• And if your son asks you in
the future, saying, What are
the testaments and the
statutes, and the judgments
that the L-rd our God
commanded of you? You will
say to your son, We were
slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt;
and the L-rd brought us out of
Egypt with a mighty hand.
The L-rd gave signs and
wonders, great and harmful,
against Egypt, against
Pharaoh, and against all his
household, before our eyes.
And he brought us out of there
http://kosher4passover.com/ to bring us in to give us the
land that he promised our
• The Seder is considered an
integral aspect of Jewish faith
• The Passover seder recounts
liberation and the Exodus of
the Children of Israel from
bondage to slavery in Ancient
• The text of seder proper is
contained in a small booklet
called a Haggadah.
• Explains that without the Exodus, the Jews would still
be slaves to the Egyptian Pharaoh and would never have
realized their role as a nation
• It is considered a mitzvah to embellish one's retelling of the
Exodus on this night. Often the Seder lasts into the wee
hours of the morning, as participants continue to talk about
the events of the night and sing special Passover songs
included in the Haggadah
• Unlike other public holiday observances which are traditionally held
in the synagogue, the Seder is specifically designed to be conducted
by a family at home, with or without guests.
• This focus is derived from the opening words of the Torah verse
which is the source for the mitzvah of retelling the Exodus from
"And you shall tell it to your son on that day, saying, 'Because of
this God did for me when He took me out of Egypt" (Exodus 13:8).
• On the evening before Passover,
Jews search their house and all of
its surroundings for all leavened
bread or CHAMETZ (like bread,
cookies, pretzels etc.)
• The next day the chametz is
• The first born must fast on the day
• FASTING does not occur if you
are too young to fast or health
Traditional Passover Seder
foods have deep meaning…
• The Passover Seder Plate
(ke'ara) is a special plate
containing six symbolic foods
used during the Passover Seder
• Each of the six items arranged
on the plate have special
significance to the retelling of
the story of the Exodus from
• The seventh symbolic item used
during the meal—a stack of
three matzot—is placed on its
own plate on the Seder table.
Maror and Chazeret: two types of bitter herbs, symbolizing the bitterness and
harshness of the slavery which the Jews endured in Ancient Egypt.
1) For maror, most people use freshly grated horseradish combined with cooked
beets and sugar into a dish called chrain, or whole horseradish root.
2) Chazeret is typically romaine lettuce, whose roots are bitter-tasting. Either the
horseradish or romaine lettuce may be eaten in fulfillment of the mitzvah of
eating bitter herbs during the Seder.
3) Charoset; A sweet, brown, pebbly mixture, representing the mortar used by the Jewish
slaves to build the storehouses of Egypt. Also a mixture of apples, nuts, wine, and
cinnamon, as a reminder of the mortar used by the Jews in the construction of buildings as
4) Karpas; A vegetable other than bitter herbs, such as parsley, celery or cooked potato,
which is dipped into salt water at the beginning of the Seder. This represents hope and
redemption; served with a bowl of salted water to represent the tears shed.
• 5) Z'roa or Zeroah; A roasted lamb
shank bone, symbolizing the korban
Pesach (Pesach sacrifice), which was a
lamb offered in the Temple in Jerusalem,
then roasted and eaten as part of the
meal on Seder night.
• 6) Beitzah: a roasted egg, as a symbol
of life and the perpetuation of existence.
• 7) Matzoh: Three unleavened matzohs
are placed within the folds of a napkin as
a reminder of the haste with which the
Israelites fled Egypt, leaving no time for
dough to rise. Two are consumed during
the service, and one (the Aftkomen), is
spirited away and hidden during the
ceremony to be later found as a prize.
• Wine: four glasses of wine are consumed
during the service to represent the four-
fold promise of redemption, with a special
glass left for Elijah the prophet.
1. Kadeish (blessings and the first cup of wine)
• Kadeish is Hebrew Imperative for Kiddush. This Kiddush is a special one for
Passover, it refers to matzo and the Exodus from Egypt. Acting in a way that
shows freedom and majesty, most Jews have the custom of filling each other's
cups at the Seder table. The Kiddush is normally said by the father of the
2. Ur'chatz (wash hands)
• In traditional Jewish homes, it is common to ritually
wash the hands before a meal. Wash your hands by
pouring water first on your right hand three times then
on your left hand.
3. Karpas (appetizer)
• Each participant dips a vegetable (parsely, onion, potato) into salt water as a
reminder of the tears shed by their enslaved ancestors. Parsley is good to use
because when you shake off the salt water, it looks like tears.
• The following blessing is said: “Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the
Universe, Who creates the Fruit of the Land”
4. Yachatz (breaking of the middle
• The middle of the three matzot on the
Seder Plate is broken in two. The larger
half is hidden, to be used later as the
afikoman, the "dessert" after the meal.
The smaller half is returned to its place
between the other two matzos.
5. Magid (The telling of the story)
• The story of Passover, and the change
from slavery to freedom is told. The
youngest person asks the Four Questions
(a set of questions about the proceedings
designed to encourage participation in
the seder. The Four Questions are often
(The Four Questions)
Question 1) Why is it that on all other nights during the year we eat
either bread or matzo, but on this night we eat only matzo?
• Answer: Matzoh reminds us that when the Jews left the slavery of
Egypt they had no time to bake their bread. They took the raw dough
on their journey and baked it in the hot desert sun into hard crackers
Question 2) Why is it that on all other nights we eat all kinds of herbs,
but on this night we eat bitter herbs?
• Answer: Maror reminds us of the bitter and cruel way the Pharaoh
treated the Jewish people when they were slaves in Egypt
Question 3) Why is it that on all other nights we do not
dip our herbs even once, but on this night we dip them
• Answer: We dip bitter herbs into Charoset to remind us
how hard the Jewish slaves worked in Egypt. The
chopped apples and nuts look like the clay used to make
the bricks used in building the Pharaoh's buildings
We dip parsley into salt water. The parsley reminds us
that spring is here and new life will grow. The salt water
reminds us of the tears of the Jewish slaves
Question 4) Why is it that on all other nights we sit
straight or leaning, but on this night we are all
• Answer: We lean on a pillow to be comfortable and to
remind us that once we were slaves, but now we are free
(telling of story continued…)
6. Four verses in Deuteronomy (26:5-8) are then expounded. This telling
describes the slavery of the Jewish people and their miraculous salvation by
God. This culminates in an enumeration of the Ten Plagues, which are
• Dam (blood)—All the water was changed to blood
• Tzefardeyah (frogs)—An infestation of frogs sprang up in Egypt
• Kinim (lice)—The Egyptians were afflicted by lice
• Arov (wild animals)—An infestation of wild animals (some say flies) sprang up
• Dever (pestilence)—A plague killed off the Egyptian livestock
• Sh'chin (boils)—An epidemic of boils afflicted the Egyptians
• Barad (hail)—Hail rained from the sky
• Arbeh (locusts)—Locusts swarmed over Egypt
• Choshech (darkness)—Egypt was covered in darkness
• Makkat Bechorot (killing of the first-born)—All the first-born sons of the
Egyptians were slain by God
Go and Learn…
the Magid (continued…)
• With the recital of the Ten Plagues, each participant
removes a drop of wine from his or her cup using a
fingertip. Although this night is one of salvation, the
Sages explain that one cannot be completely joyous
when some of God's creatures had to suffer.
• At this part in the Seder, songs of praise are sung,
including the song Dayeinu, SONG which proclaims that
had God performed any single one of the many deeds
performed for the Jewish people, it would have been
enough to obligate us to give thanks to Him.
• Kos Sheini (Second Cup of Wine): Magid concludes
with the drinking of the Second Cup of Wine.
• 7. Rachtzah (ritual washing of
• The ritual hand-washing is repeated,
this time with the traditional blessing
before breaking bread. Wash hands
three times on the right and three
times on the left, this time with a
‖Blessed are You, Lord our God,
King of the universe, who has
sanctified us with His
commandments, and commanded
us to wash our hands.‖
8. Motzi Matzo (blessings over the matzo)
• Lifting all three matzot, we recite the regular blessing
for bread, then release the bottom matzo and recite
the special blessing for the mitzvah of matzo. We then
eat a portion of matzo from the top two matzot while
leaning. (We can add more from other matzot as
necessary for all the people at the table but we leave
the third matzah for the Korech.)
Blessing #1: ”Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of
the universe Who brings forth bread from the earth”
Blessing #2: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of
the universe, who has sanctified us with His
commandments, and commanded us concerneing the
eating of Matzah.
9. Maror (bitter herb)
• Bitter herbs (parsley or lettuce) are dipped into charoset (horseradish) which
symbolizes the bitterness of slavery, then the charoset (mixture of apples,
nuts, cinnamon and wine) which symbolizes the mortor used by Jews in
building during former slavery.
Blessing: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe, who has
sanctified us with his Commandments, and commanded us concerning the
eating of maror.
10. Koreich (sandwich)
• The matzo and maror are combined, similar to a sandwich, and eaten. This
follows the tradition of Hillel, who did the same at his Seder table 2000
years ago. Break off two pieces of matzoh, put lettuce, bitter herbs in
between, recite a special prayer and eat while reclining slightly on left side.
11. Shulchan Orech (the meal [literally, "set table"])
• The festive meal is eaten. Common- roast chicken or turkey
12. Tzafun (eating of the afikoman)
• The afikoman, which was hidden earlier in the Seder, is
the last morsel of food eaten by participants in the Seder.
This actually means “dessert”. That is the piece of matzah
that was hidden at beginning! That will be the last thing
eaten till next morning
• After the consumption of the afikoman, no other food may
be eaten for the rest of the night. We also may not drink any
intoxicating beverage, with the exception of the remaining
two cups of wine.
13. Bareich (Grace after Meals & 3rd cup of wine)
• The recital of Birkat Hamazon. “We thank God for the
• Kos Shlishi (the Third Cup of Wine): The drinking
of the Third Cup of Wine.
Kos shel Eliyahu ha-Navi (cup of ELIJAH the Prophet)
• The front door of the house is opened and three verse are recited,
two from Psalms (79:6-7) and one from Lamentations (3:66).
• Traditionally, Elijah the Prophet visits each home on Seder night
as a foreshadowing of his future arrival at the end of the days,
when he will come to announce the coming of the JEWISH
Hallel: songs of praise & 4th cup of wine
• The entire order of Hallel which is usually recited in the
synagogue on Jewish holidays is also recited at the Seder table,
albeit sitting down. Afterwards the Fourth Cup of Wine is drunk.
• Nirtzah: The Seder concludes with a prayer that the night's
service be accepted. A hope for the Messiah is expressed:
"L'shanah haba'ah b'Yerushalayim! – ―Next year in Jerusalem!"
What are all the items on the plate? What do
What was most interesting about the Seder
Why is the Seder Feast so significant to