Sample + Doctor of Business Administration + Proposal

					                        Program Development Proposal

                                          for the

                                Doctor of Philosophy Degree

                                             in

                            Spatially Integrated Social Sciences

            To be offered jointly by a consortium of academic departments in the
                                 College of Arts and Sciences:

                              Geography and Planning
                                     Economics
                    Political Science and Public Administration
                            Sociology and Anthropology




                                    University of Toledo

                                       October, 2006




Contacts:

Dr. Peter Lindquist, Chair                          Dr. Marietta Morrissey
Department of Geography and Planning                Associate Dean, Social Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences                        College of Arts and Sciences
The University of Toledo                            The University of Toledo
Toledo, OH 43606                                    Toledo, OH 43606
(419) 530-4287                                      (419) 530-5507
plindqu@utnet.utoledo.edu                           marietta.morrissey@utoledo.edu
Contact:                                          Contact:                                Contact:
Peter Lindquist                                   Marietta Morrissey                      Sue Ott Rowlands
Chair                                             Associate Dean                          Interim Dean
Department of Geography and Planning              Social Sciences Division                College of Arts and Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences                      College of Arts and Sciences            The University of Toledo
The University of Toledo                          The University of Toledo




1. Degree Proposal and Rationale
    The University of Toledo College of Arts and Sciences proposes to offer a multidisciplinary Doctor
of Philosophy Degree in Spatially-Integrated Social Science as a cooperative venture between the
departments of Geography and Planning, Economics, Political Science and Public Administration, and
Sociology and Anthropology. The program will be designed around the application of geographic
information science and spatial analysis to study the spatial dimension of human and social dynamics,
including interaction of individuals and society, government, and market participants. This program will
enhance the allied social science’s role in UT's mission as a metropolitan urban university and will
strengthen the university’s efforts in outreach, research and education.
    This proposed program will focus on space as a unifying theme under which social scientists can
examine social, political and economic processes over the landscape. The location and distribution of
populations and the social processes that influence those populations will thus form the basis upon which
the relevant data associated with these phenomena are assembled, organized, displayed and analyzed.
This approach is underscored by the Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science (CSISS):
         CSISS recognizes the key role space plays in human society, and promotes research that advances
         our understanding of spatial patterns and processes. Cartographic visualization, geographic
         information systems (GIS), pattern recognition, spatially sensitive statistical analysis, and place-
         based search methodologies are the tools of spatially integrated social science (SISS) used to
         integrate knowledge across disciplines and paradigms. From research design to the interpretation of
         research findings, the use of SISS can advance understanding in nearly every domain of the social
         and behavioral sciences (CSISS, 2003)
    The rationale for this proposed degree program is based on a rapidly growing commitment by social
and behavioral scientists to incorporate geographic information processing technology to researches that
focus on the social, economic, political, ethnic, and cultural elements of changing landscapes ranging
from the local to the global scale (Goodchild, et al., 2000). Once considered the exclusive domain of
geographers, this “space and place”-based approach is rapidly diffusing to a wider population of social
scientists, which in turn results in a blurring of disciplinary boundaries and a blending of interdisciplinary
pursuits. The spatial emphasis traditionally held by geographers must of necessity today be enhanced by
a new spatio-temporal approach that is “multidimensional and therefore multidisciplinary, transcending
the constraints of traditional disciplinary agendas and casting light on the interstices where today’s
important problems are located” (B.J.L. Berry, quoted in CSISS, 2003). Examples cited by the Center for
Spatially Integrated Social Science (CSISS) and by Goodchild, et al., (2000) of major topics which
transcend disciplinary boundaries and follow the spatio-temporal model are listed as follows1:
    z Environmental and climate change              z Cultural analysis / symbolic meaning of space
    z Social and economic inequality                z Criminal justice

    z Social and business networks                  z Community studies / grassroots organizations
    z Health and disease                            z Urban Studies
________________________________________

1
 please consult pp. 142-148 in Goodchild, et al. (2000) and pp. C2-C5 in the CSISS Project Description
(http://www.csiss.org/aboutus/reports/csiss_descript.pdf) for a more detailed treatment of these topics including cited work from
the social science research literature.



                                                                1
This list is by no means a comprehensive set of topics for empirical research; additional interest areas
within the group of allied departments include such diverse areas as: race and space issues, transportation
and economic development, voting patterns and political redistricting, and community development.
     This proposed program however, will not be limited to the application of geospatial analysis
technology for empirical investigations of society and space. A detailed examination of the literature in
this area reveals considerable attention devoted to theoretical issues that extend into the wider field of
spatial statistics and geographical information science. These include issues dealing with non-
independence or autocorrelation between observations of geographic variables distributed over space,
where similarity in measured observations of variables within close proximity precludes the direct
application of traditional parametric statistical methods. As a result, a new body of statistical theory has
emerged that is devoted to spatially-weighted regression analysis, error theory in spatially-distributed
data, spatial interpolation and sampling methods, the effects of scale and resolution in geographically
distributed data, and the confounding effects of boundary alignment and modifiable areal units in data
organization and analysis.

    Significant advances in spatial information processing technologies--notably in the form of
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)--have served as an important catalyst for this emerging spatio-
temporal research paradigm. GIS has enabled more efficient collection, management and
analysis of spatial data resulting in more efficient handling of social data to detect patterns and anomalies.
Anselin (1999) refers to this process of exploratory spatial data analysis as a useful means of generating
new and interesting hypotheses (CSISS, 2003). These developments have prompted observers of the
technology to call for the social sciences to share in these technologies as noted by Goodchild, et al.
(2000) and Sui (2004).
    As a result, the NSF sponsored the creation of the Center for Spatially Integrated Social Sciences
(CSISS) at The University of California-Santa Barbara in 1999. The main mission of CSISS was to
“develop unrestricted access to tools and perspectives that will advance the spatial analytic capabilities of
researchers throughout the social sciences” (CSISS, 2003). Four specific objectives set forth by CSISS
are echoed in the current initiative described in this proposal:
    1.   To encourage and expand applications of new geographic information technologies and newly
         available geographically referenced data in social science.
    2.   To introduce the next generation of scholars to this integrated approach to social science research.
    3.   To foster collaborative interdisciplinary networks that address core issues in the social sciences
         using this approach.
    4.   To develop a successful clearinghouse for the tools, case studies, educational opportunities, and
         other resources needed by this approach. (CSISS, 2003).
    In addition to CSISS, the NSF sponsored another major initiative entitled Spatial Perspectives on
Analysis for Curriculum Enhancement (SPACE) that is devoted to promoting spatial thinking within
social science disciplines and the incorporation of spatial analysis technologies and tools in social science
research. This spatially-integrated social science, while relatively new, presents considerable promise in
using spatial data processing and analysis technologies over a wide range of social, political, economic
and cultural issues, but also in providing a mechanism to capture the synergies resulting from
collaborative research among diverse populations of investigators.
    This important interface between the rapidly-developing GIS technology and the interrelated interests
shared by our faculty therefore forms the basis for our proposal. We envision a multidisciplinary research
degree program that can build upon the success achieved in the Center for Geographic Information
Science and Applied Geographics (GISAG) in the Department Geography and Planning and the allied
social science departments named in this proposal. At our campus, the Research Task Force


                                                           2
recommended to the President and Provost that the GISAG Center be targeted for investment
enhancements as one of a limited number of “research focus” areas. This decision was made in
September, 2000. As a result, the GISAG Center received OBOR Research Challenge funds to hire a
director for the center as well as additional funds to renovate the space housing the GISAG Center.
GEPL faculty responded with the acquisition of additional NSF funding ($167,000) for equipment in the
center (Czajkowski, et al., 2001). In turn, the research Council recommended continued recognition for
the GISAG Center during the 2002-03 Academic Year and encouraged GEPL faculty affiliated with
GISAG to strengthen research ties with faculty in the allied social sciences and to begin work on a
multidisciplinary Ph.D. program (University of Toledo Research Council, 2003).
    To date, the GISAG Center continues its success in sponsored research and outreach. Since its
founding the center has served as an integral component of funded projects amounting to over $5.9
million. A sample of extramural funding organizations include: USDA, NSF, TMACOG, NASA,
Midwest Regional University Transportation Center, Ohio Department of Transportation, Lucas County
Port Authority, City of Toledo, Black and Veatch Corp. and Sylvania (Ohio) Township. The
overwhelming majority of the research initiatives focus on metropolitan-based projects that underscore
the metropolitan mission of the university. Much of the research is also directed toward providing
support in GIS and remote sensing for other projects ranging from environmental studies dealing with
Lake Erie to local environmental and land use issues, as well as local and regional planning issues.
    At the present time, the majority of research projects undertaken in the GISAG have been joint
projects between Geography and Planning, Economics, Political Science, Environmental Sciences,
Business Administration and Civil Engineering. The proposed degree program can build on this
foundation to enhance research ties among faculty in the allied social science departments and in turn,
produce the benefits of synergies derived by multidisciplinary collaboration. The resources in the GISAG
have greatly assisted in this endeavor to produce the following sample of projects within and outside of
the allied social sciences:

    zCommuterLINK Feasibility Study (Political Science and Geography)
    zUpper Midwest Freight Corridor (Geography, Business, Civil Engineering)
    zUSDA Sludge Application Project (Geography, Env. Sciences, UT Health Sciences, Engineering)
    zUSDA Greenhouse Cluster Initiative (Geography, Economics-BGSU)
    zNASA OhioView Consortium (UT and State Universities in Ohio)
    The allied social science departments argued effectively in 2002 that the success achieved in the
social sciences not only merit investment in the research infrastructure, but also in the addition of faculty
with research backgrounds that combine GIS and spatial analysis with additional substantive expertise in
(but not limited to): demography, geographic information sciences, local government interaction, public
policy, social informatics, urban sociology, social capital, spatial econometrics or statistics, urban
economics, environmental policy, or regional science. In turn, the UT Research Council and the
Provost’s Office responded with the addition of four new faculty members to be added to the allied social
science faculty from the Provost’s Hiring Plan of 2002.
    The allied social science departments argued further that the formation of a Ph.D. program will
solidify this research focus by attracting talented faculty and graduate students to the university. Faculty
expertise in the social sciences that can make effective use of spatial data and spatial analytic tools will
not only complement all aspects of the GISAG effort, but will also strengthen the university’s role in
research and outreach in a wide variety of problems. This includes projects in health care policy, health
care delivery, health care finance, the environment and its impact on human life, wellness and health.
GIS databases represent an important resource in support of social science research that require
specialized analytical expertise regarding quantitative spatial methods of analysis in the various social
science disciplines. Additional faculty expertise will significantly contribute to the analysis of the rich


                                                     3
data resources being acquired and developed by the GISAG as well as interpretation of research outcomes
in dealing with the implications of the economic, social, political and cultural elements of the landscape
from the local to the global scale.

    The increasingly complex world of the twenty-first century will demand more sophisticated
approaches for solving economic, environmental, population, and social problems. The program
presented in this proposal presents a curricular and research focus that will produce a new generation of
social scientists with the capability to combine a clear understanding of the underlying theory of their
chosen discipline with the technical expertise to assemble and manage data from a diverse array of
sources and apply sophisticated analysis techniques that will provide a new perspective for
decisionmaking in the public policy arena. Graduates of this program will certainly have the ability to
perform advanced geospatial research in social science, but we also anticipate that our graduates will
serve as a vital link between GI Science technology and the demands of society’s decisionmakers and
stakeholders. We expect our graduates to be competitive for positions of leadership in government
positions ranging from the national to the local level. We also envision our graduates to be sought for
positions in the private sector and consulting organizations. As the structure of higher education changes
over the next several years and decades, we also anticipate that our new generation of scholars will arrive
in new multidisciplinary academic programs that demand the capability to merge a strong grasp of theory
with the technological and analytical competence to address the problems of a rapidly-changing world.


2. Education and Training
     The proposed Ph.D. program will be structured to provide a focused curriculum of instruction,
training, and research that concentrates on location as the key unifying element between our allied
disciplines in the study of social, political and economic processes in the landscape. It is envisioned that
the new Ph.D. program must therefore initially provide students with a set of core courses and electives
that convey the principles of spatial thinking as advocated in the CSISS Initiative:
    Integration: the concept which emphasizes the essential linkage that location provides as a tool for
    spatially super-imposing different forms of information and analysis provided by different social
    science disciplines as they view social processes.
    Spatio-Temporal Context: the likelihood that observations of social processes are interdependent
    over space and time; social scientists must therefore account for these effects in the acquisition and
    analysis of spatially referenced data and in the retrieval and display of information obtained from this
    activity.
    Spatially Explicit Modeling: the analytical approach which requires that both theories and applied
    work should treat the spatial connectivity structure of any social phenomena under study in an explicit
    way.
    Place-Based Organization of Information: the overarching principle that allows disparate social
    science information to be organized using geographical location as a key for linking and referencing
    sources of data.

     Students are expected to come into the program with a Master’s Degree from one of the allied
disciplines including Economics, Geography, Sociology, Political Science, or Anthropology. To assure
their success in our program, student admission decisions will be guided on the basis of their performance
in their respective graduate programs, their quantitative skills, interest in spatial statistics and geographic
information science, and evaluations from referees. Each student accepted into the program will assume a
disciplinary affiliation with one of the disciplines comprising the program listed above. It is expected that
most students from non-geographic disciplines will lack the necessary background for introducing the


                                                      4
principles outlined above and will therefore require remedial training as part of their coursework prior to
enrollment in the program’s core curriculum.

    At the University of Toledo, the Ph.D. program requires 90 semester credit hours beyond the
Bachelor’s Degree, typically 45 hours of coursework and 45 hours of dissertation. Because we will
require that admitted students will already have completed a Master’s Degree, this program will need 60
credits. Each student will be required to complete thirty credits of course work as follows:
    1. Three mandatory core courses to be taken by all students in the program (9 credit hours).
    2. One spatial analysis seminar course from each of the three departments outside of their
       disciplinary affiliation (9 additional credit hours)
    3. A remaining set of elective courses (12 credits) will be taken within their disciplinary affiliation
       to reach a total of 30 minimum credit hours.
    4. The student’s education culminates in a dissertation of up to 30 credit hours.
It is anticipated that this program will require the development of seven new courses at the 8000 level as
well as the Dissertation. The courses within the proposed curriculum are described below.

The Core Courses
Students will begin their progress through the program by taking a series of three required courses
identified as CORE CONCEPTS AND METHODS. The suggested courses as listed below must all be
proposed as new courses.
        SISS 8010: PHILOSOPHICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES
        An introduction to the principles of spatial thinking and the methodological approaches to
        spatially integrated social science inquiry; the course will include a survey of literature in the
        field.
        SISS 8020: SPATIAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
        An introduction to analysis of data that incorporate assumptions of spatial dependence between
        observations of geographic variables. Specific topics to explore include the definition of spatial
        autocorrelation, geostatistical models, multivariate geostatistical analysis, spatially-weighted
        regression, spatial interpolation and modeling and simulation of spatial processes.
        SISS 8030: GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SCIENCE
        A survey of geographic concepts within the context of geographic information systems and
        remote sensing that incorporate fundamental elements of cartography, geodesy, statistics,
        mathematics and geosciences. GI Science forms the foundation for the development of GIS
        systems and spatial analysis tools.

It is proposed at the present time that all students will be required to complete SISS 8010:
PHILOSOPHICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES during their first semester in residence. At
that time, all students must complete any remedial course work necessary to prepare them for SISS 8020
and 8030 to be completed during their second semester in residence. Remedial course work would
emphasize skills in geographic information systems, multivariate statistics, and cartography.

The Spatial Analysis Seminar Courses
The courses listed below are to be completed during each student’s third semester in residence after the
required core courses are completed. All students will be required to complete three seminars in each of
the departments outside of their home discipline. These courses are listed and described below.



                                                      5
        SISS 8110: SPATIAL ANALYSIS TOPICS IN GEOGRAPHY
        A survey of approaches to spatial inquiry and major topics of study within the discipline of
        geography for all social science students affiliated with Economics, Political Science, Sociology,
        and Anthropology.


        SISS 8120: SPATIAL ANALYSIS TOPICS IN ECONOMICS
        A survey of approaches to spatial inquiry and major topics of study within the discipline of
        Economics for all social science students affiliated with Geography, Political Science, Sociology,
        and Anthropology.

        SISS 8130: SPATIAL ANALYSIS TOPICS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE
        A survey of approaches to spatial inquiry and major topics of study within the discipline of
        Political Science for all social science students affiliated with Geography, Economics, Sociology,
        and Anthropology.
        SISS 8140: SPATIAL ANALYSIS TOPICS IN SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
        A survey of approaches to spatial inquiry and major topics of study within the disciplines of
        Sociology and Anthropology for all social science students affiliated with Geography,
        Economics, and Political Science.
These courses will be completed during each student’s third semester in residence. The fourth semester
in residence will be devoted to completing the remainder of electives needed to complete the 30 credit
hour requirement for course work. It is assumed that students would take a minimum of three credits in
each semester of residence. Students will be required to complete elective courses during their first,
second and fourth semester in residence. Elective courses are described in greater detail below.


Elective Courses
Students will complete a total of 18 credit hours beyond the core courses and disciplinary seminars.
Elective courses will be chosen by students upon approval of the program advisor as a means to overcome
deficiencies in preparation for study in the program and to gain additional depth in knowledge and
expertise in their chosen areas of specialization. A list of approved electives are listed in
Appendix I.


                                 SISS 8010: PHILOSOPHICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES
   First Semester in Residence
                                 ELECTIVE 1
                                 ELECTIVE 2

                                 SISS 8020: SPATIAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
  Second Semester in Residence
                                 SISS 8030: GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SCIENCE
                                 ELECTIVE 3

                                 SELECT THREE OUTSIDE OF AFFILIATED DISCIPLINE:
                                 SISS 8110:   SPATIAL ANALYSIS TOPICS IN GEOGRAPHY
   Third Semester in Residence   SISS 8120:   SPATIAL ANALYSIS TOPICS IN ECONOMICS
                                 SISS 8130:   SPATIAL ANALYSIS TOPICS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE
                                 SISS 8140:   SPATIAL ANALYSIS TOPICS IN SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY

  Fourth Semester in Residence   ELECTIVE 3
                                 Prepare for Comprehensive Examination and Dissertation Proposal Preparation

    5+ Semesters in Residence    Work toward completing the dissertation




                                                          6
     It is anticipated that students enrolling in the program must complete at least three semesters in
residence to complete their course work prior to beginning the process of proposing, writing and
defending their dissertations. During the fourth semester, students will be required to take a
comprehensive exam developed and administered by the program director and a selected committee of
faculty in the program that share the students’ knowledge and interests. Upon completion of their course
work and successful completion of the comprehensive exam, students will be required to appoint a
dissertation committee consisting of a primary advisor and four readers. The dissertation committee will
be responsible for administering a comprehensive exam to be completed at the end of the fourth semester
in residence. The comprehensive examination will consist of a two-day written examination followed by
an oral examination administered by the committee. Students who pass the comprehensive examination
will then be required to prepare and defend a dissertation proposal which will be presented to the
members of the dissertation committee in a public forum. Students who successfully defend the proposal
will be granted ABD Status and charged to complete and defend their dissertations. A total of 30
dissertation credits must be completed for the degree through concurrent enrollment in SISS 8990:
DISSERTATION. A sample timetable for completing the degree for students admitted into the Ph.D.
program is presented above in Table 1.


3. Administrative Arrangements
    The College of Arts and Sciences will administer the proposed program under the combined
leadership of a Program Director and Advisory Committee made up of participating social science faculty
within the four allied departments. Admission requirements for this program will be the same as those of
other Ph.D. programs at the University of Toledo. The Director and Advisory Committee will review all
applications and recommend admission for qualified candidates.

    The Program Director will oversee all of the coursework undertaken by students enrolled in the
program and will coordinate the administration of comprehensive examinations in accordance with the
College of Graduate Studies of the University of Toledo. Upon successful completion of the
comprehensive examination and defense of the dissertation proposal, each student will be assigned to a
dissertation advisor who will assume administrative responsibilities for the student until completion of the
degree. The dissertation advisor will ensure that their student will produce a dissertation containing
material of publishable quality within the standards of their respective discipline. The Director and
Advisory Committee will continually review the progress of the program to guarantee that the mission of
the multidisciplinary program is fulfilled.

     Faculty participants who have sponsored research in areas associated with the proposed program, or
who will contribute by teaching courses within the program, will apply to become affiliated faculty. A
committee of faculty established by the Program Director will review the credentials of those professors
seeking affiliation. The term of appointment as an affiliated faculty will be five years, and can be renewed.
Faculty participants will also be expected to have ongoing funded projects in relevant research areas related
to the mission of the Ph.D. Program. This requirement is essential in order to provide financial support for
students enrolled in the program. In particular, long-term multidisciplinary research projects will be
encouraged to assure full participation of all disciplines comprising the affiliated faculty of the program.




                                                     7
4. Evidence of Need
    The U.S. Department of Labor Statistics along with the U.S. Geological Survey has recognized a
growing demand for individuals possessing technological skills in the processing of geographic
information, given the advances technology and the growing proliferation of “readily available,
consistent, accurate, complete, and current geographic information and the widespread availability and
use of advanced technologies” (http://www.doleta.gov/BRG/Indprof/geospatial_profile.cfm). The U.S.
Department of Labor goes on to cite recent estimates of the market for geospatial technologies at the
beginning of this decade was estimated at $5 billion, which was projected to rise to annual revenues of
$30 billion by 2005. These findings are reported in detail by Gaudet, Annulis and Carr (2003).
Applications of geospatial technology range from business applications to urban and regional planning,
infrastructure management and national security. The demand for workers with expertise in geospatial
technology is underscored by a $6 million initiative by the Department of Labor to meet the growing
workforce needs of the geospatial technology sector. The U.S. Department of Labor has begun to meet
with industry representatives and educators from the geospatial technology industry to develop strategies
to address the needs for qualified professionals in this field
(http://www.doleta.gov/BRG/Indprof/geospatial_profile.cfm).

It is well documented that these geospatial information processing technologies have diffused over the
past two decades into such diverse disciplines as geography, engineering, business, forestry, urban
planning and landscape architecture. The allied social sciences have also benefited to a great extent;
geoprocessing technologies have enabled researchers to investigate the spatial distribution of a wide range
of topics (Goodchild, 2004). A survey of the social science literature reveals a significant body of work
in areas such as public investment, political redistricting, crime, poverty, housing, and spatial inequalities
with respect to accessibility to banking, public services, transportation and jobs. The significant extent to
which social scientists have adopted this technology provides a strong argument for new advanced
graduate programs that focus on this approach to research. Please refer to the bibliography listed in
Appendix III on Page 29 for evidence supporting this argument.

A significant portion of the attention devoted to the training of the geospatial technology industry
workforce deals with the necessity to train individuals with the requisite technical skills to fill a growing
number of job vacancies (Gaudet, Annulis and Carr, 2003; Sietzen, 2004). Coupled with these efforts is
an attempt to certify GIS professionals (http://www.gaurisa.org/certification.php). As a result, technical
competency will certainly be an important component of the program proposed here. However, we also
argue that producing graduates with advanced technical skills alone are not sufficient; it is also essential
to understand the nature of the underlying forces and processes that govern the location and distribution
of the phenomena stored and managed in these systems. This is where the social sciences have much to
contribute in geospatial technology. The expertise and unique perspectives among social science
disciplines can strengthen the application of these technologies through the critical examination of the
techniques applied in data analysis, and the distribution of errors, effects of scale and resolution, and
spatial interdependence of geographically distributed data.

The major contribution of the proposed program lies at the interface between the technical expertise
necessary in the application of geographic information processing technologies and the necessary
theoretical understanding of the social, political and economic forces that govern the location and
distribution of the data stored in these systems. Our students will certainly master the geographic
information technologies and newly available geographically referenced data in social sciences.
Meanwhile, they will foster collaborative interdisciplinary networks that address core issues in the social
sciences. GEPL will continue to develop along with the other social sciences the full potential of its
GISAG laboratory, building it into a successful clearinghouse for the tools, case studies, educational
opportunities, and other resources requisite to achieving the combined objectives of our program.


                                                      8
This program is designed to meet the demand cited above in several ways. First it will provide our
graduates with research perspectives from a range of multidisciplinary social sciences in the application
of geospatial analysis technologies for empirical investigations of society and space. In addition, students
will gain a strong proficiency with the techniques and tools necessary to carry out social science research.
However, we also intend to instill a critical knowledge of the limitations of these techniques and a solid
understanding of the underlying theory supporting the development of these systems. A detailed
examination of the literature in this area reveals considerable attention devoted to theoretical issues that
extend into the wider field of spatial statistics and geographical information science. These include issues
dealing with non-independence or autocorrelation between observations of geographic variables
distributed over space, where similarity in measured observations of variables within close proximity
precludes the direct application of traditional parametric statistical methods. As a result, a new body of
statistical theory has emerged that is devoted to spatially-weighted regression analysis, spatial
interpolation and sampling methods, the effects of scale and resolution in geographically distributed data,
and the confounding effects of boundary alignment and modifiable areal units in data organization and
analysis will comprise an important part of the curriculum.

As a result, our graduates will be equipped to contribute not only in research that effectively applies
geospatial technologies to social science problems, but also to develop new analytical tools to advance the
state of the art in their respective fields. Students will possess a critical understanding of the advantages
and limitations of these tools in social science research. We anticipate that these skills will prove
invaluable to organizations ranging from academic institutions to governmental agencies, private sector
consulting and international development agencies.
The program is designed to appeal to a wide range of national and international social science students
interested in addressing social science problems from a spatial perspective that incorporates geospatial
technology, statistical analysis, and substantive knowledge of topics within their respective disciplines.
Strong domestic and international graduate enrollments in the four participating social science
departments indicate strong potential for enrollments and in placement of graduates into advanced
professional positions.

Upon completion of the program its graduates will be qualified to assume leadership positions in the
United States and abroad in academic institutions, non-profit agencies, governmental bodies, or the
private sector. There are a wide variety of potential employers for the program’s graduates. Graduates
will find academic jobs in the standard social-science disciplines, in policy schools, in undergraduate and
graduate environmental science programs.

Many graduates will choose nonacademic positions, however, taking leadership roles in government
ministries in the United States and throughout the world working on environmental protection and
sustainable development programs; international institutions such as the IMF and World Bank; and
private firms engaged in large-scale development projects and consulting firms analyzing development
issues for private and public clients. However, the largest employment and policy analysis opportunity is
in the rapidly growing plethora of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) significantly funded and
supported by numerous international bodies such as the United Nations, the World Bank, the U.S. Agency
for International Development, and the U.K. Know How Fund to name a few.

The proposed program is unique in its focus and mission, with few other Ph.D. program offered in the
United States, and will therefore satisfy unmet demand for its educational services by drawing from local,
regional, national and international pools of prospective students.




                                                     9
5. Proposed Enrollments
Given that this graduate program will be self-sustaining and will seek minimal assistance from the
University of Toledo and the Ohio Board of Regents, all graduate enrollments will be dependent upon the
ability of the faculty to attract research funding. To date, faculty performance in funded research is
outstanding and should provide a solid foundation for attracting and retaining quality Ph.D. level students.
Furthermore, the availability of Ph.D. level students for research will enable faculty to attract funding
from a wider range of sources for long-term projects that can sustain graduate enrollments.

The program is designed to appeal to a wide range of national and international social science students
interested in research from a spatial perspective. Strong domestic and international graduate enrollments
in the four participating social science departments suggest a strong potential for projecting sustainable
enrollments in this Ph.D. program.

Current planning efforts are focused on guaranteeing students four years of funding in research projects or
teaching based on faculty course releases in sponsored research. Ph.D.-level teaching assistantships
sponsored by the University of Toledo College of Graduate Studies will be kept to a minimum and used
only as a contingency in extreme cases where students lose their funding from external sources. Current
projections will limit admissions to eight fully-supported students per year in order to assure adequate
funding, resulting in no more than 32 fully-funded students in residence at any time. In some cases
students will also be admitted with no funding assistance. This total should assure minimum enrollments
in all required courses and seminars within the program.


6. Minority Students and Women
    Although women and minorities are increasingly represented in the social sciences at the Ph.D. level,
many more opportunities for advanced analytical and technical skills offering career preparation across a
broader range of the potential employment landscape need to be created. The multidisciplinary spatially
integrated social science Ph.D. program we propose offers unprecedented and attractive educational and
career opportunities to prospective American students who are women and minorities, as well as to
International students. The wide range of scales of inquiry ranging from the metropolitan to the
international offers these women, minorities and visitors problem-solving opportunities relating to their
own group needs, experiences and aspirations.


7. Faculty and Facilities
The College of Arts and Sciences has over 280 faculty in 19 academic departments and 22 academic
programs. Forty-three of these are faculty in the four social science departments participating in the
program. Of these, sixteen faculty have been actively involved in discussions proposing this program (see
Table 1). The program will reside in the Department of Geography and Planning, currently housed in
University Hall. The centerpiece of the program is The Center for Geographic Information Science and
Applied Geographics (GISAG), also housed in the Department of Geography and Planning. The GISAG
Center, designated as one of six centers of research excellence at the university, serves as a focal point for
GIS contract research on campus and in the local regional, and international community (see GISAG
website). Funded research related to the center has exceeded $5.9 million since 2001, and is expected to
exceed $6.5 million by the 2006-2007 Academic Year.




                                                     10
 Participating Faculty                                      Degree                      Research Expertise
 Dr. Lynn Bachelor                            Ph.D., Political Science                Community Development,
 Associate Professor                          The University of Chicago               Community Performance
 Department of Political Science and Public                                           Indicators
 Administration
 Dr. Julian Brash                             Ph.D., Anthropology                     Urban Anthropology,
 Assistant Professor                          The City University of New York         Urban Planning
 Department of Sociology and Anthropology
 Dr. Barbara Chesney                          Ph.D., Sociology                        Medical Sociology, Social
 Associate Professor and Chair                University of Michigan, Ann Arbor       Psychology, Health,
 Department of Sociology and Anthropology                                             Deviance
 Dr. Kevin Czajkowski                         Ph.D., 1995, Atmospheric Sciences       Remote Sensing,
 Associate Professor                          University of Michigan                  Meteorology, Environment,
 Department of Geography and Planning                                                 Physical Geography
 Dr. Mark Denham                              Ph.D., Political Science                International Relations,
 Associate Professor and Chair                The Ohio State University               Political Economy, Third
 Department of Political Science and Public                                           World Development
 Administration
 Dr. Daniel J. Hammel                         Ph.D., 1994, Geography                  Urban Geography, Urban
 Associate Professor                          University of Minnesota                 Planning, Housing,
 Department of Geography and Planning                                                 Neighborhood Revitalization,
                                                                                      Redevelopment
 Dr. Hiroyuki Iseki                           Ph.D., 2004, Urban Planning             Urban Planning,
 Assistant Professor                          University of California, Los Angeles   Transportation, Urban Policy,
 Department of Geography and Planning                                                 Quantitative Methods
 Dr. Patrick Lawrence                         Ph.D., 1996, Geography                  Environmental Management,
 Associate Professor                          University of Waterloo                  Environmental Planning,
 Department of Geography and Planning                                                 Great Lakes
 Dr. Peter S. Lindquist, Project Director     Ph.D., 1988, Geography                  Digital Cartography, GI
 Associate Professor and Chair                University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee       Science, GI Systems,
 Department of Geography and Planning                                                 Transportation, Location
                                                                                      Analysis
 Dr. David Weiguo Liu                         Ph.D., 2002, Geography                  GI Science, Remote Sensing,
 Assistant Professor                          Boston University                       Data Mining, Machine-Based
 Department of Geography and Planning                                                 Learning
 Dr. Marietta Morrissey                       Ph.D., Sociology                        Gender, Stratification,
 Professor and Associate Dean                 Michigan State University               Comparative/Historical
 Department of Sociology and Anthropology                                             Sociology
 College of Arts and Sciences
 Dr. David J. Nemeth                          Ph.D., 1984, Geography                  Cultural Geography, Natural
 Professor                                    University of California, Los Angeles   Resources and Environment
 Department of Geography and Planning
 Dr. Rubin Patterson                          Ph.D., Sociology                        Science and Technology in
 Associate Professor                          Howard University                       the Global South,
 Department of Sociology and Anthropology                                             Technology and Social
                                                                                      Change, Information Society
 Dr. Neil Reid                                Ph.D., 1991, Geography                  Economic Geography,
 Associate Professor                          Arizona State University                Regional Science, Economic
 Department of Geography and Planning                                                 Development, Foreign
                                                                                      Investment
 Dr. Sujata Shetty                            Ph.D., 2003, Urban/Regional Planning    Community & Economic
 Assistant Professor                          University of Michigan, Ann Arbor       Development Planning,
 Department of Geography and Planning                                                 Gender & Planning,
                                                                                      International Development
 Dr. Oleg Smirnov                             Ph.D., 1998, Resource Economics         Spatial Econometrics
 Assistant Professor                          West Virginia University                Regional Economics
 Department of Economics

TABLE 1. Faculty Participating in the Ph.D. Program Development



                                                       11
This multidisciplinary group has been awarded significant resource enhancement from the Central
Administration with the addition of four new positions in the spatially integrated social sciences and in
capital improvement funding to build the GISAG Center. The capital improvement funds were coupled
with an NSF Major Research Instrumentation grant awarded to GISAG faculty in 2001. The faculty
listed for this program will provide the necessary balance between the necessary technical competence,
quantitative and analytical skills, and the substantive knowledge of societal issues that will be necessary
to produce graduates that can effectively apply the technology, methods and techniques to the solution of
societal problems.

The GISAG Center provides a clearinghouse for GIS research opportunities, and provides sources of
expertise to enhance student learning at all levels and across a wide range of academic disciplines. The
GISAG Center offers GIS graduate certification programs, provides geospatial databases to campus users,
and administers system-wide GIS software licenses. In addition, the Center seeks to solve complex
problems related to regional, metropolitan and local community issues, including: environmental
protection, land use planning, economic development, site characterization, resource mapping and GIS
support. Research productivity by GEPL faculty over the past four years reached record levels as
summarized as follows:
    z$5.9 million in external funding since 2001;
    z17 refereed publications and book chapters;
    z58 conference presentations; and
    za minimum average of 12 externally funded graduate students yearly, which exceeds the
      department’s allocation of teaching assistants funded annually.
Appendix II on page 20 provides a summary of research activities and faculty productivity in the Center.



8. Need for Additional Facilities and Staff
The proposed program will not request additional financial resources to ensure a successful beginning,
and promises to be self-supporting based on the past performance of the faculty. Faculty resources are
also adequate given our success in acquiring four additional faculty from the Provost’s Hiring Plan. The
proposed program has tremendous growth potential and as such, will require only additional space. The
Department of Geography and Planning has begun an initiative in cooperation with the College of Arts
and Sciences to relocate into adequate building space to better serve the proposed program and to
accommodate the growing space needs of the GISAG
A new facility is needed to provide the necessary office space, administrative support space, laboratory
space, and specialized instructional space for faculty in the allied social sciences to meet the anticipated
demands of this new multidisciplinary program. As such, it will provide the foundation to an essential
component of the stated mission of the university as a public metropolitan research university that
“commits itself to the intellectual, cultural, and economic development of our community, state, nation
and the world”.

At the present time, the Department of Geography and Planning faces critical shortages in space both in
terms of quality and quantity. The department’s space allocation has not grown in proportion to increases
in research funding, graduate assistants, and full time faculty over the past five years. The department
currently faces serious shortages in office space to support two anticipated faculty hires beginning in Fall,
2006. In addition, the quality of space currently available for departmental activities presents some
significant problems for long-term sustained productivity. These problems are outlined as follows:


                                                     12
    z
      limited office space for faculty—the number of full time tenure track faculty in GEPL has
        risen from seven in 2000 to ten beginning in Fall, 2006;
    z
      limited research space for GISAG—the number of graduate assistants and volume of research has
        exceeded the capacity of the Current GISAG Lab in UH 4530;
    z
      serious water leaks in the ceilings within the GISAG Center, one associated faculty office, and
        the GISAG support staff office pose a threat to equipment and data within the center;
    z
      limited office space for department research support staff—including three full-time research
        technicians, a full-time GISAG Laboratory manager and a 1/2–time grants manager—all
        supported by external funds;
    
    z
      limited office space for graduate students—given that GEPL supports more research assistants
        and interns from external funding than TAs funded internally, this poses problems for attracting
        talented graduate students both on the MA and Ph.D. levels; and
    z
      limited space for secure storage of expensive scientific equipment and related items.

In order for GEPL and allied faculty to sustain their current growth in research productivity, it is essential
for the Geography and Planning Department move the entire department to the new building to
accommodate the following needs:
 z full time GEPL faculty offices and research space for two Ph.D. program affiliated faculty;
     11
  z Graduate Students in residence;
     25+
  z research technicians;
     three
  zanticipated post-doctoral positions;
  z time department secretary;
     full
  zgrants manager;
  zLaboratory space for an instructional computer lab;
  zMajor laboratory space for the GISAG Center;
 z Seminar / meeting room;
 z Storage space for scientific equipment; and
 z Library space to rebuild the Hoffmann Library.

9. Projected Additional Cost and Adequacy of Expected Subsidy and Other income to Meet
This Cost
The major costs in this program will be incurred in the salaries of the four additional faculty hired to
participate in this program. This additional cost in salaries and fringes is roughly $300,000. These costs
are paid out of the budgets of each faculty member’s home department. Graduate student fee and tuition
waivers from sponsored research for 12 graduate students are difficult to project given the growth in
tuition and the composition of the student body with respect to Ohio residency. Stipends for graduate
students in the program are projected to exceed $170,000 and will be paid out of sponsored research
awards. State subsidies will contribute to the university budget through higher enrollments graduate
classes (6000 and 8000-level) beyond our regular MA program enrollments. We expect that new funds
generated by those students that join the University of Toledo to be a part of this program that will
generate subsidy in excess of costs.



                                                     13
10. Consultants and Advisory Committees
Major encouragement for a GEPL-centered Ph.D. program focusing on spatial sciences initially came as a
result of recommendations by an outside departmental audit, and is strongly related to the success of the
GEPL M.A program. We intend to seek the assistance of the Association of American Geographers and
the National Science Foundation—particularly in the Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science
initiative in the planning, development and implementation of the program. In addition, we will propose
to form a Spatially Integrated Social Science Advisory Committee made up of University faculty,
administrators, local and state political officials, and leaders in the local business community to assist in
the management and administration of the program.




                                                     14
References Cited:
CSISS. 2003. CSISS: Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science Web Site (www.csiss.org),
 2001-2003 by Regents of University of California, Santa Barbara

Czajkowski, K.P., P. Lawrence, S. Attoh, N. Reid and P.S. Lindquist. 2003. Acquisition of
 Instrumentation in Support of the Center for Geographic Information Science and Applied
 Geographics (GISAG), National Science Foundation Grant.

Gaudet, C.H., H.M. Annulis and J.C. Carr. 2003. Building the Geospatial Workforce. URISA Journal
 15(1):21-30.

Goodchild, M.F. 2004. ArcNews, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Spring, 2004.

Goodchild, M.F., L. Anselin, R.P. Appelbaum, and B.H. Harthorn. 2000. Toward Spatially
 Integrated Social Science, International Regional Science Review, 23(2):139-159.

Sietzen, F. 2004. High-Growth Jobs Initiative, Geospatial Solutions, June 1, 2004.

Sui, D.Z. 2004. GIS, Cartography and the ‘Third Culture’: Geographic Information in the Computer
Age, Professional Geographer 56(1): 62-72.

University of Toledo Research Council, 2003. Research Council Recommendations on Areas of
 University Research Focus. September, 2003.




                                                  15
                                          APPENDIX I
Students will complete a total of 18 credit hours beyond the core course requirements, by choosing from a
list of courses offered by the three departments outside of their disciplinary affiliation. Courses to be
considered in the list from the current UT Catalog include.


ANTH - Anthropology
Department of Sociology and Anthropology (ARS)
ANTH 5520:   LABORATORY METHODS IN ARCHAEOLOGY
ANTH 5560:   FIELDWORK IN ANTHROPOLOGY
ANTH 5730:   BIOCULTURAL ECOLOGY
ANTH 5740:   NUTRITIONAL ANTHROPOLOGY
ANTH 5760:   MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
ANTH 5820:   ANTHROPOLOGY OF RELIGION
ANTH 5860:   THE IRISH-AMERICAN EXPERIENCE
ANTH 5890:   PEASANT SOCIETY
ANTH 5920:   DIRECTED READINGS IN ANTHROPOLOGY
ANTH 5980:   PROBLEMS IN ANTHROPOLOGY
ANTH 6960:   THESIS IN ANTHROPOLOGY
ANTH 6990:   INDEPENDENT RESEARCH IN ANTHROPOLOGY



ECON - Economics
Department of Economics (ARS)
ECON 5050:   POPULATION ECONOMICS
ECON 5100:   BUSINESS CYCLES
ECON 5120:   MONETARY THEORY
ECON 5130:   MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICY
ECON 5150:   ADVANCED MACROECONOMIC THEORY
ECON 5160:   TOPICS IN MACROECONOMICS
ECON 5200:   ADVANCED MICROECONOMIC THEORY
ECON 5210:   TOPICS IN MICROECONOMICS
ECON 5230:   POVERTY AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION
ECON 5240:   ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL RESOURCE ECONOMICS
ECON 5250:   LABOR ECONOMICS
ECON 5300:   MATHEMATICAL ECONOMICS
ECON 5410:   AMERICAN ECONOMIC HISTORY
ECON 5450:   HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT
ECON 5510:   INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS I
ECON 5520:   INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS II
ECON 5550:   ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
ECON 5620:   REGIONAL ECONOMICS
ECON 5660:   PUBLIC FINANCE ECONOMICS
ECON 5700:   AMERICAN INDUSTRY: STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE
ECON 5750:   HEALTH ECONOMICS
ECON 5810:   ECONOMETRICS MODELS AND METHODS I
ECON 5820:   ECONOMETRICS MODELS AND METHODS II
ECON 5830:   ECONOMETRICS MODELS AND METHODS III
ECON 5980:   CURRENT ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
ECON 6120:   SEMINAR IN MONETARY POLICY
ECON 6150:   SEMINAR IN MACROECONOMICS



                                                   16
ECON 6200:   SEMINAR IN MICROECONOMICS
ECON 6250:   SEMINAR IN LABOR ECONOMICS
ECON 6400:   SEMINAR IN ECONOMIC HISTORY
ECON 6500:   SEMINAR IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS
ECON 6550:   SEMINAR IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
ECON 6600:   SEMINAR IN URBAN ECONOMICS
ECON 6660:   SEMINAR IN PUBLIC FINANCE ECONOMICS
ECON 6700:   SEMINAR IN INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION
ECON 6810:   SEMINAR IN APPLIED ECONOMETRICS I
ECON 6820:   SEMINAR IN APPLIED ECONOMETRICS II
ECON 6830:   SEMINAR IN APPLIED ECONOMETRICS III
ECON 6900:   GRADUATE RESEARCH
ECON 6930:   TEACHING PRACTICUM IN ECONOMICS
ECON 6940:   PUBLIC SERVICE INTERNSHIP
ECON 6960:   THESIS
ECON 6990:   GRADUATE READINGS



GEPL - Geography and Planning
Department of Geography and Planning (ARS)
GEPL 5180:   GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS
GEPL 5210:   LAND USE PLANNING
GEPL 5490:   REMOTE SENSING OF THE ENVIRONMENT
GEPL 5500:   DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS
GEPL 5510:   GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
GEPL 5520:   ANALYTICAL AND COMPUTER CARTOGRAPHY
GEPL 5530:   PRINCIPLES OF URBAN PLANNING
GEPL 5550:   COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
GEPL 5570:   LAND DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING
GEPL 5580:   LOCATION ANALYSIS
GEPL 5600:   URBAN DESIGN
GEPL 5890:   FIELD EXPERIENCE
GEPL 5910:   DIRECTED RESEARCH IN GEOGRAPHY
GEPL 5920:   DIRECTED READINGS IN GEOGRAPHY
GEPL 6100:   PHILOSOPHY & GENERAL METHODOLOGY
GEPL 6150:   SEMINAR IN RESEARCH METHODS
GEPL 6160:   SEMINAR IN SPATIAL ANALYSIS
GEPL 6190:   ADVANCED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS SEMINAR
GEPL 6200:   EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE THROUGH INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING
GEPL 6250:   ADVANCED REMOTE SENSING SEMINAR
GEPL 6300:   SEMINAR IN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
GEPL 6400:   SEMINAR/ENVIRONMENTAL PERCEPTION
GEPL 6530:   SEMINAR-URBAN/REGIONAL PLANNING APPLICATIONS
GEPL 6550:   SEMINAR IN ENVIRONMENT PLANNING
GEPL 6570:   SEMINAR IN NEIGHBORHOOD REVITALIZATION
GEPL 6580:   URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND HOUSING
GEPL 6590:   SEMINAR-HEALTH CARE SYSTEM DESIGN
GEPL 6700:   TEACHING PRACTICUM IN GEOGRAPHY
GEPL 6910:   PROBLEMS IN GEOGRAPHY
GEPL 6930:   GENERAL SEMINAR
GEPL 6940:   INTERNSHIP IN PLANNING
GEPL 6950:   APPLIED GEOGRAPHIC WORKSHOP
GEPL 6960:   THESIS




                                             17
PSC - Political Science
Department of Political Science and Public Administration (ARS)
PSC 5110:   SOCIAL SCIENCE STATISTICS
PSC 5140:   INTERMEDIATE SOCIAL SCIENCE STATISTICS
PSC 5180:   COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
PSC 5210:   POLITICAL BEHAVIOR AND ELECTIONS
PSC 5230:   PRESIDENCY
PSC 5250:   INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
PSC 5280:   LEGISLATIVE PROCESS
PSC 5320:   URBAN POLICY & ADMINISTRATION
PSC 5330:   HEALTH CARE POLICY
PSC 5340:   ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION
PSC 5350:   HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEMS
PSC 5360:   ETHICS IN PUBLIC POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION
PSC 5370:   ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR
PSC 5390:   APPLIED POLITICS INTERNSHIP
PSC 5410:   MANAGEMENT OF NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
PSC 5430:   PUBLIC PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION
PSC 5440:   BUDGETING AND FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION
PSC 5470:   PUBLIC ORGANIZATION THEORY
PSC 5490:   CURRENT TOPICS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
PSC 5530:   CIVIL RIGHTS
PSC 5540:   RACE AND PUBLIC POLICY
PSC 5550:   CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN LAW
PSC 5560:   LAW AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
PSC 5570:   JUDICIAL PROCESS AND JURISPRUDENCE
PSC 5580:   INTERNATIONAL LAW
PSC 5610:   COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT
PSC 5620:   POLITICS OF RUSSIA AND FORMER SOVIET REPUBLIC
PSC 5630:   GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
PSC 5650:   INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY
PSC 5660:   GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS OF AFRICA
PSC 5670:   GOVERNMENTS OF THE MIDDLE EAST
PSC 5690:   GOVERNMENT OF CHINA
PSC 5700:   INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS - AFRICA
PSC 5710:   THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICS
PSC 5720:   INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
PSC 5730:   THE UNITED NATIONS
PSC 5740:   INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS - MIDDLE EAST
PSC 5750:   GENOCIDE AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY IN INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE
PSC 5800:   COMPARATIVE FOREIGN POLICY
PSC 5860:   FEMINIST POLITICAL THEORY
PSC 5880:   ISSUES IN POLITICAL THEORY
PSC 5920:   SEMINAR IN ASIAN AFFAIRS
PSC 5950:   MPA RESEARCH REPORT
PSC 5980:   CURRENT TOPICS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE
PSC 5990:   INDEPENDENT STUDY IN POLITICAL SCIENCE
PSC 6100:   SEMINAR IN METHODOLOGY
PSC 6110:   SCOPE AND METHODS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
PSC 6200:   SEMINAR IN AMERICAN POLITICS
PSC 6300:   SEMINAR IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
PSC 6400:   SEMINAR IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
PSC 6410:   PROSEMINAR IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION



                                               18
PSC 6420:   QUANTITATIVE METHODS IN DECISION MAKING
PSC 6430:   SEMINAR IN PUBLIC POLICY THEORY AND ANALYSIS
PSC 6440:   HEALTH SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
PSC 6460:   PROBLEMS IN POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION
PSC 6470:   SEMINAR IN INTERNATIONAL ADMINISTRATION
PSC 6500:   SEMINAR IN PUBLIC LAW
PSC 6600:   SEMINAR IN COMPARATIVE POLITICS
PSC 6700:   SEMINAR IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS
PSC 6710:   SEMINAR ON THE UNITED NATIONS
PSC 6800:   SEMINAR IN POLITICAL THEORY
PSC 6940:   PUBLIC SERVICE INTERNSHIP



SOC - Sociology
Department of Sociology and Anthropology (ARS)
SOC 5040:   CLASSICAL THEORY
SOC 5050:   CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY
SOC 5100:   COMMUNITY ORGANIZING AND DEVELOPMENT
SOC 5110:   POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY
SOC 5160:   HEALTH AND GENDER
SOC 5170:   LAW AND SOCIETY
SOC 5180:   MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY
SOC 5190:   SOCIAL GERONTOLOGY
SOC 5210:   COMMUNITY INFORMATICS
SOC 5220:   THEORIES OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY
SOC 5270:   SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS
SOC 5290:   SOCIAL RESEARCH STATISTICS
SOC 5340:   POPULATION AND SOCIETY
SOC 5440:   METHODS OF POPULATION ANALYSIS
SOC 5450:   SOCIOLOGY OF CITIES
SOC 5580:   SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIAL CHANGE
SOC 5600:   CORPORATION AND SOCIETY
SOC 5610:   SOCIOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONS
SOC 5620:   GENDER AND WORK
SOC 5660:   RACIAL AND ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE US
SOC 5670:   AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE UNITED STATES
SOC 5710:   CRIMINOLOGY
SOC 5720:   DEVIANT BEHAVIOR
SOC 5730:   SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY
SOC 5740:   ISSUES IN CRIME
SOC 5750:   LEGAL ISSUES
SOC 5760:   JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
SOC 5770:   CRIMINAL CORRECTIONS: THEORY AND PRACTICES
SOC 5800:   DEVELOPMENT OF SUBORDINATE NATIONS
SOC 5810:   GENDER IN CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
SOC 5820:   GENDER ROLES
SOC 5830:   SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
SOC 5980:   SPECIAL TOPICS IN SOCIOLOGY
SOC 5990:   DIRECTED READINGS IN SOCIOLOGY
SOC 6000:   INTRODUCTION TO GRADUATE STUDIES IN SOCIOLOGY
SOC 6040:   ADVANCED SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY
SOC 6050:   ADVANCED SOCIAL THEORY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY
SOC 6140:   SEMINAR IN THE FAMILY
SOC 6270:   ADVANCED SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS



                                             19
SOC 6290:   ADVANCED SOCIAL RESEARCH STATISTICS
SOC 6340:   SEMINAR IN POPULATION AND HUMAN ECOLOGY
SOC 6440:   SEMINAR IN URBANIZATION
SOC 6560:   SEMINAR IN SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL POLICY
SOC 6610:   SEMINAR IN SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
SOC 6620:   SEMINAR IN WORK AND OCCUPATION
SOC 6640:   SEMINAR IN STRATIFICATION
SOC 6660:   SEMINAR IN RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS
SOC 6710:   SEMINAR IN RESEARCH IN CRIME
SOC 6800:   SEMINAR IN THEORIES IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
SOC 6810:   SEMINAR IN MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY
SOC 6850:   SEMINAR IN SMALL GROUPS RESEARCH
SOC 6860:   SEMINAR IN RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
SOC 6900:   INDEPENDENT RESEARCH IN SOCIOLOGY
SOC 6930:   SEMINARS IN SOCIOLOGY
SOC 6940:   GRADUATE INTERNSHIP
SOC 6990:   INDEPENDENT STUDY IN SOCIOLOGY




                                          20
                                       APPENDIX II

           Summary of Research and Education Activities, 2001-2006
                            Department of Geography and Planning
                                   Department of Economics
                    Department of Political Science and Public Administration
                          Department of Sociology and Anthropology



1. RESEARCH FUNDING                       (Exceeding $5.4 Million since 2001)

Attoh, S., P. Lawrence, K. Czajkowski, and C. Shove. (USDA) “Developing methodologies to assess
natural resource and socioeconomic data for use in community planning decision making: A cooperative
agreement between GEPL and the USDA.” U.S Department of Agriculture Natural Resource
Conservation Service, $120,248. September 2001-September 2003
Bachelor, L.W., and P.S. Lindquist, (TMACOG) “CommuterLINK Needs Assessment and Cost Benefit
Analysis”, Commuter Services Council, Toledo Metropolitan Council of Governments. $17,500. 2001-
2002.
Czajkowski, K.P., Central State University (US Bureau of Reclamation), “OhioView Assistance of
Bureau of Reclamation”, $47,624, January 1, 2005-December 31, 2006.
Czajkowski, K.P., A. Spongberg, D. Dwyer, and W. Sigler, (USDA), “Monitoring Agricultural Sewage
Sludge”, $1,194,995, June 15, 2006 to June 14, 2008.
Czajkowski, K.P., Heidelberg College (USDA), Watershed Modeling for Rock Creek, $115,164, January
1, 2005 to December 31, 2007.
Czajkowski, K.P. and P.L. Lawrence, 2005-2010 Maumee River Watershed GIS and Remote Sensing
Project, USDA NRCS, $352,067, 2005.
Czajkowski, K.P., Great Lakes Commission, Agricultural Land Use Mapping with Multi-Temporal
Imagery, $41,126, September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005.
Czajkowski, K.P., Ohio Aerospace Institute for NASA Glenn Research Center, Assistance to OhioView
with Remote Sensing Educational Outreach, $10,920, January 1, 2005
to December 31, 2005.
Czajkowski, K.P., USDA, Monitoring Agricultural Sewage Sludge Application in NW Ohio, $1,000,916,
June 15, 2005 to June 14, 2007.
Czajkowski, K.P., (TMACOG), Geographic Information System (GIS) Septic System Inventory for
Urban and Rural Counties, Lake Erie Protection Fund, $50,000.
Czajkowski, Ohio Aerospace Institute for NASA Glenn Research Center, Dissemination of Remote
Sensing Technology in Northwest Ohio through Educational and Community Outreach, $43,887, June 1,
2003 to August 31, 2004.
Czajkowski, Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL), Development and Validation of a
Turbidity Product for Lake Erie: GLERL’s CoastWatch Satellite Program, $10,000, June 1, 2003-May
31, 2004.


                                                 21
Spongberg, Czajkowski, Ohio Board of Regents Improving Teacher Quality Program, Earth System and
Space Science Concepts Distance Learning Course for In-service, $57,489, March 1, 2003-February 28,
2004.
Czajkowski, Earth and Energy Systems: GLOBE Protocol Research and Outreach, NSF GLOBE
Program, $381,000, 9/15/02-3/14/06.
Czajkowski, K.P. and P.L. Lawrence, Army Corps. of Engineers, Auglaize River Sedimentation Project,
$77,000, 9/4/02 to 9/3/03.
Czajkowski, Lawrence, Reid, Lindquist, Nemeth, Attoh, NSF Major Research Instrumentation,
Acquisition of Instrumentation in Support of the Center for Geographic Information Science and Applied
Geographics (GISAG), September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2004, $166,994.
Lawrence, P.L. 2004. Maumee Area of Concern Stage II Strategic Planning Project, US EPA Great
Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO), $19,781
Lawrence, P.L. 2003 GIS and Remote Sensing Application for Wetlands Classification and, Inventory in
the Maumee AOC. Oak Openings Land Conservancy. $6,865 .
Lindquist, P.S. and M. Vonderembse. 2005. Upper Midwest Freight Corridor Phase II.
Ohio Dept. of Transportation and Midwest Regional University Transportation Center (FHWA) $32,000.
Lindquist, P.S., 2005. Toledo AirView: An International Air Freight Export Resource for the Toledo
Express Airport, Lucas County Port Authority $8,300.
Lindquist, P.S., 2006. Expanding Regional Freight Information Resources for the Upper Midwest: The
Great Lakes maritime Information delivery System, Great Lakes Maritime Research Institute $49,000.
Lindquist, P.S. 2006. Expanding Regional Freight Information Resources for the Upper Midwest: The
Great Lakes maritime Information delivery System—Phase II, Great Lakes Maritime Research Institute
$49,000.
Reid, N., and P.S. Lindquist (USDA), “Northwest Ohio’s Greenhouse Nursery Industry”. (with Michael
Carroll, Michelle Grigore, Mark Kassof, David Kraybill, Claudio Pasian, F. William Ravlin). $139,307,
2003.
Reid, N., and P.S. Lindquist (USDA), “The Economic Competitiveness of Ohio’s Greenhouse Nursery
Industry”. (with Brian Ceh, Michael Carroll, Jay Gatrell, Michelle Grigore, Karen Johnson-Webb, Peter
Konjoinan, Claudio Pasian, F. William Ravlin). $667,153, 2004.
Reid, N., and P.S. Lindquist (USDA), “Greenhouse Nurseries Ohio Project Ohio’s Greenhouse Nursery
Industry”. $679,671 (with Michael Carroll, Jay Gatrell, Claudio Pasian, Philip Page, Joseph Perlaky,
Bruce Smith, Thomas Steiger, F. William Ravlin), 2005.
Shove, C., and P.S Lindquist, 2003. Spatial Analysis for Community Facilities and GIS, Outreach
Project funded by Sylvania, OH Township, $15,300.
Vonderembse, M., P.S. Lindquist and J. Gupta. 2003. Upper Midwest States Freight Corridor Study--
Phase I, Joint Study with The University of Wisconsin and University of Illinois-Chicago. Funded by
Midwest Regional University Transportation Center (FHWA), University of Wisconsin-Madison
$162,334.




                                                  22
2. RESARCH/CONTRACT REPORTS:
Adams, T.M., T.J. Gordon, E.F. Wittwer, J. Gupta, P.S. Lindquist, M. Vonderembse, K. Kawamura, S.
McNeil, 2005. Upper Midwest Freight Corridor Study Final Report. Midwest Regional University
Transportation Center, Madison, Wisconsin.

Czajowski, K., Lawrence, P.L., Palmer, M., Fedders, M. and Coss, J. (2004). AnnAGNPS: Remote
Sensing for land use/land cover (LULC) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) at the University of Toledo.
Final report for The Upper Auglaize River Watershed Project AGNPS Modeling for Sediment Reduction.
Submitted to US Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, Buffalo NY and USDA, Natural Resources
Conservation Service, Columbus, OH.

Lawrence, P.L., Czajowski, K. and Torbick, N. (2003). Maumee River Watershed Protection and
Enhancement Planning Project. Final Report to Oak Openings Land Conservancy, Ohio EPA, and the
Open Space and Wetlands Action Group, Maumee Remedial Action Group. Toledo, Ohio.

Lindquist, P.S., 2006. Expanding Regional Freight Information Resources for the Upper Midwest: The
Great Lakes maritime Information delivery System, Great Lakes Maritime Research Institute

Murphy, G. and Ventura, S. (eds.) (2004). Landscape Suitability Analysis and Community Level Planning
for Agricultural Land Conservation (writing of sections on areas of environmental/ecological significance
for the Fulton County Comprehensive Planning Project within this report), pp. 71-104. NRCS,
USDA.Washington, DC.



3. CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS
Ault, T. and K Czajkowski. 2004. MODIS Snow Validation Using Student Observatons, East Lakes
Division of the Association of American Geographers, Athens, Ohio, Oct. 15-16, 2004.

Benko, T., K.P. Czajkowski and J. Struble. 2001. Educational Outreach at the University of Toledo:
Global Change and Remote Sensing Summer Teacher Workshop, Association of American Geographer’s
97th Annual Meeting in New York City, February 27-March 3, 2001.

Benko, T., K. P. Czajkowski, J. Struble and L. Zhao. 2001. Using Remote Sensing Technology as a Tool
for Educational Outreach and for Studying Global Climate Changes, American Geophysical Union Fall
Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Dec. 10-14, 2001, p. 257.

Benko, T., K.P. Czajkowski, J. Struble, and L. Zhao. 2002. Using Remote Sensing Technology as a Tool
for Educational Outreach and Studying Global Climate Changes, Association of American Geographer’s
98th Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, CA, March 19-March 23, 2002.

Coss, J., and K. Czajkowski. 2004. Development of Turbidity Images for Lake Erie from Landsat, East
Lakes Division of the Association of American Geographers, Athens, Ohio, Oct. 15-16, 2004.

Czajkowski, K. P. and A. Spongberg. 2001. Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) at the
University of Toledo’s Lake Erie Center: Environmental Studies of the Lake Erie Watershed, American
Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Dec. 10-14, 2001, p. 230.




                                                   23
Czajkowski, K. P. and P. Lawrence. 2001. The Use of Remote Sensing Technology in Environmental
Planning in NW Ohio, Ohio Planning Conference, Akron, OH, Oct. 5, 2001. Invited

Czajkowski, K. P. 2001. Remote Sensing Activities at The University of Toledo, AmericaView
Conference, Eros Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Aug. 4-5, 2001.

Czajkowski, K. P., Coss, J., Benko, T., Struble, J, Moebius, E., Nowaczyk, E., Mather, S., and Rose, J.
2001. Dissemination of Remote Sensing Technology in Northwest Ohio, Association of American
Geographer’s 97th Annual Meeting in New York City, February 27-March 3, 2001.

Czajkowski, K. P. 2002. Taking Remote Sensing Out of the Research Lab to the Public, East Lakes
Division of the Association of American Geographers (ELDAAG) conference, Mount Pleasant, MI, Oct.
18, 2002.

Czajkowski, K. P., J. Struble and A. Spongberg. 2002. Distance Learning and Teachers: Experiences
from the Earth System Science Education Alliance, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San
Francisco, CA. Dec. 6-10, 2002.

Czajkowski, K. P., Coss, J., Benko, T., Struble, J, Moebius, E., Mather, S., and Lawrence P. 2002.
Dissemination of Remote Sensing Technology from the Research Lab to the Public, Association of
American Geographer’s 98th Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, CA, March 19-March 23, 2002.

Czajkowski, K. P., J. Struble, and T. Benko. 2002. Global Change and Remote Sensing Summer
Teacher Workshop and Observation Program, American Meteorological Society, 11th Annual Education
Symposium, Orlando, Florida, January, 14-18, 2002.

Czajkowski K. P. 2002. Dissemination of Remote Sensing Technology in Northwest Ohio,
OhioView/AmericaView Conference, NASA Glenn Research Center, January 24, 2002.

Czajkowski, K. P., Lawrence, P., Benko, Coss, J., T., Struble, J, Palmer, M. and Fedders,M. 2003.
Reaching Local Decision Makers through the OhioView Remote Sensing Consortium, Association of
American Geographer’s 99th Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, March 4-March 8, 2003.

Czajkowski, K. P., J. Struble. 2003. Studying the Energy Budget, Applications for the Classroom, SECO
(Science Educators Council of Ohio), Annual meeting Feb. 21, 2003, Dayton, OH.

Czajkowski, K.P. 2004. Water Quality Research Using Satellite Imagery, American Water Works
Association (AWWA), Toledo, OH, Oct. 2004.

Czajkowski, K.P., J. Coss, M. Palmer and P. Lawrence. 2004. Crop Rotation Identification from Multi-
Temporal Satellite Imagery, East Lakes Division of the Association of American Geographers, Athens,
Ohio, Oct. 15-16, 2004.

Czajkowski, D. J., K. P. Czajkowski, J.E Rader, A. L. Spongberg, and K. Gerwin. 2004. Investigation of
potential environmental impact of biosolid sludge application on agricultural fields, East Lakes Division
of the Association of American Geographers, Athens, Ohio, Oct. 15-16, 2004.

Czajkowski, K.P. 2004. Dissemination of Remote Sensing Technology from the Research Lab to the
Public, Earth System Scholar Network (ESSN). College Park, MD, September 28-30, 2004.




                                                   24
Czajkowski, K. P. 2004. Learning with Teachers; A Scientist’s Perspective, NASA Earth Science
Education, Monterrey, CA, Nov. 1-4, 2004.

Czajkowski, K.P., J. Coss, M. Palmer and P. Lawrence. 2004. Crop Rotation from Multi-temporal
Landsat Imagery. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), Kansas City,
MO, Sept. 12-16, 2004.
Czajkowski, K. P. 2004. Learning with Teachers; A Scientist’s Perspective, American Geophysical
Union (AGU), Dec. 13-16, 2004.
Czajkowski, K.P., J. Coss, M. Palmer and P. Lawrence. 2004. Crop Rotation from Multi-temporal
Landsat Imagery. International Association of Great Lakes Research Conference, Waterloo, Ontario,
Canada, May 22-25, 2004.
Czajkowski, K.P., J. Coss, G. Leshkevich. 2005. Development of Satellite Turbidity Product for Lake
Erie, International Association of Great Lakes Research Conference, Ann Arbor, MI, May 23-27, 2005.

Czajkowski, K.P. 2005. Crop Rotation Identification from Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery,
Association of American Geographers, April 5-9, 2005.
DeMars, A. and Lawrence, P.L. (2003). “The Application of Geographic Information Science (GIS)
Technology for a Landscape Characterization of the Niagara Escarpment, Southwest Ohio”. 2003
ELDAAG Conference. Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. October 2003.

Gerwin, K. and Lawrence, P.L. (2003). “Study of Sediment Loading and Land Use Trends in the Ottawa
River Watershed, Northwest Ohio”. 2003 ELDAAG Conference. Western Michigan University,
Kalamazoo, Michigan. October 2003.

Lawrence, P.L., Attoh, S., Czajkowski, K., Smith, G. and Sackman, L. (2005). “ Searching for a Balance:
Sustainable Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Development: Community Planning and Decision-
Making in Fulton County, Ohio ”. International Conference on Environmental, Cultural, Economic and
Social Sustainability. RMIT University, Common Ground, and the Globalization Research Centre,
University of Hawaii. Oahu, Hawaii. February 2005.

Lawrence, P.L. and Torbick, N. (2004). “Wetlands Inventory and Classification for Lucas County by use
of Remote Sensing”. (invited speaker) Oak Openings Research Forum. Toledo, Ohio. January 2004.

Lawrence, P.L. (2003). “ Geomorphology, Ecosystem Planning and Community Decision-Making in the
Long Point and Niagara Escarpment World Biosphere Reserves” (invited speaker) Department of
Geography Seminar. SUNY Buffalo. Buffalo, NY. April 2003.

Lawrence, P.L. (2001). “ What is the Niagara Escarpment?; Where is the Niagara Escarpment? “. Great
Arc Workshop, Leading Edge 2001 Conference. Niagara Escarpment Commission/Niagara Escarpment
World Biosphere Reserve. Burlington, Ontario Canada. October 2001.

Lawrence, P.L. and K. Czajkowski. (2005). “ Maumee Watershed GIS and Remote Sensing Project”.
Maumee River Basin Partnership of Local Governments Annual Conference. Lima, OH. October 2005.

Lawrence, P.L., Kaktins, S-L., and DeMars, A. (2003). Landscape Characterization of the Niagara
Escarpment in Southwestern Ohio by Use of Geographic Information Science Technology. 112th Annual
Meeting of The Ohio Academy of Science. University of Findley, Findley, Ohio. April 2003.




                                                  25
Lawrence, P.L., Horvat, M., Grigore, M., Czajkowski, K. and Torbick, N. (2003). Challenges and
Limitations Using Remote Sensing to Delineate Wetlands in Northwest Ohio. Ohio Geospatial
Technology Conference for Agriculture and Natural Resource Applications. Columbus, Ohio. March
2003.
Lawrence, P.L. (2006). “ Development of Land Use Impact and Water Quality Online Information
System for the Maumee RAP in support of a Stage II report and community decision making ”.
International Association for Great Lakes Research 49th Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research.
University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario May 2006. (proposed)

Lawrence, P.L., Attoh, S. and Czajkowski, K. (2005). “ Community Planning in a rural agriculture
county experiencing urban sprawl: Application of the USDA Landscape Suitability Analysis and GIS for
Fulton County, Ohio ” (panel session). 2005 Annual Meeting of the Association of American
Geographers. Denver, CO. April 2005.
Lawrence, P.L. (2004). “ GIS and Web Technology for Wetland Planning” . Great Lakes Regional Data
Exchange Conference. Detroit, Michigan. October 2004.

Lawrence, P.L. (2004). “Landscape Characterization of the Niagara Escarpment in Southwestern Ohio”.
2004 Geological Association of Canada Annual Meeting. St.Catherines, Ontario. May 2004.

Lawrence, P.L. and DeMars, A.J. (2004). “A Geographic Information System Probability of Occurrence
Model for the Niagara Escarpment in Southwestern Ohio”. Leading Edge’04 Conference. St.Catherines,
Ontario. March 2004.

Lawrence, P.L and K. Czajkowski (2002). “The Utilization of Remote Sensing for Land Cover Change
Analysis for Environmental Decision-Making: Selected Case Studies from Northwestern Ohio”. AAG
2002: Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting. Los Angeles, CA. March 2002.

Lawrence, P.L. S. Fuller and K. Czajkowski (2001). “ The Application of Remote Sensing Technology
for Wetland Classification and Implications for Environmental Planning within the Maumee River
Watershed, NW Ohio “ ELDAGG 2001: East Lakes Division, Association of American Geographers
Annual Meeting. Cincinnati, OH October 2001.

Lindquist, P.S., and N. Reid. 2005. “Northwest Ohio’s Greenhouse Industry: Competing with the
Canadians.” AAG 2005 Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, April 6, 2005.

Lindquist, P.S. 2004. “Midwest FreightView: A distributed GIS system for monitoring freight in the
Upper Midwest”, Ohio Transportation Engineering Conference, Columbus, Ohio, October 28, 2004.

Lindquist, P.S., 2004. “Developing a Regional Database”, Upper Midwest Freight Coalition, Chicago,
Illinois, August 11, 2004

Lindquist, P.S. 2003. “Transportation Planning and GIS in The Geographic Information Science and
Applied Geographics Center. (GISAG)”, 57th Annual Ohio Transportation Engineering Conference,
Columbus, Ohio, November 5, 2003

Lindquist, P.S., Bachelor, L.W., and W.F. Abt. 2002. “Patterns in Commuting Among Welfare-to-Work
Recipients in a Mid-Sized Urban Region: The CommuterLINK Program in Toledo, Ohio”, AAG 2002
Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, California.




                                                 26
Mather, S. V., K.P. Czajkowski, J. Rose, and J. Coss. 2001. Near Real-time Acquisition and Use of
Satellite Imagery, Association of American Geographer’s 97th Annual Meeting in New York City,
February 27-March 3, 2001.

Mather, S., K. P. Czajkowski, S. Stadler and S. Goward. 2001. Near Surface Environmental Variable
Estimation with MODIS Data: Validation Using the Oklahoma Mesonet, American Geophysical Union
Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Dec. 10-14, 2001, p. 124.

Mather, S. V., K.P. Czajkowski, S. Stadler and S. Goward. 2002. Estimation of Surface and Air
Temperature from MODIS Data; Validation Using the Oklahoma Mesonet, Association of American
Geographer’s 98th Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, CA, March 19-March 23, 2002.

Palem, S., and P.S. Lindquist, 2004. “A Spatial Decision Support System for Freight Movements in the
Upper Midwest“, AAG 2004 Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 17, 2004.

Reid, N., and M.C. Carroll. 2005. “Using a cluster-based strategy to secure the economic future of
Northwest Ohio’s greenhouse industry”. Regional Science Association International Conference, Las
Vegas, Nevada.

Reid, N., and M.C. Carroll. 2005. “Using cluster-based economic development to enhance the economic
competitiveness of northwest Ohio’s greenhouse industry”. Applied Geography Conference, Washington,
D.C. (with Michael C. Carroll)

Reid, N., and M.C. Carroll. 2005. “Northwest Ohio’s greenhouse cluster: From concept to
implementation”. International Geographical Union’s Commission on the Dynamics of Economic Space
Conference. Toledo, Ohio.

Reid, N., and P.S. Lindquist, 2005. “Canadian penetration of the U.S. floriculture market”, International
Geographical Union’s Commission on the Dynamics of Economic Space Conference. Toledo, Ohio,
August, 2005.

Slattery, W., Czajkowski, K. P., J. Struble. 2003. On-Line Earth Systems science classes for Elementary
and Middle School Educators Professional Development, SECO (Science Educators Council of Ohio),
Annual meeting Feb. 21, 2003, Dayton, OH.

Torbick, N and Lawrence, P.L. (2003). “The Utilization of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information
Systems (GIS) for the Development of a Wetlands Classification and Inventory in the Maumee Area of
Concern”. 2003 ELDAAG Conference. Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. October
2003.

Torbick, N. and Lawrence, P.L. (2004) “ Development of Remote Sensing Techniques for the
Classification and Inventory of Wetlands in the Maumee Area of Concern, Ohio”. International
Association for Great Lakes Research 47th Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research. Waterloo,
Ontario Canada. May 2004.




                                                   27
4. OUTREACH AND COLLABORATION


Community Partners:                                       Private non-profit agencies:
Maumee Valley Growers Assn. (Greenhouse Cluster)          Natural Area Stewardship
Lucas County Auditor                                      Citizens for Buckeye Basin Parks
Fulton County Auditor                                     Duck and Otter Creek Partnership
Fulton County Planning Department                         National Wildlife Federation
Perrysburg Planning and Zoning                            Oak Openings Conservancy
Maumee Valley Planning                                    The Nature Conservancy
City of Defiance
City of Toledo
Lucas Soil & Water Conservation District
Darke Soil & Water Conversation District
Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Govts. (TMACOG)
Delaware County Auditor
Henry County Soil and Water Con. Dis.
Summit County: Dept. of Development                       Federal agencies:
Sylvania Township                                         USGS
Wood County Park District                                 USBR
Maumee RAP (Remedial Action Plan)                         US EPA
Lima/Allen County Planning                                NSF
Metroparks Toledo Area                                    NRCS USDA
Oregon Wastewater Treatment Plant                         USDA
Ada Wastewater Treatment Plant                            US Army Corps of Engineers
North Baltimore Wastewater Treatment Plant                US Fish and Wildlife Service
Perrysburg Wastewater Treatment Plant
Bowling Green Wastewater Treatment Plant


State and Provincial agencies:
ODNR - Geological Survey
USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), GIS/Remote Sensing
Ohio EPA
OhioLINK
Illinois Department of Transportation
Indiana Department of Transportation                     Private for-profit firms:
Iowa Department of Transportation                        Black and Veatch
Michigan Department of Transportation                    Franklyn W. Kirk Co. Cleveland, Ohio
Minnesota Department of Transportation                   WorldFX, Dayton, Ohio
Ohio Department of Transportation                        GVM LLC, Toledo, Ohio
Wisconsin Department of Transportation                   Finkbeiner, Pettis and Strout
Ontario Ministry of Transportation                       The Andersons Inc.
                                                         News Channel 11, Toledo
                                                         Fox Toledo News, Channel 36




                                              28
Collaboration with Other Units at UT
       Departments:
        Department of Environmental Sciences
        Department of Civil Engineering
        Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
        Department of Political Science
        College of Education
       Research Centers:
        The Lake Erie Center
        The Urban Affairs Center
        The Intermodal Transportation Institute

       Spatially Integrated Social Science Cluster
        Geography and Planning
        Sociology and Anthropology
        Political Science and Public Administration
        Economics



External University Collaboration:
Bowling Green State University                Health Science Campus, University of Toledo
       Robert Vincent                                  Michael Bisesi
       Michael McKay                                   Sheryl Milz
       Michael Carroll                                 Sadik Khudar
       Karen Johnson-Webb

Indiana State University                      University of Wisconsin-Madison (MRUTC)
       Jay Gattrell                                  Teresa Adams
                                                     Ernest Wittwer

       University of Illinois-Chicago         OhioView Consortium
       Sue McNeil                                   Robert Vincent, Bowling Green State U.
       Kazuya Kawamura                              Robert Frohn, Univ. of Cincinnati
                                                    Carolyn Merry, Ohio State Univ.
                                                    John Millard, Miami Univ.
                                                    James Lein, Ohio Univ.
                                                    Mandy Munro-Stasiuk, Kent State Univ.
                                                    Brad Shellito, Youngstown State Univ.
                                                    Peter Clapham, Cleveland State Univ.
                                                    Doyle Watts, Wright State Univ.
                                                    Loren Siebert, Univ. of Akron
                                                    Subramania Sritharan, Central State Univ.




                                                  29
                                            APPENDIX III

     Working Bibliography of Spatially Integrated Social Science Research



Abbott, John. 2003. The use of GIS in informal settlement upgrading: its role and impact on the community and on
local government, Habitat International 27(4):575-593.

Abreu, Maria, De Groot, Henri L. F., Florax, J. G. M. 2005. Space and Growth: A Survey of Empirical Evidence
and Methods, Region et Developpement 21:13-44.

Abu-Dayyeh, Nabil, Ziadat, Firas. 2005. GIS for understanding physical and social change in urban settings: a case
from Amman, Jordan, Environment & Planning B: Planning & Design 32(1):127-140.

Ackerman, William V., Murray, Alan T. 2004. Assessing spatial patterns of crime in Lima, Ohio, Cities
21(5):423-437.

Adler, Prudence S. 1997. An introduction--where are we heading? Journal of Academic Librarianship 23(6):447-
448.

Al-Amri, Mohammed. 2004. Planning and Preparation for Designing and Implementing a Tourism Information
System: A Proposed Model for Tourism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Journal of the Social Sciences 32(1):133-
163.

Alanon Pardo, Angel, 2002. Estimacion del valor anadido per capita de los municipios espanoles en 1991 mediante
tecnicas de econometria espacial. (With English summary.), Ekonomiaz 51:172-94

Aldosary, Adel S., Zaheer, Syed Aijaz. 1996. An application mechanism for a GIS-based maintenance system: the
case of KFUPM Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 20(6):399.

Ali, Mohammad, Emch, Michael, Donnay, J.P., Yunus, Mohammad, Sack, R.B. 2002. Identifying environmental
risk factors for endemic cholera: a raster GIS approach, Health & Place 8(3):201-210.

Alibrandi, Marsha, Beal, Candy. 2000. Reconstructing a School's Past Using Oral Histories and GIS Mapping,
Social Education 64(3):134-139.

Al-Kodmany, Kheir. 2001. Online tools for public participation, Government Information Quarterly 18(4):329-
341.

Al-Kodmany, Kheir. 2000. Using Web-Based Technologies and Geographic Information Systems in Community
Planning, Journal of Urban Technology 7(1):1-30.

Al-Sabhan, W., Mulligan, M., Blackburn, G.A. 2003. A real-time hydrological model for flood prediction using
GIS and the WWW, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 27 (1):9-22.

Althausen, John D., Mieczkowski, Thomas M. 2001. The Merging of Criminology and Geography into a Course
on Spatial Crime Analysis, Journal of Criminal Justice Education 12(2):367-383.

Altman, Ellen, Pratt, Allan. 1999. The JAL Guide to Professional Literature: Geographic Information Systems.
Journal of Academic Librarianship 25(5):419.




                                                       30
Ananda, Jayanath, Herath, Gamini. 2002. Assessment of Wilderness Quality Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process,
Tourism Economics 8(2):189-206.

Anselin, Luc. 2003. Spatial Externalities, Spatial Multipliers, and Spatial Econometrics, International Regional
Science Review 26(2):153-66.

Anselin, Luc. 2002. Under the Hood: Issues in the Specification and Interpretation of Spatial Regression Models,
Agricultural Economics 27(3):247-67.

Anselin, Luc. 2000. GIS, Spatial Econometrics and Social Science Research, Journal of Geographical Systems,
2(1):11-15.

Anselin, Luc. 2000. Part 2: The Link between GIS and spatial analysis: GIS, spatial econometrics and social
science research, Journal of Geographical Systems 2(1):11-15.

Anselin, Luc. 1998. GIS research infrastructure for spatial analysis of real estate markets, Journal of Housing
Research 9 (1):113-134.

Anselin, Luc. 1996. Simple Diagnostic Tests for Spatial Dependence, Regional Science and Urban Economics
26(1):77-104

Anselin, Luc, Rey, Sergio J. 1997. Introduction to the Special Issue on Spatial Econometrics, International
Regional Science Review 20(1-2):1-7.

Anselin, Luc, Kim, Yong Wook, Syabri, Ibnu. 2004. Web-Based Analytical Tools for the Exploration of Spatial
Data, Journal of Geographical Systems, Special Issue 6(2): 197-218.

Anselin, Luc, Moreno, Rosina. 2003. Properties of Tests for Spatial Error Components, Regional Science and
Urban Economics 33(5):595-618.

Apparicio, Philippe, Séguin, Anne-Marie. 2006. Measuring the accessibility of services and facilities for residents
of public housing in Montréal, Urban Studies 43(1):187-211.

Appleton, Katy, Lovett, Andrew. 2005. GIS-based visualisation of development proposals: reactions from planning
and related professionals, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 29(3):321-339.

Argentati, Carolyn D. 1997. Expanding horizons for GIS services in Academic Libraries, Journal of Academic
Librarianship 23(6):463-468.

Arima, Eugenio Y., Walker, Robert T., Perz, Stephen G., Caldas, Marcellus. 2005. Loggers and Forest
Fragmentation: Behavioral Models of Road Building in the Amazon Basin, Annals of the Association of American
Geographers 95(3):525-541.

Armstrong, Jennifer M., Khan, Ata M. 2004. Modelling urban transportation emissions: role of GIS, Computers,
Environment & Urban Systems 28(4):421-423.

Arnberg, Wolter, Nkambwe, Musisi. 1996. Monitoring land use change in an African tribal village on the rural-
urban fringe, Applied Geography 16(4):305.

Aroca, Patricio, Bosch, Mariano. 2000. Crecimiento, convergencia y espacio en las regiones chilenas: 1960-1998,
Estudios de Economia 27(2):199-224.

Ashby, Davd I. 2005. Policing Neighbourhoods: Exploring the Geographies of Crime, Policing and Performance
Assessment, Policing & Society 15(4):413-447.

Ashley, Charles C. 1998. Putting risks on the map, Forum 191:46-47.


                                                         31
Askounis, Dimitris Th., Psychoyiou, Maria V., Mourtzinou, Nanno K. 2000. Using GIS and Web-Based
Technology to Distribute Land Records: The Case of Kallithea, Greece, Journal of Urban Technology 7(1):31-44.

Assimakopoulos, Dimitris G. 2000. Social network analysis as a tool for understanding the diffusion of GIS
innovations: the Greek, Environment & Planning B: Planning & Design 27(4):627-650.

Aten, Bettina, Srinivasan, Sumeeta, George, Varkki. 1996. A computer-based tool for defining regions of similar
characteristics, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 20(2):111.

Auffrey, Christopher. 1999. Mapping Disparity in Infant Mortality: Using Technology to Describe the Local
Dimensions of Infant Deaths. Illness, Crisis & Loss 7(1):64-76.
Austin, S. Bryn, Melly, Steven J., Sanchez, Brisa N., Patel, Aarti, Buka, Stephen, Gortmaker, Steven L. 2005.
Clustering of Fast-Food Restaurants Around Schools: A Novel Application of Spatial Statistics to the Study of
Food Environments, American Journal of Public Health 95(9):1575-1581.

Axinn, William G., Barber, Jennifer S., Ghimire, Dirgha J. 1997. The Neighborhood History Calendar: A Data
Collection Method Designed for Dynamic Multilevel Modeling, Sociological Methodology 27:355-392.

Ayala, G., Fitzjohn, M. 2002. Seeing is believing: questions of archaeological visibility in the Mediterranean,
Antiquity 76(292):337-338.

Babcock, Linda, Engberg, John, Greenbaum, Robert. 2005. Wage Spillovers in Public Sector Contract
Negotiations: The Importance of Social Comparisons, Regional Science and Urban Economics 35(4):395-416.

Baker, Thomas R. 2005. Internet-Based GIS Mapping in Support of K-12 Education, Professional Geographer
57(1):44-50.

Baltagi, Badi H., Song, Seuck Heun, Koh, Won. 2003. Testing Panel Data Regression Models with Spatial Error
Correlation. Journal of Econometrics 117(1):123-50.

Bao, Shuming. 2000. Seamless Integration of Spatial Statistics and GIS: The S-Plus for ArcView and the
S+Grassland Links, Journal of Geographical Systems 2(3):287-306.

Barrett, Michael, Sahay, Sundeep, Walsham, Geoff. 2001. Information Technology and Social Transformation:
GIS for Forestry Management in India, Information Society 17(1):5-20.

Barry, Michael, Roux, Lani, Barodien, Glynnis, Bishop, Ian. 2002. Video evidencing and palmtop computer
technology to support the formalisation of land rights, Development Southern Africa 19(2):261-271.

Bastian, Chris T. 2002. Environmental Amenities and Agricultural Land Values: A Hedonic Model Using
Geographic Information Systems Data, Ecological Economics 40(3): 337-49.

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A., Nijkamp, Peter. 2004. The Environment in Regional Science: An Eclectic Review,
Papers in Regional Science 83(1): 291-316.

Bateman, Ian J., Lovett, Andrew A., Brainard, Julii S. 1999. Developing a Methodology for Benefit Transfers
Using Geographical Information Systems: Modelling Demand for Woodland Recreation, Regional Studies
33(3):191-205.

Bayram, Servet, Ibrahim, Ramadan. 2005. Digital Map Literacy Bounded With Culture Under Geographical
Information Systems Perspective, Journal of Visual Literacy 25(2):167-176.

Beard, Kate, Hassen, Khaled. 1996. A reference model framework to evaluate visualization of positional change in
spatial databases, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 20(1):43.




                                                         32
Bell, Kathleen P., Bockstael, Nancy E. 2000. Applying the Generalized-Moments Estimation Approach to Spatial
Problems Involving Microlevel Data, Review of Economics and Statistics 82(1):72-82.

Bell, Tyler, Wilson, Andrew, Wickham, Andrew. 2002. Tracking the Samnites: Landscape and Communications
Routes in the Sangro Valley, Italy. American Journal of Archaeology 106(2):169-186.

Belsky, Eric, Can, Ayse, Megbolugbe, Isaac. 1998. A Primer on Geographic Information Systems in Mortgage
Finance, Journal of Housing Research 9(1):5-31.

Benini, Aldo A., Shdeed, Richard, Yarmoshuk, Mark, Conley, Charles E., Spurway, Kim. 2003. Integration of
Different Data Bodies for Humanitarian Decision Support: An Example from Mine Action, Disasters 27(4):288-
304.

Bennett, Robert J., Smith, Colin. 2004. Spatial Markets for Consultancy to SMEs, Tijdschrift voor Economische
en Sociale Geografie 95(4):359-374.

Berg, Emmett, Woodville, Louisa. 2004. Tracking Lost Empires, Humanities 25(6):46-49.

Berman, Merrick Lex. 2005. Boundaries or Networks in Historical GIS: Concepts of Measuring Space and
Administrative Geography in Chinese History, Historical Geography 33:118-133.

Berry, Brian J. L. 2003. Returning to Reason, Urban Geography 24(3):185-186.

Bible, Douglas S., Hsieh, Cheng-Ho. 1996. Applications of Geographic Information Systems for the Analysis of
Apartment Rents, Journal of Real Estate Research 12(1): 79-88.

Bielefeld, Wolfgang, Murdoch, James C. 2004. The Locations of Nonprofit Organizations and Their For-Profit
Counterparts: An Exploratory Analysis, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 33(2):221-46.

Bigler, Wendy. 2005. Using GIS to Investigate Fine-scale Spatial Patterns in Historical American Indian
Agriculture, Historical Geography 33:14-32.

Bigman, David, Fofack, Hippolyte. 2000. Geographical Targeting for Poverty Alleviation: An Introduction to the
Special Issue, World Bank Economic Review 14(1):129-45.

Bin, Okmyung. 2004. A Prediction Comparison of Housing Sales Prices by Parametric versus Semi-parametric
Regressions, Journal of Housing Economics 13(1): 68-84.

Birkin, Mark, Clarke, Graham. 1998. GIS, Geodemographics, and Spatial Modeling in the U.K. Financial Service
Industry, Journal of Housing Research 9(1): 87-111.

Bishop, Ian D., Yates, Paul M. 1998. The integration of existing GIS and modelling systems: with urban
applications, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 22(1):71.

Bittner, Thomas, Frank, Andrew U. 1999. On the Design of Formal Theories of Geographic Space, Journal of
Geographical Systems 1(3): 237-75.

Bivand, Roger. 2002. Spatial Econometrics Functions in R: Classes and Methods, journal of Geographical
Systems 4(4):405-21.

Bivand, Roger, Szymanski, Stefan. 1997. Spatial Dependence through Local Yardstick Competition: Theory and
Testing, Economics Letters 55(2):257-65.

Bivand, Roger, Gebhardt, Albrecht. 2000. Implementing Functions for Spatial Statistical Analysis Using the R
Language, Journal of Geographical Systems 2(3):307-17.




                                                       33
Black, Fiona A., MacDonald, Bertrum H. 2005. HGIS of Print Culture in Canada, Historical Geography 33:154-
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Blakeley, Fred, Bozkaya, Burcin, Cao, Buyang, Hall, Wolfgang, Knolmajer, Joseph. 2003. Optimizing Periodic
Maintenance Operations for Schindler Elevator Corporation, Interfaces 33(1):67-79.

Bode, Eckhardt. 2004. The Spatial Pattern of Localized R&D Spillovers: An Empirical Investigation for Germany,
Journal of Economic Geography 4(1):43-64.

Bol, Peter, Jianxiong Ge. 2005. China Historical GIS, Historical Geography 33:150-152.

Bor-Wen Tsai, Shwu-Chong Wu, Chieh-Chung Lee. 2004. The Integration of Taiwan 2000 Census Data and
Geocoding System: A Pilot Study of Spatial Allocation for Long-term-care System (English), Journal of
Population Studies 28:135-152.

Bosak, Keith, Schroeder, Kathleen. 2005. Using geographic information systems (gis) for gender and development,
Development in Practice 15(2):231-237.

Bowers, Kate J., Johnson, Shane D. 2003. Measuring the Geographical Displacement and Diffusion of Benefit
Effects of Crime Prevention Activity, Journal of Quantitative Criminology 19(3):275-301.

Bowers, Kate, Hirschfield, Alex. 1999. Exploring links between crime and disadvantage in north-west England: an
analysis using geographical information systems, International Journal of Geographical Information Science 13(2).

Bowker, Geoffrey C. 2000. Mapping biodiversity, International Journal of Geographical Information Science
14(8):739-754.

Bradshaw, Ted K., Muller, Brian. 1998. Impacts of Rapid Urban Growth on Farmland Conversion: Application of
New Regional Land Use Policy Models and Geographical Information Systems. Rural Sociology 63(1):1-25.

Brainard, Julii, Lovett, Andrew, Bateman, Ian. 1999. Integrating geographical information systems into travel cost
analysis and benefit transfer, International Journal of Geographical Information Science 13(3).

Brasington, David M. 2004. House Prices and the Structure of Local Government: An Application of Spatial
Statistics, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Special Issue 29(2):211-31.

Brasington, David M., Hite, Diane. 2005. Demand for Environmental Quality: A Spatial Hedonic Analysis,
Regional Science and Urban Economics 35(1):57-82.

Broda, Herbert W., Baxter, Ryan E. 2003. Using GIS ans GPS Technology as an Instructional Tool, Social Studies
94(4):158-160.

Brody, Samuel D., Highfield, Wes, Alston, Letitia. 2004. Does Location Matter?, Environment & Behavior
36(2):229-250.

Brody, Samuel D., Peck, B. Mitchell, Highfield, Wesley E. 2004. Examining Localized Patterns of Air Quality
Perception in Texas: A Spatial and Statistical Analysis, risk Analysis: An International Journal 24(6):1561-1574.

Brown, A.L., Affum, J.K. 2002. A GIS-based environmental modelling system for transportation planners,
Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 26(6):577-590.

Brown, Mary Maureen, Brudney, Jeffrey L. 1998. A “Smarter, Better, Faster, and Cheaper” Government:
Contracting and Geographic Information Systems, Public Administration Review 58(4):335.

Brown, Philip C. 2005. Corporate Land Tenure in Nineteenth-Century Japan: A GIS Assessment, Historical
Geography 33:99-117.


                                                        34
Brownsberger, William N., Aromaa, Susan E., Brownsberger, Carl N., Brownsberger, Susan C. 2004. An
Empirical Study of the School Zone Anti-Drug Law in Three Cities in Massachusetts, Journal of Drug Issues
34(4):933-950.

Buckeridge, David L., Mason, Robin, Robertson, Ann, Frank, John, Glazier, Richard, Purdon, Lorraine, Amrhein,
Carl G., Chaudhuri, Nita, Fuller-Thomson, Esme, Gozdyra, Peter, Hulchanski, David, Moldofsky, Byron,
Thompson, Maureen, Wright, Robert. 2002. Making health data maps: a case study of a community/university
research collaboration, Social Science & Medicine 55(7):1189-1206.

Burrows, Roger, Ellison, Nick. 2004. Sorting Places Out? Towards a social politics of neighbourhood
informatization, Information, Communication & Society 7(3):321-336.
Buzzelli, Michael. 2005. What explains firm transience in house-building? A regional analysis of Ontario, Canada,
1991 and 1996, Regional Studies 39(6):699-712.

Byerly, Ryan M., Cooper, Judith R., Meltzer, David J., Hill, Matthew E., LaBelle, Jason M. 2005. On Bonfire
Shelter (Texas) as a Paleoindian Bison Jump: An Assessment Using GIS and Zooarchaeology, American Antiquity
70(4):595-629.

Campbell, Heather. 1996. A social interactionist perspective on computer..., Journal of the American Planning
Association 62(1):99-107.

Campbell, Michael O'Neal. 2005. Sacred Groves for Forest Conservation in Ghana's Coastal Savannas: Assessing
Ecological and Social Dimensions. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 26(2):151-169.

Can, Ayse. 1998. GIS and Spatial Analysis of Housing and Mortgage Markets, Journal of Housing Research 9(1):
61-86.

Canter, Philip, Harries, Keith. 2004. Police officers' perceptions of maps and aerial photographs, Journal of Police
Science & Management 6(1):37-50.

Carrington, Anca. 2003. A Divided Europe? By Regional Convergence and Neighbourhood Spillover Effects,
Kyklos 56(3):381-94

Carrozza, Mark A., Seufert, Robert L. 2003. One Picture is Worth A Thousand Calculations GIS: A New Tool for
Data Analysts, Social Insight 8(1):13-18.

Carrozza, Mark A., Seutert, Robert L. 1997. A New Tool for Data Analysts, Social Insight 2(1):16-21.

Casetti, Emilio, Aten, Bettina H., Ferguson, Mark R., Kanaroglou, Pavlos S., Bolduc, Denis, Fortin, Bernard,
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Ceccato, V., Haining, Robert, Signoretta, Paola. 2002. Exploring Offence Statistics in Stockholm City Using
Spatial Analysis Tools, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 92(1):29-51.

Chakraborty, J. 2001. Acute Exposure to Extremely Hazardous Substances: An Analysis of Environmental Equity,
Risk Analysis: An International Journal 21(5):883-883.

Chang, Ni-Bin, Kao, C.-Y. J., Tseng, C. C., Wei, Y. L. 1997. The design of a GIS-based decision support system
for chemical emergency preparedness and response in an urban environment, Computers, Environment & Urban
Systems 21(1):67.




                                                        35
Chaowei (Phil) Yang, Wong, David, Yang, Ruixin, Kafatos, Menas, Qi Li. 2005. Performance-improving
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Chapin, Mac, Lamb, Zachary, Threlkeld, Bill. 2005. Mapping Indigenous Lands, Annual Review of Anthropology
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Chasco, Coro, Lopez, Fernando A. 2004. Modelos de regresion espacio-temporales en la estimacion de la renta
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Chase Smith, Richard, Benavides, Margarita, Pariona, Mario, Tuesta, Ermeto. 2003. Mapping the Past and the
Future: Geomatics and Indigenous Territories in the Peruvian Amazon, Human Organization 62(4):357-368.

Chevallier, J. J., Laaribi, A., Martel, J. M. 1996. A spatial decision aid: a multicriterion evaluation approach,
Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 20(6):351.

Choi, Keechoo, Kim, Tschango John. 1996. A hybrid travel demand model with GIS and expert systems,
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Chuenpagdee, Ratana, Fraga, Julia, Euon-Avila, Jorge I. 2004. Progressing Toward Comanagement Through
Participatory Research, Society & Natural Resources 17(2):147-161.

Cinderby, Steve, Forrester, John. 2005. Facilitating the local governance of air pollution using GIS for
participation, Applied Geography 25(2):143-158.

Clementini, Eliseo. 2004. Some thoughts on inference in the analysis of spatial data, International Journal of
Geographical Information Science 18(5):447-457.

Cobb, Casey D. 2003. Geographic Methods & Policy Using Geographic Information Systems to Inform Education
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Cobb, David A., Olivero, Arlene. 1997. Online GIS service, Journal of Academic Librarianship 23(6):484-497.

Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip, Hill, J. Brett. 2004. Mapping History: Cartography and the Construction of the San
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Corcoran, Jonathan J., Wilson, Ian D., Ware, J. Andrew. 2003. Predicting the geo-temporal variations of crime and
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Couclelis, Helen. 2004. The Third Domain, Cartographica 39(1):17-24.

Coulton, Claudia. 2005. The Place of Community in Social Work Practice Research: Conceptual and
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Cox, Allan B., Gifford, Fred. 1997. An overview to geographic information systems. Journal of Academic
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Craglia, Massimo, Haining, Robert, Wiles, Paul. 2000. A Comparative Evaluation of Approaches to Urban Crime
Pattern Analysis. Urban Studies 37(4):711-729.

Crespin, Michael H. 2005. Using Geographic Information Systems to Measure District Change, 2000-2002,
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Cromley, Ellen K. 2003. GIS and Disease, Annual Review of Public Health 24(1):7-24.




                                                          36
Cromley, Robert G., Hanink, Dean M. 1999. Coupling Land Use Allocation Models with Raster GIS, Journal of
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Croner, Charles M. 2003. Public Health, GIS, and the Internet, Annual Review of Public Health 24(1):57-82.

Currit, N. 2002. Inductive regression: overcoming OLS limitations with the general regression neural network,
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Curry, Michael R. 1997. Digital People, Digital Places: Rethinking Privacy in a World of Geographic Information,
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Cuthbert, A.L., Anderson, W.P. 2002. Using Spatial Statistics to Examine the Pattern of Urban Land Development
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Dall'Erba, Sandy, Le Gallo, Julie. 2005. Dynamique du processus de convergence regionale en Europe (with
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Modelling: The 'Self-Design' Process to Accompany Collective Decision Making, International Journal of
Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology 2(1): 59-74.

Dawkins, Casey J. 2004. Measuring the Spatial Pattern of Residential Segregation, Urban Studies 41(4):833-51.

de Jong, Tom, van Eck, Jan Ritsema. 1996. Location profile-based measures as an improvement on accessibility
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de Kluijver, Henk, Stoter, Jantien. 2003. Noise mapping and GIS: optimising quality and efficiency of noise effect
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DeAngelis, Thomas B. 2000. GIS: Answering the why of where?, Police Chief 67(2):12.

Debats, Donald A., Lethbridge, Mark. 2005. GIS and the City: Nineteenth-Century Residential Patterns, Historical
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Dennis, Alan R., Carte, Traci A. 1998. Using Geographical Information Systems for Decision Making: Extending
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Dewees, Sarah, Collins, Timothy. 1998. Geographic Information Systems: A Tool for Rural Community Research,
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Dibble, Catherine, Feldman, Philip G. 2004. The GeoGraph 3D Computational Laboratory: Network and Terrain
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Ding, Chengri. 2001. An Empirical Model of Urban Spatial Development. Review of Urban and Regional
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Ding, Chengri, Simons, Robert, Baku, Esmail. 2000. The Effect of Residential Investment on Nearby Property
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Diplock, Gary, 1998. Building New Spatial Interaction Models by Using Genetic Programming and a
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Dixon, E. James, Manley, William F., Lee, Craig M. 2005. The Emerging Archaeology of Glaciers and Ice
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                                                        37
Dockerty, Trudie, Lovett, Andrew, Sannenberg, Gilla, Appleton, Katy, Parry, Martin. 2005. Visualising the
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Donaldson, Daniel P. 2001. With a Little Help From Our Friends: Implementing Geographic Information Systems
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Doran, Bruce J., Lees, Brian G. 2005. Investigating the Spatiotemporal Links Between Disorder, Crime, and the
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Downey, Liam. 2003. Spatial Measurement, Geography, and Urban Racial Inequality, Social Forces 81(3):937-
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Drew, Christina H., Nyerges, Timothy L., Leschine, Thomas M. 2004. Promoting Transparency of Long-Term
Environmental Decisions: The Hanford Decision Mapping System Pilot Project, Risk Analysis: An International
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Eagles, Munroe, Katz, Richard S., Mark, David. 1999. GIS and Redistricting: Emergent Technologies, Social
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Ebaugh, Helen Rose, O'Brien, Jennifer, Chafetz, Janet Saltzman. 2000. The Social Ecology of Residential Patterns
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Edwards, Geoffrey, Jeansoulin, Robert. 2004. Data fusion--from a logic perspective with a view to implementation,
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Ell, Paul S., Gregory, Ian N. 2005. Demography, Depopulation, and Devastation: Exploring the Geography of the
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Ell, Paul S. 2005. A Historical GIS for Ireland. Historical Geography. 33:138-140.

Elson, Anthony, Chalmers, Lex, Marad, Munro. 1996. Peri-urbanisation and Rural Roads: A Traffic Modelling
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Elwood, Sarah A. 2002. GIS Use in Community Planning: A Multidimensional Analysis of Empowerment,
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Elwood, Sarah, Leitner, Helga. 2003. GIS and Spatial Knowledge Production for Neighborhood Revitalization:
Negotiating State Priorities and Neighborhood Visions, Journal of Urban Affairs 25(2):139-157.

Entwisle, Barbara. 1997. Geographic Information Systems, Spatial Network Analysis, and Contraceptive Choice,
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Esnard, Ann-Margret, Esnard, Ann-Margaret. 1998. Cities, GIS, and Ethics, Journal of Urban Technology 5(3).

Estivill-Castro, V., Lee, I. 2002. Argument free clustering for large spatial point-data sets via boundary extraction
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Faust, Katherine, Entwisle, Barbara, Rindfuss, Ronald R., Walsh, Stephen J., Sawangdee, Yothin. 1999. Spatial
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                                                          38
Fingleton, Bernard, 2001. Theoretical Economic Geography and Spatial Econometrics: Dynamic Perspectives,
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Fingleton, Bernard, 2000. Spatial Econometrics, Economic Geography, Dynamics and Equilibrium: A 'Third
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Fitch, Catherine A., Ruggles, Steven. 2003. Building the National Historical Geographic Information System,
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Fleming, Mark M. 2000. Spatial Statistics and Econometrics for Models in Fisheries Economics: Discussion,
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Fletcher, L. Russell, Alden, Henry. 1999. Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Planning at Pacific Lumber. Interfaces
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Florax, Raymond J. G. M., Folmer, Hendrik, Rey, Sergio J. 2003. Specification Searches in Spatial Econometrics:
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Florax, Raymond J. G. M., van der Vlist, Arno J. 2003. Spatial Econometric Data Analysis: Moving Beyond
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Forest, Benjamin. 2004. Information sovereignty and GIS: the evolution of aecommunities of interest in political
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Fradkin, Kiril, Doytsher, Yerach. 2002. Establishing an urban digital cadastre: analytical reconstruction of parcel
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Frank, Andrew U. 2000. Geographic Information Science: New Methods and Technology, Journal of
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Fryrear, Ron, Prill, Ed, Worzala, Elaine M. 2001. The Use of Geographic Information Systems by Corporate Real
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Fuller, D.O., Williamson, R., Jeffe, M., James, D. 2003. Multi-criteria evaluation of safety and risks along
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Fung, D. S., Remsen, A. P. 1997. Geographic Information Systems Technology for Business Applications,
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Fung, Devlin, Wilkes, Susan. 1998. A GIS Approach to Casino Market Modeling, Journal of Applied Business
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Gahegan, Mark. 1998. Scatterplots and scenes: visualisation techniques for exploratory spatial analysis,
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Gall, Melanie. 2004. Where to Go? Strategic Modelling of Access to Emergency Shelters in Mozambique,
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Garson, G. David, Vann, Irvin. 2001. Resources for Computerized Crime Mapping, Social Science Computer
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Garson, G. David. 1999. Analyzing Hazardous Waste Facility Location by Racial Composition of Census Tract
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                                                         39
Gebizlioglu, Omer L., Aral, H. Melih, Teksoy, Nazan. 1996. Impact of Remote Sensing on Official Statistics,
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Gelman, Andrew, Trevisani, Matilde, Hao Lu, Van Geen, Alexander. 2004. Direct Data Manipulation for Local
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Genton, Marc G., Ronchetti, Elvezio, 2003. Robust Indirect Inference, Journal of the American Statistical
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Germann-Chiari, Christina, Seeland, Klaus. 2004. Are urban green spaces optimally distributed to act as places for
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Gibbs Knotts, H., Haspel, Moshe. 2006. The Impact of Gentrification on Voter Turnout, Social Science Quarterly
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Gobalet, Jeanne G., Thomas, Richard K. 1996. Demographic Data and Geographic Information Systems for
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Goodchild, Michael F., Anselin, Luc, Appelbaum, Richard P., Harthorn, Barbara Herr. 2000. Toward Spatially
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Gorr, Wilpen, Harries, Richard. 2003. Introduction to Crime Forecasting, International Journal of Forecasting
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Graf, William L. 2004. Articles In the Critical Zone: Geography at the U.S. Geological Survey, Professional
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Greenbaum, Robert T., 2002. A Spatial Study of Teachers' Salaries in Pennsylvania School Districts, Journal of
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Greenbaum, Robert T., Desai, Anand. 2005. Viewing Spatial Consequences of Budgetary Policy Changes, Public
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Gregory, I.N. 2002. The accuracy of areal interpolation techniques: standardising 19th and 20th century census
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Gregory, Ian N., Ell, Paul S. 2005. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Change by Use of National Historical Geographical
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Gregory, Ian N. 2005. The Great Britain Historical GIS, Historical Geography 33:136-138.

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Griffith, Daniel A., Zhang, Zhiqiang. 1997. Developing user-friendly spatial statistical analysis modules for GIS:
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Groff, Elizabeth R., La Vigne, Nancy G. 2001. Mapping an Opportunity Surface of Residential Burglary. Journal
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                                                         40
Grove, J. Morgan, Cadenasso, Mary L., Burch Jr., William R., Pickett, Steward T. A., Schwarz, Kirsten, O'Neil-
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Grubesic, Tony H., Murray, Alan T. 2005. Geographies of Imperfection in Telecommunication Analysis,
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Haley, Valerie B., Talbot, Thomas O. 2004. Geographic Analysis of Blood Lead Levels in New York State
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Han, Sun Sheng. 2005. Polycentric Urban Development and Spatial Clustering of Condominium Property Values:
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Handy, Susan L., Clifton, Kelly J. 2001. Evaluating Neighborhood Accessibility: Possibilities and Practicalities,
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Hanink, Dean M., Cromley, Robert G. 1998. Land-Use Allocation in the Absence of Complete Market Values,
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Hanson, Susan. 2002. Connections, Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 9(3):301-303.

Haque, Akhlaque. 2001. GIS, Public Service, and the Issue of Democratic Governance, Public Administration
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Haque, Akhlaque. 1998. Use of Geographic Information Systems in Mapping Distressed Areas of Cities, Journal
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Harner, J., Warner, K., Pierce, J., Huber, T. 2002. Urban Environmental Justice Indices, Professional Geographer
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Harrison, Carolyn, Haklay, Mordechai. 2002. The Potential of Public Participation Geographic Information
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Hartung, Valerie, MacPherson, Alan. 2001. Location and the Innovation Performance of Commercial GIS
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Harvey, Francis. 2000. The social construction of geographical information systems, International Journal of
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Harvey, J.T. 2003. Locating the Eureka Stockade: Use of a geographical information system (GIS) in a
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Haspel, Moshe, Knotts, H. Gibbs. 2005. Location, Location, Location: Precinct Placement and the Costs of Voting,
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Healey, Richard G., Stamp, Trem R. 2000. Historical GIS as a Foundation for the Analysis of Regional Economic
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Heasley, Lynne. 2003. Shifting Boundaries on a Wisconsin Landscape: Can GIS Help Historians Tell a
Complicated Story?, Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal 31(2):183-213.

Heikkila, Eric J. 1998. GIS is dead, long live GIS!, Journal of the American Planning Association 64(3):350-360.

Hernon, Peter, Duggan, Robert E. 1997. GIS and privacy, Journal of Academic Librarianship 23(6):515-516.


                                                        41
Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten, Kirchert, Daniel, Pan Jiancheng. 2002. Preference-level Statistics as a Source of Data
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Higgs, G., White, S. D., Guy, C. M. 1997. Changes in service provision in rural areas. Part 2: Changes in post office
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Higgs, Gary. 1999. Sharing Environmental Data across Organisational Boundaries: Lessons from the Rural Wales
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Hornsby, Kathleen, Egenhofer, Max J. 2000. Identity-based change: a foundation for spatio-temporal knowledge
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Howland, Marie, Lindsay, Francis E. 1997. Where do tenants come from?, Journal of the American Planning
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Hoyt, Lorlene, Khosla, Renu, Canepa, Claudia. 2005. Leaves, pebbles, and chalk: Building a Public Participation
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Hyndman, Jilda C.G., Holman, C. D'Arcy J. 2000. Differential effects on socioeconomic groups of modelling the
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Jacoby, Steve, Smith, Jessica, Ting, Lisa, Williamson, Ian. 2002. Developing a common spatial data infrastructure
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Jacquez, Geoffrey M., Greiling, Dunrie A., Kaufmann, Andrew M. 2005. Design and Implementation of a Space-
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                                                         42
Jha, Manoj K., Schonfeld, Paul, 2004. A Highway Alignment Optimization Model Using Geographic Information
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Johnson, Michael P. 2001. Decision Support for Family Relocation Decisions under the Section 8 Housing
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Johnston, Robert A., de la Barra, Tomas. 2000. Comprehensive Regional Modeling for Long-Range Planning:
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Kent, Robert B. 2000. GIS and Mapping: Pitfalls for Planners. Journal of the American Planning Association
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                                                         43
Kevany, Michael J. 2003. GIS in the World Trade Center attack: Trial by fire, Computers, Environment & Urban
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Kim,Karl, Levine, Ned. 1996. Using GIS to improve highway safety, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems
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                                                         44
Lamont, Melissa. 1997. Managing geospatial data and services. Journal of Academic Librarianship 23(6):469-
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                                                         45
Lopez-Bazo, Enrique. 1999. Regional Economic Dynamics and Convergence in the European Union, Annals of
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Mackay, Ron. 1999. Geographic profiling: A new tool for law enforcement, Police Chief 66(12):51-56.

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                                                        46
Marble, Duane F. 2000. Some Thoughts on the Integration of Spatial Analysis and Geographic Information
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                                                       47
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Mennis, Jeremy L. 2003. Derivation and implementation of a semantic GIS data model informed by principles of
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Michael J. Mason, Ivan Cheung, Leslie Walker. 2004. The Social Ecology of Urban Adolescent Substance Use: A
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Mobley, Lee R. 2003. Estimating Hospital Market Pricing: An Equilibrium Approach Using Spatial Econometrics,
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                                                       48
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                                                       49
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Parisi, Domenico, Toquino, Michael, Grice, Steven Michael, Gill, Duane A. 2003. Promoting Environmental
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                                                         50
Peterson, Kim. 1998. Development of Spatial Decision Support Systems for Residential Real Estate, Journal of
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26(6):553-575.

Pilant, Lois. 1999. Crime mapping and analysis, Police Chief 66(12):38-47.

Pinkse, Joris, Slade, Margaret E. 1998. Contracting in Space: An Application of Spatial Statistics to Discrete-
Choice Models, Journal of Econometrics 85(1):125-54.

Pocock, M.J.O., White, P.C.L., McClean, C.J., Searle, J.B. 2003. The use of accessibility in defining sub-groups of
small mammals from point sampled data, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 27(1):71-83.

Porojan, A. 2001. Trade Flows and Spatial Effects: The Gravity Model Revisited, Open Economies Review
12(3):265-80.

Puotinen, M. L. 2004. Tropical Cyclones in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 1910-1999: a First Step Towards
Characterising the Disturbance Regime, Australian Geographical Studies 42(3):378-392.

Queralt, Magaly, Witte, Ann D. 1998. A Map for You? Geographic Information Systems in the Social Services,
Social Work 43(5):455-469.

Queralt, Magaly, Witte, Ann Dryden. 1999. Estimating the Unmet Need for Services: A Middling Approach,
Social Service Review 73(4):524-559.

Rafoss, Trond. 2003. Spatial Stochastic Simulation Offers Potential as a Quantitative Method for Pest Risk
Analysis,
Risk Analysis: An International Journal 23(4):651-661.

Rakodi, Carole. 2003. Politics and performance: the implications of emerging governance arrangements for urban
management approaches and information systems, Habitat International 27(4):523-549.

Raley, Rita. 2003. Statistical Material: Globalization and the Digital Art of John Klima, The New Centennial
Review 3(2):67-89.

Rashed, Tarek, Weeks, John. 2003. Assessing vulnerability to earthquake hazards through spatial multicriteria
analysis of urban areas, International Journal of Geographical Information Science 17(6):547-576.

Ratcliffe, Jerry H. 2004. Geocoding crime and a first estimate of a minimum acceptable hit rate, International
Journal of Geographical Information Science 18(1):61-72.

Rees, Philip, Bell, Martin, Duke-Williams, Oliver, Blake, Marcus. 2000. Problems and solutions in the
measurement of migration intensities: Australia and Britain compared, Population Studies 54(2):207-222.

Reibel, Michael, Bufalino, Michael E. 2005. Street-Weighted Interpolation Techniques for Demographic Count
Estimation in Incompatible Zone Systems, Environment and Planning A 37(1): 127-39.

Renger, Ralph, Cimetta, Adriana, Pettygrove, Sydney, Rogan, Seumas. 2002. Geographic Information Systems
(GIS) as an Evaluation Tool, American Journal of Evaluation 23(4):469-479.




                                                         51
Repetti, A., Pralaz-Droux, R. 2003. An Urban Monitor as support for a participative management of developing
cities, Habitat International 27(4):653-667.

Rey, Sergio J., 2000. Integrated Regional Econometric+Input-Output Modeling: Issues and Opportunities, Papers
in Regional Science       79(3):271-92.

Ricketts, Thomas C. 2003. Geographic Information Systems and Public Health, Annual Review of Public Health
24(1):1-5.

Robbins, Paul. 2003. Beyond Ground Truth: GIS and the Environmental Knowledge of Herders, Professional
Foresters, and Other Traditional Communities, Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal 31(2):233-253.

Robey, Daniel, Sahay, Sundeep. 1996. Transforming Work Through Information Technology: A Comparative Case
Study of Geographic Information Systems in County Government, Information Systems Research 7(1):93-110.

Robinson, T. P., Harris, R. S., Hopkins, J. S., Williams, B. G. 2002. An example of decision support for
trypanosomiasis control using a geographical information system in eastern Zambia, International Journal of
Geographical Information Science 16(4):345-360.

Rosero-Bixby, Luis. 2004. Spatial access to health care in Costa Rica and its equity: a GIS-based study, Social
Science & Medicine 58(7):1271-1284.

Rushton, Gerard. 2003. Public Health, GIS, and Spatial Analytic Tools, Annual Review of Public Health 24(1):43-
56.

Russo, Joe. 2001. Helping Corrections Inside And Outside Prison Walls, Corrections Today 63(7):140-143.

Sadahiro, Yukio. 2003. Cluster detection in uncertain point distributions: a comparison of four methods,
Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 27(1):33-52.

Sadd, James L. 1999. Every Breath You Take . . .: The Demographics of Toxic Air Releases in Southern
California, Economic Development Quarterly 13(2): 107-23.

Saladin, Matthias, Butler, David, Parkinson, Jonathan. 2002. Applications of Geographic Information Systems for
Municipal Planning and Management in India, Journal of Environment and Development 11,(4):430-40.

Schaefer, Martin. 2004. Design and Implementation of a Proposed Standard for Digital Storage and Internet-based
Retrieval of Data from the Tithe Survey of England and Wales, Historical Methods 37(2):61-72 .

Schnell, Izhak, Benjamini, Yoav, Pash, Dov. 2005. Research Note: Neighborhoods as Territorial Units: The Case
of Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Urban Geography         26(1):84-95.

Schnell, Izhak, Sofer, Michael, Benenson, Itzhak. 1998. Analysis of economic networks: geographical information
systems as a visualization tool, Applied Geography 18(2):117.

Scholz, Astrid, Bonzon, Kate, Fujita, Rod, Benjamin, Natasha, Woodling, Nicole, Black, Peter, Steinback, Charles.
2004. Participatory socioeconomic analysis: drawing on fishermen's knowledge for marine protected area planning
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Schreven, Luuk, Boonstra, Onno, Doorn, Peter. 2005. Towards a Historical Geographic Information System for the
Netherlands (HGIN), Historical Geography 33:143-145.

Schuurman, Nadine, Pratt, Geraldine. 2002. Care of the Subject: feminism and critiques of GIS, Gender, Place &
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Schuurman, Nadine. 1999. Chapter 1 Introduction: Theorizing GIS, Inside and Outside, Cartographica 36(4):7-9.


                                                        52
Sementelli, Arthru, McDonald, Darrel, Gardner, William. 2003. Geographic Information Systems-Guided Cost-
Effectiveness Analysis for Waterborne Asbestos Remediation, Public Works Management & Policy 7(3):205-215.

Sen, Srinanda, Hobson, Jane, Joshi, Pratima. 2003. The Pune Slum Census: creating a socio-economic and spatial
information base on a GIS for integrated and inclusive city development, Habitat International 27(4):595-612.

Sengupta, S., Venkatachalam, P., Patil, R. S. 1996. Assessment of population exposure and risk zones due to air
pollution using the geographical information system, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 20(3):191.

Shearmur, Richard, Charron, Mathieu. 2004. From Chicago to L.A. and Back Again: A Chicago-Inspired
Quantitative Analysis of Income Distribution in Montreal, Professional Geographer 56(1):109-126.

Shen, G. 2002. Measuring Accessibility of Housing to Public-community Facilities Using Geographical Information
Systems, Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies 14(3):235-255.

Shen, G. 2005. Location of manufactured housing and its accessibility to community services: a GIS-assisted
spatial analysis, Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 39(1):25-41.

Shuler, John. 2003. On and Off the Grid: Geographic Information Science & Technology and Academic Libraries,
Journal of Academic Librarianship 29(5):327-329.

Sidman, Charles, Fik, Timothy. 2005. Modeling Spatial Patterns of Recreational Boaters: Vessel, Behavioral, and
Geographic Considerations, Leisure Sciences 27(2):175-189.

Sieber, R. E. 2000. Conforming (to) the opposition: the social construction of geographical information systems in
social movements, International Journal of Geographical Information Science 14(8):775-793.

Sieber, R. E. 2004. Rewiring for a GIS/2, Cartographica 39(1):25-39.

Siebert, Loren. 2004. Using GIS to map rail network history, Journal of Transport History 25(1):84-187.

Siebert, Loren. 2000. Using GIS to Document, Visualize, and Interpret Tokyo's Spatial History, Social Science
History 24(3):537-574.

Simmons, Cynthia S. 2004. The Political Economy of Land Conflict in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon, Annals of
the Association of American Geographers 94(1):183-206.

Simpson, Ludi, Yu, An. 2003. Public access to conversion of data between geographies, with multiple look up
tables derived from a postal directory, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 27(3):283-307.

Sinclair, Kirk D., Knuth, Barbara A. 2000. Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowner Use of Geographic Data: A
Precondition for Ecosystem-Based Management, Society & Natural Resources 13(6):521-536.

Skinner, G. William, Henderson, Mark, Jianhua, Yuan. 2000. China's Fertility Transition through Regional Space,
Social Science History 24(3):613-652.

Skupin, Andre, Hagelman, Ron. 2005. Visualizing Demographic Trajectories with Self-Organizing Maps,
GeoInformatica 9(2):159-179.

Slavin, Howard. 1996. An Integrated, Dynamic Approach to Travel Demand Forecasting, Transportation
23(3): 313-50

Sliuzas, Richard. 2003. Opportunities for enhancing communication in settlement upgrading with geographic
information technology-based support tools, Habitat International 27(4):613-628.




                                                        53
Smith, Steven D., Clement, Christopher Ohm, Wise, Stephen R. 2003. GPS, GIS and the Civil War Battlefield
Landscape: A South Carolina Low Country Example, Historical Archaeology 37(3):14-30.

Smith, William C., Sinopoli, Carla M. 1997. Reviews and book notes, American Antiquity 62(3):569-570.

Somers, Rebecca. 1998. Developing GIS Management Strategies for an Organization, Journal of Housing
Research 9(1): 157-78.

Song, Yan, Knaap, Gerrit-Jan. 2003. New Urbanism and Housing Values: A Disaggregate Assessment, Journal of
Urban Economics 54(2): 218-38.

Stanilov, Kiril. 2003. Accessibility and Land Use: The Case of Suburban Seattle, 1960-1990, Regional Studies
37(8):783-794.

Starr, H. 2002. Opportunity, Willingness and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Reconceptualizing Borders
in International Relations, Political Geography 21(2):243-261.

Starr, Harvey. 2001. Reconceptualizing International Borders Through the Application of GIS (Geographic
Information Systems): A New Dataset on the Nature of Borders, International Studies Perspectives 2(4):441-443.

Stephens, Denise. 1997. Managing the Web-enhanced geographic information service, Journal of Academic
Librarianship 23(6):498-504.

Stevenson, Mark, Brewer, Robert D., Lee, Virginia. 1998. The spatial relationship between licensed alcohol outlets
and alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents, Journal of Safety Research 29(3):197-203.

Stocks, Anthony. 2003. Mapping Dreams in Nicaragua's Bosawas Reserve, Human Organization 62(4):344-356.

Sui, Daniel Z. 2004. GIS, Cartography, and the “Third Culture”: Geographic Imaginations in the Computer Age,
Professional Geographer 56(1):62-72.

Sussman, Steve, Stacy, Alan W., Johnson, C. Anderson, Pentz, Mary Ann, Robertson, Elizabeth. 2004. A
Transdisciplinary Focus on Drug Abuse1 Prevention: An Introduction, Substance Use & Misuse 39:1441-1456.

Swetnam, Ruth D., Wilson, Jeremy D., Whittingham, Mark J., Grice, Philip V. 2005. Designing lowland
landscapes for farmland birds: scenario testing with GIS, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 29(3):275-
296.

Talen, Emily. 2000. Bottom-Up GIS, Journal of the American Planning Association 66(3):279-294.

Taylor, Kerry, Abel, David J., Ackland, Ross, Hungerford, Stuart. 1998. An exploration of GIS architectures for
Internet environments, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 22(1):7.

Termansen, Mette, McClean, Colin J., Skov-Petersen, Hans. 2004. Recreational Site Choice Modelling Using
High-Resolution Spatial Data, Environment and Planning A 36(6): 1085-99.

Thomas III, William G., Ayers, Edward L. 2003. An Overview: The Differences Slavery Made: A Close Analysis
of Two American Communities, American Historical Review 108(5):1299-1307.

Thomson, Curtis N., Hardin, Perry. 2000. Remote sensing/GIS integration to identify potential low-income housing
sites, Cities 17(2):97.

Thong, C. M., Wong, W. G. 1997. Using GIS to design a traffic information database for urban transport planning,
Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 21(5):425.




                                                       54
Thrall, Grant Ian, 1999. Demographic Ring Study Reports with GIS Technology, Journal of Real Estate Literature
7(2): 211-17.

Thrall, Grant Ian. 1998. GIS Applications in Real Estate and Related Industries, Journal of Housing Research
9(1): 33-59.

Tirado, Daniel A., Paluzie, Elisenda, Pons, Jordi. 2002. Economic Integration and Industrial Location: The Case
of Spain before World War I, Journal of Economic Geography 2(3):343-63.

Torrens, Paul M., Benenson, Itzhak. 2005. Geographic Automata Systems, International Journal of Geographical
Information Science 19(4):385-412.

Towers, George. 1997. GIS versus the community: siting power in southern West Virginia, Applied Geography
17(2):111.

Trouteaud, Alex, Tolbert, Charles M., Irwin, Michael D. 2004. Georeferencing School-Age Population Projections;
Methodology for a Rapidly Growing District, Journal of Applied Sociology 21(1):10-29.

Tsou, Ming-Hsiang. 2004. Integrating Web-Based GIS and Image Processing Tools for Environmental Monitoring
and Natural Resource Management, Journal of Geographical Systems, Special Issue 6(2): 155-74.

Turkstra, Jan, Amemiya, Nelly, Murgia, Jose. 2003. Local spatial data infrastructure, Trujillo-Peru, Habitat
International 27(4):669-682.

Turnbull, David. 1998. Mapping Encounters and (En)Countering Maps: A Critical Examination of Cartographic
Resistance, Knowledge & Society 11:15-44.

Turton, Ian, Openshaw, Stan. 1998. High-Performance Computing and Geography: Developments, Issues, and
Case Studies, Environment and Planning A 30(10): 1839-56.

Tyson, Ben, Worthley, Tom, Danley, Kim. 2004. Layering Natural Resource and Human Resource Data for
Planning Watershed Conservation Strategies, Society & Natural Resources 17(2):p163-170.

Unwin, Antony. 1996. Geary's Contiguity Ratio, Economic and Social Review 27(2):145-59.

Usery, E. Lynn, Finn, Michael P., Scheidt, Douglas J., Ruhl, Sheila, Beard, Thomas, Bearden, Morgan. 2004.
Geospatial Data Resampling and Resolution Effects on Watershed Modeling: A Case Study Using the Agricultural
Non-point Source Pollution Model, Journal of Geographical Systems 6(3): 289-06.

Vandeveer, Lonnie R. 1998. Geographic Information Systems Procedures for Conducting Rural Land Market
Research, Review of Agricultural Economics 20(2): 448-61.

Vanhaute, Eric. 2005. The Belgium Historical GIS, Historical Geography 33:140-143.

Vann, Irvin B., Garson, G. David. 2001. Crime Mapping and Its Extension to Social Science Analysis, Social
Science Computer Review 19(4):471-479.

Velandia, Margarita, Rejesus, Roderick M., Segarra, Eduardo, Bronson, Kevin. 2004. Un analisis economico de la
aproximacion estadistica para el establecimiento de zonas de manejo en agricultura de precision: El caso de algodon
en Texas. (with English summary), Desarrollo y Sociedad 54:253-73.

Veldkamp, A., Fresco, L. O., Verburg, P. H. 1999. Simulation of changes in the spatial pattern of land use in
China, Applied Geography 19(3):211.

Veregin, Howard. 2000. Quantifying positional error induced by line simplification, International Journal of
Geographical Information Science 14(2):113-130.


                                                        55
Verter, V., Kara, B.Y. 2001. A GIS-Based Framework for Hazardous Materials Transport Risk Assessment, Risk
Analysis: An International Journal 21(6):1109-1120.

Villalobos, Jose Pablo. 2004. Mapping Border Music: Sonic Representations of la frontera, Studies in Latin
American Popular Culture 23:69-82.

Villar Frexedas, Oscar, Vaya, Esther. 2005. Financial Contagion between Economies: An Exploratory Spatial
Analysis, Estudios de Economia Aplicada 23(1):151-65.

Vlachopoulou, Maro, Silleos, George, Manthou, Vassiliki. 2001. Geographic Information Systems in Warehouse
Site Selection Decisions, International Journal of Production Economics 71(1-3): 205-12.

Voss, Angi, Denisovich, Ivan, Gatalsky, Peter, Gavouchidis, Kiriakos, Klotz, Andreas, Roeder, Stefanie, Voss,
Hans. 2004. Evolution of a participatory GIS, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 28(6):635-651.

Wagner, Gary A., Porter, Tod S. 2000. Location Effects and the Determination of Beginning Teacher Salaries:
Evidence from Ohio, Education Economics 8(2):109-27.

Walker, Robert. 2001. Urban Sprawl and Natural Areas Encroachment: Linking Land Cover Change and Economic
Development in the Florida Everglades, Ecological Economics 37(3):357-369.

Wall, Patrick A., Devine, Owen J. 2000. Interactive Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Disease Using a
Geographic Information System, Journal of Geographical Systems 2(3): 243-56.

Wallsten, Scott J. 2001. An Empirical Test of Geographic Knowledge Spillovers Using Geographic Information
Systems and Firm-Level Data, Regional Science and Urban Economics 31(5): 571-99.

Walpole, S. C., Sinden, J. A. 1997. BCA and GIS: Integration of Economic and Environmental Indicators to Aid
Land Management Decisions, Ecological Economics 23(1): 45-57.

Wang, F., Minor, W.W. 2002. Where the Jobs Are: Employment Access and Crime Patterns in Cleveland, Annals
of the Association of American Geographers 92(3):435-450.

Wang, Fahui, Luo, Wei. 2005. Assessing spatial and nonspatial factors for healthcare access: towards an integrated
approach to defining health professional shortage areas, Health & Place 11(2):131-146.

Wang, H. Holly, Zhang, Hao. 2003. On the Possibility of a Private Crop Insurance Market: A Spatial Statistics
Approach, Journal of Risk and Insurance 70(1):111-24.

Wang, Xinhao. 2005. Integrating GIS, simulation models, and visualization in traffic impact analysis, Computers,
Environment & Urban Systems 29(4):471-496.

Watkins, Russell L., Cocklin, Chris, Laituri, Melinda. 1997. The Use of Geographic Information Systems for
Resource Evaluation: A New Zealand Example, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 40(1): 37-57.

Watts, Susan. 2003. New Tricks with Old Maps: Zamalek (Re)visited, Professional Geographer 55(2):274-275.

Wear, David N., Parks, Peter J., Hardie, Ian W., Tedder, Cheryl A. 1999. Using resource economics to anticipate
forest land use change in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region, Environmental Monitoring & Assessment 57(1):175.

Webb, Edward L., Thiha. 2002. Integrating Social Preference in GIS-Aided Planning for Forestry and
Conservation Activities: A Case Study from Rural SE Asia, Environmental Management 30(2):183-198.

Webster, David S. 1999. The concept of affordance and GIS, a note on Llobera (1996), Antiquity 73(282):915-917.




                                                        56
Weeks, John R., Getis, Arthur, Hill, Allan G., Gadalla, M. Saad, Rashed, Tarek. 2004. The Fertility Transition in
Egypt: Intraurban Patterns in Cairo, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 94(1):74-93.

Weigel, Don, Cao, Buyang. 1999. Applying GIS and OR Techniques to Solve Sears Technician-Dispatching and
Home-Delivery Problems, Interfaces 29(1):112-130.

Wieczorek, John, Guo, Qinghua, Hijmans, Robert J. 2004. The point-radius method for georeferencing locality
descriptions and calculating associated uncertainty, International Journal of Geographical Information Science
18(8):745-767.

Wieczorek, William F., Hanson, Craig E. 1997. New modeling methods, Alcohol Health & Research World
21(4):331-339.

Wier, Kimberley R., Robertson, John G. 1998. Teaching Geographic Information Systems for Social Work
Applications, Journal of Social Work Education 34(1):81-96.

Wikle, Thomas A., Finchum, G. Allen. 2003. The emerging GIS degree landscape, Computers, Environment &
Urban Systems 27(2):107-122.

Williamson, Ian P., Bishop, Ian D., Escobar, Francisco J., Karuppannan, Sadasivam, Suwarnarat, Ksemsan, Yaqub,
Haider W., Yates, Paul M. 2000. Spatial data infrastructures for cities in developing countries. Lessons from the
Bangkok experience, Cities 17(2):85.

Wilson, Dawn K., Kirtland, Karen A., Ainsworth, Barbara E., Addy, Cheryl L. 2004. Socioeconomic Status and
Perceptions of Access and Safety for Physical Activity, Annals of Behavioral Medicine 28(1):20-28.

Wilson, James W. 2005. Historical and Computational Analysis of Long-Term Environmental Change: Forests in
the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, Historical Geography 33:33-53.

Wofford, Larry E., Thrall, Grant. 1997. Real Estate Problem Solving and Geographic Information Systems: A
Stage Model of Reasoning, Journal of Real Estate Literature 5(2): 171-201.

Wong, David W.S. 2003. Implementing spatial segregation measures in GIS, Computers, Environment & Urban
Systems 27(1):53-70.           .

Wong, David. 1996. Enhancing segregation studies using GIS, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems
20(2):99.


Wong, Yin-Ling Irene, Hillier, Amy E. 2001. Evaluating a Community-Based Homelessness Prevention Program:
A Geographic Information System Approach,         Administration in Social Work 25(4):21-45.

Wood, Justin. 2005. How green is my valley?' Desktop geographic information systems as a community-based
participatory mapping tool, Area 37(2):159-170.

Wood, William B . 2000. Complex Emergency Response Planning and Coordination: Potential GIS Applications,
Geopolitics 5(1):19-36.

Wright, Dawn J., Goodchild, Michael F. 1997. Reply: Still hoping to turn that theoretical corner Annals of the
Association of American Geographers 87(2):373.

Wu, Fulong, Webster, Christopher J. 2000. Simulating artificial cities in a GIS environment: urban growth under
alternative regulation regimes, International Journal of Geographical Information Science 14(7):625-648.

Yaakup, Ahris, Johar, Foziah, Sulaiman, Susilawati, Hassan, Ruslin, Ibrahim, Abdul Rashid. 2003. GIS and
development control system for a local authority in Malaysia, Habitat International 27(4):683-696.


                                                        57
Yearley, Steve, Cinderby, Steve, Forrester, John, Bailey, Peter, Rosen, Paul. 2003. Participatory Modelling and the
Local Governance of the Politics of UK Air Pollution: A Three-City Case Study, Environmental Values
12(2):247-262.

Yeh, Anthony Gar-On, Chow, Man Hong. 1996. An integrated GIS and location--allocation approach to public
facilities planning -- an example of open space planning, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 20(4/5):339.

Yeh, Anthony Gar-On, Qiao, Jimmy Jiming. 2005. ModelObjects: model management component for the
development of planning support systems, Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 29(2):133-157.

Ying Chen, Waters, Elizabeth, Green, Julie. 2002. Geospatial analysis of childhood pertussis in Victoria, 1993-97,
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health 26(5):456-461.

Yusoff, Kathryn. 2005. Visualizing Antarctica as a Place in Time, Space & Culture 8(4):381-398.

Zenk, Shannon N., Schulz, Amy J., Israel, Barbara A., James, Sherman A., Bao, Shuming, Wilson, Mark L. 2005.
Neighborhood Racial Composition, Neighborhood Poverty, and the Spatial Accessibility of Supermarkets in
Metropolitan Detroit, American Journal of Public Health 95(4):660-667.

Zerger, Andre, Smith, David Ingle. 2003. Impediments to using GIS for real-time disaster decision support,
Computers, Environment & Urban Systems 27(2):123-141.

Zhang, Xiaobo, Fan, Shenggen, Cai, Ximing. 2002. The Path of Technology Diffusion: Which Neighbors to Learn
From? Contemporary Economic Policy 20(4): 470-78.

Zubrow, Alexis A.S. 2003. Mapping Tension: Remote Sensing and the Production of a Statewide Land Cover Map,
Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal 31(2):281-305.

_______________________. 1999. Chapter 2 Trouble in the Heartland: GIS and Its Critics in the 1990s,
Cartographica 36(4):11-22.

_______________________. 1999. Chapter 6 Conclusion: Lessons in Unpacking a Discipline, Cartographica
36 (4):97-99.




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