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 Midterm 2 passed back
 Research proposal notes – posted
3 3 09

   Ch 9 = Psychoanalytic, Historical
    – 1. Finish up
   Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic, Modern
    – 2. Therapeutic writing
    – 3. Recovered or false memories?
    – 4. Is child abuse bad for you?
    – 5. Modern view of unconscious
Terror Management Theory (TMT)

   TMT
    – Afraid of own death
    – Repress, defend against such fear
   Defense leads to
    – Investment in worldview (America!)
    – Prejudice against outgroups
    – Inter-ethnic strife, war (your way is wrong)
Terror Management

   How does one show that certain
    behaviors (prejudice, belief in truth,
    culture) are motivated escape from
    death?
Terror Management

   How does one show that certain
    behaviors (prejudice, belief in truth,
    culture) are motivated escape from
    death?
    – Manipulate thoughts of death
    – THEN
    – Assess prejudice, investment in culture,
      etc.
Terror Management
(from Solomon et al., 2000)
 “Americans took longer, and felt more
   uncomfortable (relative to a control group),
   solving a problem that required them to
   use the American flag to sift sand out of
   black dye…and bang a nail into the wall
   with a crucifix”
 Other DVs - prejudice, aggression against
   outgroups, many more
Mortality Salience
   What is Freud-like
    – Unacceptable thoughts
    – Repression + ego defense
       • E.g., belief in cultural world view
    – Health = becoming aware of defense
   What is not Freud-like
    – Not sexual
    – Rather fears of death
    – Many do think Freud too sex-focused
       • Adler, Horney, Jung
Freud’s energy model
   Freud
    – Id = desire, pleasure principle
    – Ego = rationality, reality principle
    – Often in conflict
   Baumeister
    – Id & ego often do conflict…
Baumeister, Tice: Ego Control

   Id versus ego battles
    –   (1) overriding bad habits (e.g., smoking)
    –   (2) making choices (e.g., fajitas or combo 5)
    –   (3) initiating action (e.g., starting paper)
    –   (4) optimal performance (e.g., test concentration)
    –   (5) affect regulation (e.g., trying to calm down)
    –   (6) thought suppression (e.g., you suck!)
    –   (7) impulse control (e.g., dieting)
Baumeister, Tice: Ego Control
   Battles the Ego has lost
    –   Substance abuse, addiction
    –   Crime
    –   Domestic violence
    –   Teen pregnancy
    –   Debt, bankruptcy
    –   Sexually transmitted diseases
    –   Smoking
    –   Obesity
    –   Under-achievement (e.g., bad grades)
Baumeister, Tice: Ego Control

   What is Freud-like
    – Id = to feel good
    – Ego = do what is rational for long term
   What is not Freud-like
    – Not just sex and aggression (e.g., chocolate cake)
    – Desires not necessarily unconscious
    – Anxiety from conflict, not repression
The “Talking” Cure

   Freudian assumptions
    – Anxiety implies repression
    – Of past trauma, unacceptable desires
   Effects of repression
    – Person’s energies divided
    – Health compromised
The “Talking” Cure

   The talking cure
    – To free blocked energy
       • Must face traumatic memories, unacceptable impulses
    – In doing so
       • Assimilation
       • Habituation
       • Can then redirect psychic energy in more useful fashion
The “Talking” Cure

   Do you need a psychoanalyst?
    – What about confiding to a friend?
    – What about simply writing about trauma?
   20 years of research by Pennebaker
The Talking Cure

 H: simply writing about traumas = therapeutic
 Method
    – Random assignment
    – Experimental: write about negative thoughts &
      feelings
    – Control: write about circulatory system, plants of
      world, what you had for breakfast, etc.
The Talking Cure

   Here, data from Pennebaker et al. (1990)
    – 130 college freshman
    – Random assignment
    – 20 minutes of writing alone x 4 days
The Talking Cure

   Experimental
    – “I want you to let go and write about your
      very deepest thoughts and feelings about
      coming to college…leaving your friends or
      parents…roommates, classes, or thoughts
      about your future…The important thing is
      that you really let go and dig down to your
      very deepest emotions”
The Talking Cure

   What are short-term effects of writing?
    –   Not good
    –   Anxiety, depression
    –   Somatic arousal
    –   More homesickness
    –   More loneliness
The Talking Cure

   What are long-term effects of writing?
    – Good
    – Physical health
       • Fewer visits to health center
       • Effect lasts up to 4 months after study
The Talking Cure
   Long-term effects, other studies
    –   Immune function (e.g., # of free-floating NK cells)
    –   Stress hormones (e.g., cortisol in blood stream)
    –   Lower blood pressure
    –   Improved liver function
The Talking Cure

   Negative affect, symptoms

                            control



                       trauma


             time
The Talking Cure

 Conclusions
 1. Like Freud
    – Repressing negative memories, thoughts
    – Produces psychosomatic symptoms
    – Uncovering such thoughts improves health
   2. Unlike Freud
    – Not so much catharsis
    – As increased perspective on problems

    – Controversy of recovered memories…
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Holly Ramona
    – 23 year old bulimic
   Counselor Marche Isabella
    – “Condition often results from sexual abuse”
    – Recovering such memories
        • Sodium amytal, repeated questioning
   Subsequently, Holly “recovers” memories
    – being raped as a child, 5-8
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Gary Ramona
    – A successful business executive
    – Subsequent to allegations
       •   Loses wife
       •   Loses daughter
       •   Loses job
       •   Reputation irreparably damaged
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Gary Ramona
    – Sues therapist
       • Negligence, malpractice
       • Recovered memories actually “implanted”
    – Trial, 7 weeks
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Gary Ramona
    – Loftus, an expert witness
       • “there is no support that you can be repeatedly
         raped…over a period of years and totally forget about it”
    – Martin Orne, another expert witness
       • Sodium amytal
       • Results in untrustworthy recall
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Gary Ramona case
    – Gary awarded $475,000 in damages
    – A warning to psychotherapists
      • using such therapy procedures
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Do psychoanalysts contribute to false
    memories of abuse?
    – Yes
    – Logic: neurotic problems = sexual abuse
   Signs of sexually abuse (Courage to Heal)
    – Low self-esteem
    – Depression
    – Sexual dysfunction

    – Yes, but…?
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Is hypnosis a problematic basis for
    “recovering” memories?
    – Yes
    – Hypnosis
       • Does not actually improve memory accuracy
       • Does make people more suggestible
       • Can lead to imagining prior abuse
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Can false memories be implanted?
    – Yes
    – Loftus’ 30 years of research
       • Stop sign
       • Lost in a shopping mall
       • Shook hands with Bugs Bunny
    – Memories can be implanted after the fact
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Balance
    – Child abuse = common
    – 903,000 USA children maltreated in a given year
       •   54% neglect
       •   23% physical abuse
       •   12% sexual abuse
       •   5.5% psychological abuse, medical neglect
    – In given year
       • 1,100 die from abuse and neglect
       • Most children < 5

       • Children are abused, but adversely affected?...
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Is child abuse bad for you, though?
    – Rind et al. (1998) meta-analysis of effects
    – 59 studies
    – Abuse had very small effect on long-term WB
   Many people outraged
    – Not at the science
    – But at conclusions
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Some motivated interests
    – (1) psychoanalysts
       • Abuse is necessarily destructive
    – (2) pedophilia organizations
       • Cited Rind et al – not bad for children
    – (3) US Congress
       • Resolution condemning Rind et al (1998)
       • Passed unanimously
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Is child abuse bad for you?
    – science responds
   1. Sample
    – Rind et al - college samples
    – Perhaps other abused people
       • Never made it to college
   2. Reality?
    – SR ≠ actual abuse

    – Contemporary views of unconscious…
Ch 10 = Psychoanalytic
Approaches: Modern
   Contemporary views of unconscious
    – Important
       • Not Freud’s seething cauldron of lust and hate
    – Rather
       • Operates by priming, association
       • 100s of social psychology studies…
Priming Effects in Social
Psychology
   Priming = make certain info more
    “accessible”
    – People will act consistently with it
    – Even if not aware of this influence
   Findings…
Priming Effects in Social
Psychology
   1) Carver et al. (1983)
    – Incidental hostility priming
    – Subsequently gave more shocks
   2) Bargh et al. (1996)
    – Incidental hostility priming
    – Subsequently interrupted experimenter more often
Conception to Action

   3) Macrae and Johnson (1998)
    – Incidental altruism priming
    – Helping in staged pencil spill incident
   4) Epley and Gilovich (1999)
    – Incidental priming of conformity concepts
    – More likely to agree with confederate
Conception to Action
   5) Bargh et al. (1996)
    – Elderly primes (bingo, Florida)
    – Walking slowly out of lab
   6) Arts & Dijksterhuis (2001)
    – Priming speed through animal concepts (cheetah
      vs. snail)
    – Walking slowly out of the lab
Conception to Action

   7) Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg (2000)
    – Priming politician stereotype
    – Wrote longer essays
   8) Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg (1998)
    – Priming professors or soccer hooligans
    – Trivial pursuit
    – Did better if professor primed
Conception to Action

   Not just controllable behaviors
    – Aggression, walking = controllable
    – Intelligence = not controllable
   Can we use such principles?
    – Math test = think about Asians for a while
    – Verbal test = think about women
    – Being more assertive = think about men

				
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