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					 An Overview of Grid Computing
 and its Impact on Information
 Technology
Bina Ramamurthy
CSE Department
University at Buffalo (SUNY)
201 Bell Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260
716-645-3180 (108)
bina@cse.buffalo.edu
http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/gridforce
Partially Supported by NSF DUE CCLI A&I Grant 0311473



7/22/2010              TCIE Seminar                     1
Topics for Discussion
     Users and uses of Grid Technology
     Current Status
     How did we get here?
     Where are we heading?
     Future Outlook
     IT Issues and Solution in Web Services
     What is Grid Technology?
7/22/2010           TCIE Seminar              2
Beginnings of The Grid
     Beginnings of the grid in Search for Extra Terrestrial
     Intelligence (seti@home project)
     http://planetary.org/html/UPDATES/seti/index.html
           The Wow signal
            http://planetary.org/html/UPDATES/seti/SETI@ho
            me/wowsignal.html




7/22/2010                    TCIE Seminar                 3
Users and Uses of The Grid
     HR outsourcer Hewitt Associates put grid to work for crunching pension
     calculations.
     A survey of 180 companies last summer by research firm Summit
     Strategies found that 4% of respondents had implemented a grid, and
     12% were currently evaluating the technology.
     IBM used grid-base infrastructure for 2004 US Open: Enterprise
     Networks Aug 2004.
     Burlington Coat Factory is investing its IT future on a grid-based,
     virtualized architecture: Enterprise Network June 2004.
     Oracle Server 10g: g stands for grid. (Oracle 9i: i was for Internet)
     Gartner predicted in 2002 that grid-based distributed systems in use by
     2004-2007.
     Grid middleware from companies such
     as DataSynapse and Platform provides users the ability to manage
     workloads across the shared resources.
     Bottom line, any body who is currently using the Internet will be
     affected by the advent of the grid.

7/22/2010                       TCIE Seminar                             4
Current Status




            Internet and related applications
            such as world wide web (www) and email
            have transformed businesses and life.


7/22/2010                  TCIE Seminar              5
Current Status (2)

                                            B2C




            Information/ Application Servers      Clients/Consumers




                                           B2B




                    Application                   Application

7/22/2010                         TCIE Seminar                        6
How did we get here?(1)

                                                                   scale


                                                       Web application
     Number of hosts




                                                       Internet Commercialization


                                           Academic
     Speed




                                           Research:
                                  EUNET    NSFNET
                                  MILNET

                       Defense:
                       ARPANET

                        1970        1980        1990       2000              Time (years)

7/22/2010                              TCIE Seminar                                  7
How did we get here?(2)

     Centralized systems
     Decentralized Autonomous systems
     Distributed systems
     Integration of distributed systems:
     Enterprise Integration
     Globalization and collaboration
     frameworks

7/22/2010           TCIE Seminar           8
Where are we heading?
                                                           Web-enabling information
                                                           Web-enabling applications/forms
Information/ Application Servers   Clients/Consumers       HTML

          Business to Consumers (B2C)




           Business to Business (B2B)
           Application to application
                                                           Web Services, XML
                                                           Standards for specifying operation in
                                                           SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)




7/22/2010                                   TCIE Seminar                                 9
Beyond Search Engines: Enabling Information
Technology (IT) Applications




    Simple Search (stateless)




Complex multi-business applications           Financial: Build Portfolio


                     Environment: Plan Forestation                   Medicine: Find Cure



                                               Travel: Plan a Trip




 7/22/2010                                TCIE Seminar                                     10
IT Issues
     Modernizing legacy systems
     Web-enabling business services
     Automating business processes
     Integration within organization
     Data and application integration
     Collaboration with outside organizations
     Security, accountability, availability, reliability,
     …

7/22/2010               TCIE Seminar                  11
Web Services Standard
     A common operation on the Internet is search, the results of
     which is consumed by humans.
     Develop complex multi-business applications that are beyond
     the current search-type applications
     Webservices (WS) is a standard that has been introduced by W3
     consortium to address this important transition.
     Grid takes the web services to the next level: a grid service (GS)
     is a web service.

            Grid/GS   ……   Web/WS      ......   Internet


                            Technology Pipeline




7/22/2010                     TCIE Seminar                          12
Future Outlook




   Internet and Web Standards                       Grid Standards



     It is expected
         either the Internet will evolve into the grid or
         the grid concepts will be adapted into the Internet standard.
     Similar to current push in IT to “web enabling”, future will have you
     “grid enable”.
     Bottom line: it is worthwhile learning about the grid to strategize for
     the future of IT in your business.

7/22/2010                       TCIE Seminar                              13
Grid Organizations
     Global Grid Forum (GGF):
           www.globalgridforum.org
           a community-initiated forum of thousands of individuals from industry and
            research leading the global standardization effort for grid computing.
     The Globus Alliance:
           www.globus.org
           conducts research and development to create fundamental technologies
            behind the "Grid," which lets people share computing power, databases,
            and other on-line tools securely across corporate, institutional, and
            geographic boundaries without sacrificing local autonomy.
     Enterprise Grid Alliance (EGA):
           http://www.gridalliance.org/en/index.asp
           EGA working groups have been proposed to address: (1) Reference model;
            (2) Component provisioning; (3) Data provisioning; (4) Utility accounting
            (5) Grid security.




7/22/2010                            TCIE Seminar                                    14
Grid Technology
  Emerging enabling technology.
  Natural evolution of distributed systems and the Internet.
  Middleware supporting network of systems to facilitate
  sharing, standardization and openness.
  Infrastructure and application model dealing with sharing
  of compute cycles, data, storage and other resources.
  Promoted by NSF through its Network Middleware
  Initiative (NMI version 4).
  Publicized by prominent industries as on-demand
  computing, utility computing, etc.
  Move towards delivering “computing” to masses similar
  to other utilities (electricity and voice communication).

7/22/2010               TCIE Seminar                    15
Types of Grid
       Batch-oriented                       Service-Oriented
 1.    High performance               1.    View all the resources and
       applications                         functions as services.
 2.    High Throughput                2.    Build application models
       applications                         around services.
 3.    Example: Condor                3.    Anatomy of the grid
 4.    Our installation: CSECCR       4.    Physiology of the grid
       grid                           5.    It is this genre of grid that
                                            will move the grid
                                            technology towards business
                                            applications.
                                      6.    Example: Globus
                                      7.    Our installation:
                                            CSELinuxGrid


7/22/2010                    TCIE Seminar                             16
Service-oriented Standards
     Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)
     Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI)
     Globus Toolkit (Gt3) is a reference
     implementation




7/22/2010             TCIE Seminar              17
OGSA, OGSI and WS
   From tutorial: Satomayor’s GT3 Tutorial
   http://www.casa-sotomayor.net/gt3-tutorial-working/




7/22/2010                          TCIE Seminar          18
Features of Grid Service
                                               Logger object; Levels of logging:
                                               Info, .. Warn, Error, Fatal
                                               Filtering and redirecting to file, console

                                    Logging

                                                                        Provides notification of events
        Provides
        Standard        Security                    Notification
        security
                           …
                                      Basic
                                     Service
                                                                       Stores service properties and
                                                        Service        States; for discovery, monitoring,
                         Routing
                                                         Data          negotiations, etc.


        Services with ability
        to migrate                 Persistence
                                                Permanent services such as naming service that
                                                get activated and terminated with the container


7/22/2010                            TCIE Seminar                                                   19
Sample Grid Service: Notification
     Foundational concepts: messaging, queues, source
     and sink for messages, subscription model, loose
     coupling, push and pull notification
     Grid related concepts: Service data element (SDE),
     OGSINotification API
     Implement a service that is a producer of notification.
     Implement a client application that invokes a service
     that produces notification; an associated listener that
     consumes the notification.
     Extend the application to illustrate push and pull
     model.

7/22/2010                 TCIE Seminar                   20
Notification Explained
                               Server                                                         Client
                                            2: invoke method

        Grid Service                                                            Client
                                                                              Application
            Grid Service


                                    3: notifyChange()

                                                                              GS Listener
                  Service Data              1: subscribe to notification      4: process notification
                 Element (SDE)
                    Service Data
                   Element (SDE)




    Notes:
    Example: Grid service (GS) can be a Math Service with notifyChange to SDE on invocation of add
    Subtract methods.
    GWSDL file: extends=“ogsi”: GridServiceogsi:NotificationSource (declarative vs programmatic)
    Listener has: NotificationSinkManager to which is added a listener to Math Service’s GSH and SDE.
    Listener has deliveryNotification() method to process notification.



7/22/2010                                     TCIE Seminar                                              21
Push vs Pull
                                                          Pull model
                                                          Request-response
                       notify
                                                          under client’s control
                                                          Client can choose to ignore
            Source                                 Sink   notification
                     give me data

                         Service data




                       notify                             Push model
                                                          Service data is pushed to
                     Service data                         the client along with notification
            Source                                 Sink




7/22/2010                           TCIE Seminar                                    22
Higher Level Grid Concepts
     Virtualization of services and resources
     Federation of Data
     Provisioning
     Lifecycle Management
     Virtual Organization
     Orchestration of services
     Choreography of services
7/22/2010           TCIE Seminar            23
Virtualization
     Encapsulating service operations behind a common
     message-oriented service interface is called service
     virtualization.
     Isolates users from details of service implementation
     and location.
     Assumes support of a standard architecture.
     Webservices (WS) can do this, however grid life cycle
     management, fault handling and other features we
     have seen in the GT3 tutorial are not available with
     WS.
     OGSI specification addresses these issues using a
     core set of standard services.
7/22/2010                TCIE Seminar                  24
Virtual Organization

             Factory                   Registry

             Factory                   Mapper

            Service    ……   Service        Service



                        Hardware

7/22/2010                   TCIE Seminar             25
   Application:
   Tax Return Filer                                                                                    TAX client




                                            IRSServcie                        Registry
                                              Factory
                                                             IRS TAX Filer
                                                             Hosting
                                                             Environment

                                                                             HandleMap
                                             IRSService




                                                           PERSONAl                                     BANK Hosting
EMPServcie               Registry                          Hosting
                                                                             Registry    BNKServcie     Environment
                                                                                                                       Registry
                                           PERServcie
 Factory                                                   Environment                    Factory
             EMPLOYEMENT                    Factory
             Hosting
EMPService   Environment                    PerService                                    BNKService
                         HandleMap
                                                                HandleMap                                      HandleMap


  Concepts illustrated: Virtual organization (VO) called IRS/Tax Filer that brings together virtualized capabilities
  of physical organizations of banking, personal profiles, and employment.
  Grid service handle (GSH) and Grid service reference (GSR), registry and handlemap, discovery of services, index
  services, application of
  notification, logging.
  High trust computing and social imperative of grid.
     7/22/2010                                            TCIE Seminar                                                 26
UB Infrastructure(1): CSELinux Grid

  Goal: To facilitate development of service-oriented
  applications for the grid.
  Two major components: Staging server and
  Production grid Server.
  Grid application are developed and tested on staging
  server and deployed on a production server.
  Production grid server:
    Three compute nodes with Red Hat Linux and
     Globus 3.0.2 instance.
    One utility gateway node with Free BSD and
     Globus 3.0.2.
7/22/2010             TCIE Seminar                 27
CSELinux: Development
Environment
                          Production Server
                                                              Cerf
Staging Server


                                    Postel
                                                              Mills


                          OS: FreeBSD
                          Grid: Globus 3.0.2                  Vixen
                          Function: fileserver,
OS: Solaris 8.0           firewall
Grid: Globus 3.0.2
Function:                                    OS: Red Hat Linux 9.2
Debug and test services                      Grid: Globus3.0.2
7/22/2010                    TCIE Seminar    Function: Deploy services
                                                                   28
UB Infrastructure(2): CSECCR
Grid
  Goal: To run jobs submitted in a distributed manner
  on a Condor-based computational cluster Condor.
  Composed of 50 Sun recycled used Sparc4 machines,
  which form computational nodes, headed by a front-
  end Sun server.
  The installation scripts are custom-written facilitating
  running of jobs in a distributed manner.
  Partially supported by Center for Computational
  Research (CCR).

7/22/2010              TCIE Seminar                   29
CSECCR Grid
        Compute nodes:
        Data analysis and                   Gatekeeper: Job
           graph tools                        submission
                                            scheduling tools
                                                 Students work on computationally
                                                 intensive application. Gene expression
                                                 analysis; Markovitz model for financial
                                                 portfolio picking; Students also learn
                                                 About Condor, job submission,
                                                 scheduling, building grid infrastructure out
                                                 of recycled computers.
               ……………….


                                            Internet :
                                           remote job
                                           submission


7/22/2010   MySQL           TCIE Seminar                                        30
            Database
CSECCR Grid Monitor (Ganglia)




7/22/2010    TCIE Seminar       31
                                                                  GridForce: Grid For Research, Collaboration &
Hands-on Labs
                                                                                    Education


                                                                                                                                       Courses/                                                                                     Research
                                                                                                                                       Curriculum:                                                                                  Infrastructure

                                                                                                                                       CSE486/586: Distributed                                            LinuxGrid Globus      infrastructure supporting
Sample labs:                                                                                                                           Systems                                                            secure service oriented architecture
                                                                                                                                       CSE487/587: Information
Grid Services Lab                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Production Server
                                                                                                                                       Structures                                                         Staging Server
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cerf
Design and implementation of
Grid services with standard capabilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Postel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mills

                                   Notification
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    OS: FreeBSD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Grid: Globus 3.0.2                    Vixen
              Routable                                  Logging                                                             Dissemination Package:                                                                                  Function: fileserver,
                                                                                                                                                                                                          OS: Solaris 8.0           firewall
                                        Grid                                                                                Syllabus, Lecture Notes, Exams,                                               Grid: Globus 3.0.2
                                       Service
                                                                                                                            Course Evaluations, Pedagogy,                                                 Function:                                  OS: Red Hat Linux 9.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Debug and test services                    Grid: Globus3.0.2
                                                                                                                            Applications, Lab descriptions,                                                                                          Function: Deploy services
                      Service
                            Data
                                                 Secure                                                                     Solutions, Publications,
                                                                                                                            and Infrastructure details.                                                   CSECCRGrid Collaboration       with Center
                                                                                                                                                                                                          For Computational Research (CCR); Reusable old Sparcs
Virtual Organization (VO) Lab                                                                                                                                                                             offering Condor grid and NSF Middleware Initiative suite.
Grid application design and implementation
Symbolic representation of VO components                                                                                  Assessment Sample                        from Fall 2003    Collaboration                    Compute nodes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Data analysis and                      Gatekeeper: Job
Grid-based tax return filer.                                                                TAX client                    CSE486/586                                                 (SUNY Geneseo)                      graph tools                           submission
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             scheduling tools

                                                                                                                                           Effectiveness of Grid
                                          IRSServcie
                                            Factory
                                                        IRS Hosting
                                                                       Registry
                                                                                                                                                 Coverage
                                                        Environment
                                                                                                                                                                                      Labs Illustrating
                                           IRSService
                                                                       HandleMap
                                                                                                                                      10                                              Grid Use for                         ……………….
                                                                                                                          Number of
                                                                                                                           Students




                                                                                                                                       8
                                                                                                                                                                      No. Students
                                                                                                                                       6
                                                                                                                                                                      Avg Across
                                                                                                                                                                                      Non-CS Majors
                                                                                                                                       4                                                                                                                     Internet :
                                                                                                                                                                      Questions
                                                                                                                                       2                                                                                                                    remote job
 EMPServcie
                            Registry
                                           PERServcie
                                                                      Registry
                                                                                   BNKServcie
                                                                                                               Registry
                                                                                                                                       0                                                                                                                    submission
  Factory                                   Factory                                 Factory
              Emp Hosting
              Environment
                                                        PER Hosting
                                                        Environment
                                                                                                 BNK Hosting
                                                                                                 Environment                                 1    2   3   4    5

              7/22/2010                                                                                                                                   TCIE Seminar                                                                                             32
 EMPService                                PerService                              BNKService
                 HandleMap                                 HandleMap                                HandleMap                              Rating (1-best, 5-worst)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MySQL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Database
Getting to know the grid?
     Start with reading the literature on Condor
     and Globus grid.
     Start working with Web services by
     transforming your applications using easily
     available WS framework.
     Try out the grid tutorials and reference
     implementations.
     Explore newer businesses and business
     models.
           Example: storage service, personal service base


7/22/2010                    TCIE Seminar                     33
  DEMOS of two grids
  Sponsored by the
  National Science Foundation
  At the University At Buffalo




7/22/2010     TCIE Seminar       34
Questions?




7/22/2010    TCIE Seminar   35

				
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