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									            Wastewater Management’s 2008 Annual

The City of Spokane Wastewater Management Department is pleased to share with you
our 2008 annual report. This report summarizes our services, programs we maintain,
projects we are involved with, expenditures for the year, and the personnel who works
for us. The Department’s programs include, but are not limited to, Wastewater
Collection, Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation, Combined Sewer Overflow
Reduction and Stormwater Management. All services and programs are components
of the Water Quality Improvement Program. The purpose of the Water Quality
Improvement Program is to help protect our natural water resources.

Mission Statement
We believe that clean water is fundamental to life itself and we strive to protect public
health, property and the environment. We will provide service by utilizing sound
financial and natural resource management practices. We will continue to give out
customers the best service values in the Pacific Northwest. We recognize that our
customers are members of our community and you are the key to helping us succeed!!

 Page 1
            2008 Annual Report

                                              Table of Contents
         Title                                                                          Page No.
         Directors Letter                                                                       3

         Chapter 1: Introduction                                                                3

         Chapter 2: Sewer Maintenance Ad-                                                       5
            ministration and Engineering

         Chapter 3: RPWRF Administration,                                                       8
            Engineering, & Maintenance
         Chapter 4: Overview of Wastewater                                                     11
         Chapter 5: 2008 Projects                                                              14

         Chapter 6: 2008 Expenditures                                                          17

         Chapter 7: History of the Wastewater                                                  19
            Maintenance Division

         Chapter 8: History of the Riverside                                                   22
            Park Water Reclamation Facility

         Bibliography                                                                          24

 Above, a Sewer Maintenance Crew assisting
 the Construction Crew with a vactor truck.
                                                       Above, a RPWRF lab technician labeling samples.
Page 2
           2008 Annual Report

Director’s letter
Wastewater Management is pleased to report that our environmental stewardship efforts continue to
increase as we provide high quality services within our community. Even though our national
economy turned for the worst we were able to not let it affect our programs or the services we

Our maintenance crews were able to keep our collection system functioning properly. To do so, over
1200 miles of sewer and storm line were preventively cleaned, catch basins were cleaned out, street
inlets were cleared of ice and debris, and complaints and emergencies were addressed and resolved.

Modernizing infrastructure and equipment at the Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility
(RPWRF) continues to help prepare our treatment system for more stringent effluent standards. The
completion of the digesters has allowed us to focus on utilizing the Reclamation Facility. The
Reclamation Facility upgrade program has three main goals, water quality, reliable operation and
hydraulic capacity. Staff in the RPWRF’s certified lab monitors performance and prepares monthly
reports. These reports are turned in to the Department of Ecology and they confirm that our
discharge permit is being met.

For the future Wastewater Management will be increasing our efforts to further protect the
environment we live in. We will be monitoring and testing discharges from our storm outfalls to
understand where sources of pollution are. We will be adopting three ordinances to fulfill our permit
requirements. The RPWRF will continue to upgrade for the next eight years. We are looking forward
to future challenges and are ready for new environmental standards.

Chapter 1- Introduction
Wastewater Management is comprised of two divisions: Sewer Maintenance and the Riverside Park
Water Reclamation Facility (RPWRF). These divisions include the collection system and the
treatment system. Sewer Maintenance is responsible for maintaining the collection system. The
collection system provides a variety of services such as construction, maintenance and management
of sewer lines, stormwater and combined sewer and stormwater facilities. The RPWRF is responsible
for sewage into treated effluent, reclaimed water, and biosolids. All services are designed to protect
local water resources and public health. Wastewater Management provides a high-functioning
wastewater collection system and treatment facility that are cost effective to ratepayers.

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         2008 Annual Report

         The Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility located at 4401 N. A. L. White
         Parkway Spokane, WA 99205.

         Sewer Maintenance located at 909 E. Sprague Ave. Spokane WA, 99202.

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           2008 Annual Report

Chapter 2- Sewer Maintenance Administration, Engineering, and Maintenance Crews
This chapter introduces Wastewater Management’s staff.

    Sewer Maintenance’s Administration and Engineering.

Sewer Maintenance’s Administration and Engineering.

Read from left to right:
First row: Corey Blair, Bill Peacock, Julie Hogan, Tim Lusk, Janet Davey
Second row: Dale Arnold, Lars Hendron, Ryan Schulte, John Lines, Mike Yake, Mike Morris,
   Sharon Bowers
Not pictured: Kevan Brooks, Mike Schug, and Tina Brisson

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              2008 Annual Report

An organizational chart of Sewer Maintenance Administration and Engineering.

                                          Dale Arnold

Accountant II: Brooks                           Principal Engineer Col-             Principal Engineer Pro-
                                                lection Systems: Peacock           ject Management Offices:

Accountant I: Bowers          Senior Engineer: Yake              CSO, AECOM                          RPWRF PMO, CH2M Hill

             Associate Engineer: Mor-                            Stormwater Engineering
             ris                                                 Tech: Pearson

             Engineering Tech III:                               Engineering Tech III:
             Brisson                                             Schulte

                               Engineering Tech II:                                Engineering Tech II:
                               Lines                                               Lusk

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          2008 Annual Report

Sewer Maintenance Crews.

Read from left to right:
Front row: Gary Kaesemeyer, Travis Wilbourn, Al Arguinzoni, John Creed, Scott Stewart, Ed Cates,
Second row: Randy Nord, Chris Hammer, Mike Look, Jared Wells-Dutton, Jim Gould, Bill Craver, Shilo
    Sprouse, Raylene Gennett, Rob Jamison, Dan Duffey,
Third row: Dan Keison, Rod Glasser, Brent Thrash,
Fourth row: Rick poetter, Joe Conely, Richard Bower, Dave Hanshaw,
Fifth row: Robert Alderson, Robert Wright, Ralph Kirby, Greg Buts, Matt Kelsey,
Sixth row: Leland Johnson, Dean Earls, Lon Skarrvold, Nick Langston, Doug Uhlenkott, David Hood, Chris
Seventh row: Nate Kujawa, Jim Montague, Larry McIntyre, Mike Simmons, Chuck Kauffman, Michio
    Terao, Jay Manning, Dale Hodges, Greg Martin, Rob Beacon, John Walpole, Will Darnquast,
Not pictured: Dave Hanshaw, Tim Archer, Russ Beseler, Malfred Lund, Don Holt, Russ Beseker, Brian

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            2008 Annual Report

Chapter 3- Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility Administration, Engineering
and Maintenance Crews
This chapter introduces the RPWRF’s staff.

Read from left to right
Front row: Angela Bosevich, Dione Fernandez, Kim Bussiere, Kevin Grubb, Steve Bliesner, Alissa Hill, Mike
Second row: George Eltz, Kevin Seals, Dano Cummings, Bob Wall, Gary Bussiere, George Rob, Ray Rouse,
   Don Arndt, Bob Darilek, Mike Cannon, Jeff Elkins, Nick Codd, Rich Hillebrandt, Ted Vagenas, Jim Rowe,
   Justin Anderson, Paul Nayes
Third row: Jon Eckhart, Darin Evans, Tim Pelton, Sonya Emswiler, Bruce Brurud, Jeff Pugh, Jeff Jordan,
   Mike Goan, John Jones, Joe Papenieur, Brian McMillan, Troy Knutson, Mike Beeler, Pat Wise, Jon
Fourth row: Ash Hallam, Mike Jobe, Chuck Meyers, Scott Austin, Frank Ham, Steve McKnelley, Bill Futch,
   Randy Barry, Ray Humphries, Ron Kendall, William Wood
Not pictured: Swing and Night Shift

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              2008 Annual Report

An organizational chart of Sewer Maintenance Administration and Maintenance crews.

                                                      Dale Arnold


                                        Clerk III: Davey

                                        Clerk II: Hogan

             Supervisor (North           Supervisor                 Supervisor                  Supervisor (South
             Side): Clouse               (Stormwater): Gen-         (Stormwater): Low-          Side): Skaarvold
                                         nette                      don

Wastewater Inspec-        Stormwater Inspec-                                     Stormwater Inspec-          Wastewater Inspec-
tor: Dornquast            tor: Duffey                                            tor: Glasser                tors: Montague, Sim-
                                                                                                             mons, Stewart, Fogal,

Wastewater Special-       Wastewater Special-                                    Wastewater Spe-             Wastewater Specialist:
ist: Wright, Kirby        ist: Terao, Howell,                                    cialits: Wilbourn,          Kauffman, Bentley
                          Ulhenkott, Arguin-                                     Johnson, Martin,
                          zoni                                                   Langston, Hanshaw

Construction: Jami-       Laborer I: Hill, Holt,                                 Laborer II: Bowers,         LaborerII: Heath,
son, Crockett             Beseler, Ray, Ku-                                      Nord, Butz                  Keison, Kirby,
                          jawa, Alderson                                                                     Wright, Thompson,

Laborer II: Mcin-         Utility Locator:                                       Labor I: Thrash,            Radio Operator:
tyre, Hammer,             Earls                                                  Craver, Walpole,            Nguyen
Wells-Dutton, Look        Warehouse- Cates                                       Conely, Manning,
                                                                                 Gould, Kelsy, Creed

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               2008 Annual Report

An organizational chart of the RPWRF Administration, Engineering and Maintenance Crews.


                                      Superinten-      Admini-
                                                       Admini-                                      Superin-
                                                                                                    Superinten-                                                     Clerk III:
                                                                                                                                                                    Clerk III–
                                      dant– Pel-       stration:
                                                       stration–                                    tendant:
                                                                                                    dant– Cos-                                                      Kibbey
                                      ton              Masin-
                                                       Masingale,                                   Coster

        Lab Su-
        Lab Super-              Data Su-
                                Data Super-                             Stationary    Senior       Operata-
                                                                                                   Operatation                                     Maintenance      Clerk II:
                                                                                                                                                                    Clerk II-
        visor- Can-             pervisor:
                                visor-                                  Supervi-      Engineer:
                                                                                      Engineer-    tion Su-
                                                                                                   Supervisor-                                     Surpervisor-
                                                                                                                                                   Surpervisor-     Barnhart
        non                     Meyers
                                Meyers                                  sor-
                                                                        sor:          Brown        pervisor:
                                                                        Darilek                    Grubd

Chemist-              Ana-
                GIS Ana-                   Senior In-       Stationary Engi-
                                                            neer- Change,
                                                                               Stationary                  Operator III:
                                                                                                           Operator III- Grubb,
                                                                                                           Grubb, Headley,
                                                                                                           Headley, Adelm-
                                                                                                                                                           Senior Main-
                                                                                                                                                           Sr. Maint.
                                           strument                            Engineer:
                                                                               Engineer-                                                                   tenance Me-
Hardy,          lyst: Schug
                lyst- Schug                                 Change, Codd,
                                                            Codd, Furman,
                                                                                                           lend, Armentino,
                                           Tech: Chase,
                                           Tech- Chase,     Furman, McMil-     McMillian,
                                                                               McMillian,                  Armentino, Crooks,
                                                                                                           Crooks, Elkins,                                 Inwards,
                                                            lian, Morse,       Morse, Wil-
                                                                                                           Elkins, Goan, Ham,
                                                                                                           Goan, Ham, Hernar,                              I:wards, Ev-
                                           Hallam           Morse, Williams,   Morse, Wil-                 Kendall, Kendall,
                                                                                                           Hernar, Olsen                                   Evans,
Eltz, Wall                                 Hallam           Williams, Hille-                                                                               ans, Vagenas
Eltz, Wall                                                  Hillebrandt
                                                            brandt             liams
                                                                               liams                       Olsen

                                                            Custodian:                                     Operator
                                                                                                           Operator II- Thompson, Futch, M urray

Lab Tech:
    Tech-                                                                                                                                                  Maintenance
                                                                                                                                                           Maint. Mechanic-
                         Programmer                         Custodian-                                                                                     Mechanic:
                                                                                                                                                           Johndrow, Barry,
Austin,                  Analysis:
                         Analysist-                         Robb
                                                            Robb                                           II: Thomp-                                      Johndrow, Barry,
                                                                                                                                                           Brown, Egerton,
Bussiere,                Blair
                         Blair                                                                                                                             Brown, Egerton,
                                                                                                           son, Futch,                                     McKnelly,
                                                                                                                                                           McKnelly, Nayes,
Boseuich,                                                                                                                                                  Nayes, Barnhart,
Eckary                                                                                                     Murray                                          Barnhart, Ander-

                Electrician-               Instrument
                                           Instrument                                                      Operator I:
                                                                                                           Operator I- King,                               Heavy
                                           Repair Tec:
                                           Repair Tech-                                                    King, Ar-
                Jordan                                                                                                                                     Equip. Op-
                                                                                                                                                           Equip. Op-
                                           Bliesner,                                                       mentino, Jones,
                                                                                                           Jones, Knutson,
                                           Bliesner,                                                                                                       erator- Cas-
                                                                                                                                                           erator: Casti-
                HVAC-                      Brurud, Evans,
                                           Brurud, Evans,
                                                                                                           Phillipa, Baty,
                Gordon                     Humphries                                                       Phillipa, Baty,
                                                                                                           Seals, Thomas                                   tillo, Tho-
                                                                                                                                                           llo, Thomas
                Gordon                     Humphries                                                       Seals, Thomas                                   mas

                                                                                                                                                           II: Mor-
                                                                                                                                                           II- Mor-
                                                                                                                                                           gan, Land-

                                                                                                                                                           Laborer II:
                                                                                                                                                           Laborer II-
                                                                                                                                                           Cooks, Pot-
                                                                                                                                                           ter, Warren,
                                                                                                                                                           ter, Warren,

  Page 10
           2008 Annual Report

Chapter 4- Overview of Wastewater Management
Domestic wastewater is a combination of household wastes from the kitchen, toilet, shower and
laundry. Industrial wastewater is water-borne wastes from manufacturing, food processing, catering,
agriculture, hospitals, hotels and other non-residential institutions. Industrial wastewater is similar
to household waste because it contains a mixture of organic and inorganic materials. However, the
proportion of organic and inorganic differs depending on the source of the industrial wastewater.
Some industries discharge a higher proportion of organic materials and others discharge a higher
proportion of inorganic materials.

Beginning in the 1900s municipal separate storm sewer system, referred to as MS4, were being built
throughout the City (e.g. Brown’s Addition). The purpose of the MS4 is to reduce combines sewer
overflows. Construction of the MS4 took place from 1980 to1993. Beginning in the 1950s the City
began building CSOs. Between 1972-1980 marked the beginning of CSO reduction planning. During
1992-1994 a new CSO reduction plan was written and amended in 2005. Wastewater Management
decided to place underground storage tanks at strategic locations throughout the City. The purpose
of these tanks is to prevent excess flow from heavy runoff from overflowing to the Spokane River and
Latah Creek. The tanks will drain or be pumped back to the system for treatment after the storm flow
has decreased. Starting in 2002, construction of these storage tanks began. These facilities help
reduce pollution from reaching the Spokane River and Latah Creek and are in accordance with
Ecology’s CSO regulations.

The Collection System

   1. Sewer Maintenance
      Maintenance performed on existing sanitary and combined sewer pipes includes balling,
      hydroing, repairing, and viewing the pipes with a closed circuit T.V. equipment. There are 20
      sewer crews ranging from construction to maintenance. There are four T.V. trucks and a
      variety of other vehicles used to perform maintenance.

             o Balling is a process that uses a rubber ball and a high pressure hose to clean the
               pipes. Once the ball is in the pipe, water is released behind it forcing the ball to
               rotate and remove accumulated debris and sand.
             o Hydroing is a technique involving a high-pressure hose and a nozzle. The nozzle
               projects water in different directions to effectively remove debris from the pipe. An
               additional technique called rodding involves the removal of roots that have grown
               into the pipes.
             o T.V. trucks use cameras to visually inspect pipe conditions. They help operators
               and engineers determine whether the water in the pipe is flowing properly.
             o Other miscellaneous maintenance work include, but are limited to, repairs of
               collapsed pipes, upgrading existing pipe, replacement of manhole rings and covers,
               modifications to reduce maintenance requirements, and routine cleaning of catch
               basins and storm inlet structures.

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            2008 Annual Report

          2. Wet Weather Management
             The City of Spokane continues to grow. Urbanization changes the environment
             resulting in an increase in pollution and flooding. The purpose of this program is to
             protect waters of the state from pollution, keep the environment clean, and reduce the
             risk of health hazards. The Wet Weather Program consists of two components. The
             components are as follows:

                   A. Stormwater Management- Separated Systems and Infiltration
                             Stormwater is runoff from roof tops and
                             impervious surfaces initiated by rain or snow
                             melt events. Stormwater Management is an
                             increasing priority for Wastewater Management.
                             Recent stormwater planning and new
                             stormwater programs are being implemented in
                             response to the Eastern Washington Phase II
                             Municipal Stormwater Permit (WAR04-6505)
                             issued by the Department of Ecology in 2007.
                             The purpose of a Stormwater Management Program is to ensure that
                             stormwater systems, catch basins, dry wells, bioinfiltration grassy
                       swales, trunks and lateral storm drain pipes continually meet permit
                       requirements. The City’s MS4 is over 300 miles of pipe and discharges
                       stormwater into the Spokane River and Latah Creek at approximately 100
                       locations. Some of the City’s stormwater is treated through bioinfiltration
                       grassy swales. These structures infiltrate stormwater as it goes into the
                       ground following water quality treatment that traps sediments, nutrients,
                       heavy metals, bacteria, oil and grease. They are designed to ensure the water
                       going back into the ground is treated.

                   B. Combined Sewer Management
                       Combined Sewers carry both wastewater and stormwater to the Riverside
                       Park Water Reclamation Facility. The City operates over 400 miles of
                       Combined sewers. Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO) occur when heavy rain
                       or snow melt events fill pipes beyond capacity. If an overflow occurs, a
                       mixture of wastewater and stormwater discharges into the Spokane River, or
                       occasionally Latah Creek. Overflows can carry human bacteria, viruses,
                       chemicals, oils and other wastes. Although the overflow is typically diluted by
                       rain and river water it still poses a potential threat to the environment and
                       human health. By 2017 each CSO outfall is required to discharge less than
                       once per year and storage tanks are being built to accomplish this. The City
                       also developed a public education program that includes: new signs posted at
                       each CSO outfall along the river, flyers, posters, and a new number for
                       receiving calls about CSO problems. In addition to the signs, information

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               2008 Annual Report

                           kiosks were placed at selected river access points , dry weather overflow
                           warning signs have been placed at key locations; and our website provides
                           useful information about combined sewers.

       3. New Sewer Construction and Inspection
         Spokane’s population is increasing leading to an expansion of the sewer system. New sewers
         are also constructed to eliminate septic tanks. Sewer construction and inspection ensures
         that the wastewater collection system, associated sewer pipes and pump station facilities are
         properly designed, built, and consistently meet the needs of the community. Water quality
         standards must be met and proper permits must be obtained. Inspections are conducted for
         new or repaired collection system projects and preventive maintenance routines.

The Treatment System
The Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility began operating in 1958 to reduce the amount of
pollution being discharged into the river. Prior to 1958 all sewage was discharged to the river without
any treatment. The Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility is permitted to discharge up to 44-
million-gallons of wastewater, on average, during the dry weather season. It is capable of handling
100-million-gallons of wastewater per day during the wet weather season. Excess flow beyond 100
mgd is stored for later treatment. The Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility consistently
produces high quality effluent and has won several awards for beneficial use of biosolids. There are
three major aspects of treating wastewater:

           1. Pre-treatment. The goal of pre-treatment is to keep harmful substances such as heavy
              metals out of wastewater systems and the river. The pre-treatment program manages
              what goes into the collection system prior to reaching the Riverside Park Water
              Reclamation Facility so that biological treatment processes are not disrupted. The pre-
              treatment program enhances water reclamation and keeps the cost efficient.

           2. Liquid Treatment and Water Reclamation. Water Reclamation begins when
              wastewater enters the Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility and settleable solids are
              separated from the liquid. The Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility is described as
              an accelerated ecosystem because it uses natural biological and chemical processes to
              reclaim wastewater. Many pollutants in wastewater are dissolved and require special
              biological processes to separate them from the water. Microorganisms are used to convert
              pollutants into biomass. Biomass, sometimes referred to as sludge, undergoes two
              biological treatment processes, aerobic and anaerobic. It then is sent to a belt filter press
              to remove most of the water. Now the biomass is ready to be used as fertilizer.

              Once the solids are separated, chlorine is added to the water to kill bacteria that could
              harm fish, humans and or wildlife. Last, neutralizing the chlorine and testing the residual
              is critical to ensure that the effluent discharging into the river meets federal and state
              water regulations.

           3. Solids Processing and Biosolids Application. Biosolids are nutrient-rich organic

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           2008 Annual Report

           materials (biomass) resulting from the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment
           facility. Once wastewater reaches the Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility it goes
           through physical, chemical and biological processes that remove solids. After treatment,
           biosolids can be recycled and applied as fertilizer to improve and maintain productive
           soils, as well as stimulate crop growth. The controlled land application of biosolids
           completes a natural cycle in the environment.

           Applying biosolids to land is a beneficial, economic and environmental opportunity.
           Recycling biosolids to farmland allows the Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility to
           save money by lowering disposal costs. Biosolids help the environment because they are
           utilized as fertilizer instead of decomposing in a landfill. Biosolids are used on dry land
           crop sites and replace commercial grade fertilizers. They are classified as Grade B
           biosolids and cannot be used in gardens, parks or edible plant beds that are in direct
           contact with food for human consumption (e.g. carrots, potatoes or other root
           vegetables). Their use on commercially grown grain has helped productivity of both the
           farmers and the reclamation facility. As more wastewater treatment plants become
           capable of producing high quality biosolids, there is an even greater opportunity to make
           use of this resource.

Chapter 5- 2008 Projects
This chapter provides descriptions of projects that were underway in 2008. Projects include both the
collection system and the Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility (RPWRF).

       Egg-Shaped Digester Facility (EDF)
       The new Egg-Shaped Digesters incorporate the most current proven design approach to
       anaerobic wastewater sludge digestion. Each of the two 2.9 million gallon digesters are highly
       insulated, built of steel for durability, and of a shape that optimizes mixing. They can be
       operated in series or parallel configuration, and have several redundant safety systems to
       prevent overfilling and over pressurization, as well as enhanced foam removal. The new
       digesters were also designed to comply with the facility’s Aesthetic Mitigation Plan, which
       strives to select and implement architectural and landscaping features that harmonize with its
       location in Riverside State Park. Subtle color, traditional materials that age well (such as
       brick), and large mature trees were chosen with local community input. The new Egg Shaped
       Digesters were substantially completed in the fall of 2008. Startup is underway for spring

       Street Bond Infrastructure Upgrades
       The Wastewater Management Department coordinated with arterial street bond projects and
       other City infrastructure work. When sewer or storm drain facilities are near these other City
       projects, the department evaluates these facilities for upgrade or replacement. For example: in
       conjunction with a road project the Department may fund the replacement of old catch
       basins, shallow or broken pipe. Upgrades are funded by Wastewater Management as a
       contribution to the larger City improvement.

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          2008 Annual Report

      Reclaimed Water Pilot
      The City is operating a pilot project for two full seasons to demonstrate the feasibility of using
      reclaimed water locally during the growing season. The highest Department of Health
      classification, Class A reclaimed water, is produced using a small scale filter system located
      at the RPWRF. Downriver Golf Course was selected as the initial recipient of the reclaimed
      water in 2007. Expansion of service to Qualchan Golf Course occurred in 2008. Reclaimed
      water is trucked to storage at the golf courses for use in their irrigation systems. Each course
      uses about 5000 gallons a day of reclaimed water, about one percent of their peak demand.

      Next Level of Treatment Pilot
      The purpose of this pilot is to determine the most suitable technology for removing
      phosphorus from effluent with an objective of achieving a discharge with seasonal average of
      50ug/l or lower per the State Department of Ecology proposed Total Maximum Daily Loads
      (TMDL). Initiated in 2007, six pilot units were installed in 2008 for testing in 2009 and
      2010. Piping, pumping and electrical infrastructure were built to connect the pilot to the main

      CSO Basin 16/18 Control Facility
      This includes the design and construction of a CSO storage facility at CSO 16/18. The purpose
      of the facility is to meet Department of Ecology regulations regarding overflows and better
      manage downstream interceptor flow rates. This facility includes installation of flow controls,
      self cleaning flush mechanisms, a new consolidated regulator, elimination of two CSO outfalls,
      and remote sensing for centralized monitoring.

      Plant- Wide Pumping and Electrical Monitoring Upgrades
      These are sumps and pumps draining water from various sources at the plant were completed
      in 2008. The Plantwide Pumping and Electrical Monitoring System Upgrade expanded the
      facility’s ability to contain, on an impervious surface, any spills of wastewater, process
      chemicals, or fuels. It also enables monitoring electrical loads for the RPWRF The project
      involved the addition of several new sumps, extensive repiping, replacement of the existing
      sump mechanisms, and a sump level monitoring system that allows operations personnel to
      manage the sumps via SCADA. Substantial portions of the facility’s asphalt surface were
      regraded so as to properly rebalance precipitation induced flows to sumps, and the riverside
      curbing replaced with a higher and more robust design. Electrical equipment was added and
      connected to SCADA for monitoring from the main control room sump systems now fully

      Digester Feed Tree
      The digester feed tree is designed to deliver solids to both old and new digesters. The digester
      feed tree project provided a remotely operated feed manifold that allows the facility to feed
      sludge to any of the digesters (old and new). Constructed of glass lined pipe (to reduce
      clogging), fitted with sludge metering devices and motor controlled valves, the completion of
      this project was critical for the start-up of the new egg-shaped digesters. It is also configured
      in anticipation of the future construction of digesters 3 and 4. The project is complete, and in

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           2008 Annual Report

daily operation.

Riverbank Enhancement
The purpose of this project was to plant native flora species along the river bank next to the plant in
accordance with our Shoreline Permit. The facility went through a major upgrade in the 1970s, which
involved raising significant rock fill. This project involved the placement of soil and rocks along the
bank, planting with native plant species suitable for the river environment, and a drip irrigation
system until root systems are established. The project is complete.

                                                     To the left, the RPWRF’s anaerobic digesters.
                                                     They stabilize solids so they can be used as
                                                     fertilizer in the land application program.
                                                     They produce 40,000 cubic yards of digested
                                                     municipal sewage sludge (referred to as bio-
                                                     solids) annually.

                                                    To the left, Sewer Maintenance Crew, equipped
                                                    with a hydro truck, conducting routine mainte-
                                                    nance in the Peaceful Valley neighborhood.

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            2008 Annual Report

Chapter 6– 2008 Expenditures
This chapter presents the 2008 expenditures for Sewer Maintenance and the Riverside Park Water
Reclamation Facility.

                                                                                  Actual 2008
Sewer Maintenance

  Administration                                                                        595,539
  Maintenance                                                                          7,154,913
  Operations                                                                          2,878,741
  Equipment                                                                             328,044
  Taxes                                                                               3,142,046

  Administration                                                                        964,854
  Maintenance                                                                         2,764,601
  Operations                                                                         10,676,906
  Equipment                                                                             327,143
  Taxes                                                                               8,916,007

Capital Projects
  RPWRF                                                                               9,364,457
  CSO                                                                                 2,982,113
  Storm                                                                               1,167,568
  Collection                                                                          1,509,167
  TMDL Compliance                                                                     3,523,149
Debt Services                                                                          430,452

  Sewer Maintenance                                                                  14,099,283

 RPWRF                                                                               23,649,521
 Capital Projects                                                                    18,976,906
Total                                                                               56,725,710

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          2008 Annual Report

                                  Six Year Financial Summary
                                   (Numbers are in $1,000’s)

                                     2009        2010         2011      2012       2013       2014
Beginning Cash Balance:              41,265     41,665       39,511    39,269    34, 398      5,271

                                          Sources of Funds
 Sewer Services Revenue              35,976     37,301       38,784    40,426     42,028     43,695
 Other Operational Revenue              283         283          283      283         283       283
 Rate Stabilization Fund             16,767     17,354        17,961   18,590      19,241    19,914
 Stormwater Utility                   6,354      6,552         6,782    7,019       7,265      7,519
 Fees, Grants, Loans, LID             3,000      2,900        2,900     2,900      2,900      2,900
 Interdepartmental Transfers            100         100          100      100         100        100
 Spokane County Utility               2,304      2,895        3,840     5,000      11,573    12,559
 Interest                             1,486       1,667        1,580     1,571      1,376         211

Total Source of Funds:              66,270     69,052     72,230       75,889    84,766      87,181

                                         Demand for Funds
Operating Expenses:
 Administration                       1,459      1,481         1,503    1,525      1,548       1,572
 Maintenance                          8,304       8,511       8,794     8,942      9,166      9,395
 Operations                          16,132     16,329       16,753    17,272     17,677     18,076
 Equipment                            1,200      1,200         1,500    1,500      1,500      1,500
 Loan Payments & Other                  425        425           425      425        425         425
 Debt Service Taxes                  13,784     14,412        15,101   15,875     17,832     18,609
Operating Expenses Subtotal:         41,304     42,358       44,076    45,539     48,148     49,577

Capital Projects, Construction
  and Planning Expenses:
 Programmed Funds (hard)             24,566     28,848     28,396       35,221    65,745     65,708
 Programmed Funds (soft)                  0          0          0            0         0          0
Capital Projects Subtotal:          24,566     28,848     28,396       35,221    65,745     65,708

Total Demand for Funds:             65,870     71,206     72,472       80,760    113,893    115,285
Total Demand for Sewer              65,870     71,206     72,472       80,760    113,893    115,285
                               Ending Cash Balance, Including Reserves
Ending Cash Balance                  41,665     39,511       39,269    33,398       5,271   -22,833
Reserve Balance                       4,500     4,500         4,500     4,500      4,500      4,500
Available Cash                       37,165     35,011       34,769    29,898         771   -27,333

Page 18
           2008 Annual Report

Chapter 7- History of the Wastewater Maintenance Division
On a hot Sunday afternoon in August 4, 1889 Spokane experienced a devastating fire, known as the
Great Fire. Within four hours 27 blocks of downtown Spokane was completely destroyed. In an effort
to stopping the fire the City ordered the demolition of several buildings on Lincoln and Bernard
Street. Many people were fleeing to the north side of the Spokane River. Hot winds fanned the flames
and by 9:00 p.m. the winds clamed down and the fire was under control. Property damage was
estimated between $5 to $10.It was uncertain how the fire started but the devastation that is caused
forced Spokane to rethink and rebuild the City. “We will build Spokane bigger and better,” people
said and they did. Part of making Spokane better was constructing a structured sewer system.

Prior to the fire only one sewer existed which extended from Howard Street and First Avenue to the
Spokane River. As Spokane was being rebuilt the City Council believed this was the time to establish
a structured sewer system. From the Spokane River to the South Hill and from Division to Cedar
sewers were installed. As a result the Sewer Division was established April 1, 1891.

A Superintendent and several laborers were hired. The Superintendent was paid $150 per month
where $125 came from the Water Fund and $25 came from the Sewer Fund. Laborers were paid $2
per day and Union Laborers were paid $3 per day. During this time, most of the sewer construction
was performed through day labor because there were not enough employees at the Sewer Division to
handle the work load alone.

From 1900 to 1910, the sewer system was expanded to the north side specifically the St. Luke and
Gonzaga Districts; and the South Side, Peaceful Valley, Browne’s Addition, the lower part of Cannon
Hill, and the west part of Liberty Park district. The Sewer Division was only equipped with a
wheelbarrow, a few lengths of fire hose (donated by the Fire Department), some stiff cables, rope,
homemade winches and heavy wooden or iron sewer rods. In 1909 a gray horse named Possum was
provided to the Sewer Division. Possum was used for ten years until the first truck, a GMC truck,
took his job.

By 1920 the sewer system expanded to the Corbin Park area, the rest of Cannon Hill, Liberty Park
and into the Manito and Rockwood districts. The Sewer Division moved from under the City
Engineer to the Department of Public Works, today known as the Public Works and Utilities
Department. During the next decade the Sewer Division was able to obtain the latest advanced
equipment. Catch basins were hand dipped and materials where hauled off instead of being flushed
into the sewer system. This was the first advancement toward having a separated sanitary and
stormwater sewer system.

During the “roaring 20’s” the sewer system was extended to the North Hill, Lidgerwood, all of Union
park west of Regal, Altamont Boulevard, beyond 29th on the South Hill and to most of the Audubon
district. In 1928, the first eductor was purchased, ending the unpleasant and unsightly hob of hand
dipping catch basins. The eductor cut the time of cleaning catch basins in half. Once the hose was
placed into the manhole, high pressured water was released into a side connecting hose, creating a
vacuum chamber that removed water and debris from catch basins.

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           2008 Annual Report

During the Great Depression no sewers were built by City crews but miles of sewer lines were
constructed by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and other relief agencies in cooperation
with the City. This made the 1930s one of the largest decades for sewer construction. Sewer was
added to all of Union park east of Regal, the Union Park trunk, Cannon Hill relief and South Manito.

By 1936 the sewer system had grew so much throughout the City that one repair crew could not keep
up with demand. As a result a second repair crew was added to the Sewer Division. Now the Sewer
Division had a total of three crews. This allowed the crews to be assigned to specific jobs. One repair
crew was assigned to the south side, one repair crew was assigned to the north side and one crew was
assigned to the eductor. By 1938 the Sewer Division received its first flexible rods. These rods were
used to remove tree roots out of sewer pipes to prevent blockage.

During World War II sewer construction came to a halt. After the war Spokane had a spike in
population and constructing buildings. As a result constructing sewers continued. Garland-Wellesley
trunk was build and sewer was constructed for all the Shadle area. The King Addition and Acre Park
Addition were built forcing sewers to be constructed for this area. As a result the South Manito
sewers, constructed by the WPA, became overloaded. More laterals were constructed to serve the
rapidly developing areas throughout the City. By 1948 street construction rapidly expanded and a
fourth crew was added . The fourth crew was assigned to constructing sewer drainage system. Then,
as street construction slowed down the fourth crew was assigned to maintain the east part of
Spokane. Also in 1948, flexible power drives were purchases which increased the number of miles
tree roots needed to be removed.

During the 1950s Spokane saw a continuation of rapid expansion of the sewer system. Sewers were
established for the north and west parts of Lincoln Heights. Northwest, Rowan Avenue, the North
Hillyard sub-trunk, Byrne Park, Ross Park, Upriver Additions and the River Ridge sewers were also
completed. The most important extension to the sewer system was the North Perry area because it
drains the entire area north of Rowan from Division to Crestline.

With the expanding sewer system in the 1950’s new and more efficient equipment was provided. In
1951 two bucket machines were purchased for the purpose of cleaning larger sewers. By 1955 all
vehicles had radios which brought a new line of communication between the crews. In 1956 an
additional flexible rodder was purchased and a fifth crew was created and added. In 1957 the Wayne
Sewer Ball came into general use by the repair crews. The purpose of the ball was to clean
accumulated debris from sewer pipes. Spokane is one of few cities that continues to used this

By the 1960s the original sewer system began to age and maintaining the pipes was not enough;
therefore older pipes had to be replaced. The Sewer Division also needed a better way of inspecting
sewer pipes. In 1966 the City hired a company to visually inspect the pipes and introduced a new
technology that determines if a pipe needed to be fixed or replace. This new technology used a closed
circuit t.v. truck which consisted of cameras. The purposed of cameras was to place it inside the pipes
to inspect the structural conditions as well as debris accumulation. Prior to the use of these t.v.
cameras crews utilized lamp holes to inspect sewer pipes. Lamp holes were positioned in between
manholes. However, in order for it to work, a lamp had to be lowered into a pipe that connected to

 Page 20
           2008 Annual Report

the sewer line. Once the lamp was in the pipe crews would go to opposite ends of the pipe and look in
the pipes. This was not a very effective method of maintaining sewer pipes because crews were
unable to see structural damage until it was quite advanced. In 1968, the Sewer Division purchased
its first t.v. truck.

In the early 1970’s additional crews were added because the Sewer Division began replacing tile and
concrete pipes with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PVC has fewer joints, ensures less infiltration and root
problems. In 1974 the Sewer Division purchased two vactor trucks. The purpose of these trucks were
to clean catch basins. Crews eight and nine were assigned to operate these trucks. In 1976 preventive
maintenance methods were established and added to the crews work loads. This type of
maintenance was to stop historical problems from reoccurring. In 1978 the Sewer Division
purchased a second t.v. truck. The bothersome aspect of early methods of tving sewer pipes was that
crews had to hand pull the cameras through the pipe. By the end of 1970s existed only nine crews
containing twenty-five workers.

The 1980’s brought some tough obstacles for the Sewer Division. In 1980,separating sanitary
wastewater from stormwater officially began. It was initiated by placing storm pipes on the north
side of town to prevent flooding within business and residential areas. This method saved the
RPWRF millions of dollars because it reduced the volume of water entering the facility. After the
eruption of Mount St. Helen the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) paid for
two additional vactor trucks. With the addition of vactor trucks the Sewer Division now was
comprised of a total of 13 crews.

Around the mid-1980s the RRWRF and the Sewer Division merged and formed the Wastewater
Management Department. Gale Olrich was the first director of the department until 1999. In 1987
Wastewater Management contracted with Gelco to fix damaged pipes because they were the only
company that conducted this kind of work. Gelco used a material called insituform to reline sewer
pipes instead of replacing them. Insituform is an epoxy surrounded by a fiberglass that inflates
inside the pipe forming a new pipe. This method is very cost-effective and traffic-friendly. In the
late 1980s Wastewater Management purchased a third t.v. truck, and began using a computer
software system called Hansen. This program was designed to organize between pipes needingto be
cleaned from pipes needing to be fixed and replaced. As a result of this new software Wastewater
Management started using it as an inventory tool.

The 1990s was an opportunistic decade because Wastewater Management purchased its first
motorized closed circuit t.v. camera. This camera was equipped with a tractor enabling it to “crawl”
through the sewer pipe. A construction crew was established and added to Wastewater Management.
This crew was assigned to perform mandatory repairs in the field. Repairs varied from replacing
manhole rings and covers to replacing sections of pipe. Also during this timeframe Wastewater
Management started using a technique called Root Foaming. Root Foaming kills any roots
infiltrating the pipe and creates a barrier preventing roots from entering the pipe. This technique is
usually conducted two to three times a year within areas consisting of serious root problems.

 Page 21
           2008 Annual Report

1995 was an exciting year form Wastewater Management because it moved its shop to near
downtown on East Sprague Avenue. In 1999 Wastewater Management added a Stormwater
Management Program adding two more construction crews to help maintain both sewer and storm
pipes. The Department also completed its first slip lining project on Washington Street, which was a
new, successful way to replace old, collapsing pipes. The process involved slipping a smaller sized
pipe into a pre-existing line to create a new section of pipe. Throughout the 1990s, five more crews
were added totaling a number of 18 crews. In 2001, an additional tank truck was purchased, which
was used to help pump cesspools or septic tanks. In 2003, Wastewater Management replaced
approximately 1,650 feet of pipe, so that water running from Cowley Creek could flow into the
Spokane River instead of being unnecessarily treated at the RPWRF.

Chapter 8- History of the Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility
In the 1930s Washington State began growing concerned about pollution in the Spokane and
Columbia River. There was pressure from the State for Spokane to build some kind of sewer
treatment plant. The public voted twice to not build a plant and finally in 1946 the Sewage Treatment
System Bond was passed. It cost $3,600,000 to construct the Riverside Park Water Reclamation
Facility and in 1958 it began operation.

During the beginning stages of operation a sewer usage charge was implemented in order to fund the
new treatment system, and the necessary updates and improvements needed to keep up with the
demands of the City. The original water reclamation facility was only designed to treat 55% of the
City’s sewage. Re-designing and updating the plant would be inevitable. In 1962 upgrades were made
that would allow the treatment system to handle sewage of up to 250,000 people.

In 1972 the Clean Water Act was passed by the Federal Government that required a permit to
discharge into surface water. Since the Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility discharges into the
Spokane River, the City had to become even more diligent about its water reclamation. In 1977 the
Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility underwent another major upgrade, and improved its
capacity beyond the projected requirements for the next ten years. The two floating-cover digesters
were replaced with three anaerobic digesters. Most of the plant was updated during this major

Every year the Riverside Park Water Reclamation Facility becomes cleaner and more efficient. In the
1990’s major improvements to the facility were made including: a bio-monitoring station, odor
control and various other electrical and mechanical updates7. The 1990s were when water
regulations really became apparent. The strict new rules meant more upgrades for the RPWRF. In
2002 aeration basin number six came on-line, which improved technology and not only converts
ammonia to nitrate but converts nitrate into free nitrogen.

The 21st Century continued the tradition of ongoing upgrades for the facility. New gravity belt
thickeners, a belt-filter press, glass enclosures around many areas to contain the malodorous air and
send it through bio-filters, and expansions in the headworks. From 2003 through 2004 increases in
the capacity, efficiency and cleanliness of the Riverside Water Reclamation Facility continued. There
was a major laboratory expansion. The Instrumentation Data and Electrical Center was added along

 Page 22
           2008 Annual Report

with additional storage and training

On May 10, 2004 tragedy struck the
Riverside Park Water Reclamation
Facility when Mike Cmos was killed.
The roof of digester number three
collapsed. The digester had been
having some problems and Cmos was
one of three men who went to
investigate (the other two men were
injured)10. Wastewater Management
had planned to add another more
efficient digester in the next ten years,
but after the accident it was expedited
to two years11. The new state-of-the-art
Egg-Shaped Digesters will take the
place of the old ones and greatly
improve the capacity and the safety of
the facility.

Due to the City’s population increase
over the last several years Wastewater
Management had to increase as well.
As of July 2005, there were 23 sewer        Above, the newly constructed digesters at the RPWRF.
maintenance crews and a combined            They help prevent overfilling and pressurization while
total of 151 employees. A total of 151      enhancing foam removal.
employees includes 84 from the
Riverside Park Water Reclamation
Facility and 67 from Sewer

To the right, Sewer Maintenance
Construction Crew replacing a
catch basin ring cover in the
Comstock neighborhood.

 Page 23
           2008 Annual Report

Arksey, Laura. Great Spokane Fire destroys downtown Spokane Falls on August 4, 1889. The
   Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History. (March 20,2006) Available from http://
   ww.historylink. org/essays/output. cfm?fileid=7696
Bloker, Kevin. Touched by Comos. The Spokesman Review (May 18, 2004): Available from http://

Bovy Northwest Inc. Wastewater Facilities Planning Study for the City of Spokane 1990. Spokane,
   Bovy Northwest, Inc., January 1991. Chapter 4- Chapter7

Coster, Mike. Supervisor, Treatment System Operation and Maintenance, Wastewater Management,
   City of Spokane. Interview by Genevieve Arnold March 20, 2007

Discovery School Organization. Spokane History: 1989 the great Fire and it’s Aftermath. (February
   2007): Available from http://www.discovery-school.org/newsh2/sphhtml/framepage.html

Kaesmeyer, Gary. Superivsor, Collection System Operation and Maintenance, Wastewater
   Management, City of Spokane. Interview by Genevieve Arnold March 2, 2007

Prager, Mike. Few Answers in Sewage Plant Inquiry. The Spokesman Review (July 30, 2004)
   Available from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4186/is_20040730/ai_n11698974

Yake, Mike. Senior Engineer, Wastewater Management Administration and Engineering.
   Wastewater Management City of Spokane. Interview by Genevieve Arnold, March 26, 2007

                                                              To the left, Sewer Maintenance T.V.
                                                              Crew conducting routine
                                                              maintenance by lowering a
                                                              motorized camera into a sewer pipe
                                                              in the Rockwood neighborhood.

 Page 24
           For more information please visit: www.spokanewastewater.org

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