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					                                  CHAPTER 3 PRESENTATION OUTLINE

Introducing Chapter 3
n Share the Instructional Goals in the Chapter At-a-Glance as an advance organizer for instruction, and ask
    students to relate what they hope to learn with the current goals.
n Present transparencies TM 3-1, TM 3-2, and TM 3-3, and discuss how educators are influenced by whole
    movements in the field of education.

           Transparency       •    TM 3-1: General and Special Education School Reform
           Masters            •    TM 3-2: Forerunners to Inclusion
                              •    TM 3-3: Four Phases of School Reform

v Introduce the topics of inclusion and collaboration. If possible, before students read this chapter, ask them
  to write their own definitions for “inclusion” and “collaboration.” Then ask them to share these definitions
  in small groups and list both favorable and less favorable reasons to inclusion and collaboration. After
  reading the chapter and learning about the possibilities discussed, have students rewrite their definitions
  and lists.
v A parallel activity is to ask students to use the information in this chapter to come up with a checklist of
  quality indicators for inclusion and collaboration. Then use this checklist as they read the program
  descriptions in Chapters 4–16.
m Ask students to review what The Council for Exceptional Children has to say about inclusive schools. You
  may want to place this book, or others like it, on reserve for students to review. At each new encounter with
  information, ask students to rework their definitions for inclusion and collaboration.
           Resource Book       •   The Council for Exceptional Children. 1994. Creating schools for all our
                                   students: What 12 schools have to say. A product of the Working Forum on
                                   Inclusive Schools, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091-1589.

Forerunners to Inclusion: Mainstreaming and the Regular Education Initiative
n Show the video Educating Peter to focus the discussion on inclusion and the issues surrounding its
    importance to school reform. Ask students to write their responses while viewing this documentary.

           Video               •   Educating Peter. 1991. 30 min. This Academy Award-winning video tells the
                                   story of a boy with Down syndrome and his third-grade classmates testing the
                                   limits of inclusion.

v In cooperative groups, discuss the Regular Education Initiative (REI). See how students would respond if
  they had to answer to the REI. See how many answers each group can generate for each question.
  Compare and contrast perspectives.
m Ask students to read the article “The Inclusion Controversy” and then analyze a community program in
    their hometown to determine whether access is an issue. Then answer the questions: Can students with
    disabilities participate in the activities provided? If not, what accommodations need to be made?

           Journal Articles    •   Harder, N. (1998). The inclusion controversy. Exceptional Parent, 28(3), p 58.
           and Resources       •   Ira, V. (1998). Barrier free education. Exceptional Parent, 28(2). p.30. (Internet
                                   resource information)

First-Generation Inclusion
n Present transparency TM 3-4, First-Generation Inclusion. Discuss how inclusion has changed over time and
    why. Together construct a time line for these changes.

           Transparency        •   TM 3-4: First-Generation Inclusion

n Present the video Just Friends to set the stage for discussing the advantages and challenges of changes to

           Video               •   Just Friends. (1997). 22 min. This video illustrates the mutual value of being in a
                                   friendship with an individual who has a disability. Available from Program
                                   Development Associates, 5620 Business Avenue, Suite B, Cicero, NY 13039.
v Using the percentages for education placements in Figure 3-1, assume your class size is the number of
  students needing special education in your school. Figure out how many students would be placed in each
  setting. Then divide students into groups and ask them to discuss advantages and disadvantages of their
  placement. Follow this up with group assignments and reports for each of these different placements.
v Divide the class in half, assigning half to role-play the part of a general educator and the other half to role-
  play the part of a special educator. Ask students to discuss the positive aspects of and to develop a
  rationale for inclusion. If any students feel strongly that they cannot support inclusion from either a general
  or special educator’s stance, then ask them to develop a rationale supporting their ideas, addressing each
v In small groups, ask the students to list key characteristics and issues surrounding inclusion, including the
  concept of the continuum. Then ask them how they could verify these ideas. Have students use their own
  ideas to then verify and extend their ideas. Broaden this with the following website search.
m Ask students to work in pairs to check out websites on inclusion. Since there are so many of these, students
  who are “Internet competent” might be matched with students who have not yet learned these skills in order
    to do an Internet search. Have them bring material to class that they think is particularly relevant. The class
    could then evaluate the materials and discuss the benefits of the Internet in learning about model inclusion/
    collaboration practices.
m   Ask students to follow up research on different placement options by examining ways to achieve the home-
    school principle. Ask them to choose the one they prefer and then write a comparison of it with their
    placement in the typical setting above.

Second-Generation Inclusion
n Invite discussion of what students have observed of inclusion in their own schooling. List characteristics
    and then compare them with characteristics of second-generation inclusion. Present transparencies TM3-5
    and TM 3-6.

           Transparency       •    TM 3-5: Second-Generation Inclusion
           Masters            •    TM 3-6: Inclusion Requirements of IDEA

n Invite several local general and special educators to your classroom to discuss inclusion issues. Ask
  students to generate questions they would like discussed ahead of time. Give these questions to the invited
  educators, and ask them to prepare answers and bring any materials that they think may help future teachers
  to engage the key issues.
v Ask students to follow up on the discussion stimulated by guest speakers. Ask them to brainstorm in small
  groups additional questions that may be addressed by legislators and school administrators.
m Ask students to write letters to legislators and school administrators expressing their concerns and
  questions about inclusion. Keep track of letters answered with a class chart to record responses. See what
  additional answers as well as new questions come forth.

Collaboration as a Prerequisite for Inclusion
n Show the video A Collaborative Approach to Social Skills Instruction. Following the video, discuss the
    various approaches to collaboration presented.

           Video             •    A Collaborative Approach to Social Skills Instruction. 1996. This video by
                                  Cynthia L. Warger and Robert Rutherford Jr. includes a training package, in
                                  loose-leaf notebook with video. It features teachers using collaborative approaches
                                  in elementary classrooms and is designed especially to help educators work in
                                  team or partnership situations. Available from The Council for Exceptional
                                  Children, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191.

n Use transparencies TM 3-7, TM 3-8, and TM 3-9 to discuss the importance of collaboration and co-
    teaching. Assign pairs of students the roles of special educator and general educator. Ask them to decide
    how they might work together to plan and teach a fifth-grade science lesson or a high school biology
    lesson. What would be easy for them in working together? What challenges might they face?

           Transparency       •    TM 3-7: Collaboration as a Prerequisite for Inclusion
           Masters            •    TM 3-8: Cooperative Teaching
                              •    TM 3-9: Creating Collaborative Teams

    Show the video Common Miracles, Part III. Use the following questions to generate discussion.
                                  CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA INTO PRACTICE
Common Miracles: The New American Revolution in Learning, Part III
    “We have found some entire communities where learning has become a common miracle—that is to say,
everyone participates,” ABC anchor Peter Jennings comments. Successful school reform results when schools
collaborate with parents and other community members such as businesses, counselors, career planners, the police,
the ethnic and neighborhood organizations, government, museums, service clubs, theaters, colleges.
    The most important of these bonds is parent-school bond. As one teacher explains, parent-school collaboration
“tells the child that ‘my parent is very interested in my learning, and the school is working with my parent, and
therefore, when all these people are working together, I’m important and my education is important, and therefore, I
do well.’”
    You can learn more about how to involve parents and communities in schools to encourage student success by
watching the accompanying ABC News video Common Miracles: The New American Revolution in Learning, Part
III,, and using out Companion Website to link to the Community and Schools homepage. [
                                             WHAT DO YOU THINK?
•   How would you answer the question “What kinds of people must schools produce?” Blakemore comments,
    “The successful people we found were not only looking for the answer, but looking to create the answer.” What
    will you need to do in your classroom to create the answer?
•   How can you incorporate “parent power” in your classroom?
•   How would you use apprenticeships if you were a third-grade teacher? A tenth-grade science teacher? A
    special educator in a resource or inclusionary setting?

v Discuss the roles for different collaborators during an Individualized Education Program conference. Use
  the sample IEP copy provided in the Resource section of the Companion Website to examine the breadth of
  collaboration required for the success of students with exceptionalities.
v Obtain a copy of the Collaboration Handbook for Educators Working Toward Inclusion of Special Needs
  Students by Lynne Chalmers and Myrna Olson. This booklet is full of excellent discussion ideas as well as
  strategies for problem solving and implementation of a collaborative program. Use ideas in this handbook
  to extend understanding of the roles of the various collaborators.

           Book              •   Chalmers, L., & Olson, M. (1995). Collaboration handbook for educators
                                 working toward inclusion of special needs students. Moorhead, MN: Practical

m Ask students to study the collaboration box presented in the chapter. Then ask them to think about one
  student with special needs that they personally know. Ask them to fill out the blank collaboration chart
  included in the resource section of this manual for their selected student. If the student has learning
  disabilities, much of the information will come from Chapter 4. If the student is gifted, then much of the
  information will come from Chapter 7. In addition to the chapter, students should do outside reading about
  collaboration possibilities for their students with their special needs.

          Handout            •   Blank copy of Collaborating for Success chart.

m Ask students to read related articles on collaboration, such as those listed below, that will help broaden
  their understanding on how to implement collaboration into their own teaching. Have them list and describe
  anything new they learn and will use in their own careers as educators.

          Suggested          •   Appl, D., Troha, C., & Rowell, J. (2001). Reflections of a first-year team: the
          Article                growth of a collaborative partnership. Exceptional Children, 33(3). pp. 4–8.
Concluding Chapter 3
n Review the instructional goals from Chapter At-a-Glance and discuss what students have learned. Examine
   any questions that have not yet been addressed and encourage students to continue to search for answers to
   help students with special needs.
v Have students present project work covering this material.
v Instruct the students to take the sample quiz individually or in cooperative groups.

           Student Study    •    SAMPLE QUIZ FOR CHAPTER 3

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