Title Slaves arrive in Jamestown cause and effect by hzp22842


									Title: Slaves Arrive in Jamestown: A Cause and Effect Lesson

Historical Background: In the summer of 1619 two significant changes occurred in Jamestown that
would have lasting influence. One was the company's introduction of representative government to
English America, which began on July 30 with the opening of the General Assembly.

The second far-reaching development was the arrival in the colony (in August) of the first Africans in
English America. They had been carried on a Portuguese slave ship sailing from Angola to Veracruz,
Mexico. While the Portuguese ship was sailing through the West Indies, it was attacked by a Dutch man-
of-war and an English ship out of Jamestown. The two attacking ships captured about 50 slaves—men,
women, and children—and brought them to outposts of Jamestown. More than 20 of the African captives
were purchased there. Records concerning the lives and status of these first African Americans are very
limited. It can be assumed that they were put to work on the tobacco harvest, very difficult and arduous
work. The arrival of the first slaves in America would lead to economic success for the agrarian south
and a peculiar social system that would include slaves at the bottom. The long reaching effects of the
importation of these first slaves are many and varied but it ultimately culminates in the Civil War that
divides a young United States of America.
"Jamestown Colony." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 16 Aug. 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-

Correlation to New York State 7/8 Social Studies Core Curriculum:
       Unit Two: European Exploration and Colonization of the Americas
               I. European Exploration and Settlement
               III. Life in Colonial Communities

Suggested Timeframe: 35-40 minutes

Materials and Resources:
     •    Examples of Possible Student Responses on Chart
     •    Chart paper and markers

Student Objectives: Students will be able to:
   • Investigate the causes and prior causes for the institution of slavery in the Colonies, beginning in
   • Understand the concept of historical causality
   • Hypothesize the effects and subsequent effects of the importation of slaves to the Jamestown
       colony in 1619.
   • Formulate a conclusion as to the impact the importation of slaves in 1619 had on our country.

Teaching Strategies, Procedures, and Methodologies:
   1. This lesson will utilize a cause and effect model to lead 7th or 8th grade students through an
       investigation of a seminal event in early colonial history; the arrival of twenty black slaves to the
       Jamestown colony in 1619. Students will review what they know about the event and then
       hypothesize about causes and effects and prior causes and subsequent effects. Ultimately they
       will draw a conclusion and arrive at a generalization of how this incident affected the course of
       American history. Ideally, this lesson should be used after the students have covered the colonial
       period and reached the start of the Civil War. The possession of content knowledge will allow
       students answers and their discussion to go to a deeper level of complexity. The teacher will
       facilitate by asking questions and follow-up questions but not offering answers.
 2.    The teacher will begin the “cause and effect” lesson by presenting the topic to be analyzed. In
      this case it is the event: Slaves Arrive in Jamestown. The teacher will write the topic in the center
      of the chart on the chalkboard. (See template for chart below).

      4                    2                      1                     3                    5
Prior Causes             Causes                 Topic                Effects            Subsequent

 3. Students will be put in groups. Groups may be as large as 4 students, but keeping the groups
    small allows for greater participation from its members. Each group will receive a piece of
    newsprint paper and a magic marker. Before they begin, each group will select one person to
    record answers.

 4. The group will be instructed to divide the newsprint vertically into 5 equal columns. The column
    in the center should be labeled, Slaves Arrive in Jamestown, the title of the topic to be analyzed.
    The title of the other columns will be “causes”, “effects”, “prior causes”, and “subsequent
    effects.” The teacher’s chart on the chalkboard should provide a template for the students to set
    up their own charts.

 5. Students should begin with the column labeled “Causes.” Group members should all contribute
    in listing as many causes/reasons for the importation of slaves to Jamestown as they can think of.
    The group recorder writes down all answers the group agrees upon. The groups should be given
    3-4 minutes to think of all possible answers.

 6. Without reporting out, the groups will move to the column labeled “Effects.” The teacher will
    ask groups to now list all effects the arrival of in Jamestown in 1619 had upon Colonial America.
    Before students begin, the teacher should focus student thinking by stating the question “What are
    some things that happened as a result of the arrival of slaves to the Jamestown colony?” The
    students should have 3-4 minutes to come up with their answers.

 7. After the student groups have completed the “cause” and “effect” sections of the chart, they
    should move next to the “Prior Causes” and “Subsequent Effects” sections, beginning with prior
    causes. The students should take each cause and attempt to come up with a “cause for those
    causes.” For example, if the students stated a cause for the arrival of slaves to Jamestown as
    “gold and silver were scarce in Virginia”, students should describe the role “ gold and silver”
    played in Jamestown. Students might answer the question, “Why were gold and silver were
    desired by the inhabitants of the Jamestown colony?” Each group should think list as many prior
    causes as they can. Groups will have 3-4 minutes to come up with their answers. Each group
    will then move to the far right of their chart and list answers for subsequent effects. Again, they
    are to take each effect separately and list what were the effects of each effect listed. Students will
    have 3-4 minutes to finish the chart. Time allowed for steps 2 through 7 should be approximately
    20 minutes.
    8. Next, the teacher will ask the groups to report out. Using the chart on the board, the teacher will
       begin to list the results from the student groups, beginning with “causes”. Each group should
       offer at least one answer for each column. After each response, the teacher should ask students to
       support their thinking. It is not necessary to write the support on the chalkboard, but it is
       important for students to substantiate their thinking.

    9. The rest of the columns will then be filled-in, going in the same order as they were answered by
       the students in their groups. Time allowed for steps 8 and 9 should be approximately 10 minutes.

    10. Students should now be ready to formulate conclusions from the activity. Ask the groups to turn
        their charts over to the back of the newsprint. They should label the top section “Conclusion”.
        Students will be asked to draw a conclusion regarding the event. The teacher should ask the
        students to respond to the following question: “Thinking about the arrival of slaves in Jamestown
        in 1619, what impact did the arrival of slaves in America have upon our country?” Student
        groups should be given 4-5 minutes to come up with a conclusion and then write it down on the
        newsprint. After, each group should read their conclusion to the rest of the class. The teacher
        can ask follow-up questions. As an alternative, each group can select a member to go the
        chalkboard and write their conclusions on the board. Afterward, the teacher can read the
        conclusions to the class and ask follow-up questions. Time allowed for this final step should be
        5-10 minutes.

During the lesson, teacher should provide feedback to the groups as well as individuals. The teacher
should focus not only on the quality of the answers (such as originality and thoughtfulness), but the
behavior of the students as well. Focus on the constructiveness of the discussions within the groups, the
ability or non-ability for students to listen to their classmates. Comment on how they disagreed with each
other and the flexibility they showed. Lastly, remark on their manners in working within the group.

After the lesson, the teacher may collect the newsprint charts and derive an effort grade based on the work

About the Author:
Fred J. Saccocio, Jr. teaches 8th grade social studies at Draper Middle School in Rotterdam, NY.
             Examples of Possible Student Responses on Chart

       4                2                    1                 3                    5
Prior Causes          Causes              Topic             Effects            Subsequent
   Portuguese had    Indentured         Slaves arrive in   Slave laws of
   already begun     Servants only      Jamestown          Jamestown            Institutionalized
   slave trade       available for 4-                                           slavery is
                     7 years                               Tobacco              established
   Slaves in the                                           profitable as        (slavery
   West Indies       Magna Carta                           cash crop            recognized in
                     protects rights                                            Virginia in
   English desire    of                                    Social               1661)
   for profit in     “Englishmen”                          hierarchy
   New World                                               established in      Slavery grows in
                     Africans not                          Jamestown           the southern
   English           likely to escape                      colony with         colonies
   jealousy of the   (unfamiliar                           black slaves at
   Spanish wealth    with territory)                       bottom              Other cash crops
                                                                               follow tobacco
   English           Need for labor                        1st slaves arrive
   “gentlemen”       in the tobacco                        in 1619             “Sectionalism”
   dislike for       fields                                                    emerges
   work                                                    Slave
                     Native                                rebellions          Controversy
   English           Americans can                                             emerges over
   merchants seek    easily escape                                             slavery during
   Charters for      captivity                                                 Revolutionary
   settlement in                                                               period and
   the New World     “Black” or                                                Constitutional
                     black skin                                                Convention
                     represents evil
                     to many people                                            Abolitionist
                     of this period                                            movement
                     Easy to spot a
                     black person                                              The Civil War
                     upon escape
                     Gold and silver                                           Amendments 13,
                     scarce at                                                 14, 15

                     John Rolfe
                     brings tobacco
                     cultivation to

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