The Adoption of Drug Eluting Coronary Stents by U.S. Hospitals

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The Adoption of Drug Eluting Coronary Stents by U.S. Hospitals Powered By Docstoc
					The Adoption of Drug Eluting
  Coronary Stents by U.S.
   Hospitals, 2003-2004
  Peter W. Groeneveld, MD, MS
  Assistant Professor of Medicine
  Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center
  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
         Acknowledgements

   Coauthors:
     Feifei Yang, MS

     Mary Anne Matta, MS

   Sponsor:
     Institute for Health Technology
      Studies (InHealth)
Background: A partially segregated
   national health care system
   22% of the nation’s doctors provide
    care for 80% of black Medicare
    enrollees
   25% of U.S. hospitals provide
    hospital care for 75% of the nation’s
    African Americans
   All providers, hospitals, and health
    systems are not created equal
     Differences in Innovation

   Hospitals with large numbers of black
    patients were slower to adopt
    cardiovascular innovations than
    hospitals with predominantly white
    patient populations
   This difference in hospitals’
    technology adoption practices has
    contributed to racial disparity in
    cardiac care nationwide
         Clinical background

   In April of 2003, FDA approved the
    drug-eluting coronary stents (DES)
    for treatment of coronary stenoses
   Drug eluting stents required minimal
    additional training on the part of
    health care providers, and limited
    capital investment by health care
    systems—in incremental innovation
         Research Questions

   For an incremental cardiovascular
    innovation, do minority-serving
    health care systems still lag “white”
    systems?
   How is this effect modulated by
    academic hospitals, which tend to
    both be early adopters and are more
    likely to have large minority
    populations?
                  Data

   5% MEDPAR data from April, 2003-
    December, 2004
   Patients age ≥ 65 who underwent
    either DES or BMS
   No percutaneous coronary
    intervention in the prior 12 months
   n = 27,300 procedures at 1263
    hospitals
          Outcome variable

   Receipt of DES versus BMS indicated
    by the ICD-9 code and corresponding
    DRG
   Little incentive to overcode, since
    DES triggered a registry requirement
   Little incentive to undercode, since
    BMS reimbursement was $2200 less
        Independent variables

   Total number of BMS+DES (offset term)
   Percentage of black patients hospitalized
    among all Medicare hospitalizations at
    each institution
   “Black” hospitals designated as hospitals
    in top quartile (≥ 16% black patients)
   Academic hospitals (Council of Teaching
    Hospitals)
          Model specification

   Negative binomial, log link, GEE
   DEScount = β0 +
                 β1   total_stent_count +
                 β2   acadhosp +
                 β3   blackhosp +
                 β4   blackhosp*acadhosp +
                 β5   avg_age +
                 β6   DM_prevalence + ε
 Hospital types and stent volume

“White,” non-        “White,” academic
academic hospitals   hospitals
n = 849 hospitals    n = 99 hospitals
Stent volume =       Stent volume =
332,000 (60%)        82,000 (15%)
“Minority-serving”   “Minority-serving”
non-academic         academic
hospitals            hospitals
n = 219 hospitals    n = 96 hospitals
Stent volume =       Stent volume =
80,000 (15%)         52,000 (10%)
         Results: Rate Ratios

        Calendar      Acad        Black        Black
Model   Quarter       Hosp        Hosp        x Acad
        1.50 (1.47-
 1      1.53)**

        1.50 (1.47- 1.15 (1.00-
 2      1.53)**     1.33)*

        1.50 (1.47- 1.17 (1.01- 0.85 (0.62-
 3      1.53)**     1.36)*      1.15)

        1.50 (1.47- 1.26 (1.01- 0.98 (0.70- 0.80 (0.49-
 4      1.53)**     1.55)*      1.37)       1.31)
              Conclusions

   White academic hospitals implanted
    15% of all stents nationwide in
    2003-2004
   White academic hospitals used drug
    eluting stents 26% more frequently
    than black academic hospitals or
    non-academic hospitals during the
    21-month technology diffusion period
                Caveats

   Access to new technology “early”
    may not necessarily be a good thing
   If early DES stent adoption was
    correlated with increased off-label
    use or other activities likely to
    diminish the effectiveness of the
    device, early access to technology
    may not have resulted in improved
    health care outcomes
              Implications

   Despite the disproportionate number
    of academic centers that have large
    black populations, these centers
    were not leaders in cardiovascular
    device innovation
   Differential diffusion likely widened
    racial disparities in cardiac care
    during 2003-04

				
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