Botswana's foot-and-mouth disease and beef trade policy by cgz40019


									                POLICY BRIEFING
    April 08
                Botswana’s foot-and-mouth disease
                and beef trade policy

    The beef industry in southern Africa has been a stalwart of economic development, but new
    conditions of trade, market access and disease dynamics, particularly of foot-and-mouth disease
    (FMD), mean a major rethink is required. Our research addresses key policy options to allow
    southern Africa to benefit from the global ‘livestock revolution’. It explores what options exist
    for trade, given changes in demand patterns, global competition and market access conditions,
    and asks who are the winners and losers of different scenarios for the future.

Background                                restricts, wildlife migratory routes.    issues need to be addressed. But an
                                          In spite of the fences, Botswana         extremely encouraging development
Botswana     has     always   placed      has increasingly suffered sporadic       for producers is the ‘livestock
considerable emphasis on cattle           outbreaks of FMD over last few years,    revolution’ - an exponential increase
production. Livestock production          resulting costly trade interruptions.    in demand for livestock products in
is the major agricultural activity in                                              developing countries, particularly
Botswana, which is one of the few         Opportunities                            Asia and urban Africa, linked to higher
countries in the SADC region to                                                    income and the enormous expansion
achieve the standards of production       As preferential trade agreements are     of cities.
and health required to market beef to     replaced by economic partnership
the EU.                                   agreements that will greatly increase    Therefore     the    exploration    of
                                          competition for the lucrative EU         alternative marketing opportunities,
One of Botswana’s most important          market, a key question is inevitably     and more cost-effective approaches to
achievements has been the successful      raised: are the costs involved in        FMD control, are urgently needed. The
control of foot-and-mouth disease         competing for that market adequately     identification of a variety of options
(FMD), relying on cordon fences to        rewarded?        Certainly     supply-   to enable cattle producers currently
separate cattle from the country’s        side constraints regarding cattle        constrained by FMD regulations to
rich wildlife, which includes the major   productivity, infrastructure and         obtain a better income from their
carrier and transmitter of FMD virus,     Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS)         herds is both necessary and desirable.
African buffalo.

However, implementation of this

system comes at a high cost. The
government has to pay for fence                 The exploration of alternative
maintenance        and      veterinary
surveillance. Farmers whose land            marketing opportunities, and more
lies within the control zone where
                                            cost-effective approaches to FMD control

vaccination against FMD is practised
are severely restricted in marketing        are urgently needed
their cattle and beef. Conservationists
question the use of fencing which
“   Botswana can play a leading role in SADC initiatives
to develop a vibrant, equitable and sustainable livestock industry

in the region

Recommendations                            focuses on the safety of the end-          Further reading
                                           product rather than disease status
As a SADC pioneer in the field of beef     of the geographical area the animal        Mapitse, N. (2008) ‘Botswana’s
export to the highest value markets,       came from.                                 foot-and-mouth disease and beef
Botswana can play a leading role in                                                   trade policy’, Transboundary animal
SADC initiatives to develop a vibrant,     • Cost reduction of disease control and    disease and market access: future
equitable and sustainable livestock        marketing strategies through selective     options for the beef industry in
industry in the region.                    privatisation    and      outsourcing:     southern Africa, Working Paper 3,
                                           producers who profit from marketing        Brighton: Institute of Development
In developing an updated policy            their livestock can be expected to         Studies
to support the marketing of beef           invest in disease control measures
from Botswana, the following will be       that benefit their enterprises, while      Download this paper and others
important:                                 companies that import the products         in the series ‘Veterinary Science,
                                           may be willing to invest in order to       Transboundary Animal Disease and
• A detailed assessment of market          ensure a product that is acceptable to     Market Access: the case of foot-and-
options, particularly for new export       their clients.                             mouth disease in southern Africa’ :
markets in Africa and Asia, where less
exigent standards for importation          • Developing innovative approaches         w w w. s teps- centre .org /
might reduce production costs and          such as compartmentalisation and           ourresearch/vetscience.html
permit new entrants into the market.       commodity-based trade options in
                                           the Botswana context, and building
• Adaptation of disease control            capacity for their implementation.
strategies to fit different market
demands and SPS requirements, apart
from country and zone freedom from
FMD. Options include: freedom with
vaccination;  compartmentalisation
- the creation of biosecure units
(farms or groups of farms) that can
be proven free of specific diseases;
and commodity based trade, which

   Our research                             which options result in the greatest     Julia Day from a paper by Neo
   Through detailed research and            returns, provide benefits to the         Mapitse.
   stakeholder-led      dialogues     in    broadest group of people and will be
   Botswana, Namibia, South Africa          the most sustainable. This project       Contact us
   and Zimbabwe, we have explored           was funded by the Livestock for Life     STEPS Centre,
   scenarios for tackling FMD, relating     programme of the Wellcome Trust          Institute of Development Studies,
   to different market access and           and DFID and was co-ordinated            University of Sussex,
   trade options. We investigated what      by the Institute of Development          Brighton, BN1 9RE, UK
   option, or combination of options,       Studies, UK.                             T: +44 (0)1273 606261
   makes most sense, given the                                                       F: +44 (0)1273 621202
   current context. Different criteria      Credits                                  E:
   are evident, with often clear trade      This briefing was written by Mary-       W:
   offs. The studies sought to uncover      Louise Penrith and edited by

To top