The Bologna Declaration and its Consequences for Engineering

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					The Bologna Declaration and
       its Consequences for
     Engineering Education
                            Torbjörn Hedberg
                Luleå University of Technology
                                         SEFI




                                                 1
         Moskva, June 17, 2004
    What is in the Declaration?
 Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable
  degrees in order to promote employability and international
  competitiveness;
 Establishment of the system of credits – such as the European
  Credit Transfer System (ECTS);
 Promotion of mobility by overcoming obstacles to the
  effective exercise of free movement;
 Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance with a
  view to develop comparable criteria and methodologies;
 Promotion of the necessary European dimension in higher
  education.



           Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
     The Bologna Degree Structure
 Adoption of a system essentially based
  on two main cycles, undergraduate and
  graduate.                                   –It is much too simple just
                                               to say that Europe should
 Access to the second cycle shall             switch over to some UK, US
  require successful completion of first       or “Anglo-Saxon” model;
  cycle studies, lasting at least three
  years.                                      –This is usually interpreted
                                               as a 3-5-8 system, but the
 The degree awarded after the first           original declaration is much
  cycle shall be relevant to the labour        less precise.
  market.
                                              –A lot of things have
 The second cycle should lead to the          happened after the initial
  master and/or doctorate degree.              meeting in Bologna.




                Torbjörn Hedberg     Moskva, June 17, 2004
          What does Bologna mean?
 Mainland Europe has finally decided to replace its outdated system by
  an Anglo-American one?
 A use of the European argument to solve domestic problems?
 A way to bring various national systems closer and create a new
  common model?
 The natural analogue to the free movement of goods, people and capital
  and to the introduction of the € ?
 The destruction of classical and well-functioning systems?
 A revolution, shaking up an archaic system?
 A money-saving scheme?
 An instrument for the creation of a European identity?
 ...



                Torbjörn Hedberg    Moskva, June 17, 2004
          What does Bologna mean?
 Mainland Europe has finally decided to replace its outdated system by
  an Anglo-American one.
 A use of the European argument to solve domestic problems.
 A way to bring various national systems closer and create a new
     A model.
  commondynamic reform process with large,
      natural analogue to the free consequences.
 Thebut still unknown, movement of goods, people and capital
  and to the introduction of the €.
 The destruction of classical and well-functioning systems.
 A revolution, shaking up an archaic system.
 A money saving scheme.
 An instrument for the creation of a European identity.
 ...



                Torbjörn Hedberg    Moskva, June 17, 2004
           What does Bologna mean?
 Mainland Europe has finally decided to replace its outdated system by
  an Anglo-American one.
 A use of the European argument to solve domestic problems.
  A way introduction of an Anglo-American
 The to bring various national systems closer and create a new
    model, that soon will be used everywhere,
  common model.
    The natural analogue to the free movement of goods, people and capital
    and to the in Great Britain and USA!
    except introduction of the €.


 The destruction of classical and well-functioning systems.
 A revolution, shaking up an archaic system.
 A money saving scheme.
 An instrument for the creation of a European identity.
 ...



                Torbjörn Hedberg     Moskva, June 17, 2004
The Anglo-American Models for
    Engineering Education
 Great Britain.
    –   Chartered Engineer.
         •   A four-year integrated undergraduate MEng degree accredited for CEng or
             a BSc(honours).
         •   Professional experience.
         •   …
    –   Incorporated Engineer.
         •   A three-year bachelor’s degree (BEng or BSc) accredited for IEng.
         •   Professional experience.
         •   ….

 United States.
    –   A four-year integrated Bachelor’s degree in Engineering.
    –   A four-year integrated Bachelor’s degree in Engineering Technology.
    –   Master’s degrees exist but…



                Torbjörn Hedberg          Moskva, June 17, 2004
                        Aspects
 The creation of a European Higher Education Area with
  emphasis on student mobility;
 The creation of a European Higher Education Area to make
  European higher education more attractive for non-European
  (Asiatic) students;
 A shake-up, making a general overhaul and reform of
  European Higher Education possible.
  (curricula, teaching methods, …)
 The starting-point for structural reforms motivated by
  factors such as increasing student numbers, financial
  problems, ..




           Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
                        Aspects

 The creation of a European Higher Education Area with
  emphasis on student mobility;
 The creation of a European Higher Education Area to make
  European higher education more attractive for non-European
  (Asiatic) students;
 A shake-up, making a general overhaul and reform of
  European Higher Education possible.
  (curricula, teaching methods, …)
 The starting-point for structural reforms motivated by
  factors such as increasing student numbers, financial
  problems, ..



           Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
The Classical European Model
  for Engineering Education




    Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
                      Exceptions
   Spanish                 Dutch               Hungarian
   French                  Russian             Norwegian
   German                  Estonian            Polish
   Swedish                 Lithuanian          Luxemburgian
    Albanian                Latvian
                                                Serb
   Italian                 Polish
                                                 Slovak
   British (2)             Croatian
                                                 Icelandic
   Belgian (2)             Greek
                            Swiss               Romanian
   Austrian
                            Irish               Ukrainian
   Bulgarian
                            Czech               Maltese
   Slovenian
   Turkish                 Byelorussian        Macedonian
   Cypriotic               Portuguese          Danish
   Lichtensteinian         Finnish             ...



          Torbjörn Hedberg      Moskva, June 17, 2004
The Classical European Model
  for Engineering Education

                                               “Application-
                                               oriented” ,
                                               a professional
                                               Bachelor




    Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
     The Application-oriented
Engineering Education is in Danger!

      Is it true?
      So what? Does it matter?
      Why is it so?
      THE DANGER ?




          Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
     The Application-oriented
Engineering Education is in Danger!

      Is it true?
      So what? Does it matter?
      Why is it so?
      THE DANGER – The combined result of
        – an exaggerated “academisation”
        – the Bologna Process

      What can/should/ we/you do about it?




          Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
  The Academic Drift
                     Lo ng



Practise                            Theory




                     S hort


  Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
        Why is Bologna a Danger?

 A strict application of the Declaration means that the
  present Diploma Engineer/MSc/MEng degree programme
  should be divided into two parts – a 3-year “Bachelor”
  followed by a 2-year “Master” (or whatever the two degrees will be called
  in various national languages).

 The first degree should be “relevant to the European labour
  market”
 Difference between this new first cycle degree and the
  existing application oriented degrees?
 Consequences for the existing short cycle application-
  oriented education?



               Torbjörn Hedberg     Moskva, June 17, 2004
            What has happened?

 Most European states have reformed or will reform their
  system;
 ECTS and Diploma supplement introduced almost everywhere;
 Proliferation of “MSc”-courses in English;
 3+2 is becoming a standard model;
 Increased interest in accreditation and European quality
  cooperation;
 Obstacles to mobility?




            Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
                                But…
 Engineering education is different;
   – The Declaration and the process focus on the general non-
      professional university education.
 Larger versus smaller states;




             Torbjörn Hedberg     Moskva, June 17, 2004
             The larger countries
 Italy quickly introduced a new system in (almost) total
  conformity with the Declaration;
 The British ... ;
 Germany introduced a Bachelor/Master system in parallel to
  the classical Dipl.-Ing. by an earlier decision;
 The classical French engineering education system has not
  really changed;
    – New French legislation for universities, but the classical 2+3
      system for Engineering Education - 2 years of “classes
      préparatoires” plus 3 years of Grande Ecole - remains.
 Spain is moving slowly;
 Poland already had a kind of two-cycle system.
 Russia …..


             Torbjörn Hedberg     Moskva, June 17, 2004
                                But…
 Engineering education is different;
   – The Declaration and the process focus on the general non-
      professional university education.
 Larger versus smaller states;
 A closer look reveals significant differences in the
  interpretation and implementation of the Declaration;
   – Not always 3+2!
   – Should there be a selection at the entry to the second cycle?
   – Terminology?
   – “Relevant to the job market” or a point for mobility/a basis for
      further studies?
   – How does the shorter, more application-oriented, education fit
      into the Bologna scheme?


             Torbjörn Hedberg     Moskva, June 17, 2004
                                   3+2 ?
 Belgium: 3+1 for industrieel ingenieurs;
 The Czech republic: Could also be 4+2;
 The classical 2+3 system will remain in France
    – 2 years of Classes préparatoires + 3 years of Grande Ecole.
 Germany. Depends on the Land - could be 3.5 + 1.5;
 In Ireland: 4+1.5;
 In Norway: The integrated 5 year programmes will also continue to exist;
 Poland: 3+2, 3.5+1.5, 4+1, 4+2 or integrated 5;
 Romania: 4+1.5;
 Russia: Probably 4+2;
 Slovakia: 3-4 + 1-3;
 Spain: Could be 4+1 or 4+2;
 Sweden: Probably 3+1.5 or integrated 4.5;
 Switzerland: Normally 3+2 but also in some cases 3+1 or 3+1.5;
 England: 3+1 (MSc) or integrated 4 (MEng);
 Scotland: 4+1.


                Torbjörn Hedberg       Moskva, June 17, 2004
         Selection for the 2nd cycle?
    Normally students are granted the right to continue for the second cycle at the
    home university, but …
 Czech republic: Entrance examination
 Denmark: Ongoing discussion;
 France: A selection will occur after the first year of the second (Master) cycle
 Hungary: Only a restricted number can continue to the second cycle.
 Ireland: The majority finish after the first cycle.
 Lithuania: A limited number (40 % ?) of the candidates will be selected;
 The Netherlands: There will be a selection;
 Poland: Depends on University. Initially a limited percentage, but now more flexibility.
 Romania: Nothing decided yet, probably be a selection and a limited number (20% ?)
 Russia: Ongoing discussion;
 Slovakia: Depends on University, but in general is only a restricted number admitted.
 Spain: There are today limited quotas;
 Switzerland: There will be a selection at the Fachhochschulen, but not at ETH;
 UK: Recruitment is selective; no automatic progression to the Master level.


                    Torbjörn Hedberg       Moskva, June 17, 2004
                           Terminology                    (new!)
     1st cycle                                      2nd cycle
Bakkalaureus                                  Diplomingenieur                       Austria
Industrieel ingenieur                         Burgerlijk ingenieur                  Belgium
Bakalář                                       Inženýr                               Czech rep
Diplomingeniør/professionsbachelor /bachelor Civilingeniør/ kandidat / Cand. Polyt  Denmark
(Licence)                                     Ingénieur Diplomé, Master professionel France
Bakkalraureuseraad                            Magistrikraad                         Estonia
Insinöörii AMK/ingenjör AMK(?)                Diplomi-insinöörii/diplomingenjör     Finland
Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Engineering  Master of Science, Master of Eng      Germany
Alapdiploma                                   Mesterdiploma                         Hungary
Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.)              Master of Eng. Science (M.Eng.Sc.)    Ireland
Laurea                                        Laurea specialista                    Italy
(Statybos …) inžinerijos bakalaureas          (Statybos …) inžinerijos magistras    Lithuania
Bachelor i ingeniørfag                        Master i teknologi / sivilingeniør    Norway
Inzynier                                      Magister- Inzynier                    Poland
Inginer-licentiat                             Inginer-magister or inginer-diplomat? Roumania
Ingener-bakalavr                              Ingener-magistr                       Russia
Bakalar                                       Inzinier                              Slovakia
Ingeniero?                                    Máster?                               Spain
Högskoleingenjör, teknologie kandidat?        Civilingenjör                         Sweden
Bachelor                                      Master                                Switzerland
- “Bachelor of Science ETH in ***wissenschaft” - “Master of Science ETH in ***wissenschaft”
Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science  Master of Eng., Master of Science     UK
Ingenieur (Ing)                               Ingenieur (Ir.)                       The Netherl.


                    Torbjörn Hedberg         Moskva, June 17, 2004
                           Terminology                      (new!)
        1st cycle                                 2nd cycle
Bakkalaureus                                    Diplomingenieur                       Austria
Industrieel ingenieur                           Burgerlijk ingenieur                  Belgium
Bakalář                                         Inženýr                               Czech rep
Diplomingeniør/professionsbachelor /bachelor    Civilingeniør/ kandidat / Cand. Polyt Denmark
(Licence)                                       Ingénieur Diplomé, Master professionel France
Bakkalraureuseraad                              Magistrikraad                         Estonia
Insinöörii AMK/ingenjör AMK(?)                  Diplomi-insinöörii/diplomingenjör     Finland
Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Engineering    Master of Science, Master of Eng      Germany
Alapdiploma                                     Mesterdiploma                         Hungary
Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.)                Master of Eng. Science (M.Eng.Sc.)    Ireland
Laurea                                          Laurea specialista                    Italy
(Statybos …) inžinerijos bakalaureas            (Statybos …) inžinerijos magistras    Lithuania
Bachelor i ingeniørfag                          Master i teknologi / sivilingeniør    Norway
Inzynier                                        Magister-inzynier                     Poland
Inginer-licentiat                               Inginer-magister or inginer-diplomat? Romania
Ingener-bakalavr                                Ingener-magistr                       Russia
Bakalar                                         Inzinier                              Slovakia
Ingeniero?                                      Máster?                               Spain
Högskoleingenjör, teknologie kandidat?          Civilingenjör                         Sweden
Bachelor                                        Master                                Switzerland- -
- Bachelor of Science ETH in ***wissenschaft”        - “Master of Science ETH in ***wissenschaft”
Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science    Master of Eng., Master of Science     UK
Ingenieur (Ing)                                 Ingenieur (Ir.)                       The Netherl.


                    Torbjörn Hedberg            Moskva, June 17, 2004
     Relevant for the job market?
   Belgium:       A pivot point suitable for mobility
   Denmark:       A pivot point suitable for mobility - “a new title to
                   please the ministry”.
   France:        In the ”Grandes Ecoles” - a pivot point.
                   In universities - two different licences (générale and
                   professionelle)
   Ireland:       IEI proposal: “… a mobility hub…”
   The Netherlands. Under discussion, but the TU BSc is primarily
                  considered as the entry to a MSc-programme.
   Spain:         A new first cycle degree will probably mainly be a point
                   suitable for mobility and further studies..
   Sweden:        A point suitable for mobility.
   Switzerland:   At ETH primarily a point suitable for mobility


               Torbjörn Hedberg      Moskva, June 17, 2004
How does the application-oriented
education fit into the new scheme?
  Major differences between countries and between
   different types of schools;
  Increased risk for academic drift.




            Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
How does the application-oriented
education fit into the new scheme?
  Major differences between countries and between
   different types of schools;
  Increased risk for academic drift.
  Will it survive?
  The main challenge as far as engineering education is
   concerned.




            Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
  What can be done to save the
   “professional Bachelor”?
 Make a clear distinction between this degree and a new
  intermediate “academic bachelor”.
 Carefully define the specific qualities of the application-
  oriented education;
 Be very clear about aims and goals;
 Show how the students attain these goals;
 Show that the students attain these goals;
 Learn from the ongoing European and international
  discussion;



           Torbjörn Hedberg    Moskva, June 17, 2004
        Incorporated - Chartered
 Know-how orientated                  Knowledge-oriented
 Practical relevance                  System orientated
 Applications                         Research
 Apply research/development           Seek fundamentals
 Problem solving                      Abstract thinking
 Applied sciences                     Basic sciences
 Producer                             Scientist
 Sectorial                            Holistic
 Short/middle term application        Long term application

                                               From ICE IEng accreditation guidelines



              Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004
          What I hope will happen
 That a new “BSc/MSc”, a “3+2” or a “4+1” system and the
  classical systems for Engineering Education will exist in
  parallel, and that the “market” will decide;
 That we focus on learning outcomes rather than on time
  served;
 That we manage to keep the distinction between the new
  “inter-mediate degree” and the Applied Engineering degrees;
 That the ECTS will remain as it is; a common language, a
  quantitative measure;
 That the PhD-education will remain outside the Bologna
  Process;
 That accreditation will be developed on the European level.
 That we will get more serious work done on terminology and on
  information;

              Torbjörn Hedberg   Moskva, June 17, 2004