TOWARDS AN INDIGENOUS MULTI DIMENSIONAL GENDER EQUITY FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPMENT: An Impact Evaluation of Selected Development Programmes/Projects in The PhilippinesThis study attempts to evaluate the by priscajojo

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An Impact Evaluation of Selected Development
Programmes/Projects in The Philippines


Quezon City, Philippines
April 7, 2006

Title Page
Table of Contents
     I.    Introduction                                                       3
     II.   Objectives                                                         4
     III.  Review of Related Literature                                       5

           A.   Overview of Laws, Policies and IPRA 7
           B.   National Commission on Indigenous Peoples
           C.   National Commission on Culture and Arts
           D.   Situations of IPs: A National Roundtable Synthesis (1998)
           E.   Case Studies based on the National Roundtable:
                 The Impact of Development Projects on IP
                        1. The National Integrated Protected Area System
                        2. The Igorot Experience with Benguet Corporation
                        3. Energy: San Roque Multi-purpose Dam Project

   IV.     Conceptual Framework                                               14
   V.      Methodology                                                        15
           A. Ocular Inspection and Unobtrusive Interview
           B. Key Informant Interview
           C. Fieldwork Schedule

           A. Review of Selected Development
              Programmes/Projects Implemented from 1998 to 2003

                     1. Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood
                         Project – Partnerships Component (WHSMP-PC) in the
                              Cordillera Administrative Region
                     2. Cordillera Task Force on VAW (CTFVAW)
                     3. Ebgan Foundation Inc. - Theater Groups
                     4. Cordillera Women’s Education and Resource Centre
                              (CWERC)’s Women’s Movement
                     5. Indigenous Social Protection Schemes
                     6. Buhid sa Mindoro Dependency Resistance

   VII.    FIELDWORK IN BENGUET: Compilation of Stories                       20
           A. Midwife
           B. Daisy
           C. Mrs. Pukay
           D. Teacher
           E. Mr. Ferdie Gonzales, POST
           F. Ma’am Roselle, IGOROTA

   VIII.   Analysis                                                           25
   IX.     Recommendations                                                    28


The struggle of the Philippine Indigenous Peoples for self-determination and ancestral land
ownership does not entirely differ from other Indigenous Peoples worldwide. They are
marginalized both in the economic and the socio-cultural aspects due to the trade
liberalization that favored globalization and homogeneity of developmental approaches. Not
only did liberalism magnified poverty in the newly industrializing country but more
importantly, the greater regard for First World cultural influence has put lesser value to
national identity and root ethnicity. The Indigenous Peoples are positioned in the periphery
with lesser involvement in development planning.

Despite the numerous developmental efforts from 1945 to the present, mostly coming from
international funders and aid institutions, the pressing issues of global inequalities and
poverty remain particularly in the Third World. Instead of alleviating the socio-economic
conditions of people in Third World countries, the implementation of actually existing
development has led to environmental destruction, exploitation, state oppression and
poverty. This global process has caused the integration of millions of people into a global
economy, which has made them very vulnerable. This problem has worsened at present
since global market forces have replaced the failures of state-led development. In line with
this, many adjustment policies are partly to blame for absolute falls in living standards.

This global crisis has adverse effects on the cost of living of the Filipinos. For example, the
present daily cost of living for a family of six in the National Capital Region is P665.01, more
than twice the daily minimum wage of P325. IBON estimates that a family of six in Metro
manila needs at least P19,950 a month to meet its subsistence food and non-food needs
(IBON Media Release, March 14, 2006: 1). Unfortunately, only few families in the
Philippines have this monthly income, since some 2.8 million Filipinos failed to find work in
January 2006, 15% more than last year's 2.5 million unemployed Filipinos (IBON Media
Release, March 17, 2006: 1). The industry sector, especially the manufacturing and
construction subsectors caused the decrease in jobs to 95,000. Since the goal of the
economic sector is to form industrial sites in an agricultural country like the Philippines, the
agricultural lands are converted to factories, subdivisions and energy producing areas. The
agricultural workers are transformed to factory workers, professionals in the field of science,
medicine, business related courses and even overseas contract workers. What becomes of
living in an indigenous way is nothing but maintaining the backward nature of traditional
society. The present administration's neoliberal policies have aggravated poverty
conditions. Unfortunately, the government is bent to continue implementing these policies.
To make matters worse, the Arroyo administration starts off its public information campaign
on Charter Change (Cha-cha), “which remove the charter's economic sovereignty provisions
among others” (IBON Media Release, March 21, 2006: 1), and will not bring about promised
economic development.

The consciousness of the more progressive members of the IPs did not stop by merely
compromising to the imposed economic development. There are ways in which the IPs fight
to promote their rights to land, empowerment through equal representation, rights to develop
their own policies and to be self-governing. The failings of development have encouraged
people to form resistance through movements that focused on issues concerning the
environment, gender, agriculture, health, human rights and so on. These movements
whose politics may vary, have made Filipinos rethink and reshape the concept of
development. The effects of the crisis both in global condition and local deprivation resulted
to the need for solidarity and aims to unite Indigenous Peoples groups. The IPs were able

to identify their needs and discuss their situations in an attempt to give voice to their
experiences. The participation of the IPs in formulating development policies and
conceptualizing programmes are essential to the understanding of their problems. Libia
Grueso, et al pointed out a similar account of resistance among the members of the
Organization of Black Communities of the Pacific Coast of Colombia, January 1994, by
emphasizing this statement: We don't know exactly when we started to talk about cultural
difference. But at some point we refused to go on building a strategy around a catalogue of
“problems” and “needs”. The government continues to bet, on democracy and
development; we respond by emphasizing cultural autonomy and “the right to be who we
are and have our own life project. To recognize the need to be different, to build an identity,
are difficult tasks that demand persistent work among our communities, taking their very
heterogeneity as a point of departure. However, the fact that we do not have worked out
social and economic alternatives makes us vulnerable to the current onslaught by capital.
This is one of our most important political tasks at present: to advance in the formulation and
implementation of alternative social and economic proposals (Escobar, 1995: 213)


General Objectives:
This study attempts to evaluate the impact of some development initiatives in the
Philippines. Specifically, it aims to redefine the concept of development based on the
experiences of nongovernment organizations and people’s organizations in project
implementation and management, particularly in the Cordillera Administrative Region and in
Mindoro. It also highlights the best practices of these organizations and communities in
selected project sites. Furthermore, it proposes an indigenous multidimensional gender
equity framework for development.

Specific Objectives:
This study intends to answer the following questions:
   1. What are the visible changes that selected development projects and programmes
        implemented by some organizations (international funders in partnership with local
        nongovernment organizations) in CAR, in Mindoro, and in Bulacan have done to the
        communities/ people in these areas, in terms of the following:
            a. developing sustainable micro-enterprises
            b. improving quality of life
            c. promoting gender equity in the productive and reproductive spheres
            d. enhancing people’s participation in the decision-making process affecting
   2. What are the best practices of these organizations and communities in the selected
        project sites?
   3. How can an indigenous multidimensional gender equity framework for development
        benefit people’s organizations, especially Indigenous Peoples ’ groups?


Section 3 (h) of the Republic Act 8371 (Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997) defined
Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines as “groups of people or homogenous societies
identified by self-ascription and ascription by others, who have continuously lived as

organized community on communally bounded and defined territory, and who have, under
claims of ownership since time immemorial, occupied, possessed and utilized such
territories, sharing common bonds of language, customs, traditions and other distinctive
cultural traits, or who have, through resistance to political, social and cultural inroads,
became historically differentiated from the majority of Filipinos. ICCS/IPs shall likewise
include peoples who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the
populations, which inhabited the country, at the time of conquest or colonization, or at the
time of inroads of non-indigenous religions and cultures or the establishment of present
state boundaries who retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political
institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may
have resettled outside their ancestral domains.” (ONCC & OSCC, 1996)

Historically, the IPs were displaced from its original domain. From the Spanish period up to
the present political systems, state laws and militarization have been employed to
dispossess Indigenous Peoples of their ancestral land. For the IPs, land has been the
material base for their distinct culture and way of life. “From the symbiotic relationship of
land and people emanates the Indigenous Peoples ’ distinct worldview. To deprive them of
land is also to deprive them of life. To maintain peace and harmony within the community
and with nature, Indigenous Peoples have customary laws and practices that have guided
them from century. They have indigenous traditions that kept them conscious of their rights
as people. They have transcended the oral tradition to emphasize the importance of justice
and respect for one another in practical ways. However, the Philippines as a state promoted
laws and policies that disrupted the natural stability of indigenous practices. Legal
dispossession, exploitation, and cultural marginalization of Indigenous Peoples colonizers
of both the foreigner oppressor and the dominant lowland Filipinos set the IPs to the
periphery. From the time the Spaniards imposition in 1521 of the Regalian doctrine,
communal territories and ancestral lands owned by the IPs were privatized and made public.
Regalian doctrine declared that all public lands or lands without the official land titles of the
church were considered legally possessed by the Spanish frailocratic government. The
need for land title originates from the domination of the Spaniards, who did not recognize
the culture of the IPs. “This legal framework and the attitude of colonizers (including
Philippine present state) are sources of conflict between the past colonizers and the present
political leaders. (Elio,1998:7-8) The laws and policies, including developmental
programmes are still rooted on the barbaric history of privatization of lands. The laws
include the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan for IPs (MTPDP-IP), Republic 8371
including the NCIP Administrative Order no.1, Series of 2003 (Consultative Body) and
Administrative Circular No.1 Series of 2003 (Rules on Pleading, Practice and Procedure),
Administrative Order No.3, Series 2002 (Free and Prior Informed Consent-FPIC) and
Administrative Order No.1, Series of 2004 (Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and
Protection Plan-ADSDPP)

To further understand the trends in development policies, the grounding of principles by the
implementers must be discussed. The MTPDP-IP operationalized the IPRA as the
cornerstone of national policy on the IPs. “The IPRA concretizes the constitutional mandate
to recognize, protect and promote the rights of Indigenous Peoples within the context of
national unity and development, specially rights to their ancestral lands and domains, the
preservation and development of their cultures, traditions and institutions, and their human
rights and freedom as mandated in the 1987 Constitution… and to create the National
Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP).” (ONCC & OSCC, 1996) The Indigenous
People’s Right Act (IPRA) was passed on October 29,1987 and promulgated ten years later.
President Fidel Ramos approved and signed the bill but underwent many years of legislative

study to be consistent with the Philippine Constitution. It embodies the rights and aspiration
of the IPs including:
        (1) Right to Ancestral Domains/Ancestral Land
        (2) Right to Self-Governance and Empowerment
        (3) Social Justice and Human Rights
        (4) Cultural Integrity
        The major programs and projects of IPRA include:
        (1) Land Tenure Security
                 Delineation and Titling of Ancestral Domains/Lands through the issuance
                    of CADTs/CALTs and Registration of CADTs/CALTs
        (2) Establishing Model Ancestral Domain Communities through Development and
                 Development of Ancestral Domains through the Ancestral Domain
                    Sustainable Development Protection Plan (ADSDPP)
                 Development of People and Communities through
                          a. Implementation and Coordination in the Delivery of Basic
                               Services, especially Livelihood support, Health Care, Relief and
                               Rehabilitation in case of Disaster and Calamities
                          b. Educational Assistance
                          c. Bridging International Agencies Support Services
                 Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural Heritage of Indigenous
                 Cultural Mapping of IP communities
        (3) Enforcement of Human Rights and Empowerment of IPs
                 Assistance in the Resolution of conflicts thru Custom Laws and
                    Traditional Practices
                 NCIP Adjudicatory Processes
                 Facilitation in the conduct of Statutory requirement of Free and Prior
                    Informed Consent for projects in Ancestral domain/land areas
                 Legal Assistance involving Community Interest
                 Constitution of Consultative Body
                 Quick Response Mechanism to Address Emergency Cases

National Commission on Indigenous Peoples
Problems in representation can be resolved through the guidelines promulgated for the
creation of the “Consultative body” under section 50 of IPRA. This consultative body is
composed of traditional leaders, elders and representatives from the women and youth
sectors of the different Indigenous Cultural Communities. It may further qualify the National
Consultative Body, Ethnographic Regional Consultative Body and Provincial Consultative

NCIP included an Administrative Order No.1, Series of 2003 which refers to the Guideline
for the Constitution and Operationalization of the Consultative Body as provided for in
Section 50, R.A. 8371 “for the purpose of setting up, selecting and organizing the
Consultative Bodies and their facilitating structures. Specifically:
        (a) To provide for the mechanism and guidelines for the constitution of the
Indigenous Peoples Consultative Body and to operationalize the same as mandated under
Section 50 of RA 8371;
        (b) To ensure a multi-level IP consultations; and

      (c) To clarify and/or amend related provisions found in the Implementing Rules and
Regulations of the IPRA”

               Steps in Forming the Consultative Bodies (NCIP)
                        a. Conduct of People‟s Caucus in every Province
                        b. Conduct of Consensus Building Activities in every Community or
                        c. Conduct of Provincial Assembly to form the Provincial
                           Consultative Body
                        d. Conduct an Assembly to form Ethnographic Regional
                           Consultative Body
                        e. Conduct a National Convention to form the National Consultative
                        f. Conduct Provincial Assembly to form the Provincial Consultative

The NCIP Administrative Circular No. 1 Series of 2003 entitled “ Rules on Pleading,
Practice and Procedure before the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples ” was
promulgated on April 9, 2003 to pursue the mandate in exercising quasi-judicial power. This
law was interpreted through these principles:
               a. “All doubts in the interpretations of the provisions of these Rules or any
                  ambiguity in their application shall be resolved in favor of Indigenous
                  Cultural Communities / IPs.”
               b. “ In applying for the provisions of these Rules in relation to other national
                  laws, the integrity of the ancestral domains, culture , values, practices,
                  institutions, customary laws, and traditions of the ICCs/IPs shall be
                  considered and be given due regard;

The NCIP Administrative Orders and Circulars include Free and Prior Informed Consent
(FPIC) and Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan (ADSDPP)
Free Prior and Informed Consent ( Administrative Order No.3, Series 2002) refers to the
consensus of all IP members as determined by their respective customary laws and
practices, “free from any external manipulation, interference and coercion and obtained after
fully disclosing the intent and scope of the program, in a language and process
understandable to the community.”

Whereas, the Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan
(Administrative Order No.1, Series 2004) embodies “the goals and objectives for sustainable
management and development of ancestral domain and all resources therein including the
human and cultural resources such as their Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Practices
(IKSPs). It contains the list and schedule of programs towards the sustainable development
and protection of ancestral domains and it shall serve as a tool for IP empowerment. The
ADSDPP also is a long-term plan that will serve as the basis of the Five Year Master Plan
for the IPs in their respective ancestral domains. It composed of three major parts: The
Ancestral Domains and Community Situationer; The Development Plans and Programs;
and, the ADSDPP Implementation Policies and Mechanism.” Thus this Development is
guided by the following approaches: IP right based, Ancestral Domain based, Community-
based with emphasis on socio-cultural preservation and gender-sensitivity. (ONCC &
OSCC, 1996)

National Commission on Culture and Arts
The National Commission of Culture and Arts (NCCA) also promoted the cultural
preservation. The NCCA mandate includes:
       a. Formulation of policies for the development of culture and the art,
       b. Coordination and implementation of overall policies and programs of attached
           agencies of the development of culture and arts as stated under Executive Order
           No. 80,
       c. Administration of the National Endowment Fund for Culture and the Arts
       d. Encouragement of artistic creation within a climate of artistic freedom
       e. Development and promotion of Filipino national culture and arts; lastly,
       f. Preservation of Filipino cultural heritage

The Cultural heritage is also concerned with the inclusion of Indigenous Peoples ’ arts and
practices. Culture is a human right and a ”manifestation of the freedom of belief and of
expression, and is a human right to be accorded due respect and allowed to flourish.”
Culture is the reflection of National Identity, where values, beliefs and aspirations of the
people’s cultural wisdom are sources of definition. NCAA believes that “ a Filipino national
culture that mirrors Philippine economic, social and political life shall be evolved, promoted
and conserved.” (NCAA Declaration of Principles)

Ideally, the government’s cultural principles as embodied by the National Commission on
Culture and Arts include the Culture of the People, Culture by the People and Culture for the
People. These resulted in the emergence of the need for cultural expressions that are
indigenous and authentic.

       (1) Culture of the People
           The Filipino national culture shall be:
           4.1. Independent, free of political and economic structures, which inhibit cultural
           4.2 Equitable, effectively creating and distributing cultural opportunities and
           correcting the imbalance that has long prejudiced the poor and other
           marginalized sectors who have the least opportunities for cultural development
           and educational growth;
           4.3 Dynamic, continuously developing in pace with scientific, technological, social
           and economic and political changes, both in national and international levels;
           4.4. Progressive, developing the vast potential of all Filipinos as responsible
           change agents of society; and
           4.5 Humanistic, ensuring the freedom and creativity of the human spirit.

       (2) Culture by the People
           The Filipino national culture shall be evolved and developed by the people
           themselves according to their own original and ancestral wisdom. National
           cultural policies and programs shall be formulated which shall be:
           5.1. Pluralistic, fostering deep respect for the cultural identity of each locality,
           region or ethno-linguistic locality, as well as elements assimilated from other
           cultures though the natural process of acculturation;
           5.2. Democratic, encouraging and supporting the participation of the vast
           masses of the Filipino people
           5.3. Non-partisan, open to all people and institutions, regardless of creed,
           affiliation, ideology, ethnic origin, age, gender or class, with no organized group
           or sector having monopoly of its services

           5.4. Liberative, having concern for the decolonization and emancipation of the
           Filipino psyche in order to ensure the full flowering of Filipino culture; and
           5.5. Nationalistic, the bonding and harmony of people based on the common
           recognition of cultural heritage

       (3) Culture for the People
           The creation of artistic and cultural products shall be promoted and disseminated
           to the greatest number of our people. The level of consciousness of the Filipino
           people about their own cultural values in order to strengthen the Filipino culture
           and to instill nationhood and cultural unity shall be raised formally through the
           educational system and informally through extra-scholastic means, including the
           use of traditional as well as modern media of communication.

Situation of Indigenous Peoples : A National Roundtable Synthesis (1998)
The National Roundtable on The Impact of Development Projects on Philippine Indigenous
Peoples collected case studies of organized minorities from various IP groups in the
Philippines to discuss the issues and concerns particularly with the developmental
programmes of Philippines 2000. Through the efforts of Cordillera People’s Alliance (CPA)
and other NGOs, the representatives gathered and discussed the IP situations. It was held
on July 20-25,1998 in Teacher’s Camp, Baguio City.

The central thesis of the National Roundtable is that “when the Philippine government
embarked on its ambitious target of making the Philippines a Newly Industrializing Country
(NIC), it implemented its Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) for the period
1993 to 1998. This Development Plan has been trumpeted as the solution to the chronic
problem of poverty amongst the majority.” However, these development plans had been in
conflict with the struggle of the IPs for recognition, self-determinism and equality. “ The
government’s Development Plan centered on resource expropriation, commercial agro-
industrial development and infrastructure building, under conditions of economic
liberalization and foreign investment dependency” (CPA,1998:5). The law, policies and
principles designing the development programmes are leading towards empowerment and
emancipation of the IPs.

Delegates brought out the following concerns of the Indigenous People in Cordillera: One
problem is the increase in population that led to not enough food production. Other sources
of livelihood are also insufficient to meet the basic needs of the IPs. They pointed out that
from the period 1995 to 1998, “when the calamities of drought, flooding, and infestations of
rats and other pests occurred, Indigenous Peoples have been living in a miserable
condition of hunger and helplessness. Worse, relief assistance was not fully delivered by
the government because of corruption and diversion of goods to other areas.” They also
claimed that after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1990, the Aetas were left to fend for
themselves because of the neglect of the government. In the midst of economic crisis and
class conflict, the Indigenous Peoples find themselves increasing affected in the cash-
oriented economy where commercial production of handicrafts, fruits and vegetable is
commonly done. Tourism is prioritized where even selling of forest products such as
orchids, wild animals and other natural resources has become a source of case for certain
indigenous communities.

The delegates among the Agta and Dumagats in Sierra Madre discussed their problems on
a loan-dependency (usury). This caused the IPs to have a bondage of debt. Part of the
response of IPs to their worsening poverty situation was to become low-paid casual workers

in their towns. They also experienced discrimination in wages. The worsening condition
among the Agtas and Dumagats including the unequal opportunities for employment,
significantly increased the number of overseas workers from indigenous communities.

The Roundtable identified and summarized the common issues and problems related to the
government’s development programmes in the following (CPA,1998:11-13):
   (1) Non-recognition of Ancestral Land Rights
       This problem includes the land conversion, energy infrastructure developments,
       forestry programmes and projects, biodiversity protection and mining. Land
       conversion includes support for monopolized monocropping of products, such as
       mangoes, pineapples, and bananas. A big chunk of the Cordillera Administrative
       Region (CAR) has been converted to the production of cash crops (carrots, potatoes,
       cabbage, and other tropical vegetables). The forestry projects and programmes as
       well as the implementation of the Industrial Forestry Management Agreement (IFMA)
       for commercial agreement resulted to the dislocation of Lumad Communities in
       Mindanao. It also has an adverse effect on the biodiversity of the area. The lush
       vegetation in the CAR and in Mindanao were destroyed due to commercial tree and
       cash crop planting. Although the Community Forestry Programmes became limited
       source of livelihood, “It also caused community conflicts through opportunism in the
       awarding of contracts and the distribution of funds. It has also opened the door to
       commercial logging operations.” Issues on Biodiversity protection through the
       implementation of the National Integrated Protection System (NIPAS) “has restricted
       access to some areas within the ancestral domains of Indigenous Peoples , such as
       Mangyans in Mindoro, the Igorots in CAR, the Aetas in Central Luzon and the Lumad
       in Mindanao.” In the case of Mining, the large-scale mining operations through the
       Mining Act of 1995, were applied for by foreign mining companies. This
       mountainous ancestral lands are good sources of gold, copper, lime and other
       minerals. Almost 75 percent of the total territories of Indigenous Peoples in the
       Philippines are threatened by these mining activities. In the CAR, the Igorots have
       opposed mining activities as forms of development in their lands. “ The operations
       of the Western Mining Company in the territories of Lumads in Mindanao, the Arimco
       Mining operation in Nueva Vizcaya, Luzon, and the expansion of Philex Mining and
       Lepanto Mining in Benguet, have been fiercely opposed by the Indigenous Peoples
       ” (CPA,1998:12).

   (2) Subversion of indigenous socio-political systems
       The implementation of government projects and programmes led to the systematic
       division of the people through the appointment of illegitimate leaders, bribery, and
       total disregard for the IPs’ socio-political systems. “In the case of Lumads in
       Mindanao, illegitimate datus have been appointed by loggers, mining
       representatives, and government officials, to convince the people to approve
       government plans. The government has capitalized on the Lumads’ strong respect
       for elders whom they had bribed to argue against the position of the people, thereby
       causing disunity and conflict. The sowing of intrigues and misinformation has
       caused mistrust, destroying the unity that has generally characterized indigenous
       communities. Customary law is being distorted to serve the interests of big
       businesses and foreign investors. The process of consensus building over projects
       affecting indigenous communities has been turned into a form of endorsement.
       Thus, indigenous systems of conflict resolution are taken out of context to suit the
       needs of the government and its cohorts.” This statement synthesized by the CPA

       manifests distrust to “legitimacy” as assigned by the government and not the
       members of the IP communities.

   (3) Militarization
       This form of coercion has been associated with the implementation of destructive
       mining, logging, and energy projects that the IPs resisted. Because of this, the
       implementers had to use force in order to pursue their plans. They deployed Army
       troops in the territories of the Agtas, Aetas, Mangyans, Lumads and Igorots. In these
       areas, militarization is common and it is the cause of rampant human rights violations
       among the IPs.

   (4) Commercialization
       Due to the government orientation towards liberalism and globalization, tourism in
       Philippine society has become one of the thrusts of its economy. To market the
       cultural heritage of the land, commercialization of indigenous culture through
       promotion of native products, local festivities, tourist related infrastructures, native
       delicacies, ethnic clothing and artifacts and even eco-tourism has been endorsed.

Case Studies based on the National Roundtable:
The Impact of Development Projects on Philippine Indigenous Peoples
The National Integrated Protected Area System, a case study presented by Fernando
Lintawagin, Samahang Pantribu ng Mga Manyan (SSPM, Alliance of Mangyan Tribes in
Mindoro): The NIPAS was conceptualized and designed by the University of the Philippines
Science Foundation, the Economic Development Foundation and the World Wildlife Fund
among others. Its main objective is the protection, conservation, and sustainable
development of the country‟s remaining areas of biodiversity. The ten priority areas are:
    a. Batanes Protected Landscape
    b. North Sierra Madre Natural Park
    c. Mangyan Heritage Natural Park
    d. Surigao Wildlife Sanctuary
    e. Agusan Wildlife Sanctuary
    f. Mount Kitanglad Natural Park
    g. Mount Apo Natural Park
    h. Mount Kanlaon Natural Park
    i. Apo Reef Natural Park
    j. Turtle Island Marine Natural Park

The Mangyan Heritage Nature Park in Mindoro, under NIPAS, has been declared a
biogeographic reserve because of its diverse plant and animal life. It has been criticized for
its impact on the Mangyans for the following reasons:
                 It revolves around the concept of biodiversity protection and preservation.
                   It does not consider the welfare and protection of the Mangyans and other
                   affected peoples, as if their existence were neither consulted nor involved
                   in the planning of this project.
                 It does not recognize ancestral land rights, and has led to further
                   dispossession and marginalization of the Mangyans.
                 Access by Mangyans to the resources in the protected areas has been
                   denied, resulting in more limited sources of livelihood for them.
                 It allows scientific research and studies by private entities of the medicinal
                   properties of plants for possible patenting by big pharmaceutical

                  It promotes commercial eco-tourism, disregarding indigenous practices
                   and thus eroding them further.
                  It does not guarantee protection from or, prevention of destructive
                   projects such as mining and construction of energy plants. In fact, there
                   are large-scale mining applications outstanding in the MHNP area.

Because of its tremendous negative impact on the Mangyans, a federation of tribal
Mangyans of Mindoro launched a campaign to oppose the project. They started with a
massive information drive about the project in the various Mangyan communities, and have
initiated intertribal consultations. This has strengthened the resistance of the Mangyans,
resulting in a series of protest actions, such as rallies in the town center, pickets, petitions,
and papers. As a result, the World Bank has decided to withdraw its funding from the
MHNP. Thus the project has been held up from 1992 to the present.

The Igorot experience with Benguet Corporation, a case study presented by Catalino
Corpuz, Vice Chairperson, Cordillera Peoples Alliance (CPA)
Benguet Corporation (BC) is the biggest gold-producing mining company in the country,
which at one time contributed around two percent of the Gross National Product. It started
its underground mining operation in 1903 in the municipality of Itogon, Benguet, the
ancestral homeland of the Ibaloy and Kankanaey. At its peak in the 1980s, it employed
5,500 mineworkers who were mostly non-indigenous. With its restructuring programmes
since 1989, BC has shifted to three open-pit mining projects using high-technology methods
and affecting seven barangays of Itogon. According to BC, this is necessary in order for it to
be globally competitive. In addition, the mechanized method of mining costs less and
produces greater profits. Since its shift to OPM, BC had decreased its labour force by mid-
1998 and had retained only 300 workers. With its OPM projects, BC was set to strip off
mountains using heavy equipment to extract ore from under the land surface. It entails a
carbon and pulp milling method operating 24 hours a day, thus continuously emitting toxic
fumes. Its voluminous mine-tailings will be dumped near the Agno River, causing pollution.
Its OPM operations will wreck hundreds of small-scale mining tunnels of the Indigenous
Peoples of Itogon… However, the majority of leader and residents sustained their
opposition through various actions with the result that:
      BC‟s open-pit mining (OPM) implementation was delayed for a year and was
        successful in only one of the three OPM sites (Loacan). Now it has temporarily
        ceased its OPM operations and is planning to convert the mined-out area to real
        estate development. It has also made one of its underground mining tunnels into a
        tourist site.
      OPM operations were prevented from expanding to nearby communities
      The IIBA, which spearheaded the opposition to OPM, has been strengthened

Energy: San Roque Multi-purpose Dam Project (SRMDP), a case study presented by Jill
Cariño of the CPA: The San Roque Multi-Purpose Dam Project with a budget of US $1.191
billion, is to be the third dam constructed along the Agno River of Benguet Province in the
CAR, flowing to Pangasinan in Central Luzon. It will be the biggest dam in Asia, generating
345 megawatts of hydropower. The construction of the dam will take three to five years.
This is part of the Philippines ENERGY Plan 2005 and is the flagship project of the Ramos
administration. Its ground-breaking ceremony was held in May 1997. Subsequently, the
Estrada administration committed to completing the project… However, if completed, the
dam will adversely affect 2,000 Ibaloi households of Itogon, Benguet, and will cause the
displacement of more than 325 farming families in Pangasinan. The Ibaloi people consider
the Agno River a gift from God and have, for centuries, taken care not to abuse this gift. By

contrast, foreign mining companies use the Agno as a garbage bin for their waste materials.
The government meanwhile, has decided to use the river for energy, and has constructed
the Ambuklao Binga dams, causing the displacement of hundreds of Ibaloy families and the
silting up of the Agno River system. With the construction of the SRMDP, the Ibalois were
again asked to bear the burden of the cost of national development. The impacts of

      Inundation of homes and agricultural lands located within the planned reservoir area
       covering 14 square kilometers and extending 20 kilometers upstream of the dam-
       site. Submerging of around 100 hectares of productive rice land in Pangasinan and
       inundation of homes, terraced rice fields nurtured through generations, orchards,
       pasture, gardens, gold panning sites, and burial grounds of the Ibaloi people.
      Silting and erosion affecting at least 2,000 families of Itogon. Heavy soil erosion and
       silting up of the river system have already resulted from large open-put and bulk
       mining operations of four mining corporations in Itogon, Benguet.
      Loss of sustainable sources of livelihood of thousands- their rice fields, swidden
       farms, orchards, pastures, forest, gold panning and fishing sites along the length of
       the Agno River.
      Dissolution of the Ibaloi Communities with the loss of their ancestral lands which
       constitute the basis of their existence as a people, entailing in turn the loss of
       customs, and traditions, rituals, beliefs, and socio-political systems which are rooted
       in and tied to their land. It will also lead to the breakdown of their traditional
       knowledge, beliefs, and socio-political systems. They will end up scattered in
       different places like those affected by the Binga and Ambuklao dams in the past.
       This problem cannot be solved by relocation.
      Further deterioration of the river‟s water quality because of the increased
       sedimentation, which will also shorten the useful life of the project. The continued
       dumping of toxic chemicals by mining companies also worsens the water quality of
       the river.
      Destruction of natural environment through loss of flora and fauna, the loss of
       biodiversity and the disruption of the ecological balance with the destruction of
       natural aquifers. In addition, there is the threat of earthquake resulting from the great
       pressure exerted by accumulated water on the land surface, as the dam-site is
       located close to a major fault line.


                                  DIAGRAM OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


Mid-term Philippine Development        1. Developing Micro-enterprises             INDIGENOUS
Plan for Indigenous Peoples       2.    2. Improving Quality of Life            MULTI-DIMENSIONAL
(MTDP-IP)                              3. Promoting Gender Equity in the         GENDER EQUITY
                                          Productive and Reproductive             DEVELOPMENT
                                          Sphere                                    FRAMEWORK
                                       4. People’s Participation in the
                                          Decision Making Process for

                                                                                 Promotion of:
                                                                           1. SELF DETERMINATION
                                                                           2. SELF IDENTIFICATION
                                        FIELD LEVEL IMPACT EVALUATION      3. POLITICAL AND RESOURCE
                                                                           4. FREE CULTURAL

                                                                           TEMPORAL AND RELATIONAL

                                                                                 GENDER EQUITY
The Mid-term Development Plan – Indigenous People is a national development approach
that subsequently resulted to adverse effects as reflected in previous impact evaluation
studies done in the CAR and in Mindoro. This study describes the best practices of selected
projects and programmes in the area in terms of developing sustainable micro-enterprises,
improving quality of life, promoting gender equity in the productive and reproductive
spheres, and enhancing people’s participation in the decision-making process affecting
them. Both the difficulties in the implementation and the sustainability of best practices are
considered with the assumption that an indigenous approach is the key to a successful
development. The indigenous approach promotes self-determination, self-identification,
political and resource control and free cultural expressions. This approach is integrated in
Bitzer’s multi-dimensional gender equity development framework, which has been modified
to include the use of indigenous practices, beliefs, and language of the Indigenous Peoples

Bitzer (2003) proposes a “multi-dimensional gender equity development framework in
sustainable development policies and projects – “a new method of conceptualizing and
operationalizing equity within, between, and across generations and through life events”
(p.xii). Bitzer adds that the various temporal and relational dimensions of this framework
can compare various generations over their life spans (childhood, adolescence, marriage,
parenthood, widowhood and so on), and can weigh the capacity of sustained equity and the
long-term benefits of policies and projects to children and their future offsprings. She
further exposes the incorrect assumption of gender equitable impacts and gender-fair trickle
down effect to children through a field research of a documented “success” in rural India and
an analysis of the larger socio-economic, cultural, and patriarchal structures in which it is
rooted. Bitzer suggests that there is a need to address the persistent systemic roots of
gender inequities, aside from improving the natural and resource economic base, to end and
decrease the gender gap in resource access and control across generations.

This study evaluates the past development initiatives in the CAR, in Mindoro, and in
Bulacan, to validate the claims that these projects and programmes did not use an
indigenous approach, and were not gender responsive.


Qualitative Research Methods were used to gather the pertinent information needed for this
study. The field level impact evaluation was patterned after the Bonifacio Method
composed of the Ocular Inspection and Key Information Interviews. The ocular inspection
and key informant interviews in the field sites lasted for five days, while coordination/
networking with selected NGO workers, Project Officers, Field Researchers in the area had
been done for two months. Secondary data from past documents, visual accounts and
relevant socio-demographic statistics were also gathered during the last few months.

In the OCULAR inspection, I was able to “attend and observe the actual activity being
undertaken in the community. In this case, spot interview as conversation with the
participants may be undertaken. This is better known as Unobtrusive Interview. This means
that the conversation is actually an interview situation.” (Bonifacio, 2001:A10,7). The
Interview questions are open-ended and free flowing. Though the languages used were
English and Filipino and may not be the first language of IPs, the possible tensions in
meaning were carefully validated in terms of its value to the research. The “voice” of the
respondent was maintained in the best way possible to avoid distortion by bracketing the

The KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEW is done with strategically situated persons in the
community (Bonifacio,2001:A10,7). In this study, the key informants were the NGO officers
from POST, Igorota, and others. The key informants are regarded as the necessary sources
of data. They know the situations of their respective organizations based on their own
experiences and interpretation.

Fieldwork schedule:
Day 1, Thursday - February 2, 2006: PLANNING
Day 2, Friday – February 3, 2006: Travel to Baguio City and coordination
        with nongovernment organizations and the Department of Health - CAR
Day 3, Saturday – February 4, 2006 : Ocular inspection in Baguio City
Day 4, Sunday – February 5, 2006 : Ocular inspection and interviews with
        Barangay Health Unit Midwife, Community-based Organization (CBO)
        members/beneficiaries of the WHSMP-PC, and other key informants in
        Caliking, Benguet
Day 5, Monday – February 6, 2006 : Brief meeting with DOH representative
        and former WHSMP-PC staff, interview with the Executive Directors of POST
        and IGOROTA
Day 6, Tuesday – February 7, 2006 : Return trip to Manila and Evaluation of the whole
        Trip and actual activities conducted
February to March 2006 : Completion of Data through Electronic Mails, and Library
        Research to validate results of initial interviews conducted; Writing and
        Presentation of the initial draft of the Study
April 7, 2006 – Submission of Final Paper

Empowerment starts by liberating the Indigenous Peoples from social practices that are
oppressive and limiting. It can be done by identifying the mode and sources of their
oppression, as well as the recognition of their indigenous culture, language and practices.
They have to become active participants in developing policies that would benefit their own
communities and must be responsible in sustaining the best practices independent of the
organizers’ control. To be able to do so, policies must give way for the voices of the
marginalized. Proposals must come from the IPs’ own convictions and initiatives. Methods
of implementing the projects have to integrate age-old practices and indigenous ways that
can enhance the socio-economic and political transformation of people’s lives. They have to
be involved. An opportunity to do so is to create a venue for exposing and exploring their
rich culture. They need a place where indigenous autonomy can be encouraged.

A Review of Selected Development Programmes/Projects Implemented from 1998 to
In line with existing laws and policies on IPs, various development initiatives have been
done by numerous nongovernment organizations, including the following projects:

1. Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project – Partnerships Component
(WHSMP-PC) in the Cordillera Administrative Region
The Savings for Health Scheme of the WHSMP-PC in Caliking, Atok in Benguet was
patterned after microfinance. The project beneficiaries rendered labor in the production of

longaniza and meat loaf and directly sell the processed food products, to be able to access
financial support. The Rural Health Unit (RHU) provided the small stalls where the
beneficiaries/members of the Community-based Organization (CBO) can sell their products.
But, the community did not continuously support the products as cheaper and more
commercialized goods from Baguio City are available. In this regard, the beneficiaries
realized that it is important to designate a venue for these products to be sold not as
commercialized goods but rather as food produced from indigenous labor. The labor of the
IPs must not be reduced to their output; but, it has to be considered as an opportunity to
recognize their skills and creativity.

Also, successful accounts on the effective implementation of WHSMP-PC programmes in
partnership with the People’s Organization for Social Transformation (POST) in Brgy. Sto.
Domingo, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao in 2000 took off with four project concerns in mind: Capability
Building, Women’s Health Action, Community Health Care and Information Education
Campaign (IEC) and Advocacy. Ocular inspection and integration were intensified, leading
to greater cooperation between the community and the project organizer. However, the
community had misconceptions about the project. They considered the project manager as
an outsider. It was only through proper communication that this impression was corrected.
The community cooperated with the project organizer; thus, the more important problem
about the source of potable water was resolved. There was also an initiative from the
project beneficiaries to come up with their own projects, such as corn planting and sari-sari
stores. The women were also given trainings in computer literacy and were able to put up a
computer shop for the community. The education and economic support the women gained
in the course of the program have empowered them to assert their rights as women and as
Indigenous Peoples . The aggressive character of the Ifugaos has been enhanced as they
were given independent leadership but with constant support from POST.

Before the implementation of the WHSMP-PC in Brgy. Sto. Domingo, the community set up
a Health Savings Scheme: Damayan sa Kalusugan to address the absence of community
health fund where the women could borrow money in times of emergency or delay in
seeking health service. From an original membership of 27, additional 4 mothers enrolled.
They started collecting membership fees of twenty pesos and a monthly contribution of eight
pesos. Part also of their earnings from their income generating activities was also added to
their DSK. There were 9 women members who availed of the DSK and the repayment is
very good. The maximum amount a member can loan is P500, which is payable in one
month. As of October 10,2003 Bgy. Sto. Domingo‟s DSK has a fund of P4,534.99 and is
safely deposited in the bank. (NGO Completion Report in Brgy. Sto. Domingo, Alfonso
Lista, Ifugao; POST, Jan-Oct 2003 :6). This community initiative has enhanced the
Community Health Care component of the WHSMP-PC in the area.

Furthermore, in Brgy. San Miguel, Bucay Abra, the Sineg Island Women and Community
Association (SIWACAI), a CBO that had been organized by the WHSMP-PC in the area and
registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission last April 2002, planned and aired
a radio program to heighten women’s interest on issues and problems confronting them, and
to serve as a venue where women can express their opinions and share their experiences in
their own communities (NGO Completion Report, Brgy. San Miguel Bucay, Abra; POST,
Jan-Oct 2003 :6).
Moreover, the WHSMP-PC’s Health and Environmental Awareness: Health and Sanitation
project in Abra, paved the way for the women to discover and develop a lake in San Miguel,
which they had cleaned before building cottages for local tourists to visit. The women sell

“kakanin” to help with their finances. The relationship between the people and the
organizers are remarkable. Through personalism, the people gained trust and loyalty; thus
,they function efficiently.

An impact assessment of the WHSMP-PC in selected project sites: Bgy. San Miguel in
Abra, and Bgy. Sto. Domingo in Alfonso Lista, Ifugao (Executive Summaries, The WHSMP-
PC in: Bgy. Sto. Domingo, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao; and in Bgy. San Miguel, Bucay, Abra)
showed the following positive changes on the target communities:

    women learned about their rights and became aware of their significant role in
     community development
    women developed strong leadership qualities and actively participated in the
     decision-making process, both in the productive and the reproductive spheres
    increased knowledge in organizational development enabled women to run and
     manage their livelihoods
    women and men viewed “health” as “wealth” because of increased awareness in
     health and sanitation
    Damayan sa Kalusugan (DSK) fund improved the health services and facilities in the
     respective communit(ies)
    people’s personalities as well as values and attitudes, particularly in dealing with
     health situations were transformed
    women developed a commitment to serve in the community, without expecting any

2. Cordillera Task Force on VAW (CTFVAW)
The Cordillera Task Force on VAW (CTFVAW), which evolved from the former Task Force
on VAW (TFVAW), a Baguio-based network of women’s organizations has noteworthy
accomplishments: (a) formation of the Cordillera Coordinating Group Against Gender
Violence (CCGAGV); (b) formation of provincial/municipal task forces against gender
violence; (c) indigenized Gender Sensitivity Training (GST), (d) development of a generic
intake for all VAW service providers in the region; and (e) community-based theatre as a
medium for gender awareness raising and advocacy (Mondiguing, et al., 2002: 129-30).
Despite the organizational break-up suffered by the CTFVAW, both VAWC victim and
survivors still benefited because there are now two service providers, instead of just one

3. Ebgan Foundation Inc. - Theater Groups
Ebgan Incorporated was established by some CTFVAW program implementers in May
1999, to address gender and development issues in the Cordilleras (136), specifically issues
concerning women’s health and general welfare, gender and development, environment and
spirituality, reproductive health and gender-based violence. Ebgan also addresses the
economic needs of victims by providing members of community organizations (five women
organizations in three Cordillera communities – two in the Mt. Province, and one each in
Ifugao, Itogon, and Pagi) with credit assistance and enterprise development (137-38).

Despite the lack of resources to fund its direct service program, and the immediate needs of
women, Ebgan continues women’s theatre groups, such as the Lagba, Teatro Kabbule , and
the Mt. Province Educational Theatre Arts Group (MP-ETAG), which are jointly assisted by
PETA and Ebgan. These theatre groups have produced plays on domestic violence,
reproductive rights, and other gender and development issues, which are highly effective in
advocating against gender violence (140).

4. Cordillera Women’s Education and Resource Centre (CWERC)’s Women’s
As the focus of empowerment, women have to assert their rights in society. In an effort to
address gender discrimination in the Cordilleras, and defending indigenous women’s rights,
the Cordillera Women’s Education and Resource Centre (CWERC), aimed to help build a
women’s movement in the region, which is both a part of the national people’s movement
and the indigenous people’s movement and the national movement for genuine sovereignty
and democracy (Sharing Innovative Experiences, 2001: 235).

Starting with the framework that the liberation of the Cordillera women from inequality and
oppression based on gender, class, race, ethnicity and nationality can only be achieved by
addressing the multiple realities of women simultaneously, the CWERC have designed
programs which include education and training activities, research, documentation and
publication, socio-economic work and networking at the regional, national and international
levels. As an activist organization, which articulated the issues being faced by women in the
Cordillera, the publications of the CWERC were the first to address the women’s question in
the region (247); thus, there has been a significant increase in the visibility of women’s
issues, analysis and demands, which could no longer be ignored by the general public nor
by government bodies and other institutions.

5. Indigenous Social Protection Schemes
Women community leaders of the PATAMABA (the National Network of Homeworkers) in
San Francisco, Bulacan, have revived the tradition of helping and sharing, through the
damayan and the paluwagan, which may be considered informal social protection schemes
(Case Studies on Indigenous Social Protection Schemes). In coping with the escalating
cost of dying, a group of women thought of forming a damayan in April, 1986. They
gathered together in one member's house to read the pasyon, a long religious chant
recounting the passion and death of Jesus Christ. There, they met with leaders of a
damayan in the next village which had been collecting five pesos from each member
everytime someone died. They had no rules and regulations then. These women met
everytime there was a death in the village or in other areas; some people just took the
responsibility of collecting contributions for the bereaved family. The membership
progressively grew, from about 50 in 1988, to about 75 in 1989, and 110 in 1990. From
1988 to 1990, they were able to help a total of six bereaved households. At first, they
collected five pesos only from each member; in 1992, they raised this to ten pesos because
of rising cost. Although the collected amounts when totaled might be small compared to
actual needs, at least these help ease the burden a little. There are plans to increase the
contributions to 20 pesos, and later on to ever larger amounts until the target of 50 pesos is

From 1991 to 1993, the damayan also assisted those who died in the household of its
members, and shouldered the hospitalization costs of members who fell ill. Contributions
are voluntarily set by each member according to their capability. At present, the concerns of
damayan have broadened in relation to the widening community consciousness of its
members, like the protection of Indigenous Peoples ' rights.

6. Buhid sa Mindoro Dependency Resistance
The Buhid communities in Mindoro whose “various forms of linkages – internal and external
trading, intersettlement marriage, visiting migration, common attendance at rituals and other
events and activities” (Lopez-Gonzaga, 2002: 188), illustrates how a traditional society,

oriented to subsistence production, has responded to the process of incorporation, the
domination by a central state, coincident with the penetration of capitalist economy.
Incorporation works in the Third World countries, like the Philippines, largely facilitate the
expansion of capitalist interest couched in the language of “industrialization” or economic
growth effected through the importation of alien technology (189).

The Buhid response to the process of incorporation, at various levels of articulation with the
lowlands, can be characterized as that of “dependency resistance” (190). A member of
Buhid (hill) peasants become “brokers” between other producers and the Loktanon traders
(192). Some Buhid entrepreneurs have invested in the buying and selling of commodities
either to the travelling middlemen (biyahero/a) or to their fellow Buhid in their sari-sari stores.
The increasing Buhid participation as traders in simple commodity circulation in the hills has
also diversely increased the surplus due to the enterprising Buhid. These entrepreneurs
realize profits either by extending the alili credit system introduced by highlanders, or
through political brokerage, and have expanded their investment activities to purchasing
land and other means of production.

FIELDWORK IN BENGUET (February 03-07, 2006): Compilation of Stories
From Members and Project Heads of WHSMP-PC’s NGO Partners

Date: February 5, 2006
Location: Midwife’s Residence, Km.28: Caliking, Benguet
Dati akong aktibo sa Women pero ngayon hindi na ako active. Noong 2002 nagsimula
akong humiwalay sa grupo dahil maraming trabaho sa center. Noong taon din yun, natigil
na ang suporta ng Women sa barangay kaya kami kami na lang ang natira pero mayroon
pang Women sa Caliking. Sila na lang ang nag-aasikaso. Wala na akong balita sa mga
kasapi sa ngayon. May mahigit 20 miyembro ang women sa Caliking. Nahahati sila sa mga
maliliit na grupo ng lima hanggang anim. Karamihan sa kanila ay mga walang trabaho
maliban sa gawaing bahay kaya sumapi sila sa Women para kumita at makautang. Kaso
marami sa mga miyembro ang hindi nakapagbayad. Noon kasing dumating ang Women sa
Caliking mga 1998, 1999 ay parang extension ata nila yun kaya may programa sila na
ipinatupad sa barangay kaso hindi naman talaga napag-usapan kung papaano sisimulan.
Kaya no'ng una, nagpaorientation sila. Sinabi nila na magkakaroon daw kami ng extra
income. Yung puhunan bigay ng women‟s pero sa pagpasok mayroon na P20/month na
membership. Basta ang qualification ng mga miyembro ay dapat maganda ang ugali, taga-
rito at hindi madaldal /mareklamo. Ayaw namin ng ganun. Ayaw nila ng masyadong
maganyan (gestures indicating “madaldal” character). Kelangan din mag-attend sila ng
meeting o kaya pwede maghandle. Aktibo ang mga miyembro. May isa rin kaming
miyembro na lalaki pero no'ng nagface out na ang Women‟s mga 2001 2002 siguro mga 10
hanggang 15 na lang na miyembro ang natira.

Malaki rin ang pondo ng women‟s dito, Siguro mga P100,000 pero hindi naman eksakto ang
natatanggap, depende yun sa popondohang proyekto. Sa aming grupo nakatanggap kami
ng 10 libo. Mga 8 hanggang 10 libo ang ibinibigay sa mga grupo. Tapos iyon yung
ipapautang at papaikutin na puhunan. No'ng una silang nagbigay ng pera ay hindi nila
sinabi na pautang kaagad kaya akala ng mga tao ay “dole out” ang pera. Tapos biglang
sinabi ng taga WHSMP-PC na kailangan naming ilista ang mga binigyan ng pera. Paano
yun, wala kaming eksaktong listahan kaya hindi lahat ng una nilang ipinahiram ay napabalik.
Dapat siguro nilista muna nila nang maayos para kumpleto ang records. Nagpapautang din
ang WHSMP-PC, ang utang ay depende sa dami ng kilo ng longganisa. Gumagawa ang

mga miyembro ng longganisa gamit ang freezer at panggiling na bigay ng Women‟s. Kapag
hindi nabili ang mga nagawang longganisa, ”each” tao kukuha do‟n para hindi masira, pero
nagkakaproblema kapag hindi nabenta. Sa hirap ng buhay umisip pa rin kami ng ibang
paraan. May mga miyembro na gumawa rin ng meatloaf, may ibang nagtanim ng sayote,
nagloom-weaving at hog fattening. Kaso sa mga processed meat ay hindi nila kami
tinuruan sa packaging. Wala ring siguradong pagbebentahan kasi yung mga kapitbahay na
dapat bumili ng mga longganisa, namamahalan sa produkto. May problema din kami sa
packaging dahil hindi naisama sa training ang packaging kaya hindi rin namin masigurado
na magtatagal nang mas matagal ang mga produkto. Bigla rin kasing nagmahal ang kilo ng
karne, sa halagang 140 per kilo tapos bibili pa ng mga sangkap at materyales, talagang
mataas papatak ang presyo ng longganisa namin. Tapos may mga mas mura pang mabibili
sa palengke sa baba, Mga P90 lang „ata per kilo na gawang longganisa. Syempre mas
bibilhin nila yun pero hindi nila alam na mataas ang quality nu‟ng longganisa namin kasi
may mga kemikal silang nilalagay para mag-expand yung longganisa nila. Kami kami rin
ang bumibili, minsan umoorder din ang mga taga-munisipyo. Ang mga officer sa Barangay
ang nagpoprovide ng kuryente sa office namin sa center. Andun nakalagay ang aming
freezer at grinder. Pero walang suporta sa DOH. Mga Project Officer ang dumadating dito
para sabihin sa amin ang dapat naming gawin para magkaroon ng grupo. Pero sa mga
projects tinatanong din nila kami kung ano ang kailangan namin at kaya naming gawin.
Kaso no‟ng wala nang pondo sa project namin, hindi na kaming lahat iniimbita sa
pagdedesisyon dahil magastos daw ang meeting. Nu‟ng napalitan na ang Barangay
Captain hindi na kami iniinvite kasi wala raw ipapakain. Kaya hindi na kami well
represented sa mga desisyon na ginawa nila bago magphase out yung proyekto. Hindi na
kami namonitor nang maayos.

Isa pang problema namin ay wala na kaming listahan ng mga pinautang. Yung ibang
pautang na nakalista ay hindi kumpleto dahil walang malinaw na listahan ang bookkeeper
namin. May orientation kasi rin yung iba sa amin dito na “dole out” ang mga projects kasi
mismong Women‟s Health ang nagsabi na bibigyan kami ng pera.Saka hindi rin
nagbabayad ang ibang mga miyembro sa tamang oras dahil wala silang kumpletong benta.
Hindi nila nakakalimutan ang kanilang obligasyon na magbayad ng utang kaya nga lang
wala talaga silang perang pambayad. Hindi na rin kami gumagawa ng meat products kasi
minsan pagkagawa namin o kaya pagkapaningil, uutangin ulit kahit hindi pa nababawi ang
puhunan. Mahirap din ang bentahan. Sa Saddle, dati may maliliit kami na stalls para sa
tindahan ng mga meat products. Nandun pa siguro yun.

Oo, pwede pa maactivate kung una, magkakaroon kami ulit ng pondo para makabili ng mga
ingredients as meat products at ikalawa, kailangang may magsimula ulit na tutulong sa amin
para mag-organisa ng leadership training para matulungan kaming bumuo ulit ng mga
grupo. Siguro dapat maayos din ang miscommunication sa mga kasali sa women‟s.
Mahirap na mareactivate ang women‟s pero kailangan lang ng reorganization, kung kami
kami lang, mahirap!

Date: February 5, 2006
Location: S.Baptist Church, Km.30, Caliking, Benguet
Daisy, 25 years old, is the church pianist, who lives in Caliking. She is a member of the
CBO of WHSMP-PC youth sector and won the beauty contest organized by the WHSMP-PC
on December 30, 2001. She was crowned Miss Caliking. She described this fund raising
project as a popularity contest, where contestants have to sell tickets within the barangay to
collect points. The contestant with the most number of sold tickets together with a pleasing

personality wins the pageant. She said that the program of WHSMP-PC was active from
1999 to 2001, though she has been most active in 2001 because of the responsibility and
involvement the title holds. She was first introduced to WHSMP-PC because her mother is
a member of WHSMP-PC. She said that the program of the youth was different and
separated from the women’s. The barangay youth officials were very supportive and the
generated funds were only spent for youth activities. Before, mothers, who were members
of the WHSMP-PC encouraged their children to get involved with the youth sector of
WHSMP-PC. In 2001, the youth sector was very active and dynamic but when the program
ended, the activities also came to an end and there is no WHSMP-PC anymore. Up to this
time, she has not heard from the group. No activities were sustained because nobody was
organizing anymore. She has graduated and is working now. When I asked her if she is
still willing to join the WHSMP-PC should anyone organize it again, she answered yes,
though she isn’t sure if she has enough time unlike before. She believes that the youth
sector can easily be tapped provided that there will be committed organizers with more
dynamic activities of their interests.

Date: February 5, 2006
Location: S. Baptist Church, Km.30, Caliking, Benguet
At first she was not able to recall the Women’s Health group until Ms. Daisy, a co-church
worker reminded her of the WHSMP-PC

Ang Women ang nagpapautang dito sa amin noon. Nagsimula sila dito sa amin no‟ng 2001
buhay pa „ata ang Women pero hindi na ako active. Dati may mga grupo kami. Nag-
aattend kami ng mga seminar nila. Yung isang seminar ay tungkol sa paggawa ng
longganisa. Tinuruan nila kami gumawa ng longganisa tapos may freezer at grinder kami
sa Women na nasa Barangay. Yung uutangin namin ay depende sa dami ng longganisa na
magagawa namin para maibenta. Active kami noon kaya lang di na ako nakakapunta ulit sa
Women‟s kaya hindi ko alam kung ano na ang projects nila.

Date: February 5, 2006
Location: Teacher’s Residence, Km.28, Caliking, Benguet
I am not a member of that group (WHSMP-PC). Yun ba yung nagtitinda ng longganisa na
homemade? Yes, I know them but I never bought their products because it is too expensive
as compared to the meat products in Baguio. One time, there are community organizers
who came to our place and ask the non-working mothers to join their livelihood programs.
Since I am working, I did not join. They also have meetings during weekdays and working
hours. But I think there is no Women‟s Health anymore.

FERDIE GONZALES, Project Director of POST
(People’s Organization for Social Transformation)
Date: February 5, 2006
Location: POST, Baguio City
Mr. Ferdie Gonzales had been monitoring the Women’s Health project in 2 municipalities of
Bukay in Abra and another in Alfonso Lista in Ifugao. He disclosed that one of the
objectives of the WHSMP-PC project is to form a women’s organization that will provide the
basic health services for its members in the community.

Very active ang Ifugao. Women‟s Health came up with “Damayan sa Kalusugan” and in
Bontoc “Piso para sa Kalusugan”. These are the health saving schemes of POST. Malaki

ang naitutulong saving schemes. In terms of funding, importante din and “Linkage Building”
where the Peoples‟ Organization are able to access the fund in the LGU Community
Livelihood Enhancement Development. The PO can get as much as P75,000 as funds for
their projects. They are given only 1 % interest per annum. For example, the PO in Bukay
used the amount given for their hog raising. Lahat ng mga organization nakaaccess ng pera
pero depende rin ang amount sa capacity nila na mabayaran yung utang. Like sa Bukay,
may CO na kami. Ang CO na nahire ay taga-roon din. Foundation namin ang CO. Sa
observation namin, maganda naman ang awareness campaign sa area but unfortunately
they focused more on the project rather than the organization. Competency in terms of
community organizing is a factor. In order to sustain the project, the implementer must give
more importance to the PO before the project.

In Ifugao, the WHSMP-PC project was sustained, pero sa Abra 4 out of 6 lang ang
nasustain. After the projects of Women‟s Health, we were able to get funds from PBSP, a
revolving fund with a higher interest. For example, in Ifugao P40,000/PO were provided.
Aside from the officers and representatives of the PO, we also organized a treasurer and a
bookkeeper. Sinuswelduhan namin sila. Maganda and leadership ng mga officers nila.
Very active ang mga members kasi well-organized and PO sa area. Some of the successful
projects of WH is geared towards environmental awareness. Through the initiative of the
women from Abra, the San Miguel River was revived. Health and Sanitation Resorts/
Cottages were developed to attract local tourist to visit their place. The women in the area
were also able to sell kakanin in these resorts. The cottages for rent are also sources of
income for the women. But in Abra, 2 areas were more active, the Bukay and Lagangilang.
While in Ifugao, nasustain at sarili na nila. May mga initiative sila. GA na nga lang kami na
iniinvite paminsan minsan.

May isang magandang project din sa Ifugao, yung kanilang Computer Literacy Project na
naorganize rin ng WH. Nakaaccess kami ng Computer Literacy for them kasi di pa
masyadong existing ang paencode at printing sa location nila. So the women suggested to
have this kind of program. We asked them to join an intensive twenty-day training for
computer literacy with 10 days on Microsoft Word and the remaining days for other
programs including Excel. Part of the PO funds were used in buying 2 personal computers
and a printer. Two among the members were permanently hired as encoder. The
Computer Literacy Project, along with other livelihood projects in Ifugao, were chosen by the
PO. Galing sa kanila. The NGO only helps in making proposals for funding and reconciling
possible conflict of interest among the members. Yun nga lang ang disappointing, hindi
supportive and LGU. Kahit andun yung municipal officer parang left on your on kami ng
DOH. Andun naman ang NGO, ang midwives ok pa rin. Pero yung ibang mga taga-DOH,
wala na. One of the reasons din siguro kung bakit di nasustain not only for WH but for
almost all projects. After the project, wala na. Parang ok sige we will continue to work, pero
after, wala na.

What should be done is that there must be a partnership after the project, para hindi kung
walang pera, parang wala na. Maganda sana ireplicate din yung success ng isang project,
makakatulong ang strong connection, dapat istrengthen din ang members ng PO. Dapat
nakatutok din ang PO sa financial statement para kung di pa nakuha ang pautang do‟n mo
titingnan sa listahan. Sa totoo lang, kaya naman nila maging independent basta may
linkage sa mga members. Ang problem lang din kasi ay kapag naging busy na ang mga
members sa ibang concerns nila, nahahati na ang priorities.

Pagstable naman ang PO, di mo naman talaga iiwanan sila. Di naman tutok kundi parang
sinasabi nila na bisitahin man lang namin sila. At least man lang mavisit kasi it adds to their
morale. Hindi pagkatapos ng programa, tapos na. Kulang kami sa suporta ng gobyerno
pero ang dapat siguro na gawin ay magkaroon ng Inter-agency Collaboration: CWFT Core
Team in terms of kunwari sa DSWD, sa integration and monitoring with DOH, and visit ng
handlers. Sa halip ng tatlong agencies ang hiwahiwalay na bumibisita sa lugar, dapat
mamaximize ang time, labor at finances kung hindi compartmentalized ang agency. The
different agencies must plan interconnected projects para hindi rin nag-ooverlap sa isang
area ang projects o kaya nacoconcentrate sa iisang lugar ang funds. Combination of funds
to maximize its potential can also be done. Another problem that can affect sustainability is
the lack of leadership sa part ng PO at ng NGO. In terms of Funding, dapat iensure yung
accountability ng NGO and organization to sustain the project. Sayang ang funds, three
years after, asan na ang PO (Peoples‟ Organization)?

Date: February 5, 2006
Location: IGOROTA Foundation Office, Baguio City
There are a lot of differences in the approach of people from the academe and those who
are involved in the field as NGO workers. The issues on framework are some of the
concerns. Most of the academicians are purely theoretical in their approach to community
development that is why in order to bridge the gap between the two, the use of action
research is really necessary.

The Igorota is an NGO handling WHMPS-PC in Ligawan, Buguias and Abiang in Benguet.
The Women‟s Health project is successful according to the design and objectives. Maganda
naman ang exit namin sa area, pati ang sustainability measures. Sa Buguias, hindi
nagwork out ang partnership namin, kung walang partnership, walang cooperation. But
during the process, the peoples‟ organization was able to strengthen the women. They
participated in the project.

We were also able to get some funding from the Levis Foundation to set up a drugstore for
the community in our Botika Binhi project. The fund was course through PBSP grant for the
botika. The package was to put up organizational building, setting structure for
management, and purchasing of equipment and drug. We also bought a weighing scale for
the Barangay Health Center. We developed a structure for the drugstore and hired workers
to manage it. We used the funds for purchasing the supplies and paying the regular seller
and a bookkeeper. We asked these workers not to sell prescriptive drugs but they still did
under the supervision of their Barangay nurse, who is very influential in the community.
That for us is a minor violation. At some point, we had a hard time negotiating with the
nurse because she controls the members and area.

But the Barangay officials were also supportive of our projects. Yes, the very key that is, the
most makatulong din yung nurse sa LGU ng area. Dapat sana yung nurse ang
representative namin sa LGU. On the part of DOH naman, walang suporta so far, except in
Abiang‟s medical inputs regarding seminar on drugs which is needed if we are to put up
another drugstore. The DECS is not also visible but the Red Cross gave the community
some inputs on First Aid.

The fund we had was around 500 thousand pesos, a bit less than that. Some part are still
available in the area, the others went to trainings and projects. Up to now nando‟n pa rin

ang botika sa areas ng Buguias. But we move the funds in Pasdong, Abiang, and Kibungan
in Benguet after the failure of the partnership in Buguias.

The best practices were replicated in the extension areas, which were more manageable in
terms of initiatives from the members. In Abiang, they had an initial fund through
contributions from the members. But, it was not enough. They did not have the capacity to
raise a higher amount, because the community is poor. So we had to assist them to get
some funds for the women‟s project. Women members in the community consider it their
project and so they really worked hard for the project to succeed. Unlike in Buguias, the
women in Abiang are more organized and committed. We also came up with Women
officers, a bookkeeper and a supplies officer. The drug store we developed in the area is
still functional up to now. From 2003 to the present, some projects are still sustained in the
area. The COs are locally hired, more or less alam nila ang need ng community. Ang
Pasdong hindi maayos ang organization dahil mahirap mapuntahan ang community
because of the distance and road repairs. The most accessible for us is Abiang.

After our nine-month engagement in the expansion programs of WHSMP-PC through the
DOH, we made a formal turn over of everything. So what happens with the communities in
the extension areas is that they need to stretch the remaining budget. There was an effort
on December 2003 by the NGO and CO to bring together all the partners. Kaya lang hindi
napick-up kung saan sila papasok, just the NGO. Separate kasi ang management ng
Women‟s Health. I don‟t know if it‟s a good idea na may separation. After the phase-out
wala nang reports na sinasabi sa DOH. The BHW and nurses turned over reports. Then
the POs worked on their own since then.


Results of the impact evaluation study on selected development programmes/projects in
CAR, in Mindoro, and in Bulacan, indicate that the government has done little in recognizing,
protecting and promoting the rights of Indigenous Peoples, despite the passage of Republic
Act 8371: Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act of 1997. This condition has been aggravated by
the implementation of destructive government projects, such as mining and energy projects,
among IP communities, and the imposition of unjust policies that trampled upon their
inherent rights to ancestral lands, and their right to participate actively in decision-making
processes affecting their development.

Also, international organizations and/or funders, in partnership with government agencies
and nongovernment organizations, have not been successful enough in alleviating the
socio-economic conditions of marginalized IP communities, especially the women. Most
foreign-funded programmes and projects have not been successful enough to reduce the
increasing incidence of poverty and subservience among IP groups, particularly in the CAR
and in Mindoro, where several foreign-funded development programmes and projects have
not been sustained. This situation could have been due to the fact that the direct
implementers of these programmes/projects did not include the IPs in the decision-making
process, particularly on the development and management of such projects/ programmes.

Also, the following difficulties and sources of failures in sustaining development programmes
/projects in the CAR were identified by a WHSMP-PC partner organization and its

Identified by WHSMP-PC beneficiaries       Identified by Representative from an NGO
and community members                      partner
   1. Lack of leadership training          Lack of leadership training/proper
   2. Personalism and Familiarity:         Difficulty in dealing with some
        “tsismis”, palakasan/kampihan,     representatives of the people’s organization
        cannot separate work from personal (PO); Personalism and miscommunication
        issues, cannot work with “kaaway”

   3. Lack of support from LGUs and DOH       Issues on conceptual framework used in the
                                              academe for evaluating development
                                              programs: Need for Action Research
   4.   Manipulation by the Barangay heads    Conflicts of Interest (PO/LGU/NGO and
       instead of encouraging members to      DOH)
       get involved and speak out their
    5. Lack of time and commitment            Kanya kanyang lakad ang iba‟t ibang
                                              naghahandle na grupo sa isang area pero
                                              wala pakialam kaya minsan nalilito ang mga
                                              tao kung alin ba talaga ang kailangan o ano
                                              ba talaga ang gagawin kung sakaling
                                              magkaiba or in conflict ang programa

    6. Lack of initiative from the members    Need for financial statement: bookkeeper,
       to pay their respective debts          accountant/ treasurer
            a. On Microfinance
       -need for stable market/consumers/
       selling place
       -competition from other sources/
       branded, cheaper or commercialized
       -demand for higher training and
       quality control
            b. On Poverty
       -no financial means to pay
       -got used to dole outs and do not
       want to be forced to pay
       -cost of living higher than earnings
       -decided to work in formal labor and
       lacked time to work for the

                                              Some communities and their officers are
                                              used to luxuries and demand more than
                                              what is needed
                                              Lack of professionalism

The above-cited difficulties/sources of failures in sustaining development programmes/
projects in the CAR emphasize the failure of the WHSMP-PC to consider the diverse cultural
practices of its partner organizations and target beneficiaries/ clients, and to use
multidimensional, participatory and gender-sensitive and responsive approaches in
project/programme development and management. Thus, there was no ownership of the
programme/project among the target beneficiaries/communities. Although, there were
attempts by some nongovernment organizations and people’s organizations in the selected
project sites to sustain what they had started, these efforts lack the support of the local
government units (LGUs), which were supposed to plan and implement community
programmes and projects that will improve people’s quality of life, to promote gender equity
in the productive and reproductive spheres, and to enhance people’s participation in the
decision-making process affecting them.

It is inspiring to note that despite the lack of support from the local government, some IP
groups in Mindoro and in Bulacan came up with best practices that can serve as a model for
other IP groups and communities. The integration of indigenous ways of doing things and
age-old practices to complement the social preparation stage and community organizing
processes that some NGOs use as preliminary steps to project development and
management, will enhance gender equity and equality, support rights-based approaches in
all phases of project development and management, and sustain micro-enterprises and
other programmes/ projects for target beneficiaries. It will also directly improve the social,
economic, cultural, and political lives of the IPs and other communities. Accordingly, women
and men will have equal opportunities to access resources, to hone their skills in managing
micro-enterprises and other programmes/projects, and to participate more actively in the
activities of their respective communities. Thus, women’s important role in the family as well
as in the community will be highly emphasized.


There is a need to utilize a participatory approach in project implementation, which would
enable IP communities, especially the women to actively participate in the decision-making
process affecting their own development. A participatory approach to project
implementation could also improve relations and functions between stakeholders and
beneficiaries of programmes/projects.

Also, inter-agency collaborations between government agencies and nongovernment
organizations can facilitate the monitoring and evaluation of programmes/projects since
these partnerships maximize the utilization of funds and personnel, for the benefit of their
target clients/communities.

Furthermore, capacity building activities, such as leadership training, values formation
seminar, and others must be conducted, to enhance IP communities/groups’ professional,
and people skills. These activities will boost people’s self-esteem, thereby enabling them to
develop good interpersonal relations and to fulfill desired goals and objectives.

Moreover, creative programmes and activities for IPs, especially for women and the youth
will have to integrate the multiple dimensions of development “comprising of human security,
macroeconomic growth, environmental sustainability and participatory governance”
(Morales-Gomez, 2000: 3). It is important to promote self-determination, self-identification,
political and resource control, and free cultural expressions in a development framework

which enhances gender equity. Thus, it is imperative to identify how far, and how these can
be enhanced through appropriate public strategies and policies.

Towards an Indigenous Multidimensional Gender Equity Framework for Development
An indigenous multidimensional gender equity framework for development in sustainable
development policies and projects is a modification of Bitzer’s proposed development
framework. It is a method which promotes self-determination, self-identification, political and
resource control, and free cultural expression while it hastens the process of bridging the
gender gap. It welcomes cultural diversity which facilitates national development and
economic stability.

As a permanent attribute of civil society, cultural diversity grants cultural space to
differentiated groups. This step is of “central importance in Spain in consolidating a
democratic order providing substantial satisfaction to Catalan ethno-nationalists, and
isolating the violent extremists in the Basque country. In Mauritius, the meticulous care
within which the communal balance is maintained in the cultural action of the state has
served to foster...a profound commitment to tolerance shared by the citizenry at large
(Young, 1999: 7).

Drawing upon and reinforcing the cultural traditions of marginalized Indigenous Peoples
will encourage social and economic changes that they can control and carry out. Equitable
and sustainable development is built upon Indigenous Peoples ' own cultural heritage.

Cultural expressions such as music, dance, popular theater, puppetry, artisan work, poster
and mural art, and oral tradition – can facilitate the generation of “cultural energy”
(Kleymeyer, 1994:4), which is a prime source of motivation that inspires people to confront
problem, identify solutions, and participate in carrying them out.

By knowing where they have come from, people can discover where they want to go. Thus,
cultural expressions facilitate the creation of a more viable, productive and effective local
organizations that can sustain development efforts on their own, even without outside help.


Bitzer, C. A Mutidimensional Gender Equity Development Framework. A Dissertation.
        University of Delaware, 2003.

Bonifacio, M. Community Organizing for Rural Development: An Approach to
       Community Organizing in Coastal Resources management – Fishery Resources
       Management (FRMP) Framework for Community Organizing. Department of
       Agriculture, Diliman, Quezon City, September 2001.

Escobar, A. The Unmaking of the Third World. 1995.

Kleymeyer, C.D. (ed.) Cultural Expression and Grassroots Development. Cases from Latin
      America and the Caribbean. Colorado: Reenner Publishers, Inc., 1994.

Young, C. (ed.) The Accommodation of Cultural Diversity. Case Studies. New York, NY:
      Martin’s Press, Inc., 1999.

Case Studies on Indigenous Social Protection Schemes. PATAMABA. No Date.

Ibon Media Release, March 9, 2006.
________________, March 14, 2006.
________________, March17, 2006.
________________, March 21, 2006.

Conference Papers: “Ang mga Etnolingguwistikong Grupo sa Pag-aaral ng Etnisidad tungo
      sa Integratibong Lapit/Metodo ng Pagtuturo at sa Pagpapatibay ng Araling
      Panlipunan bilang bahagi ng Kurikulum sa Lahat ng Antas Pang-edukasyon” Ikatlong
      Pambansang Seminar-Workshop (April 18-20,2005) Sponsored by: Bagong
      Kasaysayan Inc.
             1. IPRA, NCIP (ONCC&OSCC 1996 Accomplishment Report)
             2. NCAA History and Policies
             3. The National Roundtable: The Impact of Development Projects on
                 Philippine Indigenous Peoples , Cordillera People Alliance, July 1998

NGO Completion Report. Barangay San Miguel, Bucay, Abra. POST. January-October

NGO Completion Report. Barangay Sto. Domingo, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao. POST. January-
     October 2003.


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