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									But Did It Help You Get To
A Qualitative Study of Supplemental Education in Western
                      Martin Forsey
                Anthropology & Sociology
            The University of Western Australia
  A Word From My Chief Sponsor
Australia's school curriculum caters for a wide range of student
skills and interests. Drama, music, art, debating and public
speaking skills, along with team and individual sports activities,
are all enhanced through interschool collaboration and
competition. Schools also arrange for private tuition and provide
elite programs designed for talented international students.
Purpose-built learning centres and sports facilities offer the ideal
environment for the academic and personal development of
international students. This wide variety of artistic and sporting
pursuits can help students develop organisational and leadership
skills, also their independence and confidence (Australian
Education International 2009)
          Increasing Use of SE
• Watson (2008)
  – average household expenditure on children’s
    education 3.98% 1998/99 4.88% in 2003/04
• Kenny & Faunce (2004)
  – Sydney coaching “colleges”
  – 60 in 1989 to 222 in 2002
• Pate (2008) [also Bond (2009)]
  – Community Learning Support Programs
  – 1,300 participants in Melbourne
               Increasing Use of SE
• An Even Start (2008-2009)
Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (2010).
• $AU 457.4 million over four years.
• Targeting year 3, 5 or 7 students not meeting 2007
  national literacy/numeracy benchmarks
• $700 of tuition for eligible students (a minimum of 12
• 87,057 students “assisted”
• Currently suspended pending a review
           Public Private Divide
•   Federation
•   Education state administered
•   Public System – 66% of enrolments
•   Catholic Education – 20% of enrolments
•   “Independent” Schools – 14% of enrolments
•   Non-government schools as shadow
          Supplemental Education
                         Yellow Pages in Western Australia
‘Outside-school             – 135 Entries
  learning activities       – ‘Academic Angels’, ‘Lighthouse
  paralleling features        Education Centre’, ‘Progressive Home
                              Tutors’, ‘Kinetic Education’, ‘Green
  of formal schooling         Light Education’, ‘Head Start Tutoring’
  used by students to       – ‘Top Tots Early Learning Development
  increase their own          Centre’, ‘Early Intervention Tutoring’
                            – Judith Crossland Academy and Tania’s
  educational                 Tutoring Service
  opportunities’            – Franchises – eg Kumon, Kip McGrath
  (Baker et al 2001:2)        Education Centres, Reading for Sure
  Supplemental Education in Australia
Centre of      Main Forms of
Activity       Organisation
Market         1. Cottage industry
               2. Small business
               3. Multi-national corporation
School         1. After school classes
               2. Structured courses
Community      1. Voluntary organisations
               2. Private-government
              Market-Based SE
• Kenny & Faunce (2004)
• Private girls school, Sydney
• Survey and academic results
• Academic coaching in English, Mathematics or
  Science generally ineffective, particularly for older
• Students tutored in English tended to fare worse in
  examinations than their un-tutored counterparts.
In A Remote Corner of the Universe

Overwhelmingly Central
            Ten Interviews

Nine Here
One Here
                The Interviews
• Education success stories – students who
• Silivona, Bray and Zabulionis (2006)
  – first year university students
  – twin assumption
     • the school experience of such students was recent
       enough for accurate recall
     • that they would be more objective and outspoken.
                 Ten Interviews
   Six – First Year Anthropology Students
   Four – Karratha Education Initiative
• Semi-structured
• Practice focused – structured, cultured agents
• Did it help you get to uni?
  – Effectiveness of SE
  – SE and Educational Inequalities
• Written portraits –
  – not wrenching research subjects out of their social
  – summarising significant amounts of interview
    transcripts into readable, vibrant stories
          Rural-Urban Divides
• Perceptions (and realities) of under-
  achievement relative to Urban counterparts
• Socioeconomic causes
• Karratha as exception
• Significance of cultural rather than economic

1535 kms

 The North West Shelf Venture
Woodside operates the NWSV on behalf of the
 Participants (BHPB, BP, Chevron, MIMI, Shell and

NWSV is a high value export and royalty earner for
 Australia, based in a remote part of WA.

1% of Australia’s gross domestic product comes
 from the gas plant.
       Educational Challenges
• Staffing
• Advantages of formal education in a “boom
• Educational flight
    Karratha Education Initiative
• Funded by NWS Venture
• Expanding educational options for students in
  Karratha (high school)
• Increasing retention to Year 12
• Increasing Graduation Rates
• Increasing Performance in University Entrance
  Exams (TEE)
• Increasing university enrolments
                The Sample
• John and Julie’s Stories
               Closing thoughts
Julie – maths didn’t count John – can’t really
   in the end but…              measure it but…
“Just keeping up, was        “In reality I think I could
   better than the stress of    have done the same
   not being able to keep       thing if left to study on
   up and not doing that        my own because it was
   well. And you never          work on my part that
   know what is going to        got me to where I have
   be counted in the end,       come now”
   which is a trick of the
    Is it Effective and Does it Increase
           Educational Inequality?
• School statistics
• Liberal fantasy or realistic assessment?
• Ineffectual tutors
• Unmotivated students
• Effective but didn’t really help
• Emotional effects
• Redressing the balance – government, school and
  community programs
• Academic coaching uneven in its effects
               A Conclusion
“Yet again the market shows itself to be less
  efficient than some hope it to be and others
  might fear that it is”.

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