Engineering Education Facing New Challenges in the Learning Society by arg46217

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									Engineering Education Facing New
Challenges in the Learning Society:
          Case Finland
       ASEE ”21st Century Engineer”
                  November, 2 - 3, 2001


                 Kati Yrjänheikki
     Finnish Association of Graduate Engineers TEK
                   Minna Takala
Helsinki University of Technology and New Jersey Institute
                       of Technology
                          Overview of TEK

            • Association for Finnish engineers graduated from
              universities (Master’s or Ph.D. degree)
            • Founded in 1896
            • 55 000 members – 70 % of all university-level
              engineers in Finland
            • Promotes development of technology for the best of
              human, nature and society interests
            • Promotes labor market value of Finnish engineers
              (collective bargaining), develops engineering
              education and provides membership services
            • 5 offices in Finland – active international co-
              operation
Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                                             2
                             Activities of TEK


                    Labor market policy   Educational policy




           General social policy
                                          Technology policy




                                           Membership services
Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                                              3
               System of education has a key role in
                     the Information Society
            • Success increasingly based on knowledge, skills and
              ability to learn.
            • Factors that have been driving skill needs:
                    –   arrival of Information Society
                    –   increased global competition
                    –   rapid development of new technology
                    –   Shift towards service industries
                    –   Redesign of work and organizational structures
                    –   Striving for sustainable development
            • New, more, more demanding and constantly
              changing skill needs


Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                                                        4
                                   GLOBAL
                                   COMPETITION                                   ARRIVAL OF
SERVICE                                                                          INFORMATION
INDUSTRIES                                                                       SOCIETY
                                       basic IT skills
                                                           foreign
                        multidisciplinarity
                                                           languages
                  networking             commitment creativity     global village
                                         to quality                attitude
             teamwork
                           GOOD GENERAL EDUCATION
                                                                       commitment
         communication                                                  to sustainable
                                                                       development
                             entrepreneurial handle stress
                learn how to attitude                      cope with
                learn                        manage time constant change

                  self-steering     ability to search, classify
                                    and analyze information

REDESIGN OF                                                                     SUSTAINABLE
WORK AND                     RAPID DEVELOPMENT                                  DEVELOPMENT
ORGANIZATION                 OF TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                Source: Korhonen, K. 1997. Master’s
                                                                                thesis. Educating Engineers of the 21st
                                                                                Century – The Challenges of Higher
                           LIFELONG LEARNING                                    Engineering Education in Finland”.
                         higher level of average
                         education                  from subject-based to
good general education                              skill-based curriculum


well managed                                                               new learning
               NEW SKILL REQUIREMENTS                                      technologies
educational    MORE SKILL REQUIREMENTS
chain                                                                       in use
               MORE DEMANDING SKILL REQUIREMENTS
               FAST CHANGING SKILL REQUIREMENTS




   close co-operation     lifelong learning        continuous quality
   between university                              improvement of
   and industry                                    education
                                                     Source: Korhonen, K. 1997. Master’s
                                                     thesis. Educating Engineers of the 21st
                                                     Century – The Challenges of Higher
                                                     Engineering Education in Finland”.
               Requirements for the general level of
                      education are rising
            • Finland: Shift of a hierarchal industry-based
              economy to a knowledge-based Information Society
              during 1990s.
                    – Investment in R&D and high-tech export among top
                      countries in the world
                    – 70 % of each age group educated at university or
                      polytechnics
                    – B.Sc. and M.Sc. student numbers in engineering doubled
                      during 1990 – 2000
                    – Number of Ph.D. degrees in engineering increased by 50
                      % during 1990 – 2000
            • Quantity vs. quality? Lack of resources is reality.
            • Problem of forecasting labor market demand
Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                                                          7
                     Intensive co-operation between
                              stakeholders

                               University               Polytechnics


            Policymakers                  Engineering              Alumni
                                          Education


                    Other experts                              Engineering
                                                               students
                                          Industry

                     •Finland ranked number one globally in co-operation between
Nov, 3, 2001 / KY     companies and universities                            8
                     •M.Sc. graduates have on average 20 months working experience
                     Life-long learning – must for all
                               professionals
            • Not a new subject to be added to the curriculum, but
              rather a state of mind
            • How to increase skills for continuous learning
                    – new teaching methods: problem based learning etc.
                    – interdisciplinarity
                    – motivation through practical work experience and
                      combination of work and studies
            • Impossible to provide engineering student with all
              skills she / he might need, when entering
              professional skills
            • What are fundamental objectives of engineering
              education?
Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                                                         9
              Increased need for interdisciplinarity

            • Results of engineering research utilized broadly also
              outside technology
                    – increased number of non-technology innovations
                    – new innovations increasingly in between two or more
                      industrial clusters
            • Teamwork and networking key issues
            • Multi skilled: specialist and generalist at the same
              time?
            • ICT supporting interdisciplinary studies
            • Improvement of engineer’s judgment and awareness
              of professional and ethical responsibility

Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                                                           10
             ”If you know what this business is
             going to look five years from now,
             I want to know what you have
             been smoking…”



Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                             11
             Good engineer in the Learning Society?
                         Ability to deal with uncertainty
                         And ambiguity
                    Professional and ethical responsibility




                                                                                                          Good communication skills
                                                                                                                                      Ability to lead and manage
                                                                            Internationalization skills
                                                    Commitment to quality
                              Ability to teamwork




                                                                                                                                      human resources
                          Good knowledge of one’s
                          major technical
                          discipline
                       SOLID BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF THE
                       NATURAL SCIENCES AND IT                                                                                                                     Source: Korhonen, K. 1997. Master’s
Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                                                                                                                                                                       12
                                                                                                                                                                   thesis. Educating Engineers of the 21st
                                                                                                                                                                   Century – The Challenges of Higher
                     ABILITY AND WILLINGNESS TO LEARN                                                                                                              Engineering Education in Finland”.
                    FuturEng project overview

            • Objective is to find out challenges of engineering
              education in the new knowledge-intensive economy
              and at the same time have an impact on engineering
              education future
            • All important stakeholders of engineering education
              included in the project
            • Funding from Finnish companies, Ministry of
              education, EU and TEK.
            • Implemented during 2000 – 2003
            • Six subprojects

Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                                             13
                   Subprojects of FuturEng
              • ”Evolutionary futures research on the Finnish
                  engineering education up to 2015” (Kati
                  Yrjänheikki, Project Manager, Dissertation)
              • Research on the feedback and follow-up systems in
                  engineering education (Sanna Allt, Researcher,
                  Master’s thesis)
              • Engineering education in Finland – recent statistics
                  (will be published in December 2001)
              • Research on the learning environment in
                  engineering education (Johanna Hartikainen,
                  Researcher, part of Ph.D. studies)
              • Women and technology network activities
              • Research on the development needs of Ph.D. studies
Nov, 3, 2001 / KY in engineering (published in March 2001)         14
              Issues to be researched, discussed and
                             negotiated
            • Fundamental changes in education system e.g. co-
              operation with universities, polytechnics and
              industry, network structures, centralization vs.
              decentralization
            • Fundamental changes in engineering education
              philosophy
            • EU and global trends in engineering education
            • Engineering education contents and structures
              (degrees and institutions)
            • Stakeholder co-operation
            • Educational planning and development and
              feedback and evaluation systems
Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                                            15
                             Thank you!

                    More information about FuturEng
                       at www.tek.fi/futureng

                       kati.yrjanheikki@tek.fi
                       minnatakala@home.com

Nov, 3, 2001 / KY                                     16
   Suomen korkean teknologian tuotteiden tuonti ja vienti
   Imports and exports of high technology products in Finland




Source: Tilastokeskus, Statistics Finland
Kokonaispanostus T&K-toimintaan asukasta kohden 1998
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D per capita population in 1998




 Source. OECD: Main Science and Technology Indicators
T&K suhteessa BKT:een
R&D as a share of GDP
Korkean teknologian tuotteiden ulkomaankauppa 1999
High-tech export 1999
Suunniteltu matematiikan ja tieteiden oppituntimäärä vuodessa
12 – 14 vuotiaille 1998
Intended mathematics and science instruction hours per year for
students aged between 12 and 14 in 1998




 Source: OECD: Education at a Glance
Tekniikan alan osuus kaikista kolmannen aseen tutkinnoista 1998
Share of tertiary level degrees in engineering, manufacturing and
construction in 1998




Source: OECD: Education at a Glance
Number of students that took long course in mathematics and
intakes of engineering education in Finland 1999
Tohtorintutkinnot tieteenaloittain Suomessa vuonna 1999
Doctorate degrees by branch of science in Finland in 1999




Source: Ministry of Education, Finland, KOTA
Tertiary education, annual expenditure per student in equivalent
US dollars in 1997

								
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