthquakes
     A
               IA



   IN
             SS




 CH                                                            Damage extends to 96
           RU




                         Hokkaido                              kilometres around Kobe
                                                               including temples in Kyoto             N        Kobe is the sixth largest city
                                                                                                               in Japan and one of the
N. KOREA                                                                                                       world’s largest ports.

            J A PA N
                                                                                                               At 5.46 am on 17 January
                               Honshu
                                                                                Kyoto                          1995 the city was rocked by
S. KOREA
                                Tokyo                                                                          a massive earthquake (A)
           Kobe                              Nearly 12,000
                                        N    buildings destroyed                                               recorded at 7.2 on the
                    Osaka
                                                      Many killed as parts of                                  Richter scale.
           Epicentre                                  Hanshin Expressway collapse
                                                                                                               In a matter of minutes one of
                    0       300 Kilometres                                                                     the most modern cities in the
                                                                                                   Nara
                                                                                                               world had become a disaster
                                  Tarumi            Kobe                                                       area (B, C).

At 5.46 am local time tremors                                                  International
spread from island epicentre                                                  Airport unaffected
                                             Osaka Bay                                                               FAC T F I LE
                                                                                                                Kobe was Japan’s worst
                                                                                                                earthquake for 72 years
                                                                                                                6,310 people were killed
                        Awaji Island
                                                                                                                45,000 people were hurt
                                                     Wakayama                    0          16 Kilometres       75,000 buildings were
                                                                                                                damaged
                                                                                                                Rebuilding the city cost over
                                                                                                                £80 billion

A How the earthquake struck




B Damaged highway following the Kobe earthquake                                      C Damaged buildings following the Kobe earthquake


   12       geography 360° Foundation Book 3
                                           ‘There was a rumbling sound that got louder and louder. Everything started
                                           to shake – a lot of buildings began to collapse. Most people did not have
W H AT WA S I T L I K E                    time to get out.’
                                           Local resident
TO L I V E T H RO U G H
T H E E A RT H Q UA K E ?                   ‘I was driving to work and the car was suddenly thrown across the road. All
These comments were made by                 the cars stopped. It was only later I was told that the road ahead had
people in the area at the time of           collapsed, killing a number of people.’
the earthquake.                             Local factory worker

W H AT WA S I T L I K E
                                           ‘I was staying in a hotel and was woken up by a flash that lit up the sky.
FOR THE                                    I was later told it was an electrical explosion. Everything began to move.
EMERGENCY                                  It seemed to last for ages, but was probably only about 20 seconds.’
S E RV I C E S ?                           Visiting businessman

Local fireman                               Ambulance driver
‘The biggest problem was that fires         ‘The biggest problem was getting
were breaking out everywhere.               to people who needed help. Lots
Gas mains and electrical cables were        of the roads and bridges were
damaged, causing thousands of fires.        damaged. Others were blocked
We could not cope with them all.’           by buildings that had collapsed.’

REBUILDING THE AREA
Within two years of the earthquake, a lot of the damaged areas had been
rebuilt (D).
To make sure that the effects of any future earthquakes are reduced, the
following measures have been put in place:
•   Making sure that new roads are wider
•   Leaving more space between buildings
•   Using building materials that do not catch fire so easily
                                                                                        D Kobe city rebuilt two years after
•   Making buildings stronger and more flexible                                             the earthquake
•   Not building on unstable ground

    Activities
 1 Write a heading ‘The Kobe Earthquake – Japan’.
                                                                Person                 Point
   Underneath the heading write down:
      – when it happened                                        Local resident         Buildings began to shake

      – how powerful it was                                                            and many collapsed

      – the effects on people
      – the effects on buildings.                               4 a) Draw an outline sketch of photo B showing
 2 Why might the effects have been worse if the                      how some roads were damaged.
   earthquake had happened between 8.00 and                        b) Put labels on your sketch to describe the
   9.00 am?                                                           main points. (See page 154 of SKILLS in
 3 Complete a table like the one started here, which                  geography.)
   describes one point made by each of the three                5 Explain how any one of the rebuilding ideas may
   people talking about what it was like to live                  make the area safer if there is another
   through the earthquake.                                        earthquake in the future.

                                                                  1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes            13
           What happened in the 2003 earthquake
           in Iran?
                                              >    Learning about the effects of an earthquake in a developing
                                                   country
                                      Iran
            Caspian                           >    Understanding the effects of an earthquake in a developing
              Sea
                                                   country
                Tehran

                      I r a n                On Friday 26 December 2003 at 5.27 pm a major earthquake hit the
                  Kerman                     Iranian city of Bam, a city of 80,000 people (A). The city is famous for its
Iraq
                                Bam
                                             2,000-year-old red brick citadel and fortress, which attracts thousands of
                                             tourists each year.
                 The
                 Gulf                        W H AT C AU S E D T H E E A RT H Q UA K E ?
 Saudi
 Arabia                               N      The Iranian plate and the Arabian plate pushed together. This caused a
                                             shockwave which was the start of the earthquake (B).
 0         400 Kilometres
                                             The following news reports describe what it was like in Bam after the
A         Bam, Iran                          earthquake.

                                                                                                                           Afghanistan    N
                                                                                                  Caspian
                                                                                                   Sea                         Eurasian
                                                                                                                                  Plate

                                                                                                                 Tehran
                                                                                          Iranian Plate
                                                                                   Iraq
                                                                                                                 I r a n

                                                                                   Arabian
                                                                                     Plate
                                                                                                                               Bam
                                                                                               Th




                                                                                                  e
                                                                                                      G
                                                                                                          ul f

                                                                                   0      400 Kilometres


C Bam Citadel before the earthquake                                               B Plate movement causing the earthquake


                                                                                          OF BAM
                                                                              NCIENT CITY
                                                                 QUAKE ROCKS A
                                                                                                            day when an
                                                                                        were killed yester
                                                                 Ove r 20,000 people                               m. With
                                                                                              t Iranian city of Ba
                                                                 earthqu ake hit the ancien                      fears that
                                                                                              royed, there are
                                                                           s of homes dest
                                                                 thousand                                homeless in the
                                                                                    e from being left
                                                                 many more will di
                                                                  winter cold.
                                                                                                             people, with
                                                                                         ty of over 80,000
                                                                  Ba m is an ancient ci                       years old. It
                                                                                           ings over 2,000
                                                                  man  y mud brick build                    e badly
                                                                                      itals and both wer
                                                                  only has two hosp
                                                                                     earthquake.
D Bam Citadel after the earthquake                                 damaged by the



     14       geography 360° Foundation Book 3
                   S THOUSANDS
    EARTHQUAKE KILL
                                                  are feared
                         rning 40,000 people
Just before dawn this mo                   scue volunteers,
                           the dead. Re
an ear thquake devastated                        amedics are
 city of Bam in Iran. Mud brick doctors and par
                           and being flow n to the country to
 homes in the city                                ny of whom
                          were help sur vivors, ma
 sur rounding villages                    everything.
                             to have lost
 reduced to rubble and up
           CITY OF BAM DEST
                           ROYED
           IN DEADLY EARTHQ
                            UAKE
 Thousands of homes
                           were    more may die of cold or
destroyed when an earthq                                    threat
                           uake   of disease. The two hospita
hit the ancient Iranian                                       ls in
                        city of   the city have been damage
Bam yesterday. Over                                          d so
                        20,000    people cannot get the hel
people were killed and                                     p they
                         many     desperately need.

                                                                                               D Emergency shelter after
                                                                                                      the earthquake
  BAM – ONE YEAR ON
  It often takes poor countries a long time to rebuild after an earthquake.
  A television reporter visited Bam a year after the earthquake and made
  the following notes:

  • There are still lots of homeless                 • Lots of new houses have been
    people.                                             built.
  • Lots of people are still living in               • Most of the roads have been
    tents on the edge of the city.                      cleared.
  • Piles of rubble are everywhere.
     Activities
   1 Write the title ‘The Bam earthquake – Iran 2003’.                       Both _________ were damaged and people
       a) Copy out and complete the following sentences.                     had to be flown 100 miles for medical help.
          The number of people living in Bam is                             collapsed    hospitals       plates        early
          _____________.                                                    brick    shake    built
          The ancient Citadel is _______ years old and
                                                                       2 Copy out and complete the table below by adding
          made from _______ _______.                                     four other types of structures that may have been
       b) Copy out the following passage, which                          damaged by the earthquake.
          describes what happened in the Bam
                                                                                         Earthquake damage
          earthquake. Use the words in the box below to
          complete the passage.                                            Houses                      Roads
          The earthquake happened because the Iranian
          and Arabian _________ moved together,
          causing the ground to __________. It happened
          __________ in the morning and many people                    3 a) Why does it take a long time for poor countries
          were asleep in their red _________ houses.                        to get back to normal after an earthquake?
          Most houses were poorly _______ and                             b) List two things that have been done and two
          __________ during the earthquake.                                  things that are still needed a year after the
                                                                             earthquake.


                                                                          1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes              15
      What happens when a volcano erupts?
                                                 >    Learning about different types of erupted material
                                                 >    Understanding the effects of an erupting volcano

                                                W H AT I S A V O LC A N O ?
                                                A volcano is an opening or vent in the earth’s crust where different
                                                materials are able to reach the earth’s surface (A–D).

                                                W H AT S O RTS O F M ATE R I A L C A N R E AC H
                                                T H E E A RT H ’ S S U R FAC E ?
                                                Lots of different types of material can be forced up from inside the earth’s
                                                crust during a volcanic eruption. Not all volcanic eruptions are explosive.
                                                In places like Hawaii lava flows in channels and can be studied at quite
                                                close range.




A Molten lava (liquid rock) can be:                                                                B Steam and volcanic dust often
     – thick and sticky and move quite slowly           Types of material                              come out of small eruptions.
     – thin and runny and flow very quickly.            erupted from the earth




C Red hot ash is erupted from many                                          D Volcanic bombs – large blocks of hot rock – can be
     volcanoes and is very dangerous.                                            thrown hundreds of feet in the air during an eruption.

16       geography 360° Foundation Book 3
     W H AT DA M A G E C A N A V O LC A N I C
     E RU P T I O N C AU S E ?
                                                                                Gas clouds can suffocate people.

 Lava flows destroy everything in their path.

                                                                                                   Volcanic bombs can
                                                                                                   destroy buildings.
Ash can mix with water and form mud flows.
These can move down hillsides at over
50 mph destroying anything in their way.
                                                                                                   Hot ash will burn
                                                                                                   people and cause fires.

  Rivers can be blocked by erupting
  material, causing flooding.
                                                                                                     Trees can be blown flat
                                                                                                     by a volcanic blast.

             Roads and bridges
             can be washed away.                Villages and towns can be           Animals and crops
                                                buried by flowing lava.             can be destroyed.



     A R E A LL V O LC A N O E S AC T I V E ?
     Volcanoes can be active, dormant or extinct.
     Active volcanoes        have erupted recently and are expected to erupt
                             again. There are over a thousand active volcanoes,
                             many around the edge of the Pacific Ocean.
     Dormant volcanoes have not erupted for many years but could still erupt.
     Extinct volcanoes       are not expected to erupt again in the future.


          Activities
      1    Copy out and complete the following sentences         3   Write a sentence about how volcanic eruptions
           (look back to page 7 to help you):                        can damage each of the following:
           Magma is …                                                – People         – Roads
           Lava is …                                                 – Buildings      – Farmland
      2    Copy out and complete the following table to show     4   Research task Use the internet (see Hotlinks,
           the different types of material that can come out         page ii) to find two examples each of:
           of erupting volcanoes.                                    – active volcanoes
                                                                     – dormant volcanoes
                    Material erupted from the earth
                                                                     – extinct volcanoes.
            Steam
                                                                 5   Use the internet (see Hotlinks, page ii) to locate
            Ash                                                      five volcanoes currently erupting.



                                                                     1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes         17
           Case study: the eruption of Mount
           Nyiragongo, Congo
                                                       >     Understanding what it is like to live through a volcanic
                                                             eruption
                                                       >     Finding out the problems of living with hazards in poor
                                                             countries
 A Mount Nyiragongo, Congo
                                                                             On Thursday 17 January 2002 Mount Nyiragongo, a
  N
                                                                             volcano in Central Africa, began to erupt (map A). In the
                 Central African Republic                   Sudan            lakeside city of Goma, ten miles to the south, the local
                                                                             people had no idea of what was going to happen over
 Cameroon                                                                    the next two days.
                                                                             Mount Nyiragongo is a steep-sided mountain, so when it
                                     Democra tic                         a   erupted, the lava flowed like a river towards Goma. As the
                                     Republic of
                                                                    and


                                       Congo
                                                                             lava reached Goma, it began to cool, filling the streets
                                                                  Ug



Gabon                                                                        with thousands of tonnes of cooling rock (photo B).
                                                         Goma
                                                              Rwanda
                                                       Bukava
                                                              Burundi
                                                                             W H AT WA S I T L I K E L I V I N G
                  Kinshasa                                                   T H RO U G H T H E E RU P T I O N ?
                                                                 Tan




                               Kananga
                                                                             The following newspaper article and sources B and C
                                                                     z




                                              Mbuji-Mayi
                                                                   ani




                                                                             show what it was like to live through the eruption.
                                                                     a




                     Angola
                                                           Lubumbashi

      0             400 Kilometres


          Key
                Nyiragongo



Source: Developed by Lyn Topinka, Cascades Volcano Observatory


                                                                   people had
                     of Goma                   lava and many
The African city                               to run for their liv
                                                                   es.
                  a volcanic                                        ning nearly
was lit up by                                   By early this mor
                     t as lava
eruption last nigh                              300,000 people
                                                                       had left
                  e sides of                                         looked like
 poured from th                                 Goma – the city
                              It
 Mount      Nyiragongo.                                             n the edge
                      small vil-                a ghost town. O
 destroyed many                                  of the city the
                                                                    only airport
                     e its way
 lages as it mad                                 had been dest
                                                                     royed and
                       the shore
  towards Goma, on                               many buildings
                                                                       could be
                    ldings were
  of Lake Kivu. Bui                               seen burning.
                     the red hot
   turned to ash by

                                                                                                  B Destruction in the main street of Goma

   18            geography 360° Foundation Book 3
       C Experiences during and after the eruption

                                                                      ‘Many people are living on the streets.
                                                                       They have no shelter and little food.’
             ‘The lava flowed through Goma and                                      Aid worker
         into Lake Kivu. Lots of people escaped by
       boat. Some said the lava had heated the lake
          up so much that it was like bath water!’
                        Local fireman
                                                                           ‘We had to leave our home. I tried to return a
                                                                            few days later but everything was destroyed.’
                                                                                            Local resident
     ‘I was working in the area. I
 could not believe the noise and the
smell of chemicals as the lava flowed                    ‘The eruption was so
   through the streets of Goma.’                     powerful it woke me up and
          Foreign worker                                 shook my bed – and                    ‘Many local doctors stayed in
                                                      I was fifteen miles away!’             the area during the eruption and
                                                        Tourist in nearby town                  tried to help people. Thank
                                                                                                     God they are safe.’
                                                                                                     Visiting doctor
      ‘I was told that the lava was flowing
         from Mount Nyiragongo at over
              thirty miles per hour!’
                                                              ‘There is no safe water for people to drink.
            Student living in Goma                               We are very worried about disease.’
                                                                        Local health worker


         Activities
       1 Copy out the following passage which explains               2 a) Choose a title for the photograph on the
         what happened in Goma. Use the words in the box                  opposite page (B).
         below to fill in the gaps.                                      b) Describe three points from the photograph.
           When Mount Nyiragongo ___________ a flow of               3 Copy out and complete the table below using
           _________ moved towards the city of ________. It            three more of the experiences in source C.
           moved quickly because of the __________ slopes.                           Experiences of the eruption
           The lava destroyed many farming __________ on
                                                                           Person                    Experience
           its way to Goma, forcing people to leave their
           homes. On the edge of the city the                              Local resident            Had to leave home

           _____________ was destroyed, and many
           buildings could be seen ____________. The
           following day, the main streets of Goma were full         4 Why will it be difficult to get food and clean water
           of thousands of tonnes of cooling ____________.             to the people of Goma?
             steep   airport     burning         lava
             erupted    villages    rock         Goma


                                                                         1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes         19
         How can earthquakes and volcanoes be
         made less of a hazard?
                                          >    Understanding that prediction, planning and preparation can
                                               reduce risks
                                          >    Learning about some of the methods used to reduce the risks
                                               of earthquakes and volcanoes

                                         C A N E A RT H Q UA K E S B E P R E D I C TE D ?
                                         • We know that most earthquakes
                                           happen near the edges of plates so
                                           we can use instruments (A) to tell if
                                           anything is happening in these areas.
                                         • When there is movement
                                           underground:
        Emergency planning officer         – gas is sometimes released
        ‘It’s not easy but there are       – water levels change.
        things we can look out for
                                         • Small movements can be picked up
        and do.’
                                           on a seismometer – this might tell us
                                           that an earthquake is on the way.
A heavy weight at
the top stops the
building swaying
as much
                                                                                    A A laser detector

Cross-bracing
means that the                                                            PL ANNING FOR
building can sway                                                         E A RT H Q UA K E S
without collapsing
                                                                          The following measures can reduce the
                                                                          risks from earthquakes:
A broad base
makes the                                                                 • Make sure bridges and roads are
building more                                                               strong enough to withstand
stable                                                                      earthquakes.
                                                                          • Use building materials that don’t burn
                                                                            as easily.
                                                                          • Leave bigger spaces between
                                                                            buildings for emergency vehicles.
Rubber pads
absorb ground
tremors                                                                  ‘The biggest danger in an earthquake
                                                                         is caused by buildings collapsing or
                                                                         catching fire. It is possible to
                                                                         construct buildings that are
                                                                         earthquake proof – The TransAmerica
 B TransAmerica Pyramid, San Francisco                                   Pyramid in San Francisco is a good
                                                                         example of this.’
   20       geography 360° Foundation Book 3
   W H Y I S P R E PA R AT I O N I M P O RTA N T I N A N
   E A RT H Q UA K E Z O N E ?


                                                                 !
                                                       EPAREDur ■AhRED!
                                              BE PRou knowBEe yPREP C oose a safe place to she
                                                               o
                                                          wher
                                                sure y              your hom                  lter in
                                                  e                                                e.
                                           ■ Mak       pital is.
                                               cal hos                         family   ■ Have spa
                                             lo                       in your                      re batteries
                                                          ev eryone                       mobile phon            for your
                                                  e sure           if an
                                           ■ Mak        at to do
                                                                                                      e and a torc
                                                                                                                     h.
                                                 ws wh                                  ■ Prepare a
                                             kno                 es.                                n earthquake
                                                      ake strik               fixed
                                              earthqu               niture is
                                                                                          emergency ki
                                                                                                        t – include fir
                                                          your fur              ver.      materials an                  st-aid
                                                  e sure              topple o
                                           ■ Mak       and  cannot                        might need
                                                                                                       d other things
                                                                                                                         you
                                              to walls                          er in
                                                                       to shelt                        to survive fo
                                                          a fe place                      couple of da               ra
                                                  ose a s                                               ys.
‘Preparation is not just making sure       ■ Cho        e.
                                                       m
that the ambulance, hospital, fire            your ho
and police service know what to do –
it is also about preparing individual
people. This could save your life.’        C Earthquake preparation leaflet


   W H AT A B O U T V O LC A N O E S ?
   Before volcanoes erupt there are often warning signs          If you know an eruption is going to happen, emergency
   including:                                                    plans can be put in place. These might include:
   • small earth tremors                                         • moving people away from danger
   • the side of a volcano begins to bulge or cracks             • setting up emergency shelters with food, water and
     appear                                                         warm clothes
   • small eruptions giving off heat, ash or gas.                • making sure emergency transportation is available.

      Activities
    1 Copy out and complete the following sentences by            3 What things other than first-aid materials might
      adding the correct word from the box below:                   you put in an emergency earthquake kit?
        ______________ is about working out when                  4 Copy out and complete the spider diagram to
        something is going to happen.                               show what might happen before an earthquake
        ______________ is about making sure buildings               strikes.
        are well constructed.
        ______________ is about making sure people
        know what to do if an earthquake strikes.
                                                                                          Warning signs

        PREPARATION         PREDICTION     PLANNING

    2 a) Draw a sketch of the TransAmerica Pyramid (B).
        b) On your sketch write short notes explaining            5 Make up a poster to show how people should
           what has been done to make the building safer.           prepare for an earthquake. Be sure it has:
           (See page 154 of SKILLS in geography.)                      – a clear heading         – a number of points
                                                                       – some drawings and colour to make it attractive.

                                                                       1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes                   21
         What is a tsunami?
                                                    >       Understanding what causes a tsunami
                                                    >       Finding out what can be done to reduce the effects of
                                                            a tsunami

                                                  In Japanese the word ‘tsu’ means wave and ‘nami’ means harbour, so the
                                                  word ‘tsunami’ really means ‘harbour wave’. It was called this because of
         FAC T F I LE                             giant waves hitting the Japanese coast.
The highest recorded wave
created by a tsunami hit Japan                    W H AT C AU S E S A TS U N A M I ?
in 1921 and was just under                        Earthquakes or volcanoes create tsunamis. Sudden movements on the
90 metres high!                                   seabed push water upwards and start a wave. In deep water the wave is
Over 80 per cent of tsunamis                      quite small, but moves very fast – often up to 500 mph. As the wave gets
occur in the Pacific Ocean.                       near to land, it slows down but gets much bigger. It swallows everything in
                                                  its way and can totally destroy coastal areas (source A).

                                                  H O W D O E S A TS U N A M I D E V E LO P ?
                                                                                                                         5 Coastal area flooded as
                                                                                        4 The wave gets                    the wave surges inland.
                                                                                          bigger as water
                                                                                          piles up behind it.
            2 The seabed is moved up
              and down, creating a wave.

                                                    3 As the sea becomes                                   ter
                                                                                                      w wa
                                                      shallower, the wave                      Shallo
                                                      increases in size.
                                                                                                        w   n.
                                                                                                 ave do
                                                                                          s the w
    1 The seabed is                                                               bed slow
      shaken by an                                                         on sea
                                                                  Friction
      earthquake or
      volcano.


      Deep water


A Development of a tsunami
H I S TO R I C TS U N A M I S

          Alaska 1946 1964 1965
                                                             California 1896
                       Japan 1896
                                      Hawaii                        Colombia 1906
                   Philippines 1976


                        Papua New Guinea 1998



                           Indonesia 1938

    Sumatra 2004                               Chile 1960                                             N

0        3000 Kilometres


B Location of historic tsunamis                                                                                  C Devastated coastal area following
                                                                                                                    a tsunami
    22       geography 360° Foundation Book 3
H O W C A N Y O U P R E PA R E
F O R A TS U N A M I ?                                      Keeps a close look                                  Warn people who
                                                            out for earthquakes                                 might be in danger
To help some countries prepare for tsunamis, the
Pacific Tsunami Warning System was set up. This
involves twenty-four countries in the Pacific Ocean
area. It is organised from the island of Hawaii, in                                       so that
                                                                                           it can
the centre of the Pacific Ocean (B).

P L A N N I N G F O R A TS U N A M I
                                                                                                                  Tell governments
In richer parts of the world, such as Japan, coastal         Looks for changes                                      when to move
                                                            in sea level patterns                                 people away from
areas have been changed to help them cope with                                                                      coastal areas
tsunamis. The diagrams in source E show how a
coastal area can be changed so that if a tsunami
occurs, the damage will be much less.                      D Pacific Tsunami Warning System
Without planning                                                                            Area devastated by a tsunami
                                                                                                                           Village
                                                                                       Houses
 Possible height of tsunami wave                                                                       Road


                                                                  Beach
 Normal sea level




With planning                                                                       Planted forest       Houses



 Possible height of tsunami wave                                        Sea wall                                        Raised road


 Normal sea level                                            Beach




E How planning for a tsunami can help avoid disaster
  Activities
 1 Draw a sketch like the following one.                        2 What does the word ‘tsunami’ mean?
                                                                3 What has to happen for a tsunami to start?
                                                                4 Which part of the world gets the most tsunamis?
                                                   water        5 What are the aims of the Pacific Tsunami
                                         Shallow
                                                                  Warning System?
                                                                6 Describe the ways that a coastal area can be
     Deep water
                                                                  changed to reduce the effect of a tsunami.
    Put the words in the box below on your sketch.

       Earthquake         Small waves
       Large waves         Buildings destroyed


                                                                     1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes                    23
      Case study: the Indian Ocean tsunami –
      December 2004
                                                  >       Understanding that an undersea earthquake can affect places
                                                          hundreds of miles away
                                                  >       Finding out about the causes and effects of the Indian Ocean
                                                          tsunami

                                              On the 26 December 2004 one of the strongest earthquakes ever
                                              recorded happened near the coast of north-west Indonesia (photo A). The
                                              underwater earthquake sent huge waves racing across the Indian Ocean
                                              and even reached the coast of East Africa – 4,000 miles away.

A Satellite image showing the                 W H AT C AU S E D T H E TS U N A M I ?
   developing Indian Ocean tsunami


                                                                                 sian
                                                                             Eura te
                                                                              Pla                    N
                                                                n
                                                           ralia
                                                      Aust
                                                 Indo- late
                                                      P
                   1 The Indo-Australian Plate
                     suddenly moved about                                                            2 The resulting earthquake pushed
                     20 metres under the                                                               6 metres of water upwards,
                     Indian Ocean.                                                                     creating a massive wave.
                                                  India                           ys ia
                                                                              Mala
                                                               an   ka
                                                          Sri L                  atra
                                                                             Sum
                             3 As the wave reached
                               the coastline it grew
                               in height.                                             n   esia
                                                                                 Indo



B The cause of the tsunami

                                Epicentre of earthquake
                                                                             0                   1000 Kilometres




                                              W H AT WA S T H E R E S U LT I N CO A S TA L
      FAC T F I LE                            AREAS?
• The tsunami killed over
   300,000 people.
• Over 1 million homes were
   destroyed.
• The waves travelled at over
   400 mph out at sea –
   reducing to 30 mph near
   land.
• The height of the wave was
   between 3 and 9 metres.
                                                 C Tourists fleeing as the tsunami wave approaches

 24      geography 360° Foundation Book 3
Map D shows the immediate effects of the tsunami as massive waves
crashed onto the coastal areas surrounding the Indian Ocean.
India                                                                    Calcutta          Dhaka                         Thailand
Large area of the eastern coast                  I n d i a                                                               Western coast of southern
swamped by waves, particularly the                                                  Bangladesh                           Thailand badly affected,
          Bombay
cities of Madras and Pondicherry.
                                                      Andhra                                           Burma
                                                                                                                         including the holiday resort
Deaths also reported in the Andaman                                                                                      of Phuket and Phi Phi Island.
and Nicobar Islands, and Kerala state.                Pradesh
                                                                             Bay of Bengal                                      Laos
                                                                  Vishakhapatnam                                                        Malaysia
                                                                                                                                        People reported to
 N                                                                                                                                      have been swept
                                                                                                           Rangoon       Thailand       away from beaches
                                        Tamil                                                                                           near the northern
                                        Nadu                                                                                            city of Penang.
                                                      Madras                                         Andaman                  Bangkok
Maldives                                                                                Andaman Is     Sea
High waves and floods                               Pondicherry
                                                                                          (India)
inundate islands.
Two-thirds of the low-lying             Kerala
capital, Male, reported to be                                             INDIAN                                         Gulf of
under water.                                          Trincomalee         OCEAN                                         Thailand
                                                       Mutur                                              Phuket                    Indonesia
                    v e s




                                        Colombo                                                                                     Province of Aceh on
                                                                                           Nicobar Is Phi Phi Island                northern tip of
                                                       Sri                                   (India)                                Sumatra island badly
                                                      Lanka
              l d i




                                                                                                                  Penang            hit, including capital
                            Male                                                            Banda Aceh                              Banda Aceh.
                       3 hours                       2 hours               1 hour                                   M a l a y s i a Dozens of buildings
          M a




                                                                                                                                    destroyed in the initial
                                                                                                                                    earthquake before
                                        Sri Lanka                                                                                   floodwaters washed
                                        Wide stretch of eastern and southern coast                                                  over the region.
                                        devastated by massive waves, and national                                  Sumatra
                                        disaster declared.
                                        Districts of Mutur and Trincomalee apparently      Epicentre of earthquake
 0                     500 Kilometres   inundated by waves as high as 6 metres.            9.6 kilometres below
                                        Part of the capital, Colombo, shut by floods.      seabed 7.59 am local time.       Indonesia

                                                                                                                        D Immediate effects of the tsunami
                                                                                                                                        Source: NI Syndication



     Activities
 1 Copy out the following points in the correct order                               3 Put a title ‘The effects of the tsunami’.
   to explain what caused the tsunami:                                                    Copy out and complete the following table, which
      •   The sea was pushed upwards.                                                     describes some of the effects of the tsunami in
      •   The waves moved towards the land.                                               different countries.
      •   There was a massive earthquake.                                                  Counry                            Effects
      •   Waves were created.
                                                                                           Sri Lanka                         A lot of areas flooded
 2 a) What are the names of the two plates that
      moved, creating the earthquake?                                                                                        A lot of damage

      b) By how much did the plates move?




                                                                                          1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes                        25
     Living through the Indian Ocean tsunami
                                    >    Learning about how it feels to experience a tsunami
                                    >    Understanding that hazards can have both short- and long-
                                         term effects

                                  When the tsunami struck the coastal areas surrounding the Indian Ocean
                                  millions of people were affected, including thousands of holidaymakers
                                  who had gone to the area for a ‘sunshine break’ during the Christmas
                                  holidays. The following resources give an impression of what it was like to
                                  live through the tsunami.



                                   their
Thousands of people were swept to
                                     the
deaths yesterday as a giant wave hit
holiday beaches of south-east Asia
Beach resorts across the      reported a low groaning
area – from Thailand to Sri   noise before the waves
Lanka were ripped apart by    crashed against the build-
a wave of water up to         ings. The waves were so
nine metres high.             powerful that they totally
There was little warning as    destroyed buildings and
the wave of water swept        picked up cars and trucks –
 across the area. People       moving them miles inland.




                                                   As millions of people
                                                                             were going about
                                                   their daily lives, they w
                                                                            ere totally unaware
                                                   of the horrors facing th
                                                                            em
                                                  People were not to kn
                                                                          ow
                                                  that the gentle swaying beaches, many based
                                                  of skyscrapers in Sing      on the fishing industry
                                                                          a- More recently, th          .
                                                  pore was the result of                       e tourist
                                                                         an industry has de
                                                  earthquake which wa                         veloped
                                                                           s with large resorts
                                                 about to bring a wall                             and
                                                                          of holiday homes
                                                 water crashing down                            dotted
                                                                         on along the coas
                                                 their homes.                                t. When
                                                 Towns and villages ha       the wave struck, man
                                                                         ve of these area             y
                                                 grown up near th                            s were
                                                                          e totally destroyed.




26    geography 360° Foundation Book 3
                                                                                                                                         N




                                                                                                                            0           1000 Kilometres
                      INDIA
         ‘We were sitting in our bedroom and
   heard an enormous roar. Seconds later the door
burst open and the room filled up with water. We were                                                         THAILAND
      swept out of the windows, but managed to                                       ‘We were on a diving boat and were thrown around by
             struggle towards higher land                                    the waves. The boat was taken inland by the wave and stuck between
                     – and safety.’                                                two buildings. We climbed to the roof of a hotel. We were
                                                                                                        lucky to survive.’
                                                                           ‘I was just going for a swim in the pool when a giant wave appeared.
                                                                     The wave knocked me down several times – it was very strong. I was hit by trees,
                     I n d i a                                          tables and other things, but managed to struggle to safety. I am covered in
                                                     Burma                     cuts and bruises, but am lucky to be alive – so many people in
                                                                                                the area have lost their lives.’
                                                                                                      P h i l i p p i n e s
                                                              Thailand




                                     I n d i a n

                                      O c e a n
                         Sri
                        Lanka                                       M   a    l   a    y   s   i   a


                                                                                 I        n       d       o      n      e       s   i        a
                                   SRI LANKA
                ‘There was no warning. The first wave crashed through
       the buildings – many of which collapsed. Everything was swept along by
                         the waves – even cars and lorries.’
            ‘The water levels are now going down, leaving a scene of total
                         devastation. Most local people have
                                   lost their homes.’


       A Interviews with British holidaymakers affected by the tsunami

         Activities
       1 What information do the newspaper reports give                              5 Write a short paragraph to describe the experience
         about:                                                                        of holidaymakers in India, Thailand and Sri Lanka.
            – the size of the waves?                                                 6 The following point was made in a radio interview
            – the power of the waves?                                                  by an aid worker:
       2 What happened in Singapore to suggest that an                                    ‘Many people are drinking dirty water and eating
         earthquake had occurred?                                                         food picked up from the streets. They are also
                                                                                          having to sleep in the open.’
       3 Why do a lot of people live on the coast in this
         area?                                                                            What problems might this cause for people in the
                                                                                          next few weeks?
       4 Describe what is happening in the photographs on
         the opposite page.

                                                                                          1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes                  27
       Helping people after a natural disaster
                                                        >     Understanding the importance of aid after a natural disaster
                                                        >     Finding out about the different types of aid needed after a
                                                              natural disaster

                     Provides food                    Provides                                  After a natural disaster poor countries
                       and water                      medicine
                                                                                                often need a lot of help, first to cope
                                                                                                with the disaster and then to rebuild
 Provides doctors                                                                               the damaged areas.
   and nurses
                                         Short-Term                                 SAVES       Immediate problems might include lack
                                        Emergency Aid                               LIVES
  Finds missing                                                                                 of food, clean water or medicines.
     people                                                                                     Once those problems are sorted out,
                                                                                                rebuilding can begin. This might
  Builds emergency                     Provides                      Emergency                  involve rebuilding roads, bridges or
       shelters                      warm clothes                     transport
                                                                                                even whole towns.

                    Rebuilds houses                 Repairs broken                              One way of helping countries is by giving
                                                     water pipes
                                                                                                aid (A). There are two main types of aid:
                                                                                                1    Government aid: this is money
  Increases food
    production                                                                                       given by one government to
                                                                                   IMPROVES
                                        Long-Term Aid                              THE LIVES         another government (B).
                                                                                   OF PEOPLE
   Reconnects                                                                                   2    Voluntary aid: this is money given
    electricity
                                                                                                     by charities like Oxfam, the Red
                                                                                                     Cross/Red Crescent or Christian
                                      Improves                        Improves
   Rebuilds roads                     education                      health care                     Aid. Charities are called Non-
                                                                                                     Governmental Organisations or
                                                                                                     NGOs.
A How aid can help

                                                      H O W D I D A I D H E LP P E O P LE A F F E C TE D BY
                                                      T H E I N D I A N O C E A N TS U N A M I ?

Government aid                                                          The Japane
                                       1500 American                                 se
                                       soldiers and 20                  government
 Japan              £260m                                                              gave
                                       helicopters were                millions of p
 USA                £180m                                                             ounds
                                       sent to the area                – much of w
                                                                                     hich
 UK                 £50m                                              was used to
                                        to help distribute                            supply
 Sweden             £40m                food and water.               food, shelte
                                                                                   r and
                                                                      medical help
 Spain              £35m                                                            .
 China              £31m
                                       Soldiers and heav
 France             £30m                                y
                                       machinery from                                 and
 Taiwan             £26m                                              Doctors, nurses
                                       many countries
                                                                      medical equi pment were
 Australia          £24m              were flown in to                              ea from a
                                                                      sent to the ar
                                      help clear roads                                tries.
 Canada             £17m                                               number of coun
                                      and airports.
B Money given by different
   countries after the tsunami
                                                                      C Aid in action

 28       geography 360° Foundation Book 3
V O LU N TA RY A I D
The following diagram shows some of the help given by
charities after the Indian Ocean tsunami.


     INDIA
     UNICEF – supplying water
     purification tablets; medical
     supplies; blankets
     Action Aid – providing clean
     water; food
     Christian Aid – supplying                 THAILAND
     50,000 emergency packs                    World Vision – supplying 2,000
                                               survival kits; arranging transport
                                               to take injured people to hospital




  SRI LANKA
                                                                                                             E Voluntary aid in action
  World Vision – building temporary
  shelters for 2,000 people
  Oxfam – supplying blankets, clothes,
  food and medical supplies
  Red Cross – supplying cooking stoves
  and water purification tablets; setting up
  a system to reunite families who have
  been separated
                                                            INDONESIA
                                                            World Vision – building shelters for 8,000 people
                                                            Oxfam – sending water tanks and materials to build emergency toilets




D Some of the help given by charities after the tsunami


  Activities
 1 What is meant by:                                                                      4 Copy out and complete the following graph to
    • government aid?                                                                       show the money given by the top five countries.
    • voluntary aid?                                                                                   300

 2 Copy out and complete the spider diagrams to                                                        250
   show how aid can help countries.
                                                                               Aid given (£ million)




                                                                                                       200
      Food/water

                 Short-term aid                                                                        150

                                                                                                       100

                                                                                                       50

                                                                                                        0
                               Long-term aid                                                                    Japan       USA
                                                                                                                                     Country
          Improved healthcare
                                                                                       5 Use Google to look up two of the charities
 3 Describe some of the help given by World Vision                                       mentioned on the internet. For each:
   and the Red Cross after the tsunami.
                                                                                                        • write down the full name/web address
                                                                                                        • describe two aid projects they are involved with.


                                                                                                        1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes       29
          Why do people live in active areas?
                                                      >     Learning that there are advantages to living in active tectonic
                                                            areas
                                                      >     Understanding that people who live in active areas learn to
                                                            adapt to them
CALIFORNIA (USA)                                 Looking at a world map it is easy to see that several of the world’s largest
• Excellent climate for outdoor living           cities, including Tokyo, Mexico City and Los Angeles are in active
                                                 earthquake areas. One reason people live in these areas is that
• Fantastic beaches for leisure
  activities                                     earthquakes and volcanoes don’t happen very often, so they feel that they
                                                 will be safe. Also, if you have always lived in an area and it is where your
• Highly paid jobs
                                                 family and friends are, it is difficult to move away.
• The area is well prepared for
  earthquakes                                    There are lots of reasons why people live in active areas, some of which
                                                 are shown below and in the travel report about Nicaragua.

    Key
          Plate boundaries
                                                                   ICELAND
          Direction of movement                                                                                                              N
                                                                   • Hot underground rocks are used to
                                                                     produce hot water and electricity

JAPAN                                                              • Lots of tourists are attracted to the
                                                                     area, which creates jobs
• Most of the buildings are built to
  cope with earthquakes
• Regular earthquake practices are
  held

                                                                       N o r t h
                                                                     A m e r i c a n                                  E u ra s i a n     P l a t e
                                                                        P l a t e



                                       Pa c i f i c    P l a t e
                     Philippine                                                                                 A f r i c a n
                       Plate                                                                                      P l a t e




                                                                             Nazca         S o u t h
                                                                             Plate       A m e r i c a n
        Indo-Australian Plate                                                                                ITALY
                                                                                            P l a t e
                                                                                                             • Very few people have been hurt by
INDONESIA                                                                                                      erupting volcanoes
• Volcanic soils are very fertile –                                                                          • The soil is good for farming
  excellent for farming
                                                                                                             • Volcanic eruptions produce minerals
                                                      HAWAII
• Volcanic rocks are good building                                                                             and precious stones
  materials                                           • There are regular volcanic eruptions
                                                        but few people are affected
                                                                                                                 A n t a r c t i c   P l a t e
                                                      • Lots of tourists are attracted by the
                                                          scenery – tourism is the main
      0         3000 Kilometres
                                                          industry


    30         geography 360° Foundation Book 3
The following travel report is from a holiday magazine.

                                                                                                             TRAVEL REPORT




    JOURNEY AMONG THE VOLCANOES
                                      erica
  Nicaragua is a country in Central Am                 N
                                   an active
  about the size of England. It is
                                   and giant
  volcanic region of deep valleys
                                                                Gulf
                                     heavy                       of
  waterfalls. The volcanic soil and
                                   green and                   Mexico
  rainfall make the country very
                                   ering plants
  there is a great variety of flow
                                       of                                                                    Caribbean Sea
  and animals. There are a number
                                     ng Cerro
   volcanoes in the country, includi                       Mexico
                                    volcano.
   Negro, Nicaragua’s most active                                        Guatemala H o n d u r a s
                                        gives
   Climbing its cone is hot work, but
                                     ding                                          El
   fantastic views over the surroun                                             Salvador     Nica ragu a
                                      d leads to
   countryside. Further south, a roa
                                      Masaya,
    the edge of the crater of Volcan                                                                 Costa
                                     to ‘shelter                                                     Rica       Panama
    where a sign helpfully tells you
    under your car in the event
                                      e at Cerro
    of an eruption’! The volcanic con                      0           400 Kilometres
                                    guide said
    Negro was formed in 1998; my
                                    the hot ash –
    you can bike, ski, or surf down                                                   for a holiday,
                                                       This small area has everything
    but I chose to walk!                                                                 d quality
                                                       great beaches, a hot climate, goo
                                                                                       tastic scenery
                                                       hotels and the bonus of the fan
                                                       – why not give it a try!




  Activities
 1 What is meant by the term: ‘active area’?                     4 Nicaragua seems an exciting place to go for a
 2 Name three large cities found in ‘active areas’.                holiday.
 3 Copy out and complete the table below by adding                     a) List three reasons why people might visit
   examples from three more countries.                                    Nicaragua.
                                                                       b) Explain why one of your reasons might attract
              Why people live in active areas                             you to Nicaragua.
      Place                   Reason                             5 Explain why tourism is so important in some
                                                                   areas.
      Italy                   Safe area – few people
                              hurt by erupting volcanoes         6 Research task Use an atlas, travel brochures or
                                                                   the internet (see Hotlinks, page ii) to identify
                              Good soil for farming                different tourist locations in volcanic areas.



                                                                       1 Living with earthquakes and volcanoes               31
    Assessing 360°
                                                 Living with earthquakes
                                                 and volcanoes
    Key
                                                 1     The location of earthquakes and volcanoes.
           Earthquakes
                                                       a) Compare the location of earthquakes and volcanoes (A) with the
                                                          position of the earth’s plates (B).
           Volcanoes
                                                       b) Why do earthquakes and volcanoes occur at plate boundaries?

0          6000 Kilometres                                      N        0         6000 Kilometres                                                           N




                                                                                                                           Eurasian Plate

                                                                         Jauan        Nor th         Hellenic
                                                                                     American         Plate
                                                                        de Fuca                           Anatolian
                                                                                                                            Iran
                                                                                                                                 ia
                                                                                                                            Plate n
                                                                                      Plate




                                                                                                                      Ar Pla
                                                                         Plate                             Plate




                                                                                                                        ab te
                                                                                                                          ia
                                                                                         Caribbean                                          Philippine




                                                                                                                             n
                                                                                     Cocos Plate                                              Plate
                                                                                     Plate                                                               Pacific
                                                                         Pacific                                                                          Plate
                                                                          Plate     Nazca South
                                                                                    Plate American     African                        Indo-Australian
                                                                                           Plate        Plate                              Plate


                                                                                                                      Antarctic Plate



A World map showing earthquakes                                         B World map showing plates
     and volcanoes
                                                 2     The effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.


                                     DIA
                EARTHQUAKE STRIKES IN
                                                                                               the city
                                        to recover     were flattened. In villages surrounding
    People in northern India are trying                many farms have been destroye   d. Thousands of
    from the worst earthqu ake in nearly 50 years.                                         cy services
                                        ght to have    people are homeless and emergen
    An estimated 20,000 people are thou            .   are trying to prov ide food, water and medical
             thousands more are injured or missing                                            ase.                     C Indian earthquake –
    died and
                                    j. Whole areas     help. There is a growing threat of dise
    Worst hit was the city of Bhu                                                                                                newspaper report


                                                   Using source C:
                                                   a) Describe the effects of the Indian earthquake.
                                                   b) Why are poor countries often more badly affected by earthquakes?
                                                 3 Reducing the effects of earthquakes and volcanoes.
                                                   a) How could predicting earthquakes and volcanoes help to reduce
                                                      their effects?
                                                   b) List four things you might include in an emergency earthquake kit.
                                                      Explain your choices.
                                                 4 The importance of aid after natural disasters.
                                                   a) What sorts of emergency aid are often helpful immediately after an
                                                      earthquake or volcanic eruption has happened?
                                                   b) After an earthquake poorer countries are often given help to:
                                                      • rebuild homes • repair water pipes • repair roads
                                                   Explain why any one of these is important.


      32        geography 360° Foundation Book 3