This study attempts to evaluate the impact of some development initiatives in the Philippines. Specifically, it aims to redefine the concept of development based on the experiences of nongovernment organizations and people’s organizations in project implementation and management, particularly in the Cordillera Administrative Region and in Mindoro. It also highlights the best practices of these organizations and communities in selected project sites. Furthermore, it proposes an indigenous multidimensional gender equity framework for development.
TOWARDS AN INDIGENOUS MULTI DIMENSIONAL GENDER EQUITY FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPMENT: An Impact Evaluation of Selected Development Programmes/Projects in The Philippines By JOSEFINA V. GABUYA Quezon City, Philippines April 7, 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page Acknowledgment Table of Contents I. Introduction 3 II. Objectives 4 III. Review of Related Literature 5 A. Overview of Laws, Policies and IPRA 7 B. National Commission on Indigenous Peoples C. National Commission on Culture and Arts D. Situations of IPs: A National Roundtable Synthesis (1998) E. Case Studies based on the National Roundtable: The Impact of Development Projects on IP 1. The National Integrated Protected Area System 2. The Igorot Experience with Benguet Corporation 3. Energy: San Roque Multi-purpose Dam Project IV. Conceptual Framework 14 V. Methodology 15 A. Ocular Inspection and Unobtrusive Interview B. Key Informant Interview C. Fieldwork Schedule VI. THE DEVELOPMENT TRENDS FOR PHILIPPINE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES 16 A. Review of Selected Development Programmes/Projects Implemented from 1998 to 2003 1. Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project – Partnerships Component (WHSMP-PC) in the Cordillera Administrative Region 2. Cordillera Task Force on VAW (CTFVAW) 3. Ebgan Foundation Inc. - Theater Groups 4. Cordillera Women’s Education and Resource Centre (CWERC)’s Women’s Movement 5. Indigenous Social Protection Schemes 6. Buhid sa Mindoro Dependency Resistance VII. FIELDWORK IN BENGUET: Compilation of Stories 20 A. Midwife B. Daisy C. Mrs. Pukay D. Teacher E. Mr. Ferdie Gonzales, POST F. Ma’am Roselle, IGOROTA VIII. Analysis 25 IX. Recommendations 28 2 INTRODUCTION The struggle of the Philippine Indigenous Peoples for self-determination and ancestral land ownership does not entirely differ from other Indigenous Peoples worldwide. They are marginalized both in the economic and the socio-cultural aspects due to the trade liberalization that favored globalization and homogeneity of developmental approaches. Not only did liberalism magnified poverty in the newly industrializing country but more importantly, the greater regard for First World cultural influence has put lesser value to national identity and root ethnicity. The Indigenous Peoples are positioned in the periphery with lesser involvement in development planning. Despite the numerous developmental efforts from 1945 to the present, mostly coming from international funders and aid institutions, the pressing issues of global inequalities and poverty remain particularly in the Third World. Instead of alleviating the socio-economic conditions of people in Third World countries, the implementation of actually existing development has led to environmental destruction, exploitation, state oppression and poverty. This global process has caused the integration of millions of people into a global economy, which has made them very vulnerable. This problem has worsened at present since global market forces have replaced the failures of state-led development. In line with this, many adjustment policies are partly to blame for absolute falls in living standards. This global crisis has adverse effects on the cost of living of the Filipinos. For example, the present daily cost of living for a family of six in the National Capital Region is P665.01, more than twice the daily minimum wage of P325. IBON estimates that a family of six in Metro manila needs at least P19,950 a month to meet its subsistence food and non-food needs (IBON Media Release, March 14, 2006: 1). Unfortunately, only few families in the Philippines have this monthly income, since some 2.8 million Filipinos failed to find work in January 2006, 15% more than last year's 2.5 million unemployed Filipinos (IBON Media Release, March 17, 2006: 1). The industry sector, especially the manufacturing and construction subsectors caused the decrease in jobs to 95,000. Since the goal of the economic sector is to form industrial sites in an agricultural country like the Philippines, the agricultural lands are converted to factories, subdivisions and energy producing areas. The agricultural workers are transformed to factory workers, professionals in the field of science, medicine, business related courses and even overseas contract workers. What becomes of living in an indigenous way is nothing but maintaining the backward nature of traditional society. The present administration's neoliberal policies have aggravated poverty conditions. Unfortunately, the government is bent to continue implementing these policies. To make matters worse, the Arroyo administration starts off its public information campaign on Charter Change (Cha-cha), “which remove the charter's economic sovereignty provisions among others” (IBON Media Release, March 21, 2006: 1), and will not bring about promised economic development. The consciousness of the more progressive members of the IPs did not stop by merely compromising to the imposed economic development. There are ways in which the IPs fight to promote their rights to land, empowerment through equal representation, rights to develop their own policies and to be self-governing. The failings of development have encouraged people to form resistance through movements that focused on issues concerning the environment, gender, agriculture, health, human rights and so on. These movements whose politics may vary, have made Filipinos rethink and reshape the concept of development. The effects of the crisis both in global condition and local deprivation resulted to the need for solidarity and aims to unite Indigenous Peoples groups. The IPs were able 3 to identify their needs and discuss their situations in an attempt to give voice to their experiences. The participation of the IPs in formulating development policies and conceptualizing programmes are essential to the understanding of their problems. Libia Grueso, et al pointed out a similar account of resistance among the members of the Organization of Black Communities of the Pacific Coast of Colombia, January 1994, by emphasizing this statement: We don't know exactly when we started to talk about cultural difference. But at some point we refused to go on building a strategy around a catalogue of “problems” and “needs”. The government continues to bet, on democracy and development; we respond by emphasizing cultural autonomy and “the right to be who we are and have our own life project. To recognize the need to be different, to build an identity, are difficult tasks that demand persistent work among our communities, taking their very heterogeneity as a point of departure. However, the fact that we do not have worked out social and economic alternatives makes us vulnerable to the current onslaught by capital. This is one of our most important political tasks at present: to advance in the formulation and implementation of alternative social and economic proposals (Escobar, 1995: 213) OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY General Objectives: This study attempts to evaluate the impact of some development initiatives in the Philippines. Specifically, it aims to redefine the concept of development based on the experiences of nongovernment organizations and people’s organizations in project implementation and management, particularly in the Cordillera Administrative Region and in Mindoro. It also highlights the best practices of these organizations and communities in selected project sites. Furthermore, it proposes an indigenous multidimensional gender equity framework for development. Specific Objectives: This study intends to answer the following questions: 1. What are the visible changes that selected development projects and programmes implemented by some organizations (international funders in partnership with local nongovernment organizations) in CAR, in Mindoro, and in Bulacan have done to the communities/ people in these areas, in terms of the following: a. developing sustainable micro-enterprises b. improving quality of life c. promoting gender equity in the productive and reproductive spheres d. enhancing people’s participation in the decision-making process affecting them 2. What are the best practices of these organizations and communities in the selected project sites? 3. How can an indigenous multidimensional gender equity framework for development benefit people’s organizations, especially Indigenous Peoples ’ groups? REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE OVERVIEW OF LAWS, POLICIES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES RIGHTS ACT Section 3 (h) of the Republic Act 8371 (Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997) defined Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines as “groups of people or homogenous societies identified by self-ascription and ascription by others, who have continuously lived as 4 organized community on communally bounded and defined territory, and who have, under claims of ownership since time immemorial, occupied, possessed and utilized such territories, sharing common bonds of language, customs, traditions and other distinctive cultural traits, or who have, through resistance to political, social and cultural inroads, became historically differentiated from the majority of Filipinos. ICCS/IPs shall likewise include peoples who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations, which inhabited the country, at the time of conquest or colonization, or at the time of inroads of non-indigenous religions and cultures or the establishment of present state boundaries who retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains.” (ONCC & OSCC, 1996) Historically, the IPs were displaced from its original domain. From the Spanish period up to the present political systems, state laws and militarization have been employed to dispossess Indigenous Peoples of their ancestral land. For the IPs, land has been the material base for their distinct culture and way of life. “From the symbiotic relationship of land and people emanates the Indigenous Peoples ’ distinct worldview. To deprive them of land is also to deprive them of life. To maintain peace and harmony within the community and with nature, Indigenous Peoples have customary laws and practices that have guided them from century. They have indigenous traditions that kept them conscious of their rights as people. They have transcended the oral tradition to emphasize the importance of justice and respect for one another in practical ways. However, the Philippines as a state promoted laws and policies that disrupted the natural stability of indigenous practices. Legal dispossession, exploitation, and cultural marginalization of Indigenous Peoples colonizers of both the foreigner oppressor and the dominant lowland Filipinos set the IPs to the periphery. From the time the Spaniards imposition in 1521 of the Regalian doctrine, communal territories and ancestral lands owned by the IPs were privatized and made public. Regalian doctrine declared that all public lands or lands without the official land titles of the church were considered legally possessed by the Spanish frailocratic government. The need for land title originates from the domination of the Spaniards, who did not recognize the culture of the IPs. “This legal framework and the attitude of colonizers (including Philippine present state) are sources of conflict between the past colonizers and the present political leaders. (Elio,1998:7-8) The laws and policies, including developmental programmes are still rooted on the barbaric history of privatization of lands. The laws include the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan for IPs (MTPDP-IP), Republic 8371 including the NCIP Administrative Order no.1, Series of 2003 (Consultative Body) and Administrative Circular No.1 Series of 2003 (Rules on Pleading, Practice and Procedure), Administrative Order No.3, Series 2002 (Free and Prior Informed Consent-FPIC) and Administrative Order No.1, Series of 2004 (Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan-ADSDPP) To further understand the trends in development policies, the grounding of principles by the implementers must be discussed. The MTPDP-IP operationalized the IPRA as the cornerstone of national policy on the IPs. “The IPRA concretizes the constitutional mandate to recognize, protect and promote the rights of Indigenous Peoples within the context of national unity and development, specially rights to their ancestral lands and domains, the preservation and development of their cultures, traditions and institutions, and their human rights and freedom as mandated in the 1987 Constitution… and to create the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP).” (ONCC & OSCC, 1996) The Indigenous People’s Right Act (IPRA) was passed on October 29,1987 and promulgated ten years later. President Fidel Ramos approved and signed the bill but underwent many years of legislative 5 study to be consistent with the Philippine Constitution. It embodies the rights and aspiration of the IPs including: (1) Right to Ancestral Domains/Ancestral Land (2) Right to Self-Governance and Empowerment (3) Social Justice and Human Rights (4) Cultural Integrity The major programs and projects of IPRA include: (1) Land Tenure Security Delineation and Titling of Ancestral Domains/Lands through the issuance of CADTs/CALTs and Registration of CADTs/CALTs (2) Establishing Model Ancestral Domain Communities through Development and Peace Development of Ancestral Domains through the Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development Protection Plan (ADSDPP) Development of People and Communities through a. Implementation and Coordination in the Delivery of Basic Services, especially Livelihood support, Health Care, Relief and Rehabilitation in case of Disaster and Calamities b. Educational Assistance c. Bridging International Agencies Support Services Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural Heritage of Indigenous Peoples Cultural Mapping of IP communities (3) Enforcement of Human Rights and Empowerment of IPs Assistance in the Resolution of conflicts thru Custom Laws and Traditional Practices NCIP Adjudicatory Processes Facilitation in the conduct of Statutory requirement of Free and Prior Informed Consent for projects in Ancestral domain/land areas Legal Assistance involving Community Interest Constitution of Consultative Body Quick Response Mechanism to Address Emergency Cases National Commission on Indigenous Peoples Problems in representation can be resolved through the guidelines promulgated for the creation of the “Consultative body” under section 50 of IPRA. This consultative body is composed of traditional leaders, elders and representatives from the women and youth sectors of the different Indigenous Cultural Communities. It may further qualify the National Consultative Body, Ethnographic Regional Consultative Body and Provincial Consultative Body. NCIP included an Administrative Order No.1, Series of 2003 which refers to the Guideline for the Constitution and Operationalization of the Consultative Body as provided for in Section 50, R.A. 8371 “for the purpose of setting up, selecting and organizing the Consultative Bodies and their facilitating structures. Specifically: (a) To provide for the mechanism and guidelines for the constitution of the Indigenous Peoples Consultative Body and to operationalize the same as mandated under Section 50 of RA 8371; (b) To ensure a multi-level IP consultations; and 6 (c) To clarify and/or amend related provisions found in the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the IPRA” Steps in Forming the Consultative Bodies (NCIP) a. Conduct of People‟s Caucus in every Province b. Conduct of Consensus Building Activities in every Community or Organization c. Conduct of Provincial Assembly to form the Provincial Consultative Body d. Conduct an Assembly to form Ethnographic Regional Consultative Body e. Conduct a National Convention to form the National Consultative Body f. Conduct Provincial Assembly to form the Provincial Consultative Body The NCIP Administrative Circular No. 1 Series of 2003 entitled “ Rules on Pleading, Practice and Procedure before the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples ” was promulgated on April 9, 2003 to pursue the mandate in exercising quasi-judicial power. This law was interpreted through these principles: a. “All doubts in the interpretations of the provisions of these Rules or any ambiguity in their application shall be resolved in favor of Indigenous Cultural Communities / IPs.” b. “ In applying for the provisions of these Rules in relation to other national laws, the integrity of the ancestral domains, culture , values, practices, institutions, customary laws, and traditions of the ICCs/IPs shall be considered and be given due regard; The NCIP Administrative Orders and Circulars include Free and Prior Informed Consent (FPIC) and Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan (ADSDPP) Free Prior and Informed Consent ( Administrative Order No.3, Series 2002) refers to the consensus of all IP members as determined by their respective customary laws and practices, “free from any external manipulation, interference and coercion and obtained after fully disclosing the intent and scope of the program, in a language and process understandable to the community.” Whereas, the Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan (Administrative Order No.1, Series 2004) embodies “the goals and objectives for sustainable management and development of ancestral domain and all resources therein including the human and cultural resources such as their Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Practices (IKSPs). It contains the list and schedule of programs towards the sustainable development and protection of ancestral domains and it shall serve as a tool for IP empowerment. The ADSDPP also is a long-term plan that will serve as the basis of the Five Year Master Plan for the IPs in their respective ancestral domains. It composed of three major parts: The Ancestral Domains and Community Situationer; The Development Plans and Programs; and, the ADSDPP Implementation Policies and Mechanism.” Thus this Development is guided by the following approaches: IP right based, Ancestral Domain based, Community- based with emphasis on socio-cultural preservation and gender-sensitivity. (ONCC & OSCC, 1996) 7 National Commission on Culture and Arts The National Commission of Culture and Arts (NCCA) also promoted the cultural preservation. The NCCA mandate includes: a. Formulation of policies for the development of culture and the art, b. Coordination and implementation of overall policies and programs of attached agencies of the development of culture and arts as stated under Executive Order No. 80, c. Administration of the National Endowment Fund for Culture and the Arts d. Encouragement of artistic creation within a climate of artistic freedom e. Development and promotion of Filipino national culture and arts; lastly, f. Preservation of Filipino cultural heritage The Cultural heritage is also concerned with the inclusion of Indigenous Peoples ’ arts and practices. Culture is a human right and a ”manifestation of the freedom of belief and of expression, and is a human right to be accorded due respect and allowed to flourish.” Culture is the reflection of National Identity, where values, beliefs and aspirations of the people’s cultural wisdom are sources of definition. NCAA believes that “ a Filipino national culture that mirrors Philippine economic, social and political life shall be evolved, promoted and conserved.” (NCAA Declaration of Principles) Ideally, the government’s cultural principles as embodied by the National Commission on Culture and Arts include the Culture of the People, Culture by the People and Culture for the People. These resulted in the emergence of the need for cultural expressions that are indigenous and authentic. (1) Culture of the People The Filipino national culture shall be: 4.1. Independent, free of political and economic structures, which inhibit cultural sovereignty; 4.2 Equitable, effectively creating and distributing cultural opportunities and correcting the imbalance that has long prejudiced the poor and other marginalized sectors who have the least opportunities for cultural development and educational growth; 4.3 Dynamic, continuously developing in pace with scientific, technological, social and economic and political changes, both in national and international levels; 4.4. Progressive, developing the vast potential of all Filipinos as responsible change agents of society; and 4.5 Humanistic, ensuring the freedom and creativity of the human spirit. (2) Culture by the People The Filipino national culture shall be evolved and developed by the people themselves according to their own original and ancestral wisdom. National cultural policies and programs shall be formulated which shall be: 5.1. Pluralistic, fostering deep respect for the cultural identity of each locality, region or ethno-linguistic locality, as well as elements assimilated from other cultures though the natural process of acculturation; 5.2. Democratic, encouraging and supporting the participation of the vast masses of the Filipino people 5.3. Non-partisan, open to all people and institutions, regardless of creed, affiliation, ideology, ethnic origin, age, gender or class, with no organized group or sector having monopoly of its services 8 5.4. Liberative, having concern for the decolonization and emancipation of the Filipino psyche in order to ensure the full flowering of Filipino culture; and 5.5. Nationalistic, the bonding and harmony of people based on the common recognition of cultural heritage (3) Culture for the People The creation of artistic and cultural products shall be promoted and disseminated to the greatest number of our people. The level of consciousness of the Filipino people about their own cultural values in order to strengthen the Filipino culture and to instill nationhood and cultural unity shall be raised formally through the educational system and informally through extra-scholastic means, including the use of traditional as well as modern media of communication. Situation of Indigenous Peoples : A National Roundtable Synthesis (1998) The National Roundtable on The Impact of Development Projects on Philippine Indigenous Peoples collected case studies of organized minorities from various IP groups in the Philippines to discuss the issues and concerns particularly with the developmental programmes of Philippines 2000. Through the efforts of Cordillera People’s Alliance (CPA) and other NGOs, the representatives gathered and discussed the IP situations. It was held on July 20-25,1998 in Teacher’s Camp, Baguio City. The central thesis of the National Roundtable is that “when the Philippine government embarked on its ambitious target of making the Philippines a Newly Industrializing Country (NIC), it implemented its Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) for the period 1993 to 1998. This Development Plan has been trumpeted as the solution to the chronic problem of poverty amongst the majority.” However, these development plans had been in conflict with the struggle of the IPs for recognition, self-determinism and equality. “ The government’s Development Plan centered on resource expropriation, commercial agro- industrial development and infrastructure building, under conditions of economic liberalization and foreign investment dependency” (CPA,1998:5). The law, policies and principles designing the development programmes are leading towards empowerment and emancipation of the IPs. Delegates brought out the following concerns of the Indigenous People in Cordillera: One problem is the increase in population that led to not enough food production. Other sources of livelihood are also insufficient to meet the basic needs of the IPs. They pointed out that from the period 1995 to 1998, “when the calamities of drought, flooding, and infestations of rats and other pests occurred, Indigenous Peoples have been living in a miserable condition of hunger and helplessness. Worse, relief assistance was not fully delivered by the government because of corruption and diversion of goods to other areas.” They also claimed that after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1990, the Aetas were left to fend for themselves because of the neglect of the government. In the midst of economic crisis and class conflict, the Indigenous Peoples find themselves increasing affected in the cash- oriented economy where commercial production of handicrafts, fruits and vegetable is commonly done. Tourism is prioritized where even selling of forest products such as orchids, wild animals and other natural resources has become a source of case for certain indigenous communities. The delegates among the Agta and Dumagats in Sierra Madre discussed their problems on a loan-dependency (usury). This caused the IPs to have a bondage of debt. Part of the response of IPs to their worsening poverty situation was to become low-paid casual workers 9 in their towns. They also experienced discrimination in wages. The worsening condition among the Agtas and Dumagats including the unequal opportunities for employment, significantly increased the number of overseas workers from indigenous communities. The Roundtable identified and summarized the common issues and problems related to the government’s development programmes in the following (CPA,1998:11-13): (1) Non-recognition of Ancestral Land Rights This problem includes the land conversion, energy infrastructure developments, forestry programmes and projects, biodiversity protection and mining. Land conversion includes support for monopolized monocropping of products, such as mangoes, pineapples, and bananas. A big chunk of the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) has been converted to the production of cash crops (carrots, potatoes, cabbage, and other tropical vegetables). The forestry projects and programmes as well as the implementation of the Industrial Forestry Management Agreement (IFMA) for commercial agreement resulted to the dislocation of Lumad Communities in Mindanao. It also has an adverse effect on the biodiversity of the area. The lush vegetation in the CAR and in Mindanao were destroyed due to commercial tree and cash crop planting. Although the Community Forestry Programmes became limited source of livelihood, “It also caused community conflicts through opportunism in the awarding of contracts and the distribution of funds. It has also opened the door to commercial logging operations.” Issues on Biodiversity protection through the implementation of the National Integrated Protection System (NIPAS) “has restricted access to some areas within the ancestral domains of Indigenous Peoples , such as Mangyans in Mindoro, the Igorots in CAR, the Aetas in Central Luzon and the Lumad in Mindanao.” In the case of Mining, the large-scale mining operations through the Mining Act of 1995, were applied for by foreign mining companies. This mountainous ancestral lands are good sources of gold, copper, lime and other minerals. Almost 75 percent of the total territories of Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines are threatened by these mining activities. In the CAR, the Igorots have opposed mining activities as forms of development in their lands. “ The operations of the Western Mining Company in the territories of Lumads in Mindanao, the Arimco Mining operation in Nueva Vizcaya, Luzon, and the expansion of Philex Mining and Lepanto Mining in Benguet, have been fiercely opposed by the Indigenous Peoples ” (CPA,1998:12). (2) Subversion of indigenous socio-political systems The implementation of government projects and programmes led to the systematic division of the people through the appointment of illegitimate leaders, bribery, and total disregard for the IPs’ socio-political systems. “In the case of Lumads in Mindanao, illegitimate datus have been appointed by loggers, mining representatives, and government officials, to convince the people to approve government plans. The government has capitalized on the Lumads’ strong respect for elders whom they had bribed to argue against the position of the people, thereby causing disunity and conflict. The sowing of intrigues and misinformation has caused mistrust, destroying the unity that has generally characterized indigenous communities. Customary law is being distorted to serve the interests of big businesses and foreign investors. The process of consensus building over projects affecting indigenous communities has been turned into a form of endorsement. Thus, indigenous systems of conflict resolution are taken out of context to suit the needs of the government and its cohorts.” This statement synthesized by the CPA 10 manifests distrust to “legitimacy” as assigned by the government and not the members of the IP communities. (3) Militarization This form of coercion has been associated with the implementation of destructive mining, logging, and energy projects that the IPs resisted. Because of this, the implementers had to use force in order to pursue their plans. They deployed Army troops in the territories of the Agtas, Aetas, Mangyans, Lumads and Igorots. In these areas, militarization is common and it is the cause of rampant human rights violations among the IPs. (4) Commercialization Due to the government orientation towards liberalism and globalization, tourism in Philippine society has become one of the thrusts of its economy. To market the cultural heritage of the land, commercialization of indigenous culture through promotion of native products, local festivities, tourist related infrastructures, native delicacies, ethnic clothing and artifacts and even eco-tourism has been endorsed. Case Studies based on the National Roundtable: The Impact of Development Projects on Philippine Indigenous Peoples The National Integrated Protected Area System, a case study presented by Fernando Lintawagin, Samahang Pantribu ng Mga Manyan (SSPM, Alliance of Mangyan Tribes in Mindoro): The NIPAS was conceptualized and designed by the University of the Philippines Science Foundation, the Economic Development Foundation and the World Wildlife Fund among others. Its main objective is the protection, conservation, and sustainable development of the country‟s remaining areas of biodiversity. The ten priority areas are: a. Batanes Protected Landscape b. North Sierra Madre Natural Park c. Mangyan Heritage Natural Park d. Surigao Wildlife Sanctuary e. Agusan Wildlife Sanctuary f. Mount Kitanglad Natural Park g. Mount Apo Natural Park h. Mount Kanlaon Natural Park i. Apo Reef Natural Park j. Turtle Island Marine Natural Park The Mangyan Heritage Nature Park in Mindoro, under NIPAS, has been declared a biogeographic reserve because of its diverse plant and animal life. It has been criticized for its impact on the Mangyans for the following reasons: It revolves around the concept of biodiversity protection and preservation. It does not consider the welfare and protection of the Mangyans and other affected peoples, as if their existence were neither consulted nor involved in the planning of this project. It does not recognize ancestral land rights, and has led to further dispossession and marginalization of the Mangyans. Access by Mangyans to the resources in the protected areas has been denied, resulting in more limited sources of livelihood for them. It allows scientific research and studies by private entities of the medicinal properties of plants for possible patenting by big pharmaceutical companies. 11 It promotes commercial eco-tourism, disregarding indigenous practices and thus eroding them further. It does not guarantee protection from or, prevention of destructive projects such as mining and construction of energy plants. In fact, there are large-scale mining applications outstanding in the MHNP area. Because of its tremendous negative impact on the Mangyans, a federation of tribal Mangyans of Mindoro launched a campaign to oppose the project. They started with a massive information drive about the project in the various Mangyan communities, and have initiated intertribal consultations. This has strengthened the resistance of the Mangyans, resulting in a series of protest actions, such as rallies in the town center, pickets, petitions, and papers. As a result, the World Bank has decided to withdraw its funding from the MHNP. Thus the project has been held up from 1992 to the present. The Igorot experience with Benguet Corporation, a case study presented by Catalino Corpuz, Vice Chairperson, Cordillera Peoples Alliance (CPA) Benguet Corporation (BC) is the biggest gold-producing mining company in the country, which at one time contributed around two percent of the Gross National Product. It started its underground mining operation in 1903 in the municipality of Itogon, Benguet, the ancestral homeland of the Ibaloy and Kankanaey. At its peak in the 1980s, it employed 5,500 mineworkers who were mostly non-indigenous. With its restructuring programmes since 1989, BC has shifted to three open-pit mining projects using high-technology methods and affecting seven barangays of Itogon. According to BC, this is necessary in order for it to be globally competitive. In addition, the mechanized method of mining costs less and produces greater profits. Since its shift to OPM, BC had decreased its labour force by mid- 1998 and had retained only 300 workers. With its OPM projects, BC was set to strip off mountains using heavy equipment to extract ore from under the land surface. It entails a carbon and pulp milling method operating 24 hours a day, thus continuously emitting toxic fumes. Its voluminous mine-tailings will be dumped near the Agno River, causing pollution. Its OPM operations will wreck hundreds of small-scale mining tunnels of the Indigenous Peoples of Itogon… However, the majority of leader and residents sustained their opposition through various actions with the result that: BC‟s open-pit mining (OPM) implementation was delayed for a year and was successful in only one of the three OPM sites (Loacan). Now it has temporarily ceased its OPM operations and is planning to convert the mined-out area to real estate development. It has also made one of its underground mining tunnels into a tourist site. OPM operations were prevented from expanding to nearby communities The IIBA, which spearheaded the opposition to OPM, has been strengthened Energy: San Roque Multi-purpose Dam Project (SRMDP), a case study presented by Jill Cariño of the CPA: The San Roque Multi-Purpose Dam Project with a budget of US $1.191 billion, is to be the third dam constructed along the Agno River of Benguet Province in the CAR, flowing to Pangasinan in Central Luzon. It will be the biggest dam in Asia, generating 345 megawatts of hydropower. The construction of the dam will take three to five years. This is part of the Philippines ENERGY Plan 2005 and is the flagship project of the Ramos administration. Its ground-breaking ceremony was held in May 1997. Subsequently, the Estrada administration committed to completing the project… However, if completed, the dam will adversely affect 2,000 Ibaloi households of Itogon, Benguet, and will cause the displacement of more than 325 farming families in Pangasinan. The Ibaloi people consider the Agno River a gift from God and have, for centuries, taken care not to abuse this gift. By 12 contrast, foreign mining companies use the Agno as a garbage bin for their waste materials. The government meanwhile, has decided to use the river for energy, and has constructed the Ambuklao Binga dams, causing the displacement of hundreds of Ibaloy families and the silting up of the Agno River system. With the construction of the SRMDP, the Ibalois were again asked to bear the burden of the cost of national development. The impacts of SRMDP: Inundation of homes and agricultural lands located within the planned reservoir area covering 14 square kilometers and extending 20 kilometers upstream of the dam- site. Submerging of around 100 hectares of productive rice land in Pangasinan and inundation of homes, terraced rice fields nurtured through generations, orchards, pasture, gardens, gold panning sites, and burial grounds of the Ibaloi people. Silting and erosion affecting at least 2,000 families of Itogon. Heavy soil erosion and silting up of the river system have already resulted from large open-put and bulk mining operations of four mining corporations in Itogon, Benguet. Loss of sustainable sources of livelihood of thousands- their rice fields, swidden farms, orchards, pastures, forest, gold panning and fishing sites along the length of the Agno River. Dissolution of the Ibaloi Communities with the loss of their ancestral lands which constitute the basis of their existence as a people, entailing in turn the loss of customs, and traditions, rituals, beliefs, and socio-political systems which are rooted in and tied to their land. It will also lead to the breakdown of their traditional knowledge, beliefs, and socio-political systems. They will end up scattered in different places like those affected by the Binga and Ambuklao dams in the past. This problem cannot be solved by relocation. Further deterioration of the river‟s water quality because of the increased sedimentation, which will also shorten the useful life of the project. The continued dumping of toxic chemicals by mining companies also worsens the water quality of the river. Destruction of natural environment through loss of flora and fauna, the loss of biodiversity and the disruption of the ecological balance with the destruction of natural aquifers. In addition, there is the threat of earthquake resulting from the great pressure exerted by accumulated water on the land surface, as the dam-site is located close to a major fault line. 13 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK DIAGRAM OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPACT EVALUATION Mid-term Philippine Development 1. Developing Micro-enterprises INDIGENOUS Plan for Indigenous Peoples 2. 2. Improving Quality of Life MULTI-DIMENSIONAL (MTDP-IP) 3. Promoting Gender Equity in the GENDER EQUITY Productive and Reproductive DEVELOPMENT Sphere FRAMEWORK 4. People’s Participation in the Decision Making Process for them INDIGENOUS Promotion of: 1. SELF DETERMINATION 2. SELF IDENTIFICATION FIELD LEVEL IMPACT EVALUATION 3. POLITICAL AND RESOURCE CONTROL 4. FREE CULTURAL EXPRESSIONS MULTIDIMENSIONAL TEMPORAL AND RELATIONAL DIMENSIONS GENDER EQUITY The Mid-term Development Plan – Indigenous People is a national development approach that subsequently resulted to adverse effects as reflected in previous impact evaluation studies done in the CAR and in Mindoro. This study describes the best practices of selected projects and programmes in the area in terms of developing sustainable micro-enterprises, improving quality of life, promoting gender equity in the productive and reproductive spheres, and enhancing people’s participation in the decision-making process affecting them. Both the difficulties in the implementation and the sustainability of best practices are considered with the assumption that an indigenous approach is the key to a successful development. The indigenous approach promotes self-determination, self-identification, political and resource control and free cultural expressions. This approach is integrated in Bitzer’s multi-dimensional gender equity development framework, which has been modified to include the use of indigenous practices, beliefs, and language of the Indigenous Peoples . Bitzer (2003) proposes a “multi-dimensional gender equity development framework in sustainable development policies and projects – “a new method of conceptualizing and operationalizing equity within, between, and across generations and through life events” (p.xii). Bitzer adds that the various temporal and relational dimensions of this framework can compare various generations over their life spans (childhood, adolescence, marriage, parenthood, widowhood and so on), and can weigh the capacity of sustained equity and the long-term benefits of policies and projects to children and their future offsprings. She further exposes the incorrect assumption of gender equitable impacts and gender-fair trickle down effect to children through a field research of a documented “success” in rural India and an analysis of the larger socio-economic, cultural, and patriarchal structures in which it is rooted. Bitzer suggests that there is a need to address the persistent systemic roots of gender inequities, aside from improving the natural and resource economic base, to end and decrease the gender gap in resource access and control across generations. This study evaluates the past development initiatives in the CAR, in Mindoro, and in Bulacan, to validate the claims that these projects and programmes did not use an indigenous approach, and were not gender responsive. METHODOLOGY Qualitative Research Methods were used to gather the pertinent information needed for this study. The field level impact evaluation was patterned after the Bonifacio Method composed of the Ocular Inspection and Key Information Interviews. The ocular inspection and key informant interviews in the field sites lasted for five days, while coordination/ networking with selected NGO workers, Project Officers, Field Researchers in the area had been done for two months. Secondary data from past documents, visual accounts and relevant socio-demographic statistics were also gathered during the last few months. In the OCULAR inspection, I was able to “attend and observe the actual activity being undertaken in the community. In this case, spot interview as conversation with the participants may be undertaken. This is better known as Unobtrusive Interview. This means that the conversation is actually an interview situation.” (Bonifacio, 2001:A10,7). The Interview questions are open-ended and free flowing. Though the languages used were English and Filipino and may not be the first language of IPs, the possible tensions in meaning were carefully validated in terms of its value to the research. The “voice” of the respondent was maintained in the best way possible to avoid distortion by bracketing the accounts. The KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEW is done with strategically situated persons in the community (Bonifacio,2001:A10,7). In this study, the key informants were the NGO officers from POST, Igorota, and others. The key informants are regarded as the necessary sources of data. They know the situations of their respective organizations based on their own experiences and interpretation. Fieldwork schedule: Day 1, Thursday - February 2, 2006: PLANNING Day 2, Friday – February 3, 2006: Travel to Baguio City and coordination with nongovernment organizations and the Department of Health - CAR Day 3, Saturday – February 4, 2006 : Ocular inspection in Baguio City Day 4, Sunday – February 5, 2006 : Ocular inspection and interviews with Barangay Health Unit Midwife, Community-based Organization (CBO) members/beneficiaries of the WHSMP-PC, and other key informants in Caliking, Benguet Day 5, Monday – February 6, 2006 : Brief meeting with DOH representative and former WHSMP-PC staff, interview with the Executive Directors of POST and IGOROTA Day 6, Tuesday – February 7, 2006 : Return trip to Manila and Evaluation of the whole Trip and actual activities conducted February to March 2006 : Completion of Data through Electronic Mails, and Library Research to validate results of initial interviews conducted; Writing and Presentation of the initial draft of the Study April 7, 2006 – Submission of Final Paper THE DEVELOPMENT TRENDS FOR PHILIPPINE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES Empowerment starts by liberating the Indigenous Peoples from social practices that are oppressive and limiting. It can be done by identifying the mode and sources of their oppression, as well as the recognition of their indigenous culture, language and practices. They have to become active participants in developing policies that would benefit their own communities and must be responsible in sustaining the best practices independent of the organizers’ control. To be able to do so, policies must give way for the voices of the marginalized. Proposals must come from the IPs’ own convictions and initiatives. Methods of implementing the projects have to integrate age-old practices and indigenous ways that can enhance the socio-economic and political transformation of people’s lives. They have to be involved. An opportunity to do so is to create a venue for exposing and exploring their rich culture. They need a place where indigenous autonomy can be encouraged. A Review of Selected Development Programmes/Projects Implemented from 1998 to 2003 In line with existing laws and policies on IPs, various development initiatives have been done by numerous nongovernment organizations, including the following projects: 1. Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project – Partnerships Component (WHSMP-PC) in the Cordillera Administrative Region The Savings for Health Scheme of the WHSMP-PC in Caliking, Atok in Benguet was patterned after microfinance. The project beneficiaries rendered labor in the production of 16 longaniza and meat loaf and directly sell the processed food products, to be able to access financial support. The Rural Health Unit (RHU) provided the small stalls where the beneficiaries/members of the Community-based Organization (CBO) can sell their products. But, the community did not continuously support the products as cheaper and more commercialized goods from Baguio City are available. In this regard, the beneficiaries realized that it is important to designate a venue for these products to be sold not as commercialized goods but rather as food produced from indigenous labor. The labor of the IPs must not be reduced to their output; but, it has to be considered as an opportunity to recognize their skills and creativity. Also, successful accounts on the effective implementation of WHSMP-PC programmes in partnership with the People’s Organization for Social Transformation (POST) in Brgy. Sto. Domingo, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao in 2000 took off with four project concerns in mind: Capability Building, Women’s Health Action, Community Health Care and Information Education Campaign (IEC) and Advocacy. Ocular inspection and integration were intensified, leading to greater cooperation between the community and the project organizer. However, the community had misconceptions about the project. They considered the project manager as an outsider. It was only through proper communication that this impression was corrected. The community cooperated with the project organizer; thus, the more important problem about the source of potable water was resolved. There was also an initiative from the project beneficiaries to come up with their own projects, such as corn planting and sari-sari stores. The women were also given trainings in computer literacy and were able to put up a computer shop for the community. The education and economic support the women gained in the course of the program have empowered them to assert their rights as women and as Indigenous Peoples . The aggressive character of the Ifugaos has been enhanced as they were given independent leadership but with constant support from POST. Before the implementation of the WHSMP-PC in Brgy. Sto. Domingo, the community set up a Health Savings Scheme: Damayan sa Kalusugan to address the absence of community health fund where the women could borrow money in times of emergency or delay in seeking health service. From an original membership of 27, additional 4 mothers enrolled. They started collecting membership fees of twenty pesos and a monthly contribution of eight pesos. Part also of their earnings from their income generating activities was also added to their DSK. There were 9 women members who availed of the DSK and the repayment is very good. The maximum amount a member can loan is P500, which is payable in one month. As of October 10,2003 Bgy. Sto. Domingo‟s DSK has a fund of P4,534.99 and is safely deposited in the bank. (NGO Completion Report in Brgy. Sto. Domingo, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao; POST, Jan-Oct 2003 :6). This community initiative has enhanced the Community Health Care component of the WHSMP-PC in the area. Furthermore, in Brgy. San Miguel, Bucay Abra, the Sineg Island Women and Community Association (SIWACAI), a CBO that had been organized by the WHSMP-PC in the area and registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission last April 2002, planned and aired a radio program to heighten women’s interest on issues and problems confronting them, and to serve as a venue where women can express their opinions and share their experiences in their own communities (NGO Completion Report, Brgy. San Miguel Bucay, Abra; POST, Jan-Oct 2003 :6). . Moreover, the WHSMP-PC’s Health and Environmental Awareness: Health and Sanitation project in Abra, paved the way for the women to discover and develop a lake in San Miguel, which they had cleaned before building cottages for local tourists to visit. The women sell 17 “kakanin” to help with their finances. The relationship between the people and the organizers are remarkable. Through personalism, the people gained trust and loyalty; thus ,they function efficiently. An impact assessment of the WHSMP-PC in selected project sites: Bgy. San Miguel in Abra, and Bgy. Sto. Domingo in Alfonso Lista, Ifugao (Executive Summaries, The WHSMP- PC in: Bgy. Sto. Domingo, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao; and in Bgy. San Miguel, Bucay, Abra) showed the following positive changes on the target communities: women learned about their rights and became aware of their significant role in community development women developed strong leadership qualities and actively participated in the decision-making process, both in the productive and the reproductive spheres increased knowledge in organizational development enabled women to run and manage their livelihoods women and men viewed “health” as “wealth” because of increased awareness in health and sanitation Damayan sa Kalusugan (DSK) fund improved the health services and facilities in the respective communit(ies) people’s personalities as well as values and attitudes, particularly in dealing with health situations were transformed women developed a commitment to serve in the community, without expecting any compensation 2. Cordillera Task Force on VAW (CTFVAW) The Cordillera Task Force on VAW (CTFVAW), which evolved from the former Task Force on VAW (TFVAW), a Baguio-based network of women’s organizations has noteworthy accomplishments: (a) formation of the Cordillera Coordinating Group Against Gender Violence (CCGAGV); (b) formation of provincial/municipal task forces against gender violence; (c) indigenized Gender Sensitivity Training (GST), (d) development of a generic intake for all VAW service providers in the region; and (e) community-based theatre as a medium for gender awareness raising and advocacy (Mondiguing, et al., 2002: 129-30). Despite the organizational break-up suffered by the CTFVAW, both VAWC victim and survivors still benefited because there are now two service providers, instead of just one (131). 3. Ebgan Foundation Inc. - Theater Groups Ebgan Incorporated was established by some CTFVAW program implementers in May 1999, to address gender and development issues in the Cordilleras (136), specifically issues concerning women’s health and general welfare, gender and development, environment and spirituality, reproductive health and gender-based violence. Ebgan also addresses the economic needs of victims by providing members of community organizations (five women organizations in three Cordillera communities – two in the Mt. Province, and one each in Ifugao, Itogon, and Pagi) with credit assistance and enterprise development (137-38). Despite the lack of resources to fund its direct service program, and the immediate needs of women, Ebgan continues women’s theatre groups, such as the Lagba, Teatro Kabbule , and the Mt. Province Educational Theatre Arts Group (MP-ETAG), which are jointly assisted by PETA and Ebgan. These theatre groups have produced plays on domestic violence, reproductive rights, and other gender and development issues, which are highly effective in advocating against gender violence (140). 18 4. Cordillera Women’s Education and Resource Centre (CWERC)’s Women’s Movement As the focus of empowerment, women have to assert their rights in society. In an effort to address gender discrimination in the Cordilleras, and defending indigenous women’s rights, the Cordillera Women’s Education and Resource Centre (CWERC), aimed to help build a women’s movement in the region, which is both a part of the national people’s movement and the indigenous people’s movement and the national movement for genuine sovereignty and democracy (Sharing Innovative Experiences, 2001: 235). Starting with the framework that the liberation of the Cordillera women from inequality and oppression based on gender, class, race, ethnicity and nationality can only be achieved by addressing the multiple realities of women simultaneously, the CWERC have designed programs which include education and training activities, research, documentation and publication, socio-economic work and networking at the regional, national and international levels. As an activist organization, which articulated the issues being faced by women in the Cordillera, the publications of the CWERC were the first to address the women’s question in the region (247); thus, there has been a significant increase in the visibility of women’s issues, analysis and demands, which could no longer be ignored by the general public nor by government bodies and other institutions. 5. Indigenous Social Protection Schemes Women community leaders of the PATAMABA (the National Network of Homeworkers) in San Francisco, Bulacan, have revived the tradition of helping and sharing, through the damayan and the paluwagan, which may be considered informal social protection schemes (Case Studies on Indigenous Social Protection Schemes). In coping with the escalating cost of dying, a group of women thought of forming a damayan in April, 1986. They gathered together in one member's house to read the pasyon, a long religious chant recounting the passion and death of Jesus Christ. There, they met with leaders of a damayan in the next village which had been collecting five pesos from each member everytime someone died. They had no rules and regulations then. These women met everytime there was a death in the village or in other areas; some people just took the responsibility of collecting contributions for the bereaved family. The membership progressively grew, from about 50 in 1988, to about 75 in 1989, and 110 in 1990. From 1988 to 1990, they were able to help a total of six bereaved households. At first, they collected five pesos only from each member; in 1992, they raised this to ten pesos because of rising cost. Although the collected amounts when totaled might be small compared to actual needs, at least these help ease the burden a little. There are plans to increase the contributions to 20 pesos, and later on to ever larger amounts until the target of 50 pesos is reached. From 1991 to 1993, the damayan also assisted those who died in the household of its members, and shouldered the hospitalization costs of members who fell ill. Contributions are voluntarily set by each member according to their capability. At present, the concerns of damayan have broadened in relation to the widening community consciousness of its members, like the protection of Indigenous Peoples ' rights. 6. Buhid sa Mindoro Dependency Resistance The Buhid communities in Mindoro whose “various forms of linkages – internal and external trading, intersettlement marriage, visiting migration, common attendance at rituals and other events and activities” (Lopez-Gonzaga, 2002: 188), illustrates how a traditional society, 19 oriented to subsistence production, has responded to the process of incorporation, the domination by a central state, coincident with the penetration of capitalist economy. Incorporation works in the Third World countries, like the Philippines, largely facilitate the expansion of capitalist interest couched in the language of “industrialization” or economic growth effected through the importation of alien technology (189). The Buhid response to the process of incorporation, at various levels of articulation with the lowlands, can be characterized as that of “dependency resistance” (190). A member of Buhid (hill) peasants become “brokers” between other producers and the Loktanon traders (192). Some Buhid entrepreneurs have invested in the buying and selling of commodities either to the travelling middlemen (biyahero/a) or to their fellow Buhid in their sari-sari stores. The increasing Buhid participation as traders in simple commodity circulation in the hills has also diversely increased the surplus due to the enterprising Buhid. These entrepreneurs realize profits either by extending the alili credit system introduced by highlanders, or through political brokerage, and have expanded their investment activities to purchasing land and other means of production. FIELDWORK IN BENGUET (February 03-07, 2006): Compilation of Stories From Members and Project Heads of WHSMP-PC’s NGO Partners MIDWIFE Date: February 5, 2006 Location: Midwife’s Residence, Km.28: Caliking, Benguet Dati akong aktibo sa Women pero ngayon hindi na ako active. Noong 2002 nagsimula akong humiwalay sa grupo dahil maraming trabaho sa center. Noong taon din yun, natigil na ang suporta ng Women sa barangay kaya kami kami na lang ang natira pero mayroon pang Women sa Caliking. Sila na lang ang nag-aasikaso. Wala na akong balita sa mga kasapi sa ngayon. May mahigit 20 miyembro ang women sa Caliking. Nahahati sila sa mga maliliit na grupo ng lima hanggang anim. Karamihan sa kanila ay mga walang trabaho maliban sa gawaing bahay kaya sumapi sila sa Women para kumita at makautang. Kaso marami sa mga miyembro ang hindi nakapagbayad. Noon kasing dumating ang Women sa Caliking mga 1998, 1999 ay parang extension ata nila yun kaya may programa sila na ipinatupad sa barangay kaso hindi naman talaga napag-usapan kung papaano sisimulan. Kaya no'ng una, nagpaorientation sila. Sinabi nila na magkakaroon daw kami ng extra income. Yung puhunan bigay ng women‟s pero sa pagpasok mayroon na P20/month na membership. Basta ang qualification ng mga miyembro ay dapat maganda ang ugali, taga- rito at hindi madaldal /mareklamo. Ayaw namin ng ganun. Ayaw nila ng masyadong maganyan (gestures indicating “madaldal” character). Kelangan din mag-attend sila ng meeting o kaya pwede maghandle. Aktibo ang mga miyembro. May isa rin kaming miyembro na lalaki pero no'ng nagface out na ang Women‟s mga 2001 2002 siguro mga 10 hanggang 15 na lang na miyembro ang natira. Malaki rin ang pondo ng women‟s dito, Siguro mga P100,000 pero hindi naman eksakto ang natatanggap, depende yun sa popondohang proyekto. Sa aming grupo nakatanggap kami ng 10 libo. Mga 8 hanggang 10 libo ang ibinibigay sa mga grupo. Tapos iyon yung ipapautang at papaikutin na puhunan. No'ng una silang nagbigay ng pera ay hindi nila sinabi na pautang kaagad kaya akala ng mga tao ay “dole out” ang pera. Tapos biglang sinabi ng taga WHSMP-PC na kailangan naming ilista ang mga binigyan ng pera. Paano yun, wala kaming eksaktong listahan kaya hindi lahat ng una nilang ipinahiram ay napabalik. Dapat siguro nilista muna nila nang maayos para kumpleto ang records. Nagpapautang din ang WHSMP-PC, ang utang ay depende sa dami ng kilo ng longganisa. Gumagawa ang 20 mga miyembro ng longganisa gamit ang freezer at panggiling na bigay ng Women‟s. Kapag hindi nabili ang mga nagawang longganisa, ”each” tao kukuha do‟n para hindi masira, pero nagkakaproblema kapag hindi nabenta. Sa hirap ng buhay umisip pa rin kami ng ibang paraan. May mga miyembro na gumawa rin ng meatloaf, may ibang nagtanim ng sayote, nagloom-weaving at hog fattening. Kaso sa mga processed meat ay hindi nila kami tinuruan sa packaging. Wala ring siguradong pagbebentahan kasi yung mga kapitbahay na dapat bumili ng mga longganisa, namamahalan sa produkto. May problema din kami sa packaging dahil hindi naisama sa training ang packaging kaya hindi rin namin masigurado na magtatagal nang mas matagal ang mga produkto. Bigla rin kasing nagmahal ang kilo ng karne, sa halagang 140 per kilo tapos bibili pa ng mga sangkap at materyales, talagang mataas papatak ang presyo ng longganisa namin. Tapos may mga mas mura pang mabibili sa palengke sa baba, Mga P90 lang „ata per kilo na gawang longganisa. Syempre mas bibilhin nila yun pero hindi nila alam na mataas ang quality nu‟ng longganisa namin kasi may mga kemikal silang nilalagay para mag-expand yung longganisa nila. Kami kami rin ang bumibili, minsan umoorder din ang mga taga-munisipyo. Ang mga officer sa Barangay ang nagpoprovide ng kuryente sa office namin sa center. Andun nakalagay ang aming freezer at grinder. Pero walang suporta sa DOH. Mga Project Officer ang dumadating dito para sabihin sa amin ang dapat naming gawin para magkaroon ng grupo. Pero sa mga projects tinatanong din nila kami kung ano ang kailangan namin at kaya naming gawin. Kaso no‟ng wala nang pondo sa project namin, hindi na kaming lahat iniimbita sa pagdedesisyon dahil magastos daw ang meeting. Nu‟ng napalitan na ang Barangay Captain hindi na kami iniinvite kasi wala raw ipapakain. Kaya hindi na kami well represented sa mga desisyon na ginawa nila bago magphase out yung proyekto. Hindi na kami namonitor nang maayos. Isa pang problema namin ay wala na kaming listahan ng mga pinautang. Yung ibang pautang na nakalista ay hindi kumpleto dahil walang malinaw na listahan ang bookkeeper namin. May orientation kasi rin yung iba sa amin dito na “dole out” ang mga projects kasi mismong Women‟s Health ang nagsabi na bibigyan kami ng pera.Saka hindi rin nagbabayad ang ibang mga miyembro sa tamang oras dahil wala silang kumpletong benta. Hindi nila nakakalimutan ang kanilang obligasyon na magbayad ng utang kaya nga lang wala talaga silang perang pambayad. Hindi na rin kami gumagawa ng meat products kasi minsan pagkagawa namin o kaya pagkapaningil, uutangin ulit kahit hindi pa nababawi ang puhunan. Mahirap din ang bentahan. Sa Saddle, dati may maliliit kami na stalls para sa tindahan ng mga meat products. Nandun pa siguro yun. Oo, pwede pa maactivate kung una, magkakaroon kami ulit ng pondo para makabili ng mga ingredients as meat products at ikalawa, kailangang may magsimula ulit na tutulong sa amin para mag-organisa ng leadership training para matulungan kaming bumuo ulit ng mga grupo. Siguro dapat maayos din ang miscommunication sa mga kasali sa women‟s. Mahirap na mareactivate ang women‟s pero kailangan lang ng reorganization, kung kami kami lang, mahirap! DAISY Date: February 5, 2006 Location: S.Baptist Church, Km.30, Caliking, Benguet Daisy, 25 years old, is the church pianist, who lives in Caliking. She is a member of the CBO of WHSMP-PC youth sector and won the beauty contest organized by the WHSMP-PC on December 30, 2001. She was crowned Miss Caliking. She described this fund raising project as a popularity contest, where contestants have to sell tickets within the barangay to collect points. The contestant with the most number of sold tickets together with a pleasing 21 personality wins the pageant. She said that the program of WHSMP-PC was active from 1999 to 2001, though she has been most active in 2001 because of the responsibility and involvement the title holds. She was first introduced to WHSMP-PC because her mother is a member of WHSMP-PC. She said that the program of the youth was different and separated from the women’s. The barangay youth officials were very supportive and the generated funds were only spent for youth activities. Before, mothers, who were members of the WHSMP-PC encouraged their children to get involved with the youth sector of WHSMP-PC. In 2001, the youth sector was very active and dynamic but when the program ended, the activities also came to an end and there is no WHSMP-PC anymore. Up to this time, she has not heard from the group. No activities were sustained because nobody was organizing anymore. She has graduated and is working now. When I asked her if she is still willing to join the WHSMP-PC should anyone organize it again, she answered yes, though she isn’t sure if she has enough time unlike before. She believes that the youth sector can easily be tapped provided that there will be committed organizers with more dynamic activities of their interests. MRS. PUKAY Date: February 5, 2006 Location: S. Baptist Church, Km.30, Caliking, Benguet At first she was not able to recall the Women’s Health group until Ms. Daisy, a co-church worker reminded her of the WHSMP-PC Ang Women ang nagpapautang dito sa amin noon. Nagsimula sila dito sa amin no‟ng 2001 buhay pa „ata ang Women pero hindi na ako active. Dati may mga grupo kami. Nag- aattend kami ng mga seminar nila. Yung isang seminar ay tungkol sa paggawa ng longganisa. Tinuruan nila kami gumawa ng longganisa tapos may freezer at grinder kami sa Women na nasa Barangay. Yung uutangin namin ay depende sa dami ng longganisa na magagawa namin para maibenta. Active kami noon kaya lang di na ako nakakapunta ulit sa Women‟s kaya hindi ko alam kung ano na ang projects nila. TEACHER Date: February 5, 2006 Location: Teacher’s Residence, Km.28, Caliking, Benguet I am not a member of that group (WHSMP-PC). Yun ba yung nagtitinda ng longganisa na homemade? Yes, I know them but I never bought their products because it is too expensive as compared to the meat products in Baguio. One time, there are community organizers who came to our place and ask the non-working mothers to join their livelihood programs. Since I am working, I did not join. They also have meetings during weekdays and working hours. But I think there is no Women‟s Health anymore. FERDIE GONZALES, Project Director of POST (People’s Organization for Social Transformation) Date: February 5, 2006 Location: POST, Baguio City Mr. Ferdie Gonzales had been monitoring the Women’s Health project in 2 municipalities of Bukay in Abra and another in Alfonso Lista in Ifugao. He disclosed that one of the objectives of the WHSMP-PC project is to form a women’s organization that will provide the basic health services for its members in the community. Very active ang Ifugao. Women‟s Health came up with “Damayan sa Kalusugan” and in Bontoc “Piso para sa Kalusugan”. These are the health saving schemes of POST. Malaki 22 ang naitutulong saving schemes. In terms of funding, importante din and “Linkage Building” where the Peoples‟ Organization are able to access the fund in the LGU Community Livelihood Enhancement Development. The PO can get as much as P75,000 as funds for their projects. They are given only 1 % interest per annum. For example, the PO in Bukay used the amount given for their hog raising. Lahat ng mga organization nakaaccess ng pera pero depende rin ang amount sa capacity nila na mabayaran yung utang. Like sa Bukay, may CO na kami. Ang CO na nahire ay taga-roon din. Foundation namin ang CO. Sa observation namin, maganda naman ang awareness campaign sa area but unfortunately they focused more on the project rather than the organization. Competency in terms of community organizing is a factor. In order to sustain the project, the implementer must give more importance to the PO before the project. In Ifugao, the WHSMP-PC project was sustained, pero sa Abra 4 out of 6 lang ang nasustain. After the projects of Women‟s Health, we were able to get funds from PBSP, a revolving fund with a higher interest. For example, in Ifugao P40,000/PO were provided. Aside from the officers and representatives of the PO, we also organized a treasurer and a bookkeeper. Sinuswelduhan namin sila. Maganda and leadership ng mga officers nila. Very active ang mga members kasi well-organized and PO sa area. Some of the successful projects of WH is geared towards environmental awareness. Through the initiative of the women from Abra, the San Miguel River was revived. Health and Sanitation Resorts/ Cottages were developed to attract local tourist to visit their place. The women in the area were also able to sell kakanin in these resorts. The cottages for rent are also sources of income for the women. But in Abra, 2 areas were more active, the Bukay and Lagangilang. While in Ifugao, nasustain at sarili na nila. May mga initiative sila. GA na nga lang kami na iniinvite paminsan minsan. May isang magandang project din sa Ifugao, yung kanilang Computer Literacy Project na naorganize rin ng WH. Nakaaccess kami ng Computer Literacy for them kasi di pa masyadong existing ang paencode at printing sa location nila. So the women suggested to have this kind of program. We asked them to join an intensive twenty-day training for computer literacy with 10 days on Microsoft Word and the remaining days for other programs including Excel. Part of the PO funds were used in buying 2 personal computers and a printer. Two among the members were permanently hired as encoder. The Computer Literacy Project, along with other livelihood projects in Ifugao, were chosen by the PO. Galing sa kanila. The NGO only helps in making proposals for funding and reconciling possible conflict of interest among the members. Yun nga lang ang disappointing, hindi supportive and LGU. Kahit andun yung municipal officer parang left on your on kami ng DOH. Andun naman ang NGO, ang midwives ok pa rin. Pero yung ibang mga taga-DOH, wala na. One of the reasons din siguro kung bakit di nasustain not only for WH but for almost all projects. After the project, wala na. Parang ok sige we will continue to work, pero after, wala na. What should be done is that there must be a partnership after the project, para hindi kung walang pera, parang wala na. Maganda sana ireplicate din yung success ng isang project, makakatulong ang strong connection, dapat istrengthen din ang members ng PO. Dapat nakatutok din ang PO sa financial statement para kung di pa nakuha ang pautang do‟n mo titingnan sa listahan. Sa totoo lang, kaya naman nila maging independent basta may linkage sa mga members. Ang problem lang din kasi ay kapag naging busy na ang mga members sa ibang concerns nila, nahahati na ang priorities. 23 Pagstable naman ang PO, di mo naman talaga iiwanan sila. Di naman tutok kundi parang sinasabi nila na bisitahin man lang namin sila. At least man lang mavisit kasi it adds to their morale. Hindi pagkatapos ng programa, tapos na. Kulang kami sa suporta ng gobyerno pero ang dapat siguro na gawin ay magkaroon ng Inter-agency Collaboration: CWFT Core Team in terms of kunwari sa DSWD, sa integration and monitoring with DOH, and visit ng handlers. Sa halip ng tatlong agencies ang hiwahiwalay na bumibisita sa lugar, dapat mamaximize ang time, labor at finances kung hindi compartmentalized ang agency. The different agencies must plan interconnected projects para hindi rin nag-ooverlap sa isang area ang projects o kaya nacoconcentrate sa iisang lugar ang funds. Combination of funds to maximize its potential can also be done. Another problem that can affect sustainability is the lack of leadership sa part ng PO at ng NGO. In terms of Funding, dapat iensure yung accountability ng NGO and organization to sustain the project. Sayang ang funds, three years after, asan na ang PO (Peoples‟ Organization)? ROSELLE, IGOROTA FOUNDATION Date: February 5, 2006 Location: IGOROTA Foundation Office, Baguio City There are a lot of differences in the approach of people from the academe and those who are involved in the field as NGO workers. The issues on framework are some of the concerns. Most of the academicians are purely theoretical in their approach to community development that is why in order to bridge the gap between the two, the use of action research is really necessary. The Igorota is an NGO handling WHMPS-PC in Ligawan, Buguias and Abiang in Benguet. The Women‟s Health project is successful according to the design and objectives. Maganda naman ang exit namin sa area, pati ang sustainability measures. Sa Buguias, hindi nagwork out ang partnership namin, kung walang partnership, walang cooperation. But during the process, the peoples‟ organization was able to strengthen the women. They participated in the project. We were also able to get some funding from the Levis Foundation to set up a drugstore for the community in our Botika Binhi project. The fund was course through PBSP grant for the botika. The package was to put up organizational building, setting structure for management, and purchasing of equipment and drug. We also bought a weighing scale for the Barangay Health Center. We developed a structure for the drugstore and hired workers to manage it. We used the funds for purchasing the supplies and paying the regular seller and a bookkeeper. We asked these workers not to sell prescriptive drugs but they still did under the supervision of their Barangay nurse, who is very influential in the community. That for us is a minor violation. At some point, we had a hard time negotiating with the nurse because she controls the members and area. But the Barangay officials were also supportive of our projects. Yes, the very key that is, the most makatulong din yung nurse sa LGU ng area. Dapat sana yung nurse ang representative namin sa LGU. On the part of DOH naman, walang suporta so far, except in Abiang‟s medical inputs regarding seminar on drugs which is needed if we are to put up another drugstore. The DECS is not also visible but the Red Cross gave the community some inputs on First Aid. The fund we had was around 500 thousand pesos, a bit less than that. Some part are still available in the area, the others went to trainings and projects. Up to now nando‟n pa rin 24 ang botika sa areas ng Buguias. But we move the funds in Pasdong, Abiang, and Kibungan in Benguet after the failure of the partnership in Buguias. The best practices were replicated in the extension areas, which were more manageable in terms of initiatives from the members. In Abiang, they had an initial fund through contributions from the members. But, it was not enough. They did not have the capacity to raise a higher amount, because the community is poor. So we had to assist them to get some funds for the women‟s project. Women members in the community consider it their project and so they really worked hard for the project to succeed. Unlike in Buguias, the women in Abiang are more organized and committed. We also came up with Women officers, a bookkeeper and a supplies officer. The drug store we developed in the area is still functional up to now. From 2003 to the present, some projects are still sustained in the area. The COs are locally hired, more or less alam nila ang need ng community. Ang Pasdong hindi maayos ang organization dahil mahirap mapuntahan ang community because of the distance and road repairs. The most accessible for us is Abiang. After our nine-month engagement in the expansion programs of WHSMP-PC through the DOH, we made a formal turn over of everything. So what happens with the communities in the extension areas is that they need to stretch the remaining budget. There was an effort on December 2003 by the NGO and CO to bring together all the partners. Kaya lang hindi napick-up kung saan sila papasok, just the NGO. Separate kasi ang management ng Women‟s Health. I don‟t know if it‟s a good idea na may separation. After the phase-out wala nang reports na sinasabi sa DOH. The BHW and nurses turned over reports. Then the POs worked on their own since then. ANALYSIS Results of the impact evaluation study on selected development programmes/projects in CAR, in Mindoro, and in Bulacan, indicate that the government has done little in recognizing, protecting and promoting the rights of Indigenous Peoples, despite the passage of Republic Act 8371: Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act of 1997. This condition has been aggravated by the implementation of destructive government projects, such as mining and energy projects, among IP communities, and the imposition of unjust policies that trampled upon their inherent rights to ancestral lands, and their right to participate actively in decision-making processes affecting their development. Also, international organizations and/or funders, in partnership with government agencies and nongovernment organizations, have not been successful enough in alleviating the socio-economic conditions of marginalized IP communities, especially the women. Most foreign-funded programmes and projects have not been successful enough to reduce the increasing incidence of poverty and subservience among IP groups, particularly in the CAR and in Mindoro, where several foreign-funded development programmes and projects have not been sustained. This situation could have been due to the fact that the direct implementers of these programmes/projects did not include the IPs in the decision-making process, particularly on the development and management of such projects/ programmes. Also, the following difficulties and sources of failures in sustaining development programmes /projects in the CAR were identified by a WHSMP-PC partner organization and its beneficiaries: 25 Table 1: LIST OF DIFFICULTIES AND SOURCES OF FAILURES IN SUSTAINING DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES/PROJECTS Identified by WHSMP-PC beneficiaries Identified by Representative from an NGO and community members partner 1. Lack of leadership training Lack of leadership training/proper documentation 2. Personalism and Familiarity: Difficulty in dealing with some “tsismis”, palakasan/kampihan, representatives of the people’s organization cannot separate work from personal (PO); Personalism and miscommunication issues, cannot work with “kaaway” 3. Lack of support from LGUs and DOH Issues on conceptual framework used in the academe for evaluating development programs: Need for Action Research 4. Manipulation by the Barangay heads Conflicts of Interest (PO/LGU/NGO and instead of encouraging members to DOH) get involved and speak out their opinions 5. Lack of time and commitment Kanya kanyang lakad ang iba‟t ibang naghahandle na grupo sa isang area pero wala pakialam kaya minsan nalilito ang mga tao kung alin ba talaga ang kailangan o ano ba talaga ang gagawin kung sakaling magkaiba or in conflict ang programa 6. Lack of initiative from the members Need for financial statement: bookkeeper, to pay their respective debts accountant/ treasurer a. On Microfinance -need for stable market/consumers/ selling place -competition from other sources/ branded, cheaper or commercialized goods -demand for higher training and quality control b. On Poverty -no financial means to pay -got used to dole outs and do not want to be forced to pay -cost of living higher than earnings -decided to work in formal labor and lacked time to work for the organization Some communities and their officers are used to luxuries and demand more than what is needed Lack of professionalism 26 The above-cited difficulties/sources of failures in sustaining development programmes/ projects in the CAR emphasize the failure of the WHSMP-PC to consider the diverse cultural practices of its partner organizations and target beneficiaries/ clients, and to use multidimensional, participatory and gender-sensitive and responsive approaches in project/programme development and management. Thus, there was no ownership of the programme/project among the target beneficiaries/communities. Although, there were attempts by some nongovernment organizations and people’s organizations in the selected project sites to sustain what they had started, these efforts lack the support of the local government units (LGUs), which were supposed to plan and implement community programmes and projects that will improve people’s quality of life, to promote gender equity in the productive and reproductive spheres, and to enhance people’s participation in the decision-making process affecting them. It is inspiring to note that despite the lack of support from the local government, some IP groups in Mindoro and in Bulacan came up with best practices that can serve as a model for other IP groups and communities. The integration of indigenous ways of doing things and age-old practices to complement the social preparation stage and community organizing processes that some NGOs use as preliminary steps to project development and management, will enhance gender equity and equality, support rights-based approaches in all phases of project development and management, and sustain micro-enterprises and other programmes/ projects for target beneficiaries. It will also directly improve the social, economic, cultural, and political lives of the IPs and other communities. Accordingly, women and men will have equal opportunities to access resources, to hone their skills in managing micro-enterprises and other programmes/projects, and to participate more actively in the activities of their respective communities. Thus, women’s important role in the family as well as in the community will be highly emphasized. RECOMMENDATIONS There is a need to utilize a participatory approach in project implementation, which would enable IP communities, especially the women to actively participate in the decision-making process affecting their own development. A participatory approach to project implementation could also improve relations and functions between stakeholders and beneficiaries of programmes/projects. Also, inter-agency collaborations between government agencies and nongovernment organizations can facilitate the monitoring and evaluation of programmes/projects since these partnerships maximize the utilization of funds and personnel, for the benefit of their target clients/communities. Furthermore, capacity building activities, such as leadership training, values formation seminar, and others must be conducted, to enhance IP communities/groups’ professional, and people skills. These activities will boost people’s self-esteem, thereby enabling them to develop good interpersonal relations and to fulfill desired goals and objectives. Moreover, creative programmes and activities for IPs, especially for women and the youth will have to integrate the multiple dimensions of development “comprising of human security, macroeconomic growth, environmental sustainability and participatory governance” (Morales-Gomez, 2000: 3). It is important to promote self-determination, self-identification, political and resource control, and free cultural expressions in a development framework 27 which enhances gender equity. Thus, it is imperative to identify how far, and how these can be enhanced through appropriate public strategies and policies. Towards an Indigenous Multidimensional Gender Equity Framework for Development An indigenous multidimensional gender equity framework for development in sustainable development policies and projects is a modification of Bitzer’s proposed development framework. It is a method which promotes self-determination, self-identification, political and resource control, and free cultural expression while it hastens the process of bridging the gender gap. It welcomes cultural diversity which facilitates national development and economic stability. As a permanent attribute of civil society, cultural diversity grants cultural space to differentiated groups. This step is of “central importance in Spain in consolidating a democratic order providing substantial satisfaction to Catalan ethno-nationalists, and isolating the violent extremists in the Basque country. In Mauritius, the meticulous care within which the communal balance is maintained in the cultural action of the state has served to foster...a profound commitment to tolerance shared by the citizenry at large (Young, 1999: 7). Drawing upon and reinforcing the cultural traditions of marginalized Indigenous Peoples will encourage social and economic changes that they can control and carry out. Equitable and sustainable development is built upon Indigenous Peoples ' own cultural heritage. Cultural expressions such as music, dance, popular theater, puppetry, artisan work, poster and mural art, and oral tradition – can facilitate the generation of “cultural energy” (Kleymeyer, 1994:4), which is a prime source of motivation that inspires people to confront problem, identify solutions, and participate in carrying them out. By knowing where they have come from, people can discover where they want to go. Thus, cultural expressions facilitate the creation of a more viable, productive and effective local organizations that can sustain development efforts on their own, even without outside help. 28 REFERENCES Bitzer, C. A Mutidimensional Gender Equity Development Framework. A Dissertation. University of Delaware, 2003. Bonifacio, M. Community Organizing for Rural Development: An Approach to Community Organizing in Coastal Resources management – Fishery Resources Management (FRMP) Framework for Community Organizing. Department of Agriculture, Diliman, Quezon City, September 2001. Escobar, A. The Unmaking of the Third World. 1995. Kleymeyer, C.D. (ed.) Cultural Expression and Grassroots Development. Cases from Latin America and the Caribbean. Colorado: Reenner Publishers, Inc., 1994. Young, C. (ed.) The Accommodation of Cultural Diversity. Case Studies. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, Inc., 1999. Case Studies on Indigenous Social Protection Schemes. PATAMABA. No Date. Ibon Media Release, March 9, 2006. ________________, March 14, 2006. ________________, March17, 2006. ________________, March 21, 2006. Conference Papers: “Ang mga Etnolingguwistikong Grupo sa Pag-aaral ng Etnisidad tungo sa Integratibong Lapit/Metodo ng Pagtuturo at sa Pagpapatibay ng Araling Panlipunan bilang bahagi ng Kurikulum sa Lahat ng Antas Pang-edukasyon” Ikatlong Pambansang Seminar-Workshop (April 18-20,2005) Sponsored by: Bagong Kasaysayan Inc. 1. IPRA, NCIP (ONCC&OSCC 1996 Accomplishment Report) 2. NCAA History and Policies 3. The National Roundtable: The Impact of Development Projects on Philippine Indigenous Peoples , Cordillera People Alliance, July 1998 NGO Completion Report. Barangay San Miguel, Bucay, Abra. POST. January-October 2003. NGO Completion Report. Barangay Sto. Domingo, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao. POST. January- October 2003. 29
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"TOWARDS AN INDIGENOUS MULTI DIMENSIONAL GENDER EQUITY FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPMENT: An Impact Evaluation of Selected Development Programmes/Projects in The PhilippinesThis study attempts to evaluate the"Please download to view full document