Engineering Education Research, Innovation, and Practice by arg46217

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									 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                  OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

 Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




     Engineering Education:
Research, Innovation, and Practice


                   Norman L. Fortenberry, Sc.D.
Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education
                        National Academy of Engineering


  Women in Engineering Proactive Network: GSE-CIC Demonstration Project
                             Washington, DC
                             January 17, 2008
     NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                     OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

 Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education

                                 OUTLINE
1.      Background on Engineering Education

2.      Overview of Scholarship in Engineering Education

3.      Recent Findings

4.      CASEE’s Role and Lessons Learned

5.      Comments on the CIC Plan

6.      Possible extensions to the CIC Plan
Engineering Education Research:
Some History and Examples from the U.S.

EXCERPT FROM Opening Address
Danish Centre for Engineering Education Research and
Development
June 8, 2007
by
Cindy Atman
Director, Center for Engineering Learning and Teaching
Director, Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education
Mitchell T. Bowie and Lella Blanche Bowie Endowed Chair
Professor, Industrial Engineering
University of Washington


Center for Engineering Learning and Teaching
                     Engineering:
       Part of the Global Human Endeavor
Doing Engineering (one definition)
 “The engineering method is the strategy for causing the
 best change in a poorly understood situation within the
 available resources.” (Koen, 2003)

...in Context
   Engineering is a central element of the solutions for the
   global challenges we all face…environment, access to
   clean water, sustainability…
What does every engineer need to know?


  ethics              global context                    management skills

           math
                            engineering analysis            problem solving
   leadership
                          design               professionalism

contemporary issues                analyze data                  teamwork

     conduct experiments               life-long learning
                                                                 societal context
science                 communication
                                                business knowledge
   technical knowledge
                               creativity
                                                            engineering tools
       Our Challenge as Educators
• How do we teach our students...
  ...everything on the previous slide, plus
  • Understanding engineering as a rich, interconnected set of
    knowledge and skills that can be used to solve complex problems
  • Understanding uncertainty and tolerating ambiguity
  • Knowing how to identify when they don’t know something
  • The ability to learn from failure
  • The ability to reflect
  • The sense of “peripheral vision” needed to ensure a good design
  • ...and much more
      A Global Need and Response
• A global need
  • Research on how engineering students learn
  • Research on effective teaching for engineering learning
  • Research on effective change strategies for colleges of
    engineering
  • ...and much more


• A global response
  • Recent research activity across the globe, including the U.S.
890s   1900s   1910s     1920s   1930s     1940s     1950s   1960s    1970s      1980s     1990s         2000s              20
 American Society for Engineering Education   ASEE                Educational Research & Methods          ERM

                                     Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology   ABET            EC2000
                                                     Nat’l Science Foundation   NSF         EEC division
                                                                  Nat’l Academy of Engr.   NAE          Engr. Ed. Cmte
                                                                                                           Gordon Prize
                    Mann
                    Report

                             Wickenden
                              Report
                                                                  publications

                                                                                                        VanTH-ERC
                                                                                                            CASEE
 Sample of activity relevant to                                                            NSF Engr.
                                                                                           Education
                                                                                                              CAEE
                                                                                                              CIRTL

 engineering education research                                                            Coalitions          NCETE

                                                                                           Leonhard Center
 in the U.S.                                                                                          CELT
                                                                   organizations                         CEE
                                                                                                           Engr. Ed. Ctrs
                                                                                                                 NCEER
                                                                                                               Purdue U.
                                                                                                               VA Tech
                                                                                                                UT St. U.
                                                                                                                CO St. U.
                                                                                                                  Clemson U
 1980s                         1990s                                           2000s                                      2010
                                                                                            JEE
                                                                                           Special
 Sample of the                        Innovation
                                       Through                Systemic
                                                                                            Issue

 community                            Integration              Reform
                                                                                                  EERC
 voice                                    Bordogna,
                                      Fromm & Ernst                     NSF                     research
                                                                                                 agenda
                                                                                        Engineering         ICREE
                                              Green                                      Education         Inaugural
                                                                                                          Proceedings
                                              Report        Restructuring
                                                                                              Heywood
                                                              Engr. Ed.
                                                   ASEE                                               Rising
                                                ...Adaptive              NSF                         Above...
                             Cooperative           System
                              Learning                                                 Engineer            National
                                                                                                         Academies
sample of presentation,                                   NRC                           of 2020
publication venues:               Johnson,
                                                              Longitudinal               Educating
                            Johnson & Smith
ASEE, FIE, ICEE, MDW,                                         Study, Part I              the Engineer
                                       Teaching
iCEER; JEE, AREE, AEE,                Engineering
                                                                                            of 2020
IEEE Transactions on Ed.,                                          Felder et al.                  NAE
IJEE, EJEE, JSTEM,                            Wankat &                                                  Teaching &
JWMSE, Design Studies,                        Oreovicz   From                                            Learning
and more...                                            Analysis                                         Practices...
                                                       to Action
                                                                                                        Sheppard et al.
                                                                NRC
   1980s                             1990s                               2000s                                2010
                    Engineering Research Centers   ERC

                                     Engineering Education & Centers division      EEC

                                     graduate fellowships for women, minorities     GEE/IGERT, GRF

                                                                 GK–12 graduate teaching fellowships
                                                         Model Institutions for Excellence   MIE

                                                            Engineering Education Scholars         EESP

                                                                          Department Level Reform
National
                                                                                     Ctrs for Teaching & Learning
Science
Foundation   NSF                                                                          Engr. Ed. Research

Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Dept. of Education     FIPSE




  Sample of the                                                                   other funding sources:
                                                                                  corporations, foundations
  funding picture
1980s                   1990s                                2000s                                                2010
                                                                            CAEE
                                                                            CIRTL
             national
                        NSF Engineering                                         NCETE
             centers
                        Education                           VanTH-ERC
                        Coalitions
                                                                       CASEE              39 affiliates in 2007


                        Leonhard Center   Penn State U.

                                                          CELT   U. of Washington

        campus-based                                             CEE Colorado School of Mines
              centers                                               Engineering Education Centers
                                                                    12 centers in 2001

                                                                                         NCEER        Northwestern U.


                                                                                Purdue U.

Sample of engineering                          departments/                         Virginia Tech
                                                programs in
education research                              engineering
                                                                                    Utah State U.
organizations                                     education                              Colorado State U.
                                                                                            Clemson U.
890s   1900s   1910s     1920s   1930s     1940s     1950s   1960s    1970s      1980s     1990s         2000s              20
 American Society for Engineering Education   ASEE                Educational Research & Methods          ERM

                                     Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology   ABET            EC2000
                                                     Nat’l Science Foundation   NSF         EEC division
                                                                  Nat’l Academy of Engr.   NAE          Engr. Ed. Cmte
                                                                                                           Gordon Prize
                    Mann
                    Report

                             Wickenden
                              Report
                                                                  publications

                                                                                                        VanTH-ERC
                                                                                                            CASEE
 Sample of activity relevant to                                                            NSF Engr.
                                                                                           Education
                                                                                                              CAEE
                                                                                                              CIRTL

 engineering education research                                                            Coalitions          NCETE

                                                                                           Leonhard Center
 in the U.S.                                                                                          CELT
                                                                   organizations                         CEE
                                                                                                           Engr. Ed. Ctrs
                                                                                                                 NCEER
                                                                                                               Purdue U.
                                                                                                               VA Tech
                                                                                                                UT St. U.
                                                                                                                CO St. U.
                                                                                                                  Clemson U
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                      OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




             Definition of Scholarship*
   Creative Work,

   Recognized by Peers, and

   Appropriately Communicated.
    *Oregon State University ca. 1995
    NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                    OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

 Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




           Boyer’s Areas of Scholarship
    Discovery
    Integration
    Application
    Teaching – reflective practitioner

All four areas of scholarship are relevant for STEM discipline-based
   education:
 Research on education
 Synthetic meta analysis
 Teaching
 Faculty (self-)Development
Boyer, Scholarship Reconsidered, CFAT (1990)
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




                Areas of Scholarship
      Two Frameworks
          Engineering Education Research Colloquies
             :Led by faculty in Purdue’s Dept. of Eng. Ed.
             Sponsored by NSF & Held Fall 2005

             Involved much of the EER community

             Documented in Journal of Engineering Education,
              Vol. 95, No. 4 (published October 2006)
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




                Areas of Scholarship
      Two Frameworks (continued)
          CASEE Research Areas
             Looks at engineering education as a
              comprehensive system
             Incorporates viewpoints from other parts of the
              STEM education research community and the
              education research community more broadly
    NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

   Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education


                     Education as a
                 Transformation Process
                                                       Goals/Objectives:
                                                       Goals/objs of
                                                        Depts., Univs.,
                                                        Prof. Univs,
                                                       Depts,Societies,
                                                       Prof. Socs, etc.
                                                        Employers,
                                                        Emplrs, etc.

                           Tools (e.g.,
                 Teachers     Tools (Curriculum
               Teachers & Curriculum, Labs,                             Constraints and
                                                                       Constraints and
                  Learners     Labs, Tech, etc.)                         Ext. Influences
               & Learners  Technology, etc.)                           Ext. Influences



                           Teaching and Learning Processes
                    Teaching, Learning,and AssessmentProcesses

   Input                                                                             Output
Transformation Process Model Inspired by Hubka and Eder (1988)
    NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

   Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




               Discovery – recent findings
    CAEE* – Academic Pathways Study seeks to
     develop a comprehensive account of how
     people become engineers. Study is in it’s third
     year. http://files.asme.org/asmeorg/Education/College/Faculty/11599.pdf
          Initial findings suggest women are much more likely
           to focus on design context (social use, aesthetic
           appeal, consumer acceptance, etc.) than are men,
           while men are slightly more likely to focus on design
           details (available budget, cost of materials, .etc.) than
           are women.
*Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education, a multi-institutional
NSF-funded higher-education focused Center for Learning and Teaching
    NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

    Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




              Integration – recent findings
            How People Learn –
            http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853#toc

            IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF LEARNING
             ENVIRONMENTS

               Learning is influenced by the context in which
                it takes place. A community-centered
                approach recognizes the development of
                norms for the classroom and the school , as
                well as connections to the world, that support
                or inhibit core learning values.
*How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition (2000)
    NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

   Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education


            Future work on Integration:
            The E2020 Research Projects
          Two studies led by the Center for the Study of
           Higher Education at Penn State are linked by
           two shared questions:

                What’s needed to produce the engineer of 2020?
                What’s needed to diversify engineering education now
                 and the profession in the future?
          One study takes a broad approach across
           institutions and the other will dig down within a
           subset of institutions.
PI is Lisa Latucca DUE- and EEC-0550608
     NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

     Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




                    Application = Teaching
                       – recent findings
     VaNTH* –
     http://www.vanth.org/docs/ICEE%20Harris%20Martin%20Roselli%20Cordray.pdf

          A 3-year study of HPL-inspired methods found that
           students in challenge-based (open-ended case,
           design, etc.) classes did significantly better on 14%
           of domain-based questions designed to assess
           adaptive expertise, while students in traditional
           classes did significantly better on only 2% of the
           questions.

*Vanderbilt-Northwestern-Texas-Harvard/MIT Engineering Research Center in
Bioengineering Technologies
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




                Teaching = Faculty
                  Development
   Relevant articles in the literature
     Maura Borrego (JEE) – characterizations of faculty
      engaged in education research and impediments to
      knowledge acquisition.
     Jennifer Turns (JEE) – models of faculty decision
      making about instructional decisions
     Jeff Froyd and co-authors (FIE) – faculty
      development models
    NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                    OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




                           CASEE’s Role
    Foster excellence in the engineering workforce by
     enabling improvements to the effectiveness,
     engagement, efficiency of engineering education such
     that it better meets the needs of employers, educators,
     students, and society.

    Use a research and development approach.
         Build Capacity
         Build Community
         Advance Knowledge
         Transfer Knowledge to Improved Practice
  NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                   OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

  Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education


     CASEE:        “Fostering Research-Based Practice in Engineering
                               Education”




 ACADEME



                                   INCREASE
                                                                            DIVERSE
 INDUSTRY                         KNOWLEDGE                                GLOBALLY
                  BUILD                                    TRANSFORM     COMPETITIVE
                                                 SHARE
                   R&D                                     ENGINEERING   21ST CENTURY
                                               KNOWLEDGE
                 CAPACITY                                   EDUCATION
                                                                         ENGINEERING
                                                                         WORKFORCE
                                     BUILD
GOVERNMENT                         COMMUNITY




PROFESSIONAL
  SOCIETIES
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




              CASEE Communities
      Research Activities
        Research Community and Corresponding
         Centers
        Senior Fellows, Post-docs, Scholars-in-
         Residence
        Annals of Research of Engineering Education
         (on-line)
        Strengthening HBCU (and HSI) Engineering
         Education Research Capacity
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




              CASEE Communities
      Implementation Activities
        Implementation Network
        Peer Reviewed Research Offering Validation
         of Effective and Innovative Teaching (on-
         line)
        Instructional Metrics
        Diversity Metrics
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




              CASEE Communities
      Dissemination Activities
        Dissemination Channels
        Engineering Equity Extension Service
        Engineering Education Leadership Institute
        CASEE Chronicles
        DISTILATE e-newsletter
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                  OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




                     Lessons Learned
          The education research base is robust.
           The National Academies published How People
            Learn and highlighted the classroom implications
            and other sources have discussed “brain-based
            learning.”
           CASEE is partnering with the EngineeringPathway
            Digital Library to provide improved access to
            http://www.pr2ove-it.org a free resource on
            instructional interventions and student learning
            outcomes.
           CASEE’s EEES project (ASME and IEEE are
            partners) is building an on-line library related to
            research-based practices in gender equity at
            http://eees.nae.edu/
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




                    Lessons Learned
       The education research base is growing.
       CASEE partnered with the American
         Sociological Association to look at inhibitors
         to faculty educational innovation
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




                    Lessons Learned
          Faculty time and attention in this area
           depends on incentives, but the payoff can
           be large:
           More productive teaching
           More focused time for traditional research
           More easily address NSF merit review criteria
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




           Comments on the CIC Plan
          Relevant Applications
           Correlates with the work on “brain-based”
            learning – See John Medina’s work
           Is very well developed.
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




           Comments on the CIC Plan
          Improving Spatial Visualization skills
           addresses a common assertion about women
            lagging in this regard,
           builds on a recent National Academies report
            about the need for this skill generally, and
           can also build on research about how to
            enhancing this skill within women and girls
            through a variety of means (practice, video
            games, etc.).
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




           Comments on the CIC Plan
          BESTEAMS
           has a strong performance record and
           builds on the extensive research base on
            cooperative and collaborative learning.
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




Possible Extensions to the CIC Plan
       Service Learning

       Leadership

       Engineering Design

       Cross-cultural Awareness
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education




                              Questions?

								
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