Sample Proposals for Youth Project

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					   VYTP
 Virginia Youth
Tobacco Project

Securing the health
of Virginia’s youth
 through science
             VYTP
       Virginia Youth
      Tobacco Project

                 Report to
The Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation
              Board of Trustees
            Research Committee
               18 March 2003
VIRGINIA YOUTH
TOBACCO PROJECT




   COALITION BUILDING



                  Robert L. Balster, PhD
Goals

 Build statewide trans-disciplinary
  program of research on causes and
  prevention of youth tobacco use
 Attract faculty scholars to work on
  problems of youth smoking
 Use VTSF funding as base for attracting
  additional outside funding for youth
  tobacco research in Virginia
Implementation Methods
 Solicited input from members of the
  Virginia Research Consortium (VPRs)
 Utilized our knowledge of tobacco experts
  in Virginia
 Identified a contact individual at each
  institution to be included in the first round
 Obtained proposals from these project PIs
 Funded four subcontracts in August 2002
 Hired project director (Randy Koch) in
  February 2003
VYTP Coalition:
Current Components

 GMU (Robert Smith, PI)
 JMU (Steve Evans, PI)
 UVA (Richard Bonnie, PI)
 Virginia Tech (Peggy Meszaros, PI)
 VCU (Roy Pickens and Bob Balster, PIs)
GMU Component: Robert Smith, PI
Animal Model of Adolescent Nicotine Effects

 Does peri-adolescent nicotine exposure
  cause lasting cognitive changes?
 Does peri-adolescent nicotine contribute
  to increased effort to self administer
  cocaine?
 How does peri-adolescent nicotine affect
  gene expression, evaluating all genes?
  Received separate funding from VTSF
  JMU Component: Steven Evans, PI
  Tobacco Prevention Research Center

 Subcontract with VCU supports three separate projects
  that address risk factors and develop interventions for
  preventing and stopping tobacco use
    Youth with ADHD (Steven Evans)
    Dieting behavior & weight concerns among adolescents
     (Monica Reiss-Bergan)
    Smoking cessation using alternative and complimentary
     health practices (Cheryl Talley & Charles Lockett)
 Also received separate funding from VTSF for clinical trial
  work
UVA Component: Richard Bonnie, PI
Youth-Centered Tobacco Policy Research

 Assembled investigative team
     Richard Bonnie - health policy and ethics
     Michael Moore – health economics
     Pam Kulbock – adolescent health
     Marian Moore – marketing and communications
     Gerald Clore – social psychology
     Victor Bovbjerg – epidemiology
     Ruth Gaare Bernheim – policy studies
 Established bi-weekly tobacco research
  colloquium
UVA Component
Youth-Centered Tobacco Policy Research

 Projects Underway
   Econometric studies of effects of policy
    interventions on dynamics of youth
    smoking and on low birthweight
   Study of deterrent effect of youth access
    restrictions and their enforcement on
    retailers
   Analysis of NAAG MSA Enforcement
UVA Component
Youth-Centered Tobacco Policy Research

 Projects in conception and development
   Emotional reactions to tobacco advertising and
    counter-advertising
   Relationship between attributions and cessation
    outcomes
   Effects of threatened sanctions for underage
    tobacco and alcohol use
   Conceptual and operational development of
    policy-relevant influences on non-smoking
    behavior by young teens
Virginia Tech Component:
Peggy Meszaros, PI
Adolescent Female Smoking

 Secondary analysis of data on Virginia
  youth from two surveys
 Identify risk and protective factors
 Evaluate quitting strategies for female
  smokers
 Disseminate information on effective
  interventions
 VIRGINIA YOUTH
 TOBACCO PROJECT




      INTEGRATED
RESEARCH AND EVALUATION
         AT VCU
                   Roy W. Pickens, PhD
Susceptibility to Nicotine Dependence:
A Complex Developmental Process

 Varies with inherited characteristics of
  individuals
 Varies with the age of users
 Depends to some extent on
  environmental influences, from
  parents, peers, and the media
 Manifested in various stages of use
  behavior
                     Stages of Development in Adolescent
                     Smoking Behavior: Points of Focus for
                     Research and Intervention

                                               Stage 1        Stage 2       Stage 3       Stage 4       Stage 5
Adolescents/Stage*
                     Relative Numbers of




                                            CONTEMPLATING      TRYING

                                                                          EXPERIMENTING

                                                                                            USING
                                                                                          REGULARLY       USING
                                                                                                         HEAVILY




                                                         Increasing Risk of Nicotine Dependency


                                           * Estimates, based on CDC, “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among High
                                           School Students – United States, 1991-2001,” MMRW 51(19).
Current VCU Research
Project Themes
 Genetic Influence over Tobacco Use in
  Adolescents
 How These Genetic Influences are
  Expressed in Nicotine Pharmacology
 Clinical Trials in Preventing Adolescents’
  Initial Tobacco Use from Progressing to
  Nicotine Dependency
 Evaluation of Community- and School-
  Based Youth Anti-Tobacco Programs
   Smoking is Highly Heritable
  Non-shared Environment
              14%
                                   Shared
                              Environment
                                     38%

Shared 26%                                                   Genes
Environment                  60%
                                                             62%
                            Genes

                                        0%
                                       Non-shared Environment



        Smoking Initiation           Smoking Persistence

       Data presented include females only; males similar.
Approaches to the Study of Genetic
Influence over Tobacco Use and
Nicotine Dependency
 Genetic Epidemiology: twin studies to determine
  the role of genetic and environmental influences
  at each stage of tobacco use
 Gene Mapping: the use of epidemiological data to
  identify suspect chromosomal regions
 Candidate Gene Studies: identification of genes in
  these chromosomal regions suspected to be
  associated with tobacco use
 Gene Activation Studies: laboratory investigation
  of gene expression using animal models
Project 1. Genetic Epidemiology:
Genetic Factors in the Transition
Through Smoking Stages
 Donna Miles, PhD (PI)
 Roy Pickens, PhD
 Lindon Eaves, PhD DSc
 Judy Silberg, PhD
Goals
 Examine genetic and environmental
  factors that play a role in the
  transition between smoking stages
 Identify common (shared) and unique
  genetic and environmental influences
  at each stage of smoking
Twin Research
Longitudinal Twin Study

 At VCU we maintain large twin registries,
  under the management of the Mid-Atlantic
  Twin Registry (MATR)
 We are now conducting an adolescent
  behavioral-development study on 1412
  twin pairs
 Subjects first interviewed in adolescence
  (ages 8-16 years old)
 Currently re-interviewing these twins, who
  are now in young adulthood (ages 20-28
  years)
Longitudinal Twin Study:
Progress to Date
 Secured MATR approval
 Secured IRB approval
 Obtained NIH Certificate of Confidentiality
 Developed telephone interview, which uses
  Optiscan technology
 Completed hiring and training telephone
  interviewers
 Conducted preliminary data analysis on
  adolescent sample
Tobacco Use among Twins
                        ever smoked                       current smoker
# twins
   900
   800
   700
   600
   500
   400
   300
   200
   100
     0
                                                                                                  ages
          8
              9
                  10
                       11
                            12
                                 13
                                      14
                                           15
                                                16
                                                     20
                                                          21
                                                               22
                                                                    23
                                                                         24
                                                                              25
                                                                                   26
                                                                                        27
                                                                                             28
                       Wave I                         Current study
                  (completed)                             (expected)
Future Directions in Twin Research
at VCU
 December 2002, submitted NIH grant
  application entitled “Child Psychopathology-
  Adult SUD Longitudinal Twin Study”
 Extends work begun with VTSF funding
 Based on methods used in VTSF-funded
  project
 4 year project
 Total cost, $2,003,614
Project 2. Gene Mapping and the Search
for Candidate Genes: What gene groups
are involved in nicotine dependence?

 Kenneth Kendler, MD (PI)
 Xiangning Chen, PhD
Goals
 Identify genetic loci related to
  adolescent tobacco use, through gene
  association studies
 Investigators have previously
  identified chromosomal regions
  associated with tobacco use in adults
 Are these same regions associated
  with smoking initiation and
  dependence in adolescents?
Genome Scan of Adult Smokers
Progress in Genetic Mapping and
Candidate Gene Project
 Completed analysis of about 2/3 of
  chromosomal data from samples of
  adolescents in Christchurch, New Zealand
  and Richmond, Virginia
 Identified several candidate genes that may
  be involved in susceptibility to tobacco-use
  initiation and nicotine dependency
 Established collaboration with researchers
  in pharmacology to analyze candidate gene
  expression in laboratory animals
Project 3. Gene Expression in
Adolescents
 Billy Martin, PhD (PI)
 Imad Damaj, PhD
 Michael Miles, PhD
 Jenny Wiley, PhD
Goal

 Determine the mechanisms by which
  gene expression influences
  adolescent susceptibility to nicotine
Nicotine Sensitivity, Dependence,
and Metabolism in Adolescent Mice


              Genetic Influences



  Acute                              Metabolism &
Sensitivity                        Pharmacokinetics


                Tolerance &
                Dependence
Models for Acute Sensitivity
to Nicotine

                                         In Vivo
         In Vitro                        Effects
         Effects
                                          Body Temperature
                            Locomotor
                              Activity     Analgesia

3H-Nicotine     3H-MLA
                             Seizures     Anxiolytic Effect
  Binding:      Binding:
α4β2 Subtype   α7 Subtype      Nicotinic Antagonists
Assessing Nicotine Dependence Liability

                                   Physical
    Positive      Tolerance       Dependence
Reinforcement



                                  Somatic &
Conditioned     Acute   Chronic    Affective
  Place-                          Withdrawal
Preference                          Signs
Enzymes for Nicotine Metabolism Differ in Early
Adolescent and Young Adult Mice –
Sensitivity to Nicotine is Likely Age Dependent




                    <35 day   56 day
                   Early      Young
                 Adolescent   Adult
Determining the Genetic and
Bio-behavioral Bases for
Adolescent Responses to Nicotine
 Collaboration between Projects 2 & 3:
  NIH Center Grant proposal now in
  development to tie together human
  and animal research
 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL)
  methodology
 Search for genes that determine age
  and stage differences in sensitivity,
  dependence, and metabolism
Project 4. Preventing Initial Tobacco
Use from Progressing to Nicotine
Dependency

 Thomas Eissenberg, PhD (PI)
 Deborah Haller, PhD
 Michelle Acosta, PhD
Goals
 Understand in detail the stages of youth
  smoking behavior, through clinical
  laboratory assessment of individual
  adolescents’ responses to smoking
 Using clinical-assessment and follow-up
  interview data, test various interventions
  for their effectiveness in preventing
  adolescent progression to nicotine
  dependency
 Subjects

 Adolescent smokers: 12-18 years
  of age
  Stage 3 (experimenting) smokers: users
   who report smoking more than 1
   cigarette per month but less than 1 per
   day
  Stage 4 (regular) smokers: users who
   report smoking more than 1 but less than
   10 cigarettes per day
  Clinical Assessment: Testing
  Adolescents’ Responses to Smoking

 Physiological measurements, before and
  after one cigarette
     heart rate
     breath CO
     saliva cotinine (nicotine metabolite)
     saliva cortisol (stress hormone)
     puff topography
 Craving and withdrawal questionnaires,
  before and after one cigarette
 Clinical Intervention: Testing Various
 Means to Prevent Adolescents from
 Progressing to Dependency
 Compare the success rates of different
  intervention modes in preventing subjects’
  stage progression after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12
  months
 Intervention 1: Motivational interviews,
  providing subjects with personalized
  information and clinical-assessment
  feedback on the consequences of smoking
 Intervention 2: Anti-tobacco video material
 Intervention 3: Anti-tobacco print material
Progress in Clinical Trials Project
 IRB approval of protocol has been
  granted
 Clinical assessments pilot tested
 Interventions prepared and pilot
  tested
 Subject recruitment to begin in April
  2003
 Project 5. Youth Tobacco
 Evaluation Project (YTEP)




Project Team:
Ilene Speizer, Brian Smith, Diane Baer Wilson,
Melanie Bean, Karen Mitchell, Samy Uguy, Panumas
Assavarakpreecha, Ramesh Ramakrishnan, Joyce
Phillips, and Elizabeth Fries (PI)
Objectives of YTEP

 Design a comprehensive evaluation of the 109
  youth tobacco prevention programs funded by
  the Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation
 Train grantees to implement appropriate
  evaluation components for their programs
 Provide evaluation assistance for grantees
 Provide analysis and dissemination of findings
Single session
  programs



Multiple session
 programs
Overall Evaluation Design
 Process Evaluation
   All programs
     Session logs – content and delivery
      Instructor survey – acceptability of
       program to instructors and participants
   Pre K – 3rd grades: Parent survey – determine if
    kids understood and discussed program
   4th & 5th grades: Brief participant survey –
    perspectives on content, delivery, and
    appropriateness
   Parent and family programs: Participant survey
    – content, delivery, and appropriateness
Overall Evaluation Design, cont.
 Outcome Evaluation
   6th – 12th grades (76 of 109 grantees doing
    outcome evaluation)
     Pre-test survey: obtain baseline tobacco use
     Post-test survey: examine changes between
       pre- and post-tests
     Parental notification prior to 1st survey
        No identifying information kept on record
        Match pre- and post-tests with anonymous
         linking scheme
        Participants complete survey and place in an
         envelope and seal envelope
      Design of Outcome Evaluation
      Grades 6 to 12



                                                                      1-year
  Pre-test             Funded           Post-test
                       Program                                       Follow-up



Note: Given limitations of pre-post design, where ever possible we will collect 1 year
follow-up. All data are linked due to sampling/generalizability limitations. Grantees
receiving multiple years of funding will also be followed for 2-6 years depending on the
age of the child.
Framework: Outcome Questionnaire
Development       PERSONAL

                         Knowledge of
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC
                        consequences
• Age
 Low SES               • Functional meanings
 Developmental stage   • Subjective expected
 Gender                utility

                         Self esteem
                        • Self efficacy
  ENVIRONMENTAL
                        • Self image               SMOKING STAGE
 Accessibility
                         Personality                Preparatory
• Advertising                                             
                         Psychological well-           Trying
                        being                             
 Parental use                                      Experimental
                                                          
 Sibling use                BEHAVIORAL             Regular Use
                                                          
 Parental               Academic                    Addiction
supervision and         achievement
strictness
                        • Participation in sport
                        & healthy behaviors
 Peer use               Peer groups
                        • Other adv. behaviors
 Social bonding
                        (risk-taking)
 Normative              Behavioral skills
expectations
Framework: Outcome Questionnaire
                           Life Skills Training
Development       PERSONAL
                           Tar Wars
                           Teens Against Tobacco Use
                                                                  Get Real About Tobacco
                                        Knowledge of             Here’s Looking at You
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC
                                       consequences               SMART Leaders
• Age
 Low SES                              • Functional meanings      Al’s Pals
 Developmental stage                  • Subjective expected      Smoggy and Claire
 Gender                               utility                    Media Sharp
                                                                  Anti Tobacco Media Blitz
                                        Self esteem              Too Good for Drugs
                                       • Self efficacy            Smoke Free, That’s Me
  ENVIRONMENTAL
                                       • Self image                           SMOKING STAGE
 Accessibility                                       Life Skills Training
                                        Personality                             Preparatory
• Advertising                                                                         
                                         Psychological well-                       Trying
                                        being                                         
 Parental use                                        Too Good for Drugs
               Preparing for Drug                                               Experimental
                                                                                      
 Sibling use Free Years                      BEHAVIORAL                         Regular Use
                                                                                          NOT
 Parental       Strengthening Families Academic                                 AddictionEND
supervision and Skills for adolescents achievement Teens Against Tobacco Use
strictness
                                        • Participation in sport Positive Action
                                        & healthy behaviors      NOT (w/ smokers)
 Peer use                               Peer groups            Get Real About Tobacco
                  Here’s Looking at You • Other adv. behaviors
 Social bonding SMART Leaders
                                        (risk-taking)
                  Too Good for Drugs
 Normative                              Behavioral skills
expectations
Characteristics of Baseline
Sample (N=10,008)

       Distribution of sample by gender




                                 Male
                                 49%
      Female
       51%
Characteristics of Baseline
Sample (N=10,008)
            Distribution of sample by grade
                            12th
                     11th

              10th


        9th
                                            6th




      8th




                                      7th
Characteristics of Baseline
Sample (N=10,008)

     Distribution of sample by race/ethnicity
               3%

           1%
                                     White
          2%

                                     Black
    21%
                                     Hispanic

                                     Asian or Pacific
                                     Islander
                                     American Indian
                                     or Alaskan Native
                        73%
Number of Agencies with
Participating Youth, by Region
                             Number of agencies with participating youth
                                            by region
                      14.0
                      12.0
 Number of Agencies




                      10.0
                       8.0
                                                                                                   Series1
                       6.0
                       4.0

                       2.0
                       0.0




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Smoking Experience and Use

                    Smoking experience and use among youth, by grade

             100%
              90%
              80%
              70%
Percentage




              60%
              50%
              40%
              30%
              20%
              10%
               0%
                       6th    7th      8th       9th     10th     11th      12th
                                               Grade

             Never smoked     Ever smoked, not current      Current smoker (in last 30 days)
  Smokeless Tobacco Use among
  Male Youth
               Smokeless         tobacco experience and use among
                                   male youth, by grade
             100%
              90%
              80%
              70%
Percentage




              60%
              50%
              40%
              30%
              20%
              10%
               0%
                     6th         7th       8th         9th         10th        11th           12th
                                                     Grade


                    Never used    Ever used, not current     Current user (in last 30 days)
Upcoming Activities
 Collect, clean, and code post-test data
 Complete coding of process evaluation data
 Evaluate the first round of funding by
  comparing pre-test to post-test results as
  they relate to program exposure
 Disseminate results, to VTSF affiliates, and
  to the research and evaluation community
VIRGINIA YOUTH
TOBACCO PROJECT




   COALITION BUILDING



                  Robert L. Balster, PhD
Future Directions
for the VYTP Coalition

 Statewide Conference on Addiction
  and Youth
   Bring in national leaders in addiction and
    prevention research
   Invite presentations from Virginia
    participants
   Arrange suitable public and media
    participation
Future Directions
for the VYTP Coalition
 Expand exchange visits among coalition members,
  and promote other collaborative activities
 Identify and fund other components from the
  subcontracts (e.g. William and Mary)
 Facilitate direct VTSF applications for coalition
  members
 Small Grants Program
 Faculty Scholars Program
    Existing faculty
    Mentoring component
The VYTP Vision
    Building a first-class, tobacco-research
    “Institute without Walls” at Virginia universities
   What are the requirements to realize this vision?
         Continuing, multiyear funding commitments from
          Virginia’s master settlement agreement
         Strategic partnerships among VPs for Research at
          Virginia schools, making tobacco research a priority
         Concerted efforts among our faculty, both within and
          between institutions, to collaborate on research and
          grant-seeking
         Creative trans-disciplinary thinking and action, to
          translate the findings of basic and applied science into
          improved tobacco-use prevention programs
   VYTP
 Virginia Youth
Tobacco Project

Securing the health
of Virginia’s youth
 through science
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research
Publications and Presentations
 Breland, A.B., Acosta M.C., and Eissenberg, T.
  (submitted for publication) Tobacco-Specific
  Nitrosamines and Potential Reduced Exposure Products
  for Smokers: A Preliminary Evaluation of Advance™.
 Breland, A.B., Buchhalter, A.R., Evans, S.E., and
  Eissenberg, T. (2002) Evaluating acute effects of
  potential reduced exposure products for smokers: clinical
  laboratory methodology. Nicotine and Tobacco
  Research. 4 (Suppl 2): S131-S140.
 Breland, A.B., Evans, S.E., Buchhalter, A.R., and
  Eissenberg, T. (2002) Acute effects of AdvanceTM: a
  potential reduced exposure product for smokers.
  Tobacco Control. 11:376-378.
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research
Publications and Presentations
 Carroll, F.I., Lee, J.R., Navarro, H.A., Brieaddy, L.E.,
  Abraham, P., Damaj, M.I., and Martin, B.R.: Nicotinic
  acetylcholine receptor binding, and antinociceptive
  properties of 2-exo-2-(2’-substituted-3’-phenyl-5’-
  pyridinyl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes. Society for
  Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, Savannah, GA, 2002.
 Carroll, F.I., Lee, J.R., Navarro, H.A., Ma, W., Brieaddy,
  L.E., Abraham, P., Damaj, M.I. and Martin, B.R. (2002)
  Synthesis, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding, and
  antinociceptive properties of 2-exo-2-(2',3'-disubstituted
  5'- pyridinyl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes: epibatidine
  analogues. J Med Chem 45:4755-4761.
 Damaj, M.I. Activation of neuronal calcium calmoduline-
  kinase II after acute nicotine: behavioral and genetic
  approaches. Society of Neurosciences, Orlando, Fl, 2002.
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research
Publications and Presentations
 Damaj, M.I. Neurobiology of nicotine dependence.
  Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco,
  Savannah, GA, 2002.
 Damaj, M.I. and Martin, B.R. Effects of nicotine and
  nicotinic agonists in a neuropathic pain model. World
  Congress on Pain, San Diego, CA, 2002
 Damaj, M.I. and Martin, B.R. Differential involvement of
  calcium calmoduline-kinase II in nicotine’s
  pharmacological effects in mice. College on Problems of
  Drug Dependence, June, 2002.
 Damaj, M.I. and Martin, B.R. Effect of (-)-menthol on
  nicotine’s pharmacological effects in mice. Conference
  on Menthol Cigarettes, Atlanta, GA, 2002.
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research
Publications and Presentations
 Dukat, M., Damaj, I.M., Young, R., Vann, R., Collins,
  A.C., Marks, M.J., Martin, B.R. and Glennon, R.A. (2002)
  Functional diversity among 5-substituted nicotine
  analogs; in vitro and in vivo investigations. Eur J
  Pharmacol 435:171-180.
 Dukat, M., El-Zahabi, M., Ferretti, G., Damaj, M.I.,
  Martin, B.R., Young, R. and Glennon, R.A. (2002) (-)6-n-
  Propylnicotine antagonizes the antinociceptive effects of
  (-)nicotine. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:3005-3007.
 Eissenberg, T. (submitted for publication) Measuring the
  emergence of tobacco dependence: the contribution of
  negative reinforcement models.
 Eissenberg, T. (2002). Progress in nicotine and tobacco
  research. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 4:355-362.
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research
Publications and Presentations
 Eissenberg, T., and Balster, R.L. (2000). Initial tobacco
  use episodes in adolescents: current knowledge, future
  directions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 59 (Suppl
  1):S41-S60.
 Ferretti, G., Dukat, M., Giannella, M., Piergentili, A.,
  Pigini, M., Quaglia, W., Damaj, M.I., Martin, B.R. and
  Glennon, R.A. (2002) Homoazanicotine: a structure-
  affinity study for nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor
  binding. J Med Chem 45:4724-4731.
 Fonck, C., Nashmi, R., Deshpande, P., Damaj, M. I.,
  Marks, M. J., Schwarz, J., Collins, A. C., Labarca, C., and
  Lester, H.A. (in press). Increased sensitivity to agonist-
  induced seizures, Straub Tail, and hippocampal theta
  rhythm, in knock-in mice carrying hypersensitive α4
  nicotinic receptors. J Neurosci, 2003.
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research
Publications and Presentations
 Haller, D.L., Miles, D.R., and Cropsey, K.L. (submitted
  for publication) Smoking Stage of Change Influences
  Retention in Smoke-Free Residential Treatment Program
  for Women.
 Hamilton, D.C.P., Acosta, M., Buchhalter, A.R., and
  Eissenberg, T. Urine Cotinine as an Index of Smoking
  Status: Comparison of GC/MS with Immunoassay Test
  Strips. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco,
  February 2003.
 Houtsmuller, E.J., Fant, R.V., Eissenberg, T.,
  Henningfield, J.E., and Stitzer M.L. (2002). Flavor
  improvement does not increase abuse liability of nicotine
  chewing gum. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and
  Behavior. 72:559-568.
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research
Publications and Presentations
 Lanni, S.M., Jansson, L., Miles, D.R., Raiford, K. and
  Svikis, D.S. Impact of perinatal tobacco and drug use on
  neonatal outcomes. Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine,
  New Orleans, LA, January 2002.
 Lee, M., Dukat, M., Liao, L., Flammia, D., Damaj, M.I.,
  Martin, B.R. and Glennon, R.A. (2002) A comparison of
  the binding of three series of nicotinic ligands. Bioorg
  Med Chem Lett 12:1989-1992.
 Martin, B.R., Lukas, R.J., Eaton, B., Carroll, F.I.,
  Navarro, H.A., and Damaj, M.I. Evidence that
  bupropion’s pharmacological effects are primarily
  mediated via conversion to its 2S,3S-hydroxy
  metabolite. Society for Research on Nicotine and
  Tobacco, February, 2003.
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research
Publications and Presentations
 Maziak, W., Eissenberg, T., Klesges, R.C., Kiel, U., and
  Ward, K.D. (submitted for publication) Adapting Smoking
  Cessation Interventions for Developing Countries: A
  Model for the Middle East.
 Miles, D.R., Silberg, J.L., Maes, H.H., and Eaves, L.J.
  Testing for effects of genes, environment, and gender in
  tobacco initiation and continuation in adolescents: A
  Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach. College on
  Problems of Drug Dependence, Bal Harbour, FL, June
  2003.
 Miles, D.R., Silberg, J.L., Pickens, R.W., and Eaves, L.J.
  Gender differences in genetic and environmental risk
  factors for adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use
  (2002). Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 66:S120.
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research
Publications and Presentations
 Pickens, R.W., Balster, R.L. and White, M. International
  Symposium on Nicotine and Tobacco Research,
  Santander, Spain, October 4, 2002.
 Sellers, E.M., Ibekwe, A., Martin, B.R., Glassco, W.,
  Damaj, M.I., and Tyndale, R.F.: In vitro identification of
  nicotine analogs as CYP2A6 inbitiros and substrates.
  Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.
  Savannah, GA, 2002.
 Wiley, J.L., Lavecchia, K.L., Martin, B.R. and Damaj, M.I.
  (2002) Nicotine-like discriminative stimulus effects of
  bupropion in rats. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 10:129-
  135.
 Zack, M., Belsito, L., Scher, R., Eissenberg, T., and
  Corrigall, W.A. (2001) Effects of abstinence and
  smoking on information processing in adolescent
  smokers. Psychopharmacology. 153:249-257.

				
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