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Sample Business Plan for Flea Market

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					PORTFOLIO ID    PORTFOLIO NAME    KNOWLEDGE AREA CODE


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KNOWLEDGE AREA NAME


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
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Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems


Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems

Animal Production Management Systems




Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
Animal Production Management Systems
PROGRAM NAME


Statewide Goat Research Program

Production Agriculture

Production Agriculture




Animal Production




Animal Production
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




Animals & Animal Products




Animals & Animal Products




Animals & Animal Products
Animals & Animal Products




Animals & Animal Products




Animals & Animal Products




Animals & Animal Products




Animals & Animal Products




Animals & Animal Products
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Animals & Animal Products
Animals & Animal Products
Animals & Animal Products




Livestock and Meat Quality, Safety, and Productivity




Animals & Animal Products




Forage Production and Management




Forage Production and Management




Forage Production and Management
Forage Production and Management




Forage Production and Management




Forage Production and Management
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine

Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine

Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine




MO-PORK: Increasing Pork Production in Missouri




MO-PORK: Increasing Pork Production in Missouri




MO-PORK: Increasing Pork Production in Missouri




MO-PORK: Increasing Pork Production in Missouri




Pasture Based Dairy Systems




Pasture Based Dairy Systems
Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program




Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program




Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program
Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program




Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program




Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program
Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program




Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program




Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program
Animal Production and Protection
Animal Production and Protection

Animal Production and Protection
Animal Production and Protection
The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation




The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation




The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation
Animals & Animal Products
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry

Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry




Animal Production and Protection




Animals and Their Systems
Animals and Their Systems

Animals and Their Systems
Animals and Their Systems




Animals and Their Systems

Animals and Their Systems

Animals and Their Systems

Animals and Their Systems




Grassland Management




Grassland Management
Grassland Management




Grassland Management
Animals and Their Systems

Animals and Their Systems




Iowa Beef Center




Iowa Beef Center




Iowa Beef Center
Iowa Beef Center




Iowa Beef Center




Competitive Agriculture




Competitive Agriculture
Competitive Agriculture
Animals and Their Systems


Nutritional and management strategies to improve growth and production performance of guinea fowl

Nutritional and management strategies to improve growth and production performance of guinea fowl


Nutritional and management strategies to improve growth and production performance of guinea fowl


Nutritional and management strategies to improve growth and production performance of guinea fowl
Agricultural and Food Biosecurity




Agricultural Systems




Agricultural Systems




Agricultural Systems




Dairy Team
Dairy Team




Dairy Team
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




Beef Quality Assurance




Beef Quality Assurance

Beef Quality Assurance




Beef Quality Assurance




Livestock


Livestock
Livestock




Livestock




Livestock




Animals and Animal Products




Animals and Animal Products




Animals and Animal Products
Animals and Animal Products




Livestock




Aquaculture
Aquaculture




Aquaculture




Animals and Animal Products
Sustainable Animal Production Systems




Sustainable Animal Production Systems


Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability


Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




Animals and Their Systems, Production and Health
Animals and Their Systems, Production and Health




Animals and Their Systems, Production and Health




Animals and Their Systems, Production and Health

Animals and Their Systems, Production and Health




Animals and Their Systems, Production and Health
Animal Systems-OARDC Led




Animal Systems-OARDC Led




Animal Systems-OARDC Led

1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal




1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal




1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal


1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal
1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal


1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal

1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal


1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal


1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal

1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal




Livestock and Meat Quality, Safety, and Productivity




Livestock and Meat Quality, Safety, and Productivity
Animal Production
Animal Production

Animal Production
Animal Production
Animal Production
Animal Production




(PSAS) Forage Based Livestock Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture




(PSAS) Forage Based Livestock Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture
(PSAS) Forage Based Livestock Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture




(PSAS) Forage Based Livestock Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture




Livestock Improvement




Livestock Improvement
Livestock Improvement




I. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS




Animal Health
Animal Health




Animal Health




Improved Management Options to Improve Catfish Production Efficiencies and Lower Costs
Production Agriculture
Production Agriculture


Improving Management Techniques for Baitfish




Research Verification




Research Verification




Sustainable and Economically Viable Food and Biomass Systems




Agriculture & Natural Resources
Aquaculture
Production Agriculture
Production Agriculture




Animal Health and Production




Aquatic Plant Management in Arkansas Ponds
Aquatic Plant Management in Arkansas Ponds




Aquatic Plant Management in Arkansas Ponds


Aquaculture Alternatives in Arkansas




Maine Livestock Industry




Animal Biology and Production




Animal Biology and Production
Animal Biology and Production




Animal Production and Protection




Animal Production and Protection




Animal Production and Protection
Animal Production and Protection




Animal Production and Protection




Animal Production and Protection


Aquaculture

Aquaculture
Aquaculture
Coastal and Marine

Coastal and Marine
Coastal and Marine

Coastal and Marine

Coastal and Marine




Livestock

Animal Systems

Animal Systems

Animal Systems

Animal Systems

Animal Systems
Animal Systems


Animal Systems

Animal Systems


Agricultural Systems

Agricultural Systems




Sustainable and Economically Viable Food and Biomass Systems
Agricultural Systems




Sustainable and Economically Viable Food and Biomass Systems


Agricultural Systems




Agricultural Systems


Agricultural Systems

Agricultural Systems




Aquaculture
Aquaculture
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry

Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry


Improved Management Options to Improve Catfish Production Efficiencies and Lower Costs
Animal Production


Research Verification

Improving Hatchery Production Efficiency


Improving Hatchery Production Efficiency




Improving Hatchery Production Efficiency

Aquaculture Alternatives in Arkansas
Aquaculture Alternatives in Arkansas

Aquaculture Alternatives in Arkansas




Aquaculture Alternatives in Arkansas




Aquaculture Alternatives in Arkansas




Sustainable and Economically Viable Food and Biomass Systems




Sustainability of Small Scale Swine and Poultry Farms on Guam




Sustainability of Small Scale Swine and Poultry Farms on Guam




Sustainability of Small Scale Swine and Poultry Farms on Guam
Livestock Improvement Program
Sustainability of Small Scale Swine and Poultry Farms on Guam
Sustainability of Small Scale Swine and Poultry Farms on Guam




Iowa Pork Industry Center




Iowa Pork Industry Center
Iowa Pork Industry Center




Iowa Pork Industry Center




Iowa Pork Industry Center




Iowa Pork Industry Center
Iowa Pork Industry Center


Agricultural Systems


Animals & Animal Products


Animals & Animal Products




Animals & Animal Products

Animals & Animal Products




Animals & Animal Products




3. Hawaii's Livestock and Aquaculture Systems For Sustainability and Competitiveness

3. Hawaii's Livestock and Aquaculture Systems For Sustainability and Competitiveness
3. Hawaii's Livestock and Aquaculture Systems For Sustainability and Competitiveness

Animals & Animal Products
3. Hawaii's Livestock and Aquaculture Systems For Sustainability and Competitiveness

Animals & Animal Products




Sustainable Animal Production Systems




Livestock Improvement Program




Livestock Improvement Program

Sustainable Animal Production Systems
Extension Livestock Management Program




Program in Agricultural Animal Health

Program in Agricultural Animal Health




1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal


Animals & Animal Products
Animal Science




Animal Science




Animal Systems - Aquaculture Development
Animal Systems - Aquaculture Development
Animal Systems - Aquaculture Development




Animal Systems - Aquaculture Development
Animal Systems - Aquaculture Development
Animal Systems - Aquaculture Development

Sustained Livestock Production

Sustained Livestock Production

Sustained Livestock Production


Food Safety, Quality, and Nutrition




Animals & Animal Products




The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation




The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation

Animal Systems
Animal Systems




Animal Systems


Animal Systems


Animal Systems
Animal Systems




Animal Systems




Animal Systems




Animal Systems




Animal Systems




Animal Systems


Animal Systems
Animal Production


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture

Improving Hatchery Production Efficiency
1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal




Animal Systems-OARDC Led


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture

Animals and their Systems--research




Animal Health and Production

Animal Health and Production
Sea Grant and Water Resources
Sea Grant and Water Resources

Sea Grant and Water Resources




Animal Sciences and Forages




1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal
1.2 Viable and Sustainable Production Processes -- Animal

Animal Systems

Animal Systems




Ag: Livestock Based Production Systems




Enhance and Maintain Agricultural and Food Systems




Enhance and Maintain Agricultural and Food Systems


Dairy Team
Animal Systems-OARDC Led




Animal Systems-OARDC Led
Animal Systems-OARDC Led




Small Farms




Ag: Livestock Based Production Systems




Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture

Animal Systems

Sustained Livestock Production




Livestock Improvement Program
Livestock Improvement Program
Animal Science




Youth Food Producing Animal Quality Assurance (Extension)




Youth Food Producing Animal Quality Assurance (Extension)




Youth Food Producing Animal Quality Assurance (Extension)




Managed Forage and Grazing (Extension)


Managed Forage and Grazing (Extension)

Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)

Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)

Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)
Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)

Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)

Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)




I. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS




Livestock Environmental Assurance and Mortality Management (Extension)

Livestock Environmental Assurance and Mortality Management (Extension)




Livestock Environmental Assurance and Mortality Management (Extension)




Youth Food Producing Animal Quality Assurance (Extension)

Animal Sciences and Forages
Animal Production
Animal Production
Animal Production
Animal Production
Aquaculture Production
Aquaculture Production
Aquaculture Production
Poultry
Poultry
Poultry




Animal Systems




Dairy
Dairy




Dairy




Dairy


Dairy
Animal Production and Protection

Animal Production and Protection




Enhanced Goat Production in the South-Central United States
Enhanced Goat Production in the South-Central United States




Alternative Species (Aquaculture)




Alternative Species (Aquaculture)


Alternative Species (Aquaculture)




Ag: Small Farms and "Natural" and Organic Production Systems




Ag: Small Farms and "Natural" and Organic Production Systems




Fishery Management (Aquaculture)
Fishery Management (Aquaculture)




Fishery Management (Aquaculture)




High Latitude Agriculture- AFES




High Latitude Agriculture- AFES
Animal Enterprises




Animal Enterprises
Animal Enterprises
Animal Enterprises
Animal Enterprises




Natural Resource Management and Environmental Sciences in the Great Basin and Sierran Ecosystems
Agriculture and Horticulture




Agriculture and Horticulture




Agriculture and Horticulture
Agriculture and Horticulture




Agriculture and Horticulture
Agriculture and Horticulture




Agriculture and Horticulture




Agriculture and Horticulture
ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS




ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS




ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS




ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

ANIMAL BIOLOGY, HEALTH, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS




AQUACULTURE




AQUACULTURE


AQUACULTURE
AQUACULTURE




AQUACULTURE


Beef, Dairy and Small Livestock
Beef, Dairy and Small Livestock


Beef, Dairy and Small Livestock
Beef, Dairy and Small Livestock




Beef, Dairy and Small Livestock




Beef, Dairy and Small Livestock

Animal Production
Animal Production
Animal Production




Sustainable Agriculture




Sustainable Agriculture




Aquaculture
Aquaculture - Biofloc systems




Whole Farm Systems Research
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources




Range Management
Range Management




Range Management
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources




Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources




Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources

Aquaculture

Aquaculture




Beef
Beef




Sustainable Animal Production Systems




Sustainable Animal Production Systems

Dairy

Dairy


Dairy
Range Management




Animals and Their Systems




Animals and Their Systems




Competitive Agricultural Systems
Aquaculture

Aquaculture
Aquaculture

Aquaculture


Animal Production and Protection
Animal Production and Protection

Animal Production and Protection

Animal Production and Protection

Animal Production and Protection

Animal Production and Protection

Meat and Dairy Goat Production and Processing

Poultry Production and Protection

Poultry Production and Protection

Poultry Production and Protection

Poultry Production and Protection

Sustainability and Profitability of Agriculture

Sustainability and Profitability of Agriculture

Sustainability and Profitability of Agriculture


Youth Life Skill Development

Youth Life Skill Development


Animal Health and Disease
Animal Health and Disease




Animal Health and Disease


Animal Health and Disease




Sustainable Animal Production Systems




Sustainable Animal Production Systems




Sustainable Animal Production Systems
Dairy




Dairy

Dairy

Dairy


Dairy

Dairy

Aquaculture Biotechnology

Aquaculture Biotechnology




Animal Production Systems
Animal Production Systems
Animal Production Systems
INSTITUTION NAME 1                   INSTITUTION NAME 2


Florida A&M University

West Virginia State University

West Virginia State University




University of Connecticut - Storrs




University of Connecticut - Storrs
University of Vermont
University of Vermont

University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont

University of Vermont




University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas
University of Vermont
University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas




Texas A&M University




University of Arkansas




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Maine




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Maine
University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Guam




University of Guam




University of Guam
University of Arkansas
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine




University of Maine




Purdue University
Purdue University

Purdue University
Purdue University




Purdue University

Purdue University

Purdue University

Purdue University




West Virginia University




West Virginia University
West Virginia University




West Virginia University
Purdue University

Purdue University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University
Iowa State University




Iowa State University




University of Kentucky   Kentucky State University




University of Kentucky   Kentucky State University
University of Kentucky       Kentucky State University
Purdue University


Tennessee State University

Tennessee State University


Tennessee State University


Tennessee State University
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Iowa State University
Iowa State University




Iowa State University
University of Vermont




West Virginia University




West Virginia University

West Virginia University




West Virginia University




University of Minnesota


University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota




University of Minnesota




University of Minnesota




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




University of Minnesota




West Virginia University
West Virginia University




West Virginia University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University
Clemson University                South Carolina State University




Clemson University                South Carolina State University


University of Vermont


University of Vermont

University of Vermont




North Carolina State University   North Carolina A&T State University
North Carolina State University   North Carolina A&T State University




North Carolina State University   North Carolina A&T State University




North Carolina State University   North Carolina A&T State University

North Carolina State University   North Carolina A&T State University




North Carolina State University   North Carolina A&T State University
Ohio State University




Ohio State University




Ohio State University

Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station




Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station




Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station
Cornell University          NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


Cornell University          NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Cornell University          NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


Cornell University          NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


Cornell University          NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Cornell University          NY State Agricultural Experiment Station




Texas A&M University




Texas A&M University
University of Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico

University of Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico




University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming
University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming




West Virginia University




West Virginia University
West Virginia University




Southern University and A&M College




Montana State University
Montana State University




Montana State University




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
West Virginia University
West Virginia University


University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




University of Nebraska




University of Nevada
College of Micronesia
West Virginia University
West Virginia University




University of Illinois




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff


University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




University of Maine




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Missouri




Michigan State University




Michigan State University




Michigan State University
Michigan State University




Michigan State University




Michigan State University


West Virginia State University

West Virginia State University
West Virginia State University
University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Maine

University of Maine

University of Maine




University of Minnesota

University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University
University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University


University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire




University of Nebraska
University of New Hampshire




University of Nebraska


University of New Hampshire




University of New Hampshire


University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire




College of Micronesia
College of Micronesia
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Maine


University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
New Mexico State University


University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff


University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




University of Nebraska




University of Guam




University of Guam




University of Guam
Northern Marianas College
University of Guam
University of Guam




Iowa State University




Iowa State University
Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University
Iowa State University


University of New Hampshire


University of New Hampshire


University of New Hampshire




University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire




University of New Hampshire




University of Hawaii

University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii

University of New Hampshire
University of Hawaii

University of New Hampshire




Clemson University            South Carolina State University




Northern Marianas College




Northern Marianas College

Clemson University            South Carolina State University
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




Washington State University

Washington State University




Cornell University                     NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


University of New Hampshire
Lincoln University of Missouri




Lincoln University of Missouri




University of Guam
University of Guam
University of Guam




University of Guam
University of Guam
University of Guam

Utah State University

Utah State University

Utah State University


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University




University of Arkansas




University of Guam




University of Guam

University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University
University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University
University of Tennessee                Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee                Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee                Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee                Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee                Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee                Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee                Tennessee State University
New Mexico State University


University of California

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
Cornell University         NY State Agricultural Experiment Station




Ohio State University


University of California

University of Florida      Florida A&M University




University of Illinois

University of Illinois
University of New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire




Auburn University             Alabama A&M University




Cornell University            NY State Agricultural Experiment Station
Cornell University        NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University




Oregon State University




University of Florida     Florida A&M University




University of Florida     Florida A&M University


Iowa State University
Ohio State University




Ohio State University
Ohio State University




American Samoa Community College




Oregon State University




University of California

University of Tennessee            Tennessee State University

Utah State University




Northern Marianas College
Northern Marianas College
Lincoln University of Missouri




Ohio State University




Ohio State University




Ohio State University




Ohio State University


Ohio State University

Ohio State University

Ohio State University

Ohio State University
Ohio State University

Ohio State University

Ohio State University




Southern University and A&M College




Ohio State University

Ohio State University




Ohio State University




Ohio State University

Auburn University                     Alabama A&M University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University




Prairie View A&M University




University of Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin




University of Wisconsin




University of Wisconsin


University of Wisconsin
Michigan State University

Michigan State University




Langston University
Langston University




Langston University




Langston University


Langston University




Oregon State University




Oregon State University




Langston University
Langston University




Langston University




University of Alaska




University of Alaska
Oklahoma State University




Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University




University of Nevada
University of Alaska




University of Alaska




University of Alaska
University of Alaska




University of Alaska
University of Alaska




University of Alaska




University of Alaska
University of Delaware   Delaware State University


University of Delaware   Delaware State University


University of Delaware   Delaware State University


University of Delaware   Delaware State University


University of Delaware   Delaware State University

University of Delaware   Delaware State University


University of Delaware   Delaware State University

University of Delaware   Delaware State University




University of Delaware   Delaware State University




University of Delaware   Delaware State University
University of Delaware             Delaware State University




University of Delaware             Delaware State University

University of Delaware             Delaware State University




University of Delaware             Delaware State University




University of Delaware             Delaware State University


University of Delaware             Delaware State University
University of Delaware             Delaware State University




University of Delaware             Delaware State University


University of the Virgin Islands
University of the Virgin Islands


University of the Virgin Islands
University of the Virgin Islands




University of the Virgin Islands




University of the Virgin Islands

New Mexico State University
New Mexico State University
New Mexico State University




University of the Virgin Islands




University of the Virgin Islands




University of the Virgin Islands
University of the Virgin Islands




University of the Virgin Islands
Washington State University
Washington State University




University of Idaho
University of Idaho




University of Idaho
Washington State University




Washington State University
Washington State University
Washington State University




Washington State University

University of Georgia         Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia         Fort Valley State University




University of Idaho
University of Idaho




Oregon State University




Oregon State University

University of Idaho

University of Idaho


University of Idaho
University of Idaho




South Dakota State University




South Dakota State University




Kansas State University
University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University
University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University


University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University
University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University


University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University


Oregon State University
Oregon State University




Oregon State University


Oregon State University




Oregon State University




Oregon State University




Oregon State University
University of Idaho




University of Idaho

University of Idaho

University of Idaho


University of Idaho

University of Idaho

University of Rhode Island

University of Rhode Island




Colorado State University
Colorado State University
Colorado State University
INSTITUTION NAME 3   INSTITUTION NAME 4   STATE CODE STATE NAME


                                          FL         Florida

                                          WV         West Virginia

                                          WV         West Virginia




                                          CT         Connecticut




                                          CT         Connecticut
VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont




AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas
VT   Vermont
AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas




TX   Texas




AR   Arkansas




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine

ME   Maine
ME   Maine

ME   Maine
ME   Maine




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
ME   Maine
ME   Maine

ME   Maine
ME   Maine
GU   Guam




GU   Guam




GU   Guam
AR   Arkansas
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine

ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine




ME   Maine




IN   Indiana
IN   Indiana

IN   Indiana
IN   Indiana




IN   Indiana

IN   Indiana

IN   Indiana

IN   Indiana




WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia
WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia
IN   Indiana

IN   Indiana




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




KY   Kentucky




KY   Kentucky
KY   Kentucky
IN   Indiana


TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee
VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia




IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
VT   Vermont




WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia

WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia




MN   Minnesota


MN   Minnesota
MN   Minnesota




MN   Minnesota




MN   Minnesota




VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia
VA   Virginia




MN   Minnesota




WV   West Virginia
WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia




VA   Virginia
SC   South Carolina




SC   South Carolina


VT   Vermont


VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont




NC   North Carolina
NC   North Carolina




NC   North Carolina




NC   North Carolina

NC   North Carolina




NC   North Carolina
OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio

NY   New York




NY   New York




NY   New York


NY   New York
NY   New York


NY   New York

NY   New York


NY   New York


NY   New York

NY   New York




TX   Texas




TX   Texas
PR   Puerto Rico
PR   Puerto Rico

PR   Puerto Rico
PR   Puerto Rico
PR   Puerto Rico
PR   Puerto Rico




WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming
WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming




WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia
WV   West Virginia




LA   Louisiana




MT   Montana
MT   Montana




MT   Montana




AR   Arkansas
WV   West Virginia
WV   West Virginia


AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas




NE   Nebraska




NV   Nevada
FM   Micronesia, Fed States
WV   West Virginia
WV   West Virginia




IL   Illinois




AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas


AR   Arkansas




ME   Maine




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
MO   Missouri




MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan
MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan


WV   West Virginia

WV   West Virginia
WV   West Virginia
ME   Maine

ME   Maine
ME   Maine

ME   Maine

ME   Maine




MN   Minnesota

TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee
TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee


NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire




NE   Nebraska
NH   New Hampshire




NE   Nebraska


NH   New Hampshire




NH   New Hampshire


NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire




FM   Micronesia, Fed States
FM   Micronesia, Fed States
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine

ME   Maine
ME   Maine


AR   Arkansas
NM   New Mexico


AR   Arkansas

AR   Arkansas


AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas

AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas

AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas




NE   Nebraska




GU   Guam




GU   Guam




GU   Guam
CM   Northern Marianas
GU   Guam
GU   Guam




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa


NH   New Hampshire


NH   New Hampshire


NH   New Hampshire




NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire




NH   New Hampshire




HI   Hawaii

HI   Hawaii
HI   Hawaii

NH   New Hampshire
HI   Hawaii

NH   New Hampshire




SC   South Carolina




CM   Northern Marianas




CM   Northern Marianas

SC   South Carolina
AR   Arkansas




WA   Washington

WA   Washington




NY   New York


NH   New Hampshire
MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




GU   Guam
GU   Guam
GU   Guam




GU   Guam
GU   Guam
GU   Guam

UT   Utah

UT   Utah

UT   Utah


TN   Tennessee




AR   Arkansas




GU   Guam




GU   Guam

TN   Tennessee
TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee
TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee
NM   New Mexico


CA   California

AR   Arkansas
NY   New York




OH   Ohio


CA   California

FL   Florida




IL   Illinois

IL   Illinois
NH   New Hampshire
NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire




AL   Alabama




NY   New York
NY   New York

TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee




OR   Oregon




FL   Florida




FL   Florida


IA   Iowa
OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio
OH   Ohio




AS   American Samoa




OR   Oregon




CA   California

TN   Tennessee

UT   Utah




CM   Northern Marianas
CM   Northern Marianas
MO   Missouri




OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio


OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio
OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio




LA   Louisiana




OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio

AL   Alabama
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi




TX   Texas




WI   Wisconsin
WI   Wisconsin




WI   Wisconsin




WI   Wisconsin


WI   Wisconsin
MI   Michigan

MI   Michigan




OK   Oklahoma
OK   Oklahoma




OK   Oklahoma




OK   Oklahoma


OK   Oklahoma




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon




OK   Oklahoma
OK   Oklahoma




OK   Oklahoma




AK   Alaska




AK   Alaska
OK   Oklahoma




OK   Oklahoma
OK   Oklahoma
OK   Oklahoma
OK   Oklahoma




NV   Nevada
AK   Alaska




AK   Alaska




AK   Alaska
AK   Alaska




AK   Alaska
AK   Alaska




AK   Alaska




AK   Alaska
DE   Delaware


DE   Delaware


DE   Delaware


DE   Delaware


DE   Delaware

DE   Delaware


DE   Delaware

DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware
DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware

DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware


DE   Delaware
DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware


VI   Virgin Islands
VI   Virgin Islands


VI   Virgin Islands
VI   Virgin Islands




VI   Virgin Islands




VI   Virgin Islands

NM   New Mexico
NM   New Mexico
NM   New Mexico




VI   Virgin Islands




VI   Virgin Islands




VI   Virgin Islands
VI   Virgin Islands




VI   Virgin Islands
WA   Washington
WA   Washington




ID   Idaho
ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho
WA   Washington




WA   Washington
WA   Washington
WA   Washington




WA   Washington

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia




ID   Idaho
ID   Idaho




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon

ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho


ID   Idaho
ID   Idaho




SD   South Dakota




SD   South Dakota




KS   Kansas
GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia
GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia


GA   Georgia
GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia


GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia


OR   Oregon
OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon


OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon
ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho


ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho

RI   Rhode Island

RI   Rhode Island




CO   Colorado
CO   Colorado
CO   Colorado
OUTCOME MEASURE
More use of sustainable production practices; Reduction in feed and health costs; Enhanced
marketable products and markets; Greater profitability and competitiveness; Well-trained
graduate and undergraduate students.
50% of the attendees at the annual Progressive Farmer meetings will adopt practices based
on information provided a the series of educational meetings.
The number of farms participating in the Roane County Calf Pool will increase by 10% per
year.




Newly developed best management practices (BMPs) adopted by producers




New regulatory procedures adopted by governmental agencies
number of dairy farmers who indicate intent to make at least 1 change
number of dairy farms that increase pregnancy/fertility rates
number of sheep farmers demonstrating better livestock management skills who report an
increase in the number of healthy sheep
number of sheep producers who report a reduced parasite load in animals
number of sheep farms who report decreased lamb mortality
number of beef farmers participating in consignment sales and value added beef markets
who report an increased net profit




Arkansas cash receipts from farm marketing ($1,000) related to livestock, dairy and poultry
Enterprises




Number of livestock producers who gained awareness related to livestock production
management practices




Number of livestock producers who gained knowledge related to livestock production
management practices
Number of livestock producers who adopted a new practice




Number of allied industry personnel who gained knowledge related to livestock & poultry
production information/practices.




Number of refereed Journal Publications




Number of livestock producers who initiated or improved their record keeping




Number of practices or technology adoptions by allied poultry industry personnel




Number of livestock producers who changed a management practice
number of sheep producers who supply lamb to Vermont Quality Meats
Number of allied industry personnel who increased awareness related to livestock & poultry
production information/practices
Number of clientele who reported knowledge gained related to aquaculture
Number of clientele who adopted new aquaculture practices




% of livestock owners/producers that adopt or plan to adopt best management practices to
improve quality and profitability.




Number of practices or technology adoptions by poultry producers




Nine hundred (900) producers will annually attend a management-intensive grazing (MiG)
school.




Twenty thousand (20,000) Missouri producers will increase their awareness of stockpiling and
summer pasture management for beef cattle.




Two hundred (200) Missouri farmers will increase their knowledge of fescue toxicosis.
Two thousand (2,000) Missouri producers will install fencing and watering systems as a result
of the MiG schools.




Ten thousand (10,000) producers will stockpile forage and develop specific pastures for
summer grazing.




Ten thousand (10,000) producers will implement new forage management practices into
their operation.
Adopt appropriate practices
Adopt practices that maintain long-term productivity
Collect information and communicate results
Conduct community service or outreach
Create and sustain effective partnerships and collaborations
Design projects or experiments to answer questions
Develop environmentally sound technologies and practices
Identify and remediate pollution sources
Make better decision regarding natural resource management
Make better decisions using science and technology skills
Promote personal responsibility and action
Use relevant UMCE web-based resources
Demonstrate how to assess and manage marine resources
Demonstrate how to collect and analyze data
Demonstrate how to keep good records
Demonstrate how to locate Extension web-based resources
Demonstrate how to locate scientific information
Demonstrate how to use science process skills
Describe fisheries management practices that are environmentally and socially sound and
lead to long-term economic viability
Describe integrated farming system strategies

Describe resources available from, and services provided by, natural resource professionals
Describe the effects of individual and cumulative decisions and actions on local and global
ecosystems




Participants will have improved economic viability and profitability through enhanced
marketing opportunities for their operation.




Participants will maintain or increase pork operations in Missouri.




Participants will acquire knowledge and skills to aid in the successful adoption and
implementation of existing management practices or emerging technology to improve pork
production efficiency and productivity.




Participants will be able to identify and discuss the economic implications of implementing
production practices such as marketing/contracting opportunities.




Number of clientele gaining knowledge of grazing systems management.




Number of dairy farms producing milk for less than $10.50/cwt.
Economic assessment of the program based on surveys of participating farmers.




Number of animals (heifers) involved.




Number of participating veterinarians on a region-to-region basis.
Assessment of change in a production medicine approach to veterinary practices that
participate in the program.




Income generated from regional sales and added value of heifers retained on farms that
participate in the program.




Total impact on the state's economy as a result of the Show-Me-Select heifer program and
related activities. 3=3 million.
Adding value to Missouri raised beef cattle.




Number of farmers in Missouri that participate in the program.




Adoption rate of management practices by participating farmers.
% increase in the fertility of marine broodfish (Atlantic cod and halibut)
% increase in the hatching rate of marine larval fish (Atlantic cod and halibut)

% increase in the viability of juvenile marine fish raised in captivity (Atlantic cod and halibut)
% reduction in the use of live food inputs in diets for larval marine fish
# of agricultural professionals completing New Farmer training workshop modules




# of MOUs and MOAs for collaborative program grants




# of farmers adopting recommended demonstrated practices
Business Start Ups
Adopt appropriate management strategies
Adopt appropriate nutrient management strategies
Adopt appropriate practices
Adopt appropriate technologies
Adopt practices that maintain long-term productivity
Adopt practices that maintain profitability
Improve animal well-being
Keep accurate records
Participate in livestock quality assurance program
Participate in Maine cattle health assurance program
Participate in the Maine grass farmer network
Use new technologies
Use relevant UMCE web-based resources
Describe an improved quality of life
Acquire quality assurance certification
Demonstrate animal management skills
Demonstrate how to analyze records for decision making
Demonstrate how to develop certified nutrient management plans
Demonstrate how to develop integrated farming systems
Demonstrate how to effectively manage grasslands
Demonstrate how to feed animals with production and economy in mind
Demonstrate how to maximize return on farm enterprise
Demonstrate production recordkeeping
Demonstrate sound agricultural practices
Describe advantages of alternative crop management strategies
Describe animal health programs
Describe financial management
Describe forages and forage quality
Describe nutrient sources, recycling and delivery methods that are compatible with crop, soil
and production systems
Describe sound animal production practices
Describe the benefits of grass-fed livestock
Describe the value of organic nutrient sources to sustainable cropping systems




New method to measure protein digestibility of microdiets in larval marine fish.




Number of poultry and livestock producers who increase their knowledge of up-to-date
information and technologies, management practices, and value-added opportunities
Number of poultry and livestock producers who adopt up-to-date information and
technologies.
Number of livestock producers adopting practices to enhance sustainability of their
operations.
Number of livestock producers expanding their operations.




Number of poultry and livestock producers who increased their knowledge of environmental
stewardship practices and environmental regulations.
Number of poultry and livestock producers adopting management practices that maximize
environmental stewardship.
Number of poultry and livestock producers developing comprehensive nutrient management
plans.
Percentage change in number of poultry and livestock producers who enhance soil fertility
and reduce soil pollution through properly applied animal waste




Number of producers who increased knowledge of reducing hay production costs through
management = 50%




Number of producers who are willing to adopt one BMP = 50%
Number of producers who adopt one BMP which should result in a reduction of hay
production costs through management




Number of producers increasing knowledge of how to improve hay quality through harvest
and storage management = 80%
Number of 4-H member Youth Pork Quality Assurance certified
Number of youth who gained knowledge about the livestock industry, animal feeding, and/or
production




Percent of Iowa feedlots that regularly feed DGS to reduce cost of gain.




Percent of feedlots over 100 head capacity that utilize solid manure settling structures or
alternative technology treatment systems.




Percent of producers who adopt management systems to improve cost control and market
access.
Percent of cowherd producers who utilize technologies to improve enterprise efficiency.




Number of intergenerational transfers.




Number of producers adopting one or more practices resulting in increased profits.




Number of producers adopting resource management technologies (IRM, IPM, soil testing,
soil fertility management, etc.).
Number of producers completing Master Cattlemen and Grain Academy and receiving their
certification.
Number of farmers who increased knowledge of fish farming


Percentage of producers realizing savings in feeding costs

Percentage of producers aware of recommendations for floor space, calcium and phosphorus


Percentage of producers implementing recommendations


Percentage of producers realizing profitability after adoption of recommendations
Number of animal premises registered in conjunction with the National Animal Identification
System




Increase in the amount of land subject to best management practices (e.g., nutrient
management plans, conservation plans, etc.)




Percent reduction in the transport of N, P, and sediment to the Chesapeake Bay and its
tributaries.




Percent increase in gross income from non-organic farming agriculture




Number of new dairy farms established.
Percent of dairy producers who adopt more competitive dairy production systems and
practices.




Percent of Iowa producers who adopt integrated dairy herd and health management
practices that result in improved profitability, enhanced food quality and safety, and
improved environmental stewardship.
number of studies describing the sustainability of biofuels production in Vermont




BQA Trainers will conduct Level I trainings following in-service




Producers adopt at least 3 new BQA practices after training

Producers realize a market advantage because of BQA certification




BQA enhances the reputation of WV feeder cattle as determined from buyer surveys




Participants will change their behavior based on research-based knowledge about livestock
management -- including poultry, dairy, beef and swine, manure management,and workplace
safety.(Target expressed as the percentage of participants that changed their behavior as a
result of workshops and conferences that had behavior objectives.)

Beef producers make management adjustments based on results of evaluation of their
calves. (Target expressed as percentage of producers reporting making changes,)
Participants in Beef Home Study Course will report increase in knowledge in pasture
management, nutrition, and stocker feeder management. (Target expressed as percentage of
participants.)




After attending manure management workshops participants will be able to complete a
manure management plan that meets Minnesota Pollution Control Agency requirements.
(Target expressed as percentage of participants.)

Participants will gain research-based knowledge in the production of livestock--including
poultry, dairy, beef and swine, manure management,and workplace safety.(Target expressed
as the number of direct person contacts reporting new research-based knowledge.)




Percent of participating farms reducing phosphorus over previous year in dairy animal waste




Percent of dairy herds improving milk quality




Number of youth gaining knowledge related to animal agriculture through youth animal
projects and events
Percent increase in sheep population in Southwest Virginia




Through the Quality Count$ program, the average bulk tank somatic cell count in Minnesota
dairy operations will be reduced to below 300,000.




Target audience will gain information about managing water resources.
Individuals will manage their water resources effectively.




The NASS value of trout sold in WV will increase. Baseline data will be collected in the future.




Number of additional beef producers trained and certified for quality assurance/best
management practices
Number of people reporting increased knowledge




Number of people using grazing management practices

Increase in number of sheep farmers demonstrating better livestock management skills who
report an increase in the number of healthy sheep (Action)
Increase in number of small ruminant dairy farmers who use information to make decisions,
change management or purchases to improve animal health/production and farm
profitability. (Action)

Increase number of farmers who implemented at least 1 change in calf management (Action)




Income Optimized by Livestock Producers Adopting Improved Nutrition Practices
Income optimized through adoption of recommended health and general management
practices




Youth demonstrating increased skills/knowledge gained by participation in animal projects
and events




Number of Producers Adopting Best Management Practices that Optimize Income
Number Livestock Producers Adopting and Applying Improved Planning and Financial
Management Practices




Scholarship Money Gained From Youth Livestock Shows
Improve nutritional utilization, performance, and efficiency to the point that savings will off-
set increases in costs of animal food stocks




Improve management for multiple animal farm types, including organics, that will produce
higher yields for and lower costs to the producer and consumer and will allow the farmer to
profit within a reasonable business plan




Increase nutrition utilization for the purpose of increased growth and quality of products
commensurate with consumer demand
# resource managers reporting reduced environmental concerns for participating enterprises.
(1.2.2f)
# of producers demonstrating knowledge/skill gains re existing/new practices and
techniques; improved product handling and storage to maintain quality and food safety;
and/or improving production efficiency through adoption of best management practices.
(1.2.1b)
# of producers demonstrating knowledge/skill gains regarding environmental impacts of
practices; environmental regulations and programs; whole farm systems including integrated
nutrient management, integrated pest management; waste management; and water
protection. (1.2.2b)

# of producers modifying existing practices and/or adopted new production mngmt. practices
to address current issues and improve yield efficiency, consistency and/or quality. (1.2.1c)
# technical assistance providers documented to have incorporated current best management
practices in their recommendations. (1.2.1e)
# of producers documented to have assessed potential environmental impacts of their
operations and developed and acted on plans to eliminate or minimize those concerns.
(1.2.2c)
# of producers who report improved ability to anticipate and respond to environmental and
market variations. (1.2.1d)
# of producers documented to have developed and implement nutrient mngmt. and/or
waste mngmt. plans or modified existing plans to meet production and environmental goals
and meet regulations. (1.2.2d)

# of producers documented to have improved economic returns to agricultural business
profitability and vitality resulting from enhanced production management practices. (1.2.1f)
# of producers documented to meet or exceed current environmental protection standards
as a result of participating in relevant educational programs. (1.2.2e)




% of livestock owners/producers that report a savings in money or increased profit by best
management practices adopted.




% of livestock owners/producers/commodity group reps that report increased knowledge of
best management practices to improve quality and profitability.
Number of persons that improved efficiency of animal production.
Number of persons that adopted one or more practices to control heat stress.
Number of persons that increased animal production after adopting the recommended
practices.
Number of persons that improved the nutrient utilization practices in animals.
Number of persons that improved the quality of their product.
Numbers of persons that improved the animal reproduction practices.




Awareness Created for Wyoming Livestock producers through educational activities. Target
numbers indicate number of producers reached.

Wyoming producers will implement electronic animal identification to gain advantages in
herd management. Target shows that by 2009, 10 percent of producers in Wyoming will have
voluntarily implemented electronic animal identification.
Producers will also gain an understanding of heifer development as well as opportunities for
matching genetic improvement with successful marketing strategies. Targets reflect number
of livestock producers making changes in heifer develoment.
Wyoming producers will benefit through an increased value of livestock and crops related to
improved cropping practices, herd selection and management. Outcomes indicate by 2009,
25 Wyoming producers will report increased sustainability and profitability due to
educational efforts.




Advance knowledge of livestock producers via to symposia, educational meetings.




Improve the genetic base of livestock produced.
Producers pool resources to establish evaluation programs modeled after the Extension test.




2. Percentage of adoption rate for recommendations by clients




Number of ranches per year adopting enterprise management of animal health issues
Number of novel vaccines developed per year




Number of activities per year that prevent disease outbreaks or manage diseases of Montana
livestock




Percent of CFAR members aware of effect aerator placement has on circulation
Growth in state production of beef and lamb %
Increase in state aquaculture industry %


Number of producers who learn project results




Number of commercial Arkansas baitfish farmer learning about Extension recommendations
and program results




Number of Commercial Arkansas catfish farmers adopting Extension recommendations




Nebraska ranchers and feeders will increase profitability through adoption of research and
extension information provided by IANR programs (measured by value placed on the
information by clientele).


Adoption of 'risk management' knowledge learned to make agriculture production more
sustainable.
Increase awareness in the communities and prospective and existing industry about
sustainable, site-specific, and low energy aquaculture technologies.
Increase in production/consumption of pasture finished beef %
Develop and market organic control for honey bee mites - adoption %




Decreasing The Risk Of Periparturient Diseases In Dairy Heifers




Number of farm pond owners implementing improved weed control
Number of farm pond owners learning how to control aquatic weeds




Number of farm pond owners experiencing fewer problems with aquatic weeds


Number of Arkansans gaining access to needed information




Adopt appropriate handling and storage technologies
Adopt appropriate pest management practices
Adopt appropriate practices
Compost




2) Improved and more economical protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination of cattle
will be developed.




3) New information on measuring feed efficiency in cattle will be developed and
recommendations on the incorporation of byproducts feeds into swine, poultry, and cattle
rations will be determined.
4) Management procedures will be developed for reducing negative environmental impacts
in swine, poultry, and beef confinement.




Number of research programs to develop and test new cropping, grazing and feeding
strategies for cattle, sheep and other ruminants.




Number of research programs to develop and evaluate new nutritional management
strategies for non-ruminant animals.


Number of research programs to develop and evaluate management tools and strategies for
animal manure management.
Number of research programs to understand the molecular processes that influence growth
and meat quality in food animals.




Number of research programs to develop and evaluate new tools and strategies to detect,
prevent and control emerging and reemerging livestock and poultry diseases.




Number of research programs to understand the environmental fate and biological effects of
vaccines, steroids and other substances fed to animals.


Lower feed costs (%)

Reduce nitrogen and phosphorus in discharge water (%)
Increased profitability of aquaculture operations (%)
Describe how to balance ecological, social and economic needs

Enhance the economic and environmental sustainability of Maine agriculture and aquaculture
Enhance the safety, sustainability, and dependability of Maine's food supply.

Increase the economic and social viability and sustainability of Maine communities.
Protect and enhance Maine's natural resources and environment through sustainable
stewardship.




Research on the manure management and methane digesters will develop options for
Minnesota farms.
Beef Quality Assurance: The added value of calves marketed that were managed according to
BQA guidelines (dollars).
Master Beef Producer: Number of producers who applied "valued added"
management and health practices.
Master Beef Producer: Number of producers who carried out recommended practices to
improve environmental integrity of cattle operations.
Master Beef Producer: Number of producers who carried out recommended reproductive
practices.
Master Beef Producer: Number of producers who improved performance through application
of genetic improvement practices.
Master Beef Producer: Number of producers who started a vaccination program.

Master Beef Producer: The increase in value of feeder calves as result of cooperative
marketing or marketing through an "alliance" was $ ___ total.
Beef Quality Assurance: Number of producers who sold calves that were managed according
to BQA guidelines.


Change in farming practice

Change in food consumption patterns




Nebraska farmers and ranchers will have sustainable food and biomass systems through
adoption of best management practices (measured by percent of clientele adopting best
management practices).
Change in public policy




Nebraska farmers will rely on IANR research and extention programs to assure an
economically viable and sustainable food and biomass system (measured by percent of state
acreage represented at education programs).


Regulators increase knowledge




Change in percent of agricultural land


Change in on-farm biodiversity

Change in farmer income




Adoption of sustainable aquaculture technologies by commercial and community groups.
Number of established aquaculture operations.
Maintain nutrient management certification
Make better decisions using available diagnostics
Participate in relevant animal associations
Use grasslands efficiently for feed and water quality protection

Enhance the economic and environmental sustainability of Maine agriculture and aquaculture
Enhance the safety, sustainability, and dependability of Maine's food supply

Number of farm managers considering increased pond circulation in the placement of new
aerators
# of research publications


Number of commercial Arkansas catfish farmers increasing efficiency and profitability

Number of Scientists That Learned What We Know


Number of Grow-out Operations That Use What We Know




Number of Arkansans Gaining Access to Hybrid Catfish Information

Number of Arkansans adopting sound management practices
Number of researchers and producers gaining knowledge from results from presentations
and publications

Number of producers that will modify feeding and management




Percent of cool weather plankton-related problems that will decrease




Percent of warm weather plankton-related problems that will decrease




Nebraska will have access to a highly trained and educated workforce for economically viable
and sustainable food and biomass systems (indirectly measured by number of undergraduate
and graduate students receiving degrees).




# of producers increasing in knowledge and husbandry skills on an integrated to approach to
animal and plant farm operations (short term)




# of producers adopting demonstrated practices




# of producers practicing regular replacements of broodstocks (medium term)
Number of farmers learning how to produce new aquatic species
# of producers decreasing in feeding imported commercial feeds (medium term)
% increase in sustainable small-scale farms (long term)




Number of niche market farms with accurate cost of production records.




Number of swine farms to participate in EMS training sessions (cumulative).
Number of youth participating in the Iowa State Fair swine programs (annually).




Number of crop producers who broaden their agricultural enterprise to include swine
production facilities in order to bring another family member into the business (annually).




Number of premises registered in the national animal ID program (cumulative).




Number of pork producers exposed to large pen gestation systems and their management
(cumulative).
Number of producers who adopt improved animal health protocols or procedures.


Change in support for small-scale farms


Number of oral/poster presentations at meetings


Number of graduate students trained




Number of published Publications

Citations




Number of submissions of grant proposals




Increase sales from shellfish aquaculture industry in Hawai'i

Total dollar value of grants and contracts obtained.
Number of ranchers who have adopted a recommended practice

Average Impact factor of publications
Increased numbers of beef cattle kept in Hawai'i for local consumption

Number of youths and adults attending educational classes/workshops




Increased forage fed beef production in the state and the region.




Number of New Farmers engaged in Alternative Small Scale Livestock Enterprise




Number of farmers use Artificial Insimination porgram
Number of publications authored or co-authored (fact sheets, papers presented at Extension
meetings, etc.)
Number of producers involved in the livestock program.




Assess Epidemiology of Micoplasma Mastitis
Reduce prevalence of Mycoplasma mastitis in dairy herds from the current 8 percent to 2
percent of herds




Corn Silage Production in New York


Number of Aquaculturists learning ovulation induction methods
Aquaculture- Define sunfish nutritional requirements. Develop a fast growing sunfish cultivar.
Identify viable production systems for sunfishes. Make available a fish health protocol. Small
Ruminants- Assess the use of herb cultivars for control of internal parasites. Investigate new
cultivars of grasses and legumes for potential improvement of weight gains in lambs and kids.
Large Ruminants- Develop biosensor for determining levels of lutenizing hormone (LH) in the
blood.




Transfer new technologies for sunfish, small and large ruminant production to farmers.
Farmers will use learned technologies.




number of participants gaining awareness of emerging aquaculture technology
Number of participants gaining basic aquaculture knowledge
Number of individuals adopting enhancements to existing production systems




Number of individuals adopting new aquaculture technology
Increased number of producers in aquaculture
% substitution of imports
Number of agricultural animal owners increasing their knowledge of sustained animal
production practices.
Number of times agricultural animal owners implemented one or more sustained animal
production practices.
Improvement in cash receipts from livestock production relative to average of 1999-2004
production years.


Foodborne bacteria and antibiotic resistance




Arkansas cash receipts from farm marketing ($1,000) related to aquaculture enterprises


# of Chamorro Land Trust Commission lease holders participating in workshops and field day
activities




# of participants in Demonstration Farm workshops and field days
Percentage of livestock producers that adapt prudent use guidelines for antibiotic use in their
herds based on information derived and disseminated.
Percent of cattle producers using preventative treatment.




Pregnancy rates in cattle


Deer harvest and roadkill data


Controlling mastitis in dairy cattle
Combatting the T-2 toxin in fowl




Livestock and Forage Systems: Improved genetics for Tennessee beef and dairy herds.




Dairy herd heat stress infertility




Reproductive performance of domestic ruminants




Stress factors of farm animals




Tennessee Quality Milk Initiative


Health and well-being of weaned pigs
# Extension publications
Number of farm, ranch and landscaping owner/operators and managers and allied industry
professionals participating in the programs who gained knowledge of aspects of
comprehensive management systems for plant and animal production

Percent of Increase in Hybrid Striped Bass Fingerlings Produced in Arkansas
Calf and Heifer Management Improvements




Annually advance modeling, decision-making, & alternative strategies to provide greater flow
of needed information to food animal farmers to ensure business stability, including forage
based cattle and niche market demands
Number of farm and ranch owner/operators and managers and allied industry professionals
participating in the programs who adopted recommended cultural practices for plant and
animal production

Improved animal physiological process




Program participants will exhibit/report KASA changes.

Number demonstrating/reporting behavior changes including improved decision-making
Number of new aquaculture businesses started growing blue mussels on long lines in the
open ocean
Dollars generated the blue mussel aquaculture industry

Number of bank loans made to individuals seeking to enter the aquaculture industry




Each ACES employee is required to provide a success story on the program activity which
they felt best demonstrates the impacts of their work. These success stories contain the
following elements:
Why: Explain the reason the program was done, or the situation or problem that the
program addressed
What: Specifically what was done and how it was done.
When: If this was a one-time event, the date it occurred. If it is was a series of events, or an
on-going program, when it began.
Where: Specific location-- the county or counties involved.
Who and how many: The "who" includes both who did the program and who
were the clients of the program, as well as how many people were served.
So what: This is the part that gives the real meaning to "success". The basic
question to be answered in this part is "what difference did this program make".
The difference may be measured in terms of dollars, or in changes in habits, lifestyles or
attitudes. Whenever possible use numbers to show the effect of the program. If it is not
possible to use numbers, provide a qualitative measurement like client comments or another
type of testimonial about the program.

Since this program area is very broad in scope and contains multiple Extension Team Projects
which have different outcomes measures, the impacts for this program area are best
measured in the number and quality of the success stories generated by the individuals who
work on these projects. Therefore, one very significant outcome measure is the number of
success stories generated.




Small Farms Veterinary Skills Program
Investment in Cow Comfort Improves Profitability
Master Beef Producer: Number of producers who market cattle through cooperative sales or
"marketing alliances."

Beef Quality Assurance: Number of beef producers who received BQA certification.




Increased market value (Million $) created by application of new processes and animal
products.




FAMU-Improved procedures and techniques for distributing agricultral products




FAMU-Improve skills in animal science

Percent of producers increasing the efficiency of manure and crop nutrient utilization while
minimizing surface run-off and preserving ground water and air quality.
Animal disease researchers will continue to serve on first responder teams when
stakeholders have an immediate disease problem




Reduce environmental impacts of the food animal industry.
Alternative nutrition strategies have the potential to impact business decisions in the animal
industry.




Number of pig farmers upgrading their stock




Economic Value of Assistance From OSU Extension Service Professionals As Reported By
Producers (Million $).
Percentage of farm/ranch/landscaping owners/operators/managers and allied industry
professionals participating in the program gaining knowledge of cultural practices, pest and
disease management, irrigation and drainage or other aspects of comprehensive
management systems for plant and animal production
Beef Quality Assurance: Number of calves sold in Tennessee that were managed according to
BQA guidelines.
Improvement in livestock productivity (i.e., pounds of beef or milk produced per animal per
year, expressed in percentage terms).




Numbers of farmers market thier produce
Farmers who adapt the sustainable livestock waste managements
Farmersadopt new technologies for increased and sustainable production.




(Activity 1, 2, and 3) Tracking the incidence of drug residues in fair animals intended for food -
Comprehension of QA principles will lead to a better understanding and a subsequent
reduction in the amount type and degree of drug residue detected and subsequent retained
and then condemned from human consumption.

(Activity 1, 2, and 3) Survey producers that began their education in QA programming as a
youth exhibitor and determine the impact that has had on there production practice today.
Further compare and contrast their efforts with those producers who did not learn about QA
from a youth based extension program.




(Activity 1, 2, and 3) Assuring that youth comprehend QA principles will increase the number
of Livestock producers in the future that will be assuring consumers that they are receiving a
safe wholesome product from the food producing animal industry.




Managed grazing plans will be developed for 10,000 acres annually and improved grazing
management will be adopted on 6,000 acres annually.


More Ohio forage-based farms will become economically and environmentally sustainable.
Increase the sustainable agriculture knowledge and skills of Extension Agents, NRCS staff and
other ag professionals in Ohio
Increase the use of the SARE program and resources among farmers, Extension agents, NRCS
staff, and other ag professionals in Ohio

Improve the practices of the farmers of Ohio to include sustainable agriculture approaches}
More Educators will become knowledgeable about sustainable practices, such as cover crops,
organic fruit & vegetable production, sustainable beef production, direct marketing.

More Extension educators will conduct a greater number of programs on sustainable ag topics

Ohio farms will become more economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable




1. Percent of clients who gained new knowledge/skills, awareness and/or changed attitudes

Determine detection, monitoring, and sampling systems that reliably indicate the impact and
value of livestock enterprises in concert with the environment. Once the system(s) are
identified to assess impact, programs and education materials targeted toward the key areas
of focus will be developed, distributed, and training programs conducted.
Implementation and increased use of developed, science-based systems models and
technology.




Protect the environment from degradation due to livestock production.

(Activity 3) To determine the effectiveness of QA programming, there will be a Pre- and post-
test set administered for determining the comprehension of youth in QA principles. This will
determine the effectiveness of the information listed in the YFAQACG and the
implementation of the minimum standards delivered to 56,500 yearly in Ohio.
For ETP11G the Alabama Master Cattle Producer Training Program, the outcome measure
will be the number of graduates.
Number of producers adopting new technologies, strategies, or systems.
Number of producers increasing production levels.
Number of producers decreasing production inputs/expenses.
Number of producers improving their environmental stewardship.
Number of producers adopting new technologies, strategies, or systems.
Number of producers improving production efficiency.
Number of producers improving their environmental stewardship.
Number or producers adopting new technologies, strategies, or systems.
Number of producers increasing production efficiency.
Number of producers reducing the environmental impact of production.


Improved reproduction efficiency and improved conditions for optimal growth and well-being
of farm animals. Availability of resources (demonstration/test plots, hay and pastures, co-
grazing site, etc.) for use by research scientists, graduate students and Extension personnel
for research and teaching purposes. Availability of and demonstrations using latest
technology for research, demonstrations and teaching purposes for herd/farm record
systems, animal identification, etc. applicable to small landowners and other producers. A
greater public understanding of the principles of animal behavior, animal responses to their
environment, and the biology of reproduction and growth. Increased farm income and
profitability by understanding production economics, profit margins and clarifying marketing
channels and timing .profitability. A more competitive livestock industry in Texas.




Agribusiness professionals and dairy producers will learn strategies that improve dairy
operations.
Farmers, non-farmers and elected officials will increase their knowledge and understanding
of land use planning and livestock facilities site legislation, best practices, and options for
their local communities.




Dairy producers and support businesses will explore, learn and adopt modernization options
and management practices that result in lower costs and/or increased productivity in their
dairy enterprises.




Dairy producers will better understand their Hispanic employees, improve their management
of these employees, and increase their requisite job-related knowledge and skills.

Participants will increase awareness about the importance of the relationships between
agriculture, local government, rural residents and environmental and recreational pursuits.
Number of adult participants with increased knowledge of animal diseases.

Number of youth participants with increased knowledge about animal management systems.




Number of goat producers learning new goat production techniques
Number of goat producers using new goat production techniques




Number of farmers learning alternative fish species techniques.




Number of farmers using alternative fish species techniques.


Farmers who improved their yearly income by using alternative fish species.


Increase in number of farms that are using best management practices leading to reduced
nutrient loading of surface water and soil erosion.




Number of farmers (x 1000) using OSU Extension Service information.




Number of farmers learning new fisher management techniques.
Number of farmers using new fisher management techniques.




Farmers who have improved thier production efficiency and raised their profits with the new
fishery management techniques.




Cost savingsby utilization of in-state animal feeds




Number of new crop and animal markets identified and utilized.
Number of cattle identified in compliance with the National Animal Identification Plan




Number of producers registered with a premise ID
Total number of producers certified as Master Cattlemen
Number of producers implementing improved management, grazing systems and beef
production systems resulting in improved sustainability.
Meat Goat Numbers in the State




Trade journals, publications, peer reviewed journal articles, presentations at scientific
meetings, stakeholder, native american and agency presentations.
Outcome target 2: Increase livestock producers' knowledge of food production practices in
Alaska.




Outcome target 4: Increase livestock producers' understanding of optimum production
practices.




Outcome target 6: Increase livestock producers' ability to assess their own production
practices.
Outcome target 8: Increase livestock producers' application of optimum production practices.




Outcome target 10: Increase livestock producers' production by five percent on a per farm
basis over a five year or less.
Outcome target 12: Increase livestock producers' economic viability on a per farm basis as
measured by net farm income over a five year or less.




Outcome target 14: Individuals who participate in educational activities related to small-scale
livestock production will increase their knowledge of small-scale agricultural production
techniques.




Outcome target 16: Individuals who participate in educational activities related to small-scale
livestock production will apply the techniques they learn.
Increased awareness of the need to produce and utilize diets for all animal species that
prevent unnecessary overfeeding of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus.

Education programs for the livestock and equine industries on equine nutrition and health
practices, fiscal management, and beneficial use of the by-products of animal agriculture.
Establishment of an Avian Biosciences Center to conduct research, outreach, and K-12
educational programs on avian disease and production, food safety and technology, and the
environmental compatibility of poultry production.
Increased number of poultry producers participating in surveillance, diagnostic testing, and
vaccination programs for infectious avian diseases. Implementation of statewide plans to
address major outbreaks of avian diseases.

Sustainable production practices for the dairy and beef industries that link forage and pasture
production practices with animal health, performance, and meat and milk quality.
Improved economic competitiveness of the poultry and allied industries relative to other
poultry producing regions in the U.S. and global competitors.
Increased number of poultry and dairy farmers using feed management practices that
increase nutrient utilization, and feeding diets with lower concentrations of nitrogen and
phosphorus.
Increased use of air quality best management practices that prevent odor, ammonia, and
particulate emissions from poultry farms.

Disease Prevention and Control: basic and applied research on mechanisms of poultry disease
processes will translate into useable tools and strategies for improved disease surveillance,
diagnosis, prevention, and control in broiler chicken production. Knowledge will be extended
to commercial poultry and allied industries.


Nutrition: research will lead to improved understanding of nutritional requirements for
poultry and ruminants and adoption of recommended dietary strategies by practicing
nutritionists and producers. Specifically, the results of poultry directed research will aim to
minimize nutrient contamination of the environment from manure. Results from ruminant
based research will lead to improved management of forages to maximize nutritional value,
safe use, and minimize spoilage during storage. Research will also result in enhanced
collaboration between University and industry partners. Findings will help to increase the
efficiency of livestock production and new technology will be transferred to stakeholders.
Environmental Compatibility: poultry industry and commercial nutritionists will adopt and
implement recommendations for broiler diet modification – including such practices
as reducing diet nutrient concentrations to more closely meet the animal's requirements,
utilization of phytase and other diet additives shown to improve nutrient utilization, and
incorporation of low phytate grains – in feed formulations to reduce nutrient
emissions to the environment. Reduced emissions will be measured by reduced nutrient
concentrations in manures and litters, reduced application of nutrients to cropland and other
soils, and reduced movement of nutrients from soils to ground and surface waters. Other
environmental issues related to animal agriculture include the fate and transport of trace
elements (arsenic, copper, zinc) found in poultry manures; widespread national concerns
about air quality associated with ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, volatile organic compounds,
and fine particulates originating from poultry houses; environmental and human health
impacts of endocrine disruptors (estrogen, testosterone) found in manures; the fate and
transport of viruses and other pathogens during disease outbreaks and subsequent disposal
of poultry mortality, and the environmental and human health effects of antibiotics used in
Equine science: contribute to improved equine care, disease prevention, responsible land
management, barn safety, and effective business practices using proven outreach channels
for the dissemination of peer reviewed knowledge and practices to equine professionals and
enthusiasts.
Improved statewide strategies to prevent the spread of avian diseases and dispose of the
mortality resulting from disease outbreaks.

Increased knowledge by the public, the food processing and restaraunt industries, state and
regional economic development agencies, and state and federal technical and advisory
agencies about the potential economic benefits of expanding aquaculture production.

Educate K-12 teachers and youth about aquaculture's role in world food security, the
fundamental scientific and technological components of aquaculture production systems,
and the financial and marketing aspects of aquaculture as a business.

Greater adoption of improved best management practices for recreational and farm ponds to
increase profitability and minimize any environmental impacts of aquaculture.
2. Increased ability of aquaculturists to manage production and financial risks.

A comprehensive approach to increase and sustain the role of aquaculture in Delaware's
economy, including the development of research-based management practices for the
production aspects and environmental compatibility of aquaculture, wider use of innovative
marketing strategies, and providing ongoing training on the sound business and financial
management skills needed by aquaculturists

Continue to work toward developing and adopting the use of two drought-resistant and
nutritional forages for pastured livestock per year
Increase rolling herd averages of dairy producers on St. Croix by 400 pounds

Increase the sales and consumption of locally produced livestock products such as meat, milk,
eggs
Increase weaning weights of calves in beef herds by 20 pounds




Increase the number of livestock herds/flocks using complete identification and
recordkeeping practices




Increase the number of pig farmers that are raising their livestock in recommended facilities

# of methods, technology, and animal varieties adopted by public and private sectors
Economic development increased
Successful animal agricultural enterprises




Increased number of farmers who use sustainable agriculture practices




Increased number of sustainable agriculture practices conducted by individual producers




Number of new farmers anywhere adopting aquaponic technology
Number of new farmers anywhere adopting aquaponic technology




Number of local farmers who adopt some portion of model farm
Percentage of educational activity attendees that increased their knowledge about practices
that can enhance agricultural profitability and competitiveness.
Percentage of educational activity attendees that plan to effectively manage the risks of
market price variation, adverse environmental inputs, changing government programs, and
variation in public awareness about nutrition and food safety.




O: Awareness of new, accepted or recommended grazing and weed management practices.I:
Number attending educational events.
O: Youth learning about rangeland ecology and management.I: Number of youth participating
in school programs on range.




O: Extension Educators & NRCS personnel understanding and teaching BEHAVE principles.I:
Number of Extension Educators & NRCS trainers trained.
Percentage of educational activity attendees that can recognize and evaluate the economic,
environmental and social opportunities of alternative plant and animal production systems
including production of bio-energy, bi-product utilization, agritourism, and value-added
processing.




Percentage of educational activity attendees that increased their knowledge of organic
production practices, regulations, and marketing opportunities.
Percentage of educational activity attendees that increased their knowledge of effective pest
management practices, conservation tillage systems, and/or riparian management methods
that protect endangered species and the environment and safeguard human health.
Number of Extension faculty and staff creating, implementing and evaluating culturally
competent programs to increase the diversity of Extension program participants and partners.




Number of organic farms and ranches certified in Washington that were assisted by Extension
programming or through partnerships between Extension and other agencies and
organizations.

Number of invited presentations by faculty as a direct result of the success of this program.
Percentage of program participants reporting an increase in skills proficiency in aquatic
animal management and apuatic production systems.




O: Awareness of new, accepted, or recommended production practices.I: Number of
participants at educational events
O: An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.
I: Number of M.S. and Ph.D. candidates relevant to this topic team.

Information regarding gentic influences

- Poultry breeders gain information regarding genetic causes of early embryonic failures
(Savage)
- Producers are aware of sire genotype effects on embryonic loss and of management factors
that influence loss of potential lambs in commercial ewes, such as body condition at lambing
positively correlated with total weight of lamb weaned (Meyer)

Increased productivity achieved:
- Producers greatly improve their reproductive efficiency by removing bad genes thus
increasing productivity and economics of the industry. Industry thus has mproved resource
and economic sustainability through reduced costs and/or increased productivity.
- Producers use critical post-mating nutrition to produce about 6 pounds of additional
weaning weight per ½ condition score. Also, intense selection reduces needs for
assistance in pasture lambing conditions.
- Better understanding of the costs, benefits, and potential impact of legislation on the dairy
industry, and thus more economically and environmentally sustainable systems for dairy and
beef production.

O: Dairy Producers will send workers to training schools.I: Number attending schools.

O: Producers will continue to attend Winter Dairy Forums.I: Number of participants.
O: Attending the schools will increase knowledge and understanding of dairy management
practices by dairy workers.I: Percent knowledge change by attendees (as evaluated with
pre/post testing).
An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.




Number of ranchers learning new production techniques




Number of farmers using new production techniques




Number of livestock producers who demonstrate best management practices (BMPs)
including genetic selection, reproduction, nutrition, health, animal care and well-being,
livestock safety and quality, environmental management, and optimal marketing strategies
Number of additional direct extension contacts made by volunteers, staff, or county agents
not receiving federal funds as a direct outcome of the work of federally funded faculty
associated with this planned program.
Percentage of program participants who indicated a plan to adopt one or more of the
practices recommended for proper aquatic management.
Number of pond acres in catfish production in Georgia reported annually.
Increase in the farm gate value of catfish production in Georgia. Reported annually in millions
of dollars.
Number of additiional direct extension contacts made by county faculty not receiving federal
funds, staff or volunteers as a direct result of the work of faculty receiving federal funds
within this planned program.
Number of Master Cattlemen certifications granted through this planned program.
Increase in the farm gate value of livestock production in Georiga. Reported in millions of
dollars.
Percentage of program participants reporting increased knowledge after program
particpation.
Percentage of program participants responding to follow-up survey that indicate changing at
least one production practice as a result of this program.

Number of invited presentations by faculty as a direct result of the success of this program.
Number of research experiments completed on dairy goat products development, food
quality and economic evaluation.
Percentage of program participants reporting increased knowledge after program
participation.
Percentage of program participants who indicated a plan to adopt one or more of the
practices recommended in this program.

Number of invited presentations by faculty as a direct result of the success of this program.
Increase in the farm gate value of poultry production in Georgia. Value reported annually in
millions of dollars.
Percentage of program participants reporting increased knowledge after program
participation.
Percentage of program participants responding to follow-up survey that have adopt one or
more of the practices recommended in this program.
Percentage of program participants responding to survey that indicated an increase in
income using information from this program.
Number of additional direct extension contacts made by volunteers, staff, or county agents
not receiving federal funds as a direct outcome of the work of federally funded faculty
associated with this planned program.
Percentage of program participants reporting increased knowledge after program
participation.
Knowledge obtained for diagnostic tools for detection and control
- BVDV persistent infection in cattle and alpaca.
 - generation of recombinant vaccine for type A influenza virus
New techniques will change how we manage diseases
- Understanding Vibrio ecology will change how the industry handles post-harvest treatment
of shellfish
- Better prevention of flu virus
- More effective programs for public health measures, personal protection, and clinical
therapies for flu
- Better control over Clostridium, by modulating SPO0A-CPE interactions for therapeutic
purposes
- Better and more efficacious practices of prevention of Johne's disease within the cattle
industry
Lives would be saved or made safer through recombinant flu vaccine, Chitosan-based
bandages, and reduction/elimination of Vibrio presence in shellfish. Furthermore,
preparedness in anticipation of zoonotic outbreaks of avian influenza and better health
promotion.
Up to $20-57 million per million calvings could be saved through control of BVDV and
dramatic savings in annual costs due to early diagnosis and control of Johne's disease and
Clostridium

Information regarding forage and nutrient management
-     Producers, NRCS, conservation districts and environmental agencies learn about whole
farm nutrient management. (Gamroth)
-     Information will aid Extension Specialists in producing extension workshops and other
forms of teaching or consulting with farmers on issues related to grazing, manure
management, and cropping systems.
-     Beef industry will understand forage quality dynamics for dominant forage species in
Oregon, how management practices can synchronize the relationship between forage
nutrient supply and cow nutrient requirements, how pre-weaning and post-weaning calf
management practices influence lifetime productivity of the calf and carcass quality and how
feedstuffs can influence the health and physiological stress of the calf.
Improved genetic stocks:
- Knowing genetic causes of early embryonic failures allows poultry breeders to remove
deleterious genes from their breeding populations. (Savage)
- Understanding ramifications of sire effects, in the short term producers are starting to
pursue alternative terminal sires such as the Texel x Suffolk. A program is initiated to develop
a composite sire breed as an alternative.

Better nutrition strategies applied
- Producers will adopt critical post-mating nutrition through the time of embryonic
attachment to the placenta, having learned that body condition at lambing is positively
correlated with total weight of lamb weaned
- Farmers will more strategically plan for crop production and manure management.
O: An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.
I: Number of M.S. and Ph.D. candidates relevant to this topic team.

O: Sound dairy management practices will be adopted by dairy operations as a result of
attending the management schools.I: Percent intent to adopt recommended dairy
management practices by attendees (assessed with post/pre testing).
O: Improved calf health on participating farms.I: Percent reduction in calf mortality and
scours (farm survey).
O: Improved compliance with approved milking practices.I: Percent improved compliance
(survey of participant operations).

O: Feeders correctly identify required feeding adjustments due to added water.I: Percent
correct feeding adjustment calculations (assessed during the feeder schools).
O: Web based Milking SOP writer will be utilized by dairy operators to develop standard
operating procedures.I: Number of hits on web site.
Improved sustainable farming practices employed by the aquaculture industry and integrated
terrestrial farmers
Increased economic profitability for aquaculture farmers and terrestrial farmers who
integrate aquaculture production with their traditional crops




Percent of participants indicating change in behavior/ best practices adopted
Economic impact of the change in behavior reported
Number of participants in workshops/trainings/field days indicating an increase in knowledge
gained
OUTCOME TYPE        KA PERCENTAGE - 1862 EXTENSION        KA PERCENTAGE - 1890 EXTENSION


Knowledge Outcome

Knowledge Outcome                                                                          20

Knowledge Outcome                                                                          20




Action Outcome                                       45




Action Outcome                                       45
Knowledge Outcome    4
Action Outcome       4

Action Outcome       4
Action Outcome       4
Action Outcome       4

Action Outcome       4




Condition Outcome   15




Knowledge Outcome   15




Knowledge Outcome   15
Action Outcome      15




Knowledge Outcome   15




Knowledge Outcome   15




Action Outcome      15




Action Outcome      15




Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome       4
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Action Outcome      15




Action Outcome      20




Action Outcome      15




Knowledge Outcome   40




Knowledge Outcome   40




Knowledge Outcome   40
Action Outcome      40




Action Outcome      40




Action Outcome      40
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Action Outcome      12
Knowledge Outcome   12
Knowledge Outcome   12
Knowledge Outcome   12
Knowledge Outcome   12
Knowledge Outcome   12
Knowledge Outcome   12

Knowledge Outcome   12
Knowledge Outcome   12

Knowledge Outcome   12
Knowledge Outcome   12




Action Outcome      15




Action Outcome      15




Knowledge Outcome   15




Knowledge Outcome   15




Knowledge Outcome   20




Knowledge Outcome   20
Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   10
Condition Outcome
Condition Outcome

Condition Outcome
Condition Outcome
Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10
Condition Outcome   15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15

Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   15




Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome    9
Action Outcome       9

Condition Outcome    9
Condition Outcome    9




Knowledge Outcome    9

Action Outcome       9

Action Outcome       9

Condition Outcome    9




Knowledge Outcome   40




Knowledge Outcome   40
Action Outcome      40




Knowledge Outcome   40
Action Outcome       9

Knowledge Outcome    9




Action Outcome      40




Action Outcome      40




Action Outcome      40
Action Outcome      40




Action Outcome      40




Action Outcome      37   40




Knowledge Outcome   37   40
Knowledge Outcome   37   40
Knowledge Outcome    9


Condition Outcome

Knowledge Outcome


Condition Outcome


Condition Outcome
Knowledge Outcome   15    5




Condition Outcome   10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10




Action Outcome      20
Action Outcome   20




Action Outcome   20
Knowledge Outcome    4




Action Outcome      15




Action Outcome      15

Condition Outcome   15




Condition Outcome   15




Action Outcome      30


Action Outcome      30
Knowledge Outcome   30




Action Outcome      30




Knowledge Outcome   30




Condition Outcome   15   15




Condition Outcome   15   15




Knowledge Outcome   15   15
Condition Outcome   15   15




Condition Outcome   30




Knowledge Outcome   25
Action Outcome      25




Condition Outcome   25




Action Outcome      15   15
Knowledge Outcome   20   20




Condition Outcome   20   20


Action Outcome       4


Action Outcome       4

Action Outcome       4




Knowledge Outcome   18   18
Knowledge Outcome   18   18




Knowledge Outcome   18   18




Knowledge Outcome   18   18

Knowledge Outcome   18   18




Knowledge Outcome   18   18
Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10

Condition Outcome    3




Knowledge Outcome    3




Knowledge Outcome    3


Action Outcome       3
Action Outcome       3


Action Outcome       3

Action Outcome       3


Action Outcome       3


Condition Outcome    3

Condition Outcome    3




Condition Outcome   20




Knowledge Outcome   20
Action Outcome      20
Knowledge Outcome   20

Condition Outcome   20
Action Outcome      20
Action Outcome      20
Action Outcome      20




Knowledge Outcome   20




Action Outcome      20
Knowledge Outcome   20




Condition Outcome   20




Knowledge Outcome   20




Condition Outcome   20
Condition Outcome   20




Condition Outcome        30




Action Outcome
Condition Outcome




Action Outcome




Condition Outcome         20
Action Outcome
Condition Outcome


Knowledge Outcome         45




Knowledge Outcome        100




Action Outcome           100




Knowledge Outcome   18




Action Outcome       5
Knowledge Outcome   23
Action Outcome
Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome      25




Knowledge Outcome        100
Knowledge Outcome        100




Knowledge Outcome        100


Knowledge Outcome         50




Action Outcome      15




Action Outcome




Action Outcome
Action Outcome




Condition Outcome   44




Action Outcome      44




Action Outcome      44
Condition Outcome   44




Action Outcome      44




Condition Outcome   44


Knowledge Outcome

Action Outcome
Condition Outcome
Knowledge Outcome   12

Condition Outcome   12
Condition Outcome   12

Condition Outcome   12

Condition Outcome   12




Knowledge Outcome   30

Condition Outcome   57   57

Knowledge Outcome   57   57

Action Outcome      57   57

Action Outcome      57   57

Action Outcome      57   57
Action Outcome      57   57


Condition Outcome   57   57

Action Outcome      57   57


Condition Outcome

Action Outcome




Knowledge Outcome   18
Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome   18


Knowledge Outcome




Condition Outcome


Condition Outcome

Action Outcome




Action Outcome      23
Condition Outcome   23
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome      15

Condition Outcome   15
Condition Outcome   15


Knowledge Outcome         20
Knowledge Outcome   67


Condition Outcome        100

Knowledge Outcome         20


Action Outcome            20




Knowledge Outcome         20

Action Outcome            50
Knowledge Outcome        50

Action Outcome           50




Condition Outcome        50




Condition Outcome        50




Knowledge Outcome   18




Knowledge Outcome   35




Action Outcome      35




Action Outcome      35
Condition Outcome   20
Action Outcome      35
Condition Outcome   35




Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10


Condition Outcome


Knowledge Outcome


Knowledge Outcome




Condition Outcome

Condition Outcome




Action Outcome




Condition Outcome   15

Knowledge Outcome   15
Action Outcome      15

Condition Outcome
Condition Outcome   15

Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome      20   20




Action Outcome      20




Knowledge Outcome   20

Condition Outcome   20   20
Knowledge Outcome       25




Knowledge Outcome

Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome      3


Action Outcome
Knowledge Outcome        25




Action Outcome           25




Knowledge Outcome   20
Knowledge Outcome   20
Action Outcome      20




Action Outcome      20
Action Outcome      20
Condition Outcome   20

Knowledge Outcome   20

Action Outcome      20

Condition Outcome   20


Knowledge Outcome    0    0




Condition Outcome   15




Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   10

Condition Outcome   57   57
Action Outcome      57   57




Knowledge Outcome   57   57


Knowledge Outcome   57   57


Knowledge Outcome   57   57
Knowledge Outcome   57   57




Condition Outcome   57   57




Knowledge Outcome   57   57




Knowledge Outcome   57   57




Knowledge Outcome   57   57




Action Outcome      57   57


Knowledge Outcome   57   57
Knowledge Outcome   67


Knowledge Outcome   10

Condition Outcome        20
Action Outcome       3




Action Outcome      10


Action Outcome      10

Action Outcome      20   20




Knowledge Outcome   25

Action Outcome      25
Condition Outcome    5
Condition Outcome    5

Action Outcome       5




Condition Outcome   20   20




Action Outcome       3
Condition Outcome    3

Condition Outcome   57   57

Knowledge Outcome   57   57




Condition Outcome   20




Knowledge Outcome   10   10




Knowledge Outcome   10   10


Action Outcome      20
Action Outcome   10




Action Outcome   10
Action Outcome      10




Condition Outcome    7




Condition Outcome   20




Knowledge Outcome   10

Knowledge Outcome   57   57

Condition Outcome   20




Condition Outcome   20
Action Outcome      20
Condition Outcome        25




Action Outcome       5




Condition Outcome    5




Condition Outcome    5




Action Outcome      50


Condition Outcome   50

Knowledge Outcome   10

Knowledge Outcome   10

Action Outcome      10
Knowledge Outcome   10

Action Outcome      10

Condition Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome        30




Knowledge Outcome   25

Action Outcome      25




Condition Outcome   25




Knowledge Outcome    5

Condition Outcome   20   20
Action Outcome      15
Condition Outcome   15
Condition Outcome   15
Condition Outcome   15
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Condition Outcome   10
Condition Outcome   10




Action Outcome




Action Outcome      15
Action Outcome   15




Action Outcome   15




Action Outcome   15


Action Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome   44

Knowledge Outcome   44




Condition Outcome        30
Condition Outcome         30




Knowledge Outcome        100




Knowledge Outcome        100


Condition Outcome        100




Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Condition Outcome        100
Condition Outcome       100




Condition Outcome       100




Action Outcome      0




Knowledge Outcome   0
Action Outcome   52




Action Outcome   52
Action Outcome   52
Action Outcome   52
Condition Outcome   52




Knowledge Outcome
Action Outcome   10




Action Outcome   10




Action Outcome   10
Action Outcome   10




Action Outcome   10
Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10
Knowledge Outcome   10   10


Knowledge Outcome   10   10


Knowledge Outcome   10   10


Action Outcome      10   10


Action Outcome      10   10

Action Outcome      10   10


Action Outcome      10   10

Action Outcome      10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10
Condition Outcome   10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10

Knowledge Outcome   10   10




Knowledge Outcome   50   50




Knowledge Outcome   50   50


Action Outcome      50   50
Action Outcome      50   50




Condition Outcome   50   50


Condition Outcome   40
Condition Outcome   40


Condition Outcome   40
Condition Outcome   40




Condition Outcome   40




Condition Outcome   40

Action Outcome      67
Condition Outcome   67
Condition Outcome   67




Condition Outcome   25




Knowledge Outcome   25




Condition Outcome
Action Outcome




Action Outcome
Knowledge Outcome   10
Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   25
Knowledge Outcome   25




Knowledge Outcome   25
Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Action Outcome      10




Condition Outcome   10

Action Outcome      27   27

Action Outcome      27   27




Knowledge Outcome   30
Knowledge Outcome    30




Knowledge Outcome   100




Condition Outcome   100

Knowledge Outcome    10

Action Outcome       10


Knowledge Outcome    10
Action Outcome      25




Knowledge Outcome    3




Knowledge Outcome    3




Action Outcome      40
Knowledge Outcome   27   27

Knowledge Outcome   27   27
Condition Outcome   27   27

Condition Outcome   27   27


Knowledge Outcome   23   23
Knowledge Outcome   23   23

Condition Outcome   23   23

Knowledge Outcome   23   23

Action Outcome      23   23

Action Outcome      23   23

Knowledge Outcome    0    0

Knowledge Outcome   30    0

Knowledge Outcome   30    0

Action Outcome      30    0

Condition Outcome   30    0

Knowledge Outcome   10   10

Action Outcome      10   10

Action Outcome      10   10


Knowledge Outcome    5    5

Knowledge Outcome    5    5


Knowledge Outcome
Action Outcome




Condition Outcome


Condition Outcome




Knowledge Outcome   100




Action Outcome      100




Action Outcome      100
Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10

Knowledge Outcome   10

Action Outcome      10


Action Outcome      10

Action Outcome      10

Condition Outcome   15

Condition Outcome   15




Action Outcome      32
Knowledge Outcome   32
Knowledge Outcome   32
KA PERCENTAGE - 1862 RESEARCH        KA PERCENTAGE - 1890 RESEARCH        PLAN START YEAR


                                                                     30               2007

                                                                                      2007

                                                                                      2007




                                15                                                    2007




                                15                                                    2007
13   2007
13   2007

13   2007
13   2007
13   2007

13   2007




15   2007




15   2007




15   2007
15   2007




15   2007




15   2007




15   2007




15   2007




15   2007
13   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007




20   2007




15   2007




     2007




     2007




     2007
     2007




     2007




     2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007
12   2007

12   2007
12   2007

12   2007
12   2007




     2007




     2007




     2007




     2007




     2007




     2007
2007




2007




2007
2007




2007




2007
    2007




    2007




    2007
1   2007
1   2007

1   2007
1   2007
     2007




     2007




     2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007

15   2007
15   2007
15   2007
15   2007




 1   2007




 9   2007
9   2007

9   2007
9   2007




9   2007

9   2007

9   2007

9   2007




    2007




    2007
     2007




     2007
 9   2007

 9   2007




40   2007




40   2007




40   2007
40        2007




40        2007




 5   43   2007




 5   43   2007
5   43   2007
9        2007


    50   2007

    50   2007


    50   2007


    50   2007
15   0   2007




10   0   2007




10   0   2007




10   0   2007




20       2007
20   2007




20   2007
13   2007




     2007




     2007

     2007




     2007




30   2007


30   2007
30        2007




30        2007




30        2007




15   15   2007




15   15   2007




15   15   2007
15   15   2007




30        2007




          2007
          2007




          2007




15   15   2007
20   20   2007




20   20   2007


13        2007


13        2007

13        2007




18        2007
18   2007




18   2007




18   2007

18   2007




18   2007
10   2007




10   2007




10   2007

 3   2007




 3   2007




 3   2007


 3   2007
 3   2007


 3   2007

 3   2007


 3   2007


 3   2007

 3   2007




20   2007




20   2007
     2007
     2007

     2007
     2007
     2007
     2007




20   2007




20   2007
20   2007




20   2007




     2007




     2007
          2007




     30   2007




10        2007
10        2007




10        2007




     20   2007
15        2007
15        2007


     45   2007




      0   2007




      0   2007




18        2007




          2007
17         2007
15         2007
15         2007




10         2007




     100   2007
     100   2007




     100   2007


      50   2007




15         2007




 2         2007




 2         2007
 2   2007




30   2007




30   2007




30   2007
30        2007




30        2007




30        2007


     15   2007

     15   2007
     15   2007
12        2007

12        2007
12        2007

12        2007

12        2007




30        2007

 5        2007

 5        2007

 5        2007

 5        2007

 5        2007
 5        2007


 5        2007

 5        2007


40        2007

40        2007




18        2007
40   2007




18   2007


40   2007




40   2007


40   2007

40   2007




17   2007
17        2007
15        2007
15        2007
15        2007
15        2007

15        2007
15        2007


     20   2007
15        2007


      0   2007

     20   2007


     20   2007




     20   2007

     50   2007
     50   2007

     50   2007




     50   2007




     50   2007




18        2007




          2007




          2007




          2007
20   2007
     2007
     2007




10   2007




10   2007
10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




10   2007
10   2007


40   2007


13   2007


13   2007




13   2007

13   2007




13   2007




20   2007

20   2007
20        2007

13        2007
20        2007

13        2007




20   20   2007




20        2007




20        2007

20   20   2007
     0   2007




10       2007

10       2007




 3       2007


13       2007
25   2007




25   2007




     2007
     2007
     2007




     2007
     2007
     2007

20   2007

20   2007

20   2007


 2   2007




15   2007




     2007




     2007

 5   2007
 5   2007




 5   2007


 5   2007


 5   2007
 5        2007




 5        2007




 5        2007




 5        2007




 5        2007




 5        2007


 5        2007
15        2007


 1        2007

     20   2007
 3   2007




10   2007


 1   2007

20   2007




10   2007

10   2007
    2007
    2007

    2007




    2007




3   2007
 3   2007

 5   2007

 5   2007




     2007




 0   2007




 0   2007


20   2007
10   2007




10   2007
10   2007




 7   2007




     2007




 1   2007

 5   2007

20   2007




20   2007
20        2007
     25   2007




 5        2007




 5        2007




 5        2007




50        2007


50        2007

10        2007

10        2007

10        2007
10        2007

10        2007

10        2007




     30   2007




25        2007

25        2007




25        2007




 5        2007

          2007
15        2007
15        2007
15        2007
15        2007
10        2007
10        2007
10        2007
10        2007
10        2007
10        2007




     20   2007




          2007
2007




2007




2007


2007
30        2007

30        2007




     30   2007
 30   2007




100   2007




100   2007


100   2007




      2007




      2007




100   2007
    100   2007




    100   2007




5         2007




5         2007
35   2007




35   2007
35   2007
35   2007
35   2007




 1   2007
10   2007




10   2007




10   2007
10   2007




10   2007
10   2007




10   2007




10   2007
10   10   2007


10   10   2007


10   10   2007


10   10   2007


10   10   2007

10   10   2007


10   10   2007

10   10   2007




10   10   2007




10   10   2007
10   10   2007




10   10   2007

10   10   2007




50   50   2007




50   50   2007


50   50   2007
50   50   2007




50   50   2007


          2007
          2007


          2007
     2007




     2007




     2007

15   2007
15   2007
15   2007




     2007




     2007




30   2007
80   2007




10   2007
2007
     2007




25   2007
25   2007




25   2007
2007




2007
2007
          2007




          2007

 0   27   2007

 0   27   2007




30        2007
 30   2007




100   2007




100   2007

 10   2007

 10   2007


 10   2007
25   2007




 3   2007




 3   2007




20   2007
 0   27   2007

 0   27   2007
 0   27   2007

 0   27   2007


23   23   2007
23   23   2007

23   23   2007

23   23   2007

23   23   2007

23   23   2007

 0   20   2007

30    0   2007

30    0   2007

30    0   2007

30    0   2007

10   10   2007

10   10   2007

10   10   2007


 0    0   2007

 0    0   2007


 1        2007
  1   2007




  1   2007


  1   2007




100   2007




100   2007




100   2007
10   2007




10   2007

10   2007

10   2007


10   2007

10   2007

15   2007

15   2007




30   2007
30   2007
30   2007
                           1862 EXTENSION    1890 EXTENSION    1862 RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE TARGET        OUTCOME MEASURE   OUTCOME MEASURE   OUTCOME MEASURE


                       0

                      20                     y

                      15                     y




                       2y




                       1y
    225 y
    100 y

     20 y
     20 y
     20 y

     30 y




4712669 y   y




    500 y   y




    500 y   y
100 y   y




 50 y   y




315 y   y




100 y   y




 25 y   y




500 y   y
 30 y
 50 y   y
 50 y
 20 y




 50 y   y




100 y




  0y




  0y




  0y
 2000 y




10000 y




10000   y
  150   y
   60   y
   30   y
   12   y
   20   y
    0   y
        y
   20   y
   15   y
   30   y
   60   y
   30   y
  180   y
   40   y
   40   y
  100   y
   50   y
   40   y

   65 y
      y

  100 y
50 y




 0y




 0y




 0y




 0y




 0y




 0y
0y




0y




0y
0y




0y




0y
0y




0y




0y
0    y
0    y

0    y
0    y
  4y




  2y




  4   y
  2   y
 70   y
 30   y
      y
 60   y
 65   y
100   y
100   y
 10   y
100   y
 50   y
160   y
      y
300   y
      y
100   y
295   y
 25   y
 10   y
 65   y
115   y
450   y
100 y
245 y
230 y
    y
 70 y
110 y
130 y

145   y
280   y
 65   y
 40   y




          y




  0y      y
  0y

  0y    y
  0y    y




  0y    y

  0y    y

  0y    y

  0y




100 y




100 y
 25 y




160 y
    y

    y




 70 y   y




 20 y   y




 10 y   y
   10 y   y




   10 y   y




19000 y   y




23000 y   y
300 y   y
    y   y


  0

  0


  0


  0
1500 y       y




   0y    y   y




   5y    y   y




   8y    y   y




   8y        y
20 y   y




20 y   y
  y    y




 4y




25 y

20 y




 5y




  y    y


50 y   y
   60 y       y




   75 y       y




      y       y




   10 y       y




   10 y       y




32000 y   y
 10 y   y




  0y    y




400 y
200 y




  0y




125 y   y
   3000 y       y




   1000 y


        y


        y

        y




3200000 y   y   y
5100000 y   y   y




   1600 y   y




   9000 y   y   y

   6000 y   y   y




 100000 y   y
   0     y




   0     y




   0     y

  20 y   y




   0y    y




   0y    y


2200 y   y
 100 y     y


2000 y     y

1200 y     y


 500 y     y


1800 y     y

 250 y     y




  10 y     y




  70 y     y
 150 y
  40 y

 100   y
  75   y
  30   y
  50   y




 500 y     y




   0y
 10 y




  0y




200 y




200 y
 2y




45    y




10        y
       0           y




       1           y




      20       y
       0           y
       0           y


       1       y




      90       y




       2       y




81262000 y         y




           y
30 y       y
 0         y
10         y




           y




30     y
100       y




 15       y


300       y




      y




  0           y




  0           y
0   y




0   y




0   y




1   y
0   y




0   y




0   y


0

0
     0
    40 y

     0y
     0y

     0y

     0y




               y

100000 y   y

  8000 y   y

  8000 y

  8000 y

  8000 y
  8000 y


100000 y

  4000 y


   100         y

   100         y




    70 y       y
 0     y




64 y   y


50     y




10     y


10     y

10     y




10 y   y
  3   y       y
 60   y
100   y
 75   y
120   y

  0y
  0y


  1       y
  5           y


  2       y

 20


 10       y




 45

150       y
200     y

  0




 50




 10




100 y       y




 40 y




  4y




 25 y
 20 y   y
 30 y
  4y




 30 y   y




400 y   y
 500 y   y




  25 y   y




2500 y   y




 125 y   y
         y   y


   100       y


    50       y


     5       y




     3       y

    25       y




     2       y




100000 y     y

100000 y     y
  7y    y

  0     y
200 y   y

 50     y




  0     y




  3y




 10 y

  5     y
10   y




         y

 0       y




         y


50       y
2053     y




1010     y




  20 y
    20 y
     2y




     0y
     2y
     0y

  7800 y

  3900 y

     1y    y


           y




106618 y




    20 y




    60 y

     5     y
     0     y




           y


           y


           y
        y




    y




        y




        y




        y




    y   y


        y
    y


    y   y

2
        y




    0       y


        y   y

            y




85000 y

52500 y
2y
0y

1y




6       y




    y
     y

8000 y

4000 y




   2y




         y




     y   y


  20 y
0   y




    y
          y




   25 y




    3y




   50 y   y

10000 y

    2y    y




   10 y
   5y
1010    y




  0y




  0y




  0y




  0y


  0y

  0y

  0y

  0y
   0y

   0y

 200 y




  80       y




   0y

   0y




   0y




   0y

 200   y   y
2500   y       y
2000   y       y
2000   y       y
1000   y       y
 100   y       y
  80   y       y
  40   y       y
  50 y   y
  40 y   y
  40 y   y




   0




3300 y
 1900 y




12000 y




  100 y


97000 y
 315 y       y

3625 y




 400     y
 30     y




 50     y




 20     y


  5     y




100 y




  5y




 50     y
20   y




 5   y




 0       y




50       y
25000 y   y




10000 y   y
250 y   y
2000 y   y
y




    y
50 y




50 y




40 y
20 y




10 y
10 y




50 y




30 y
0y       y


0y   y   y


0y   y


0y       y


0y   y   y

0y       y


0y       y

0y       y




0y       y




0y   y   y
 0y    y   y




 0y        y

 0y        y




 0y    y




 0y    y


 0y    y
 0y    y   y




 0y    y   y


 2y
80 y


 5y
 4y




10 y




10 y

 1y
 0y
 0y




10 y




 5y




 1     y
1   y




0   y
75 y
 25 y




270 y   y
110 y




  8y
50 y




85 y
85 y
 20 y




 50 y

  2     y

 75     y




480 y
  7     y




 10     y




  0     y

155 y

 40 y


 30 y
         y




1000 y   y




 200 y   y




 500 y
   700 y

    65     y
  2300 y

     0y


 28000 y
    60 y

  1018 y

    75 y

    60 y

     7y        y

     1

    75 y

    65 y

     4         y

  4750 y

    75 y

    55 y

    50 y


150000 y

    80 y


     2         y
5   y




0   y


0   y




0   y




0   y




0   y
     2     y




    30 y

    20 y

    20 y


    90 y

   200 y

     1     y

     1y    y




    50 y   y
300000 y   y
60 y
1890 RESEARCH
OUTCOME MEASURE   ACTUAL AMOUNT


y                                 0

                                  0

                                  0




                                  3




                                  1
     58
      0

     10
      0
      0

      0




3300000




   3102




   7288
2256




   0




 138




 276




  35




1802
   0
   0
  30
 109




  50




   0




 450




3800




 400
  450




 3800




 1500
 1127
 3389
  278
 2093
  661
   80
   12
  140
   11
   80
  122
37825
  259
  241
 1103
  178
  245
  385

  248
   12

  412
225




  0




  0




  0




  0




400




  5
0




0




0
0




0




0
0




0




0
0
0

0
0
   14




    1




    5
   24
  995
   28
 1127
  106
 3389
  659
  200
   15
   12
   20
  125
  671
37825
   31
   12
  341
   37
   12
   20
   57
  262
   6
  92
  20
 146
 120
   5
 136

  73
  28
 130
  34




   0




4650
1964

1400
 137




1179

 150

 117

   0




 393




 239
207




393
100

690




 79




 20




  1
   50




   10




23439




25500
    716
     80


y     0

y     1


y     0


y     0
1482




   5




   1




   1




  40
20




29
  1




  9




261

238




  0




 61


 80
       84




       20




     1814




       50




        1




y   29827
     5




342000




   100
     0




     0




   438
  12296




    120


     10


     38

      5




4593474
1791171




  12478




  12968

   6239




 123088
  0




  0




  0

 42




  0




  0


869
171


170

346


200


301

119




 10




 70
125
 55

125
150
 50
 65




627




  0
 25




  0




350




250
     2




y   52




    10
           0




           2




          20
          23
         140


y         30




          50




           1




    58000000




           0
1048
   0
   0




   0




 100
150




  0


638




  0




  0




  0
0




6




3




0
    4




    7




    8


y   0

y   0
y         0
          0

          0
          0

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 0




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y   102


y    19




y   120

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y     7




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  0
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 44




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1400000

 409570
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   0




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y   2550




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 10268

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   73
85000
41
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - ISSUES




The future of Northeast agriculture lies largely in the ability of the small farm sector to thrive.

Educators need to address the small farm needs to learn entrepreneurial rather than
commodity-based production skills.




In October 2001, the Connecticut Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Aquaculture
introduced a new permitting system to the marine aquaculture industry. Because no two
aquaculture projects are alike in Connecticut, applications have been reviewed on a case-by-
case basis which has led to uncertainty on the part of the grower about application
requirements, process time, and permit conditions, liability, etc.
As UVM Extension enters the 21st century, there is a need to have in-depth knowledge on
the state's dairy industry for program direction. In Vermont, the dairy industry historically
accounts for more than 80% of the states agricultural income. But the dairy industry has been
undergoing dynamic changes. Today, Vermont has fewer than 1500 dairy farms which are
larger, more productive, but still facing pressures of growing in the future to remain
economically viable.




Livestock and Poultry, including poultry processing, are significant sources of income for
Arkansas. Especially considering that many participants in the livestock and poultry industry
are older and lower income citizens, animal and animal products provide a substantial
portion of income for many Arkansans, who may not have other options




Economic and environmental sustainability were two of the most critical issues to Arkansas
livestock and poultry producers. Management at the production level is the most direct
method of producer impact on these issues. During 2007, soaring costs of feed, fertilizer and
fuel and challenging environmental regulations pertaining to use of poultry litter as fertilizer
were foremost on the minds of. Addressing these issues will determine the viability of animal
agriculture in Arkansas.




Economic and environmental sustainability were two of the most critical issues to Arkansas
livestock and poultry producers. Management at the production level is the most direct
method of producer impact on these issues. During 2007, soaring costs of feed, fertilizer and
fuel and challenging environmental regulations pertaining to use of poultry litter as fertilizer
were foremost on the minds of. Addressing these issues will determine the viability of animal
agriculture in Arkansas.
Economic and environmental sustainability were two of the most critical issues to Arkansas
livestock and poultry producers. There are practices that can help deal with these challenges.
Oftentimes, small producers who make up a large percentage of Arkansas producers are not
aware of new issues and the solutions that may be available.




Allied industries provide products and services to livestock and poultry producers.


Refereed Journals are the gold standared for documenting the quality of research and
extension information and ensuring that the information is made available to the world's
scientific community.




In addition to the traditional reasons for record keeping,other issues are forcing greater
requirements for record keeping, environmental regulations for poultry litter application on
pasture, new tracability requirements by industry to document management practices, and
the looming requirements by government to comply with country of origin labeling.




The poultry industry in Arkansas is vertically integrated. Decisions about adoption of
technology are made by the integrators working with allied industry personnel.




Economic and environmental sustainability were two of the most critical issues to Arkansas
livestock and poultry producers. There are practices that can help deal with these challenges.
Oftentimes, small producers who make up a large percentage of Arkansas producers are not
aware of new issues and the solutions that may be available.
Allied industries provide products and services to livestock and poultry producers.




Established best management practices for quality and profitability of ownership, production
and use help customers make changes to improve livestock, operations,utility of animals
owned and save time or money.

The poultry industry in Arkansas is vertically integrated. Decisions about adoption of
technology are made by the integrators who convey that information to their contract
growers via their technical service personnel. However, growers must make decisions about
environmental regulations, litter disposal, permitting and verification of practices.

Forages represent a significant renewable natural resource for Missouri with more than 9.7
million acres in pastures and harvested forages. Missouri produces 7.1 million tons of hay
(including alfalfa hay) or 4.7 percent of the total hay produced in the United States. The
management-intensive grazing schools teach producers how to manage this natural resource
in an environmentally friendly way and for increased profit.




Cow-calf producers in Missouri suffer from low farm income and small profit margins. Nearly
half of their income is spent for livestock feed during January, February, and March. Hay
represents about 90 percent of the cost for winter feed. In addition, commodity feed prices
have nearly doubled in the past six months, making supplemental feeding expensive.




Fescue toxicosis is the most damaging forage-based livestock disorder in Missouri. It has an
estimated $144 million economic impact annually on the Missouri livestock industry.
Forages represent a significant renewable natural resource for Missouri with more than 9.7
million acres in pastures and harvested forages. Missouri produces 7.1 million tons of hay
(including alfalfa hay) or 4.7 percent of the total hay produced in the United States. The
management-intensive grazing schools teach producers how to manage this natural resource
in an environmentally friendly way and for increased profit.




Cow-calf producers in Missouri suffer from low farm income and small profit margins. Nearly
half of their income is spent for livestock feed during January, February, and March. Hay
represents about 90 percent of the cost for winter feed. In addition, commodity feed prices
have nearly doubled in the past six months, making supplemental feeding expensive.




Missouri's dairy producers are struggling. Since 1993, 51 percent of Missouri's family dairies
have exited the dairy business due to high feed costs, expensive capital investment and low
profit margins. To respond to this trend, dairy producers are adopting the pastured-based
dairy model so they can lower feed costs, minimize capital investments, increase profit and
protect the environment.
To sell to any of the major packers, producers are required to be certified through the
National Pork Board's Pork Quality Assurance (PQA) program. After 10 years of that
requirement, in 2007 the PQA Plus program was launched and is replacing PQA Level III. PQA
Plus includes an animal welfare component in addition to the food safety focus and those
who certify producers in PQA Plus must take a 4-hour training course and pass an
examination.


Pork producers in Missouri must have the ability to maintain a competitive infrastructure as
the number of pig farms has experienced a continuous decline nationally. Missouri's number
one industry is agriculture, and it is important that pork producers be allowed to use the
competitive advantages this state offers for pork production.




The swine industry has been very dynamic and competitive through the beginning of this
century. This industry has embraced change, and those producers who have resisted change
have seen the industry pass them by. Most who are resistant to change have exited the
industry.




The swine industry has been very dynamic and competitive through the beginning of this
century. This industry has embraced change, and those producers who have resisted change
have seen the industry pass them by. Most who are resistant to change have exited the
industry.

Declining profits of traditional dairy operations have increased the demand for systems that
can maintain profitability of the family-sized dairy operation. Economic data has been
collected since 1998 from pasture-based operations that clearly demonstrate the profitability
of this dairy system. Success in this type of operation requires an understanding of not only
the scientific aspects, but also the art of effectively managing pasture-based systems.

The key to Missouri's dairy future is optimizing use of the forage base to reduce feed costs.
During the past several years, dairy producers have experienced large variations in milk price.
The average price received was $13.25 per hundredweight in 2006 and approximately $19.45
in 2007. At the same time, input costs for items such as feed, labor, machinery and supplies
have continued to increase. High input costs have affected profit margins and forced many
dairy producers to explore alternative management strategies to remain competitive.
The audiences targeted in this program include regional extension livestock specialists,
veterinarians, and farmers across Missouri that are actively involved in cow-calf production
and marketing. Technology transfer with respect to the management practices involved is not
size dependent but rather farmer dependent in terms of introducing a fundamental change in
approach to management and marketing that affects a farmer's profitability profile.




Continuation of low adoption rates of best management practices in the United States will
ultimately erode the competitive position of the U.S. cattle industry. Other countries are
adopting new technologies for animal production more rapidly than the United States. Unless
owners of commercial cow herds aggressively implement reproductive and genetic
improvement, the U.S. will lose its competitive advantage in production of high-quality beef.




Veterinarians serve as key information sources for U.S. beef producers and are essential in
facilitating the adoption of various reproductive procedures. Nearly two-thirds (60.8%) of
cow-calf producers cited their veterinarian as a "very important" source of information for
their cow-calf operation, including health, nutrition, production and management.
Veterinarians provide expertise in the areas of health, assessment of reproductive potential,
fetal aging and pregnancy diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds (60.8%) of cow-calf producers cited
their veterinarian as a "very important" source of information for their cow-calf operation,
including health, nutrition, production and management.




The Missouri Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program was designed to improve
reproductive efficiency of beef herds in Missouri and increase individual farm income. The
program objectives include: 1) a total quality management approach for health and
management of heifers from weaning to late gestation; 2) increased marketing opportunities
for, and added value to, Missouri-raised heifers; and 3) the creation of reliable sources of
quality commercial and purebred replacement females.


Continuation of low adoption rates of best management practices in the United States will
ultimately erode the competitive position of the U.S. cattle industry. Other countries are
adopting new technologies for animal production more rapidly than the U.S. Unless owners
of commercial cow herds aggressively implement reproductive and genetic improvement, the
U.S. will lose its competitive advantage in production of high-quality beef.
Continuation of low adoption rates of best management practices in the United States will
ultimately erode the competitive position of the U.S. cattle industry. Other countries are
adopting new technologies for animal production more rapidly than the U.S. Unless owners
of commercial cow herds aggressively implement reproductive and genetic improvement, the
U.S. will lose its competitive advantage in production of high-quality beef. International
players that are more technically astute and competitively advantaged will position
themselves to dominate the production and sale of high-quality beef worldwide.




Missouri ranks second in the United States in the number of beef cows in production with
over 2 million cows on 68,000 farms. The sale of cattle and calves contributes nearly 20
percent annually to Missouri's total farm cash receipts. The definitive outcome of this
program was intended in part to add value to beef heifers by expanding marketing
opportunities as a result of technology adoption, production verification, collective action
and best management practices.




Missouri ranks second in the United States in the number of beef cows in production with
over 2 million cows on 68,000 farms. The sale of cattle and calves contributes nearly 20
percent annually to Missouri's total farm cash receipts. The definitive outcome of this
program was intended in part to add value to beef heifers by expanding marketing
opportunities as a result of technology adoption, production verification, collective action
and best management practices.
Agriculture support agencies on Guam are small and lack the breadth of expertise that would
be found in analogous agencies on the mainland. Island-wide the expertise pool is probably
adequate to meet the island's needs but is fragmented among several agencies.
Consequently, farmers have difficulty accessing information they need, or finding the
expertise to explain key concepts to them when they seek advice.

Sustainable conservation innovation and education through inter-agency collaborations aims
to pioneer innovative solutions using new conservation practices that are unique to the
island community. Collaboration with agencies such as Guam Department of Agriculture,
NRCS, Chamorro Land Trust Commission and the Soil and Water Conservation Districts have
been established to leverage expertise and other resources such as field outreach staff and
field demonstrations among government and non-government entities in an effort to
improve outreach and education of stakeholders.

The absence of sites demonstrating conservation best management practices, awareness of
financing options along with limited farmer-to-farmer discussions on the "nuts and bolts" and
benefits of implementing conservation best management practices limits farmer ability to
capitalize on new and innovative ways to farm. Because Guam is a small island our land area
for farming and limited water supply is threatened by harmful farming practices. Producers,
consumers and the whole island community will be affected when water supplies decrease or
become contaminated by chemicals and other substances. It is crucial to educate farmers
and producers on conservation practices as well as source and access funding for them to
employ and adopt the best management practices that conserve natural resources while still
yielding an economic benefit.
Improper feeding and inadequate diets during all life stages (broodfish, larvae and juvenile)
can result in poor production performance. This project examines the nutrition and feeding
of marine fish to improve production performance (survival, growth, and reproductive
performance)during different life stages.




Pork Producers are in need of current, relevant information to insure that they remain
competitive. There are few organized educational programs available in the State of Indiana.
As the largest pork producing area of the state, the Clinton-Carroll County area is an
appropriate location for a program of this type to be held during the winter.
With the rising cost of inputs such as fuel, fertilizer, and labor, the profit margins in all areas
of production agriculture become smaller. In order for ruminant livestock producers to
remain profitable or become profitable once again, they need to be time efficient and make
the most of their resources. Implementing management-intensive grazing offers this
opportunity by reducing labor requirements and eliminating waste.




Indiana is experiencing significant growth in the animal agriculture sector, much in the form
of CAFOs, and many Indiana citizens are concerned about the impact these farms might have
on their communities. Purdue has brought together a wide range of experts to address and
research different concerns surrounding CAFOs. Our goal is to afford consumers, producers,
and community leaders the ability to make well-informed decisions regarding issues
coinciding with the expansion of animal agriculture.




Cow-calf production is a major livestock enterprise in West Virginia but long term costs have
been high compared to income. Feed is about 75% of total production cost and hay often
accounts for half of the feed cost and about a third of total cost. Extending the grazing
season minimizes hay feeding while knowing hay production costs allows farmers to fine tune
management to reduce costs and enables them to know what is reasonable to pay for hay or
for producing additional fall or winter grazing.




Best Management Practices (BMP) are taught to cattle producers participating in WV Beef
Quality Assurance Marketing Pools and other livestock and hay producers. At the end of each
training they are given an opportunity to indicate their willingness to adopt one of the BMPs.
Best Management Practices (BMP) are taught to cattle producers participating in WV Beef
Quality Assurance Marketing Pools and other livestock and hay producers. At the end of each
training they are given an opportunity to indicate their willingness to adopt one of the BMPs.




The WVU Grassland program helps West Virginia cow-calf and hay producers increase farm
profitability so that grassland agriculture is competitive and sustainable. This includes
information on improving hay quality through harvest and storage management.




Corn co-products are increasing in supply as the ethanol industry grows in Iowa. These
products are excellent feed for cattle. The wet product is better than the dry for cattle, it
saves energy by not drying, and is cheaper for corn at locations near the plant. It is a win-win
situation for the plant and cattle producers.

Iowans are increasingly concerned about water quality, and small, open feedlot cattle
operations often contribute to this concern. DNR and NRCS are charged with improving
water quality through regulation and technical assistance, respectively. Producers have a
strong stewardship ethic, but are often not aware of the specific risk caused by their
operations. Solid settling and practical treatment of feedlot effluent are necessary to protect
the water quality from open feedlots.

Cost control continues to be a priority in production agriculture. Beef producers in particular
face rising land and feed prices, but they may have opportunities to reduce costs by using
corn co-products and innovative management. Price premiums are being offered for cattle
with proven age or production practices. However, proof based on an accredited third-party
provider will be necessary to capture the higher prices.
Beef cow herds face a double challenge from the emerging ethanol industry. The higher price
of feed results in lower prices for the calves they sell, as feedlots have higher feeding cost.
Land prices and rent, a major input, are driven up with higher grain prices. Cow herds must
find ways to improve their efficiency to remain sustainable.




Iowa cattle producers, as a segment, are younger than all farmers, and a relatively high
percentage of them anticipate that a son or daughter will continue the cattle enterprise into
the future. Both generations need to prepare and implement a well thought-out plan to
ensure success.




Maple shoot borer is a major pest of nursery-grown maples which comprise about 30% of
total wholesale landscape plant sales in Kentucky or nearly $5 million annually. Infestation of
a tree's central leader causes undesirable forked growth form. Training a new central leader
is costly and despite those corrective measures, the trunk incurs a crook that reduces tree
value.




Since the decline of the tobacco industry in Kentucky, individuals have looked many places
for a single commodity to replace tobacco that simply isn't there. Because of Kentucky‚'s vast
forage base, numerous small farms and proximity to markets nationwide, beef production
offers one of the greatest hopes for the agricultural economy in the commonwealth.
The Kentucky Master Cattleman Program continues to be an integral part of the
comprehensive effort underway to replace diminishing tobacco revenue by improving
Kentucky's expanding beef-forage operations. It is a collaborative effort of the University of
Kentucky College of Agriculture, Kentucky Cattlemen's Association, and Kentucky Beef
Network.


The costs associated with the production of Guinea fowl need to minimized for producers to
realize maximum profit as this species becomes more accepted in American diets.
Optimum floor space utilization can minimize production costs and increase profitability of
Guinea fowl production.
There are currently no guidelines for optimum amino acid and mineral nutrition
requirements for Guinea fowl. As commercial production of this species increases, such
requirements must be known to optimize producer efficiency.
There are currently no guidelines for optimum amino acid and mineral nutrition
requirements for Guinea fowl. As commercial production of this species increases, such
requirements must be known to optimize producer efficiency.
Johne's disease is a chronic gastrointestinal disease of ruminants with significant economic
impact on dairy and beef cattle operations in Virginia. There is concern the organism causing
Johne's disease is involved in causation of Crohn's Disease in humans. The United States
Department of Agriculture's implementation of the voluntary, National Animal Identification
System will protect the health of the U.S. livestock industry and preserve consumer
confidence. The pillar of this process is the registration of individual farms, or premises into a
national data base.

The Chesapeake Bay Program and cooperating states seek to achieve large reductions in
nutrient loadings to the Bay by 2010. In seeking to meet the Commonwealth's 2010 targets
for nutrient loss reductions from crop farms, a number of best management practices
(BMP's) were recommended and producers receive cost share funding to implement most of
them. Specifically, five BMP's have been targeted for adoption because they are believed to
offer the greatest potential benefit.

By 2010, Virginia is committed to making significant reductions of sediment, nitrogen, and
phosphorus to the Chesapeake Bay waters. The tributary strategies developed for each
major watershed are counting on agriculture to provide the largest share of reductions
because pound for pound agriculture can do it more efficiently.

Improved financial security of individuals, families, and agricultural businesses is critical for
the long-term economic health of Virginia. Profitable and successful farms and small
businesses are the cornerstone of robust families and the communities in which they live.
Crop and livestock producers need to balance farm and feed resources to maximize profits.




Iowa leaders and rural citizens recognize the positive economic impact of keeping or
increasing livestock agriculture, including dairy farms, a part of the Iowa economy.
Regionally, these operations contribute to rural community economic viability by keeping
families and trade nearby. Economists estimate that for every 100 cows, approximately 2
jobs are created on farm, and 1 off-farm. When factoring the full value of goods and services
required to serve dairy operations, it is estimated that each cow generates $13,000 in
economic activity. In short, dairy operations have a strong positive impact on local and state
economy, and efforts to retain existing farms and bring in new farms and new farmers
contribute to the Iowa economy.
With rising bedding and energy costs, producers and industry are interested in evaluating and
implementing alternative bedding option and renewable energy strategies.




Good herd management and herd health management are necessary to achieve productive,
profitable herds. Dairy owners and the general public both benefit from efforts to keep Iowa
herds healthy. Herd management measures that result in good cow health typically translate
to successful production parameters such as low cull rate due to sickness or death, good
reproductive performance, high quality milk, and average to above average volumes of milk.
These production parameters affect the profitability of the dairy herd business. Healthy herds
produce wholesome milk going to milk processors and ultimately to the general public in the
form of fluid milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream.

Controlling mastitis is an important strategy to achieving quality milk production. Mastitis is
estimated to cause $1 billion loss to dairy industry annually. 50% of mastitis begins in dry
cow phase and can manifest during cows‚' lactation phase as clinical mastitis, with resulting
lost milk production. Additionally, research shows that 50% of heifers calve already with
mastitis.
Biomass energy sources can reduce energy usage impacts on the environment. The
production of electricity and fuels from biomass resources reduces pollution, greenhouse
gases, energy usage and dependence on foreign energy. Vermonts agricultural economy is
causing some traditional dairy farms to look at diversifying towards enterprises such as
organic farming, and nursery and bedding crops. Energy produced from crops such as hay,
corn soybeans or canola could keep Vermont agricultural viable.

WVBQA Certification for producers comes from attending Level I & II BQA training sessions
which outline program requirements and provides hands on management skills. Once that is
completed producers must sign a BQA contract and remain an integral part of a beef
operation in order to maintain membership. Cattlemen are required to re-certify every two
years.




Adoption of the BQA principals and best management practices is one of the best methods of
risk management tools available to beef producers. Adoption of BQA best management
practices not only keeps calves healthier but is good for business, too. Healthier calves
reduce cost and increase performance from the farm gate to the consumer‚'s plate.
Producers adopting the principles of BQA are better prepared for the risk and constant
change of the market.


BQA is designed to enhance carcass quality by preventing residues, pathogen contamination
and carcass defects such as injection site blemishes and bruises.




Substandard fertility, health, and survival of dairy cows are the most mentioned challenges of
dairy producers today.
Animal manure often contains antibiotics as a result of therapeutic and subtherapeutic use in
livestock production. There is concern that dissolved antibiotics could potentially reach
surface and ground waters, but actual research data is lacking.




Water quality is a significant issue in the Mid-Atlantic especially in the Chesapeake Bay
drainage area. Phosphorus is a nutrient of concern by federal and state agencies. Reduction
of phosphorus excretion results in less potential for pollution due to water runoff from fields.




The improvement in milk quality affects all aspects and areas of the industry, starting with
the producer and ending with the consumer. The producer sees the benefit in increased
production and achieving quality bonuses leading to an increase in profitability. The higher
quality milk leads to an increased shelf life and improvement in flavor, both affecting the
processor and the consumer.




Livestock projects (beef, sheep, swine, dairy, equine, poultry) and events provide a vehicle for
educating youth about the importance of animal agriculture to society and are instrumental
in developing life skills in youth. Participation in youth livestock projects serve as a
foundation for stimulating career choices in agriculture, and provide a vehicle for the
dissemination of knowledge to the public.
Declining burley tobacco production has resulted in economic losses to local communities in
Southwest Virginia. With a prime climate, suitable topography, and an abundance of forage
the region is well suited for livestock production systems as an alternative to tobacco.




The UMN dairy team continues to make an impact on the health and economic welfare of the
dairy industry by working with dairy producers and partners. An ongoing effort increases
dairy income by reducing somatic cell counts.




West Virginia waterways need to be managed in ways that bring value to citizens through
aquaculture production.




Trout is the primary aquaculture product for WV useful for both food and recreation.
Increasing production and market demand will encourage growth of the aquaculture industry
in WV.


The Virginia Beef Quality Assurance Program (BQA) educates and certifies beef producers in
best management practices to improve the safety and quality of beef. The program provides
information to beef producers on coupling animal management techniques with accepted
scientific knowledge to raise cattle under optimum management and environmental
conditions. BQA guidelines enhance trust and confidence in the entire beef industry.
Certified producers are required to obtain 10 hours of training credit every 5 years to
maintain their certification

In addition,
there is a need to deliver educational information to livestock and forage producers in SC that
will enhance their production systems in a variety of ways.

Public concern over the management of animal manure has become a major environmental
issue in South Carolina, with major focus on water quality (surface and groundwater) and
gaseous emissions including odors. There is less tolerance for odors yet more potential for
neighbors to be impacted by odors because of the location of operations in communities.
Social problems have created an ever-increasing hostility between animal producers and
neighbors. In addition, animals have not been efficient users of nutrients supplied in their
diets. Therefore, significant plant nutrients are found in animal manures. These nutrients,
particularly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, are needed for crop inputs for our major
crops of corn and soybean. Surveys indicate that nearly one half of all animal manure applied
to land is not credited as a nutrient source. Therefore, animal manure nutrients may be
applied at excessive rates if better management practices are not adopted, which can lead to
both surface and groundwater pollution. Clemson is the sole source for providing training as
required by law for all livestock and poultry producers to receive their waste permits.

The Confined Animal Manure Management Training Program (CAMM) is an educational
program that is required by state law for all livestock and poultry producers as a condition of
their waste permit. All new producers must attend the program within one year of beginning
operation. A new version of the state regulation, passed in 2002, requires that all existing




Improving feed and nutrition programs for livestock has the potential to improve significantly
since feed can bee 60-80% of the production costs.
Proper management of livestock is critical for their optimal health and performance.
Improvement in care practices can have immediately impact on farm income. Research and
outreach (educational) programs for farmers on animal care and management offer
continuous opportunities to improve the farming operation and the general welfare of the
livestock.

Youth participation in animal projects and events can have a significant impact on a youth's
development. Some specific areas where a youth can experience personal growth include:
learning to accept and manage responsibility, improved self-confidence, improved time
management, public speaking, organizational skills, and people skills.




In order for knowledge from research to have optimal impact on farm income and
sustainability, farmers must adopt these practices in a timely manner.
Educational and outreach programs that encourage the proper record and organization skills
are needed to improve the potential for success of our farmers.
As public funds available for youth activities decrease, private funding of youth scholarships is
imperative for the success of our youth programs. These funds serve to assist youth in
pursuing their education and serve to improve the link between the local citizens with their
community businesses.
Improvements in the swine industry are key to maintaining optimally priced, high quality
food for US consumption and for export.




Aquaculture is a growing food animal sector that has great economic promise, as well as
increased commodity supply potential, if production efficiencies can be made.




The effects of breed, weaning age and post-weaning diet on cattle health, growth rate,
efficiency of gain, and carcass characteristics are areas of inquiry that is needed by
stakeholders.
Animal management systems strive to go beyond quality of life, quality of production and
increased knowledge as a significant outcome. For many production enterprises this is
reduced cost or increased profit.


Knowledge gains prompt adoption of practices that improve the quality of beef cattle, dairy
cattle, horses, sheep/goats, prompt time savings and increase confidence in decision-making
and problem solving for livestock producers and youth involved in the livestock industry.




Livestock producers throughout Wyoming face an ever changing industry with issues such as:
increasing cost of production, increasing pressure for individual animal identification,
changing requirements for marketing knowledge. Livestock accounts for approximately 78
percent of statewide agricultural cash receipts.


There is increasing pressure for individual animal identification. The Wyoming Livestock
Board and livestock producers need information regarding requirements and benefits.
Livestock makes up 78 percent of Wyoming cash receipts. Helping livestock producers gain
understanding of heifer development as well as matching genetic improvement with
successful marketing stragies will improve profitability.

Wyoming major agriculture industry is livestock based. Most livestock feed on forage.
Improved production of forage crops will reduce cost for livestock producers and increase
profitability.




Producers need programs and direction to help them evaluate genetic merit of herds (flocks)
and more specifically bulls, rams, bucks.




Although some management practices address issues related to improving quality and
consistency, the mechanism to make permanent change and lasting improvement is to make
appropriate genetic change. In the past, change in genetics was difficult because there was
not information available on the live animal to assess quality or intramuscular fat.
EPDs (Expected Progeny Differences) are tools used to evaluate genetic merit. However,
they are not the only tools and for some economically important traits, such as feed
efficiency, disposition, structural soundness, and fleshing ability, EPDs do not exist or are
primitive. Ultrasonography is used to evaluate percent intramuscular fat (IMF). Breeding
Soundness Exams are conducted to limit, and hopefully eliminate potential problem breeders.




In 2005, Louisiana livestock and crop producers suffered substantial losses as a result of
hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Their ability to compete and be profitable was seriously
impacted, and some were in jeopardy of loosing their businesses and farms. In order to
maintain their competitiveness/profitability and manage high costs of farm inputs, unstable
prices of farm products, and the changing demographics of consumers, there was a need for
producers to diversify operations and/or adopt alternative enterprises.

Cow-calf enterprises are critical to the economic stability of the cattle industry in Montana.
Reproductive health and estrus synchronization is important to producers in calving and
marketing.
A vaccine against brucellosis is needed to ensure that Montana remains a brucellosis free
state. Producers expect premiums for their calves raised under these conditions.
Disease outbreaks are closely monitored in Montana to ensure quality and disease free
calves are shipped to other states. Investigating the mechanisms by which calves resist lung
infections will help us better understand why these calves become susceptible to infection. In
addition, zoonotic disease outbreaks have caused the quarantine of various regions of
Montana to livestock movement.




Farm managers inquired about aerator placement.




Current production methods for fathead minnows are inefficient, with low yields and variable
sizes.


Numerous commercial baitfish farmers are still hesitant to feed their baitfish large quantities
of commercial feed because they are worried that it may deteriorate the ponds water quality
and increase fish mortalities even though scientific research has shown that feeding baitfish
improve yields and profit.
Numerous commercial baitfish farmers are still hesitant to feed their baitfish large quantities
of commercial feed because they are worried that it may deteriorate the ponds water quality
and increase fish mortalities even though scientific research has shown that feeding baitfish
improve yields and profit.




To remain economically viable and environmentally compatible in a rapidly changing world,
Nebraska ranchers and feeders and related agribusiness representatives must obtain and
incorporated new research based knowledge as quickly as possible in order to gain
efficiencies, be better stewards of our natural resources, and take advantage of new
opportunities.




Agriculture sustainability is of key concern to producers.
As fish population dwindled, people in small island communities are becoming alarmed. They
are beginning to see the importance of aquaculture as a way of promoting sustainable fish
production to help with deteriorating health and decreasing food choices and the importance
of fish for the enhancement of economic and social well being of Micronesians.




Feeding high energy diets to cows during late pregnancy adversely affects responses to cows
around and after calving, even when the cows are not too fat. First-calving heifers make up
35 to 50% of the cows in dairy herds, yet little is known about how best to manage these
heifers before calving to minimize subsequent health problems.

A major problem for many commercial aquaculturists and small pond owners is management
of aquatic macrophytes. Thousands of acres of fishponds, livestock ponds, and ditches also
have problems with aquatic vegetation. Aquatic plants thrive naturally in shallow nutrient-
rich pond environments. But the natural environment is in conflict with the conditions which
pond managers often seek to achieve. Aquatic plants tangle in the hooks and on the lines of
recreational fishers. Aquatic plants interfere with seingin of commercial ponds. Aquatic plants
clog intake manifolds on pumps in reservoirs used for irrigation. Ornamental pond owners
are sometimes very particular about which aquatic plants are aesthetically pleasing and
which aquatic plants are unwanted.
A major problem for many commercial aquaculturists and small pond owners is management
of aquatic macrophytes. Thousand of acres of fishponds, livestock ponds, and ditches also
have problems with aquatic vegetation.

A major problem for many commercial aquaculturists and small pond owners is management
of aquatic macrophytes. Thousands of acres of fishponds, livestock ponds, and ditches also
have problems with aquatic vegetation.

Fish farmers are seeking new crops to diversify their operations. Baitfish markets are
stagnant and catfish sales have dropped.




International Carcass Disposal Symposium: The potential for epidemic livestock diseases and
mass mortalities have increased the need for livestock producers and regulators to develop
state-wide and national carcass management plans. Traditional methods of carcass
management may not be capable of handling large numbers. Best practices need to be
developed, evaluated, and shared to prepare for implementation. Bio-security is an integral
part of the overall management plan.




Profitability in beef production is highly dependent on reproduction rates.




Using a byproduct of ethanol production to improve feed efficiency in cattle.
Evaluating low-phytic acid grains fed to swine.




As production costs rise, environmental concerns increase and consumer expectations
become higher, those involved in the agrifood industry are looking for ways to maximize
reproductive and performance efficiencies in a way that is economically and environmentally
sustainable and protects human and animal health.




As production costs rise, farms consolidate, environmental concerns increase and consumer
expectations become higher, those involved in the agrifood industry are looking for ways to
maximize reproductive and performance efficiencies in a way that is economically and
environmentally sustainable and protects human and animal health.




n/a
The molecular basis underpinning beef and pork quality is highly complex, and continued
advances in understanding the biological processes that contribute to the delivery of
consistent quality meat is critical to the sustainability and security of the industry. Knowledge
gained from research efforts in this area can be beneficial in defining and optimizing
management systems for quality, providing assurance of meat quality and in tailoring quality
to suit market needs.




Animal disease in the United States could seriously damage the livestock and poultry
industries. For example, eradication of avian influenza in the U.S. following an outbreak in
the mid-1980s, resulted in the destruction of 17 million birds and cost taxpayers nearly $65
million. The collective effort and vigilance of researchers, livestock producers, veterinarians
and state and local government officials is needed to ensure adequate disease surveillance
and to provide the needed resources to respond and eliminate disease outbreaks.




Vaccines, steroids, antibiotics and other substances are added to animal feed to improve
growth rates by controlling parasitic and bacterial diseases. The substances not taken up by
the animal are introduced into the environment, largely when manure is used to fertilize
croplands. Little is known about the environmental fate of many of these compounds. With
the recent major expansion in concentrated animal feedlot operations, the potential risks
from waste generated by these operations must be assessed.


Lowering feed cost is important to both, fish farmers and fish feed manufacturers.
Lowering the amount of nitrogen and phosphorous in discharged water will lower production
operational costs associated with water treatment by fish producers.
Lowering fish diet costs and reducing aquaculture wastes are important factors to fish
farmers and government regulators.




Livestock farmers face two seemingly unrelated problems: one is livestock odor, another is
the rising cost of energy inputs. It is possible that farm-based anaerobic digesters can make a
significant contribution to U.S. energy security as well as help to minimize livestock odors.
But more information is needed on the technology.




Optimum use of pasture and farm lands is of interest to dairy and other farmers who raise
livestock, as well as consumers and anyone else interested in food security and agriculture.
Consumers are increasingly interested in high quality, heathful, locally grown food that is
produced using sustainable practices.




To remain economically viable and environmentally compatible in a rapidly changing world,
Nebraska farmers, ranchers, and related agribusiness representatives must obtain and
incorporated new research based knowledge as quickly as possible. Clientele expressed
intent to implement changes based on the new information presented at UNL sponsored
events is a strong indication that the information presented was timely and of value to the
agricultural industry.
Farmers interested in increased grazing for economics, sustainability, herd health, and
product quality because it effects profitability and stewardship. Consumers who are
interested in food quality and sustainability.




To remain economically viable and environmentally compatible in a rapidly changing world,
Nebraska farmers, ranchers, and related agribusiness representatives must obtain and
incorporated new research based knowledge as quickly as possible. For the University of
Nebraska to effectively serve the needs of our clientele, our education efforts must reach a
significant portion of the farming, ranching, and related agribusiness industry in the state.

Farmers and consumers stand to benefit when regulators learn more about optimum farm
land and pasture use.


Farmers care because it effects their business and the availability and cost of land.
Consumers care because it effects the availability of locally produced food.

Farmers,consumers, conservation groups, regulators all have an interest in maintaining on-
farm diversity.

Farmers have been facing unprecedented increases in energy and feed costs.




At PCC-CRE, aquaculture workers and operators were asking for hands-on technical advise on
milkfish fry collection, needed help on proper pond management, seed production of
economically important marine fin fishes in the hatchery, grow-out of rabbit fish and grouper
in fish pens and fish cages.

At CMI-CRE, people in the six atolls are becoming more interested to learn about hatchery
work and pearl farm management.

At COM-FSM-CRE, atoll communities of Pakin and Mwoakilloa expressed their eagerness
toward establishing a community-based black pearl farm as a feasible economic development
measure and requested direct involvement in the pearl project's demonstration work and
implementing their own trial farming.
At PCC-CRE, owners of an existing fishpond in Ngechesar and clam farms in Airai were
interested in stocking rabbit fish for grow-out.

At CMI-CRE, currently there is only one existing commercial pearl farm in the Marshall
Islands. One of the objectives of setting up the farms in the different atolls was to raise
awareness of the potential of establishing a black pearl industry and providing employment
and income to indigenous people.

At COM-FSM-CRE, the project's two demonstration farms at Pakin Atoll are in a transition to
community-based commercial farms. People became aware of self-sustainable activities
inspired by the project's demonstrations of pearl production on-site Nett Point and Pakin
Atoll. Other communities in Pohnpei and private sector requested the project's assistances
and advices on forming associations such as community association (NGO) and/or pearl
farmers association to by-pass a local government bureaucracy. As expectation became
increasing, the project shifted its effort to a mass hatchery production methods and skill
training in order to cope with demand by start-up commercial farms for seedable adult pearl
oysters in a year or two.




Farm managers asked about aerator placement.


Numerous commercial baitfish farmers are still hesitant to feed their baitfish large quantities
of commercial feed because they are worried that it may deteriorate the ponds water quality.

Examinations of artificial spawning practices.

Hybrid catfish have been shown to grow faster than channel catfish with improved food
conversion efficiency, but they can not be harvested with traditional harvesting gear.




Artificial spawning of channel catfish
Increased foreign competition and higher feed costs are forcing farmers to reduce costs by
improving management practices.
Numerous request received for information about alternative species

Cool weather plankton problems may be similar to warm weather plankton problems in
tendency to bloom and crash, and toxicity. In addition, cool weather plankton may be lower
in abundance and photosynthetic activity. Zooplankton during the cool weather and
relationships with algae abundance is not known.

Off-flavor algae species that occur in warm weather may overwinter in the pond sediments
as spores. Identification of spores may allow proactive treatment to reduce warm weather
plankton problems. In addition, knowledge of algal populations leading to the warm weather
season may contribute to understanding other algal problems before they develop.


To remain economically viable and environmentally compatible in a rapidly changing world,
Nebraska farmers and related agribusiness representatives must have access to a highly
educated and trained work force in order to take advantage of new information, incorporate
new technologies, and adjust to changing economic, social, and environmental conditions.




Farmers depend on imported resources to sustain small farm operations. Resources such as
local feedstuffs and nutrients from animal waste are not fully utilized. Income from
operations are not maximized.




Producers adopting practices are low due to expenses related to making improvements in the
farm.

Replacement of breeders (swine and poultry) is always a challenge since replacement stocks
have to be imported from Hawaii or the US mainland. It is expensive and bureaucratic.
Adopting practices for regular replacement of broodstock will save time and money, allowing
farmers to extend production stages of breeders.
The population of the CNMI, with the Asian guest workers and tourists, are traditionally large
consumers of fish. With the decline of the fisheries in the oceans surrounding the CNMI,
aquaculture seems attractive, logical, and feasible on the islands. At present the CNMI is
highly dependent on imported seafood from other markets. Producing or harvesting more
fish locally, may lead to the improvement of the Commonwealth's economy; provide
increased employment to local fishermen and farmers; improve the health of its citizenry
through increased consumption of seafood; and improve the supply, quality, and freshness of
the seafood consumed locally. These are long term issues in the CNMI.




It is essential for any pork production enterprise to accurately know their cost of production.
Unfortunately, many of our clients have been so busy with the activities of a diversified farm
that they have not focused on this area, and do not know their cost of production.




Swine producers are undergoing increased scrutiny from external partners in a number of
areas. Concerns about the environment, animal well-being and food safety are major areas
of interest to the consumers, retailers, processors, as well as, producers of pork. Increasingly
pork producers are being asked to document their performance in these areas, in many cases
with third party verification of the results. A "Quality Management Systems" approach has
been found to be most effective in meeting the producers needs in these areas, as well as,
having other benefits such as increased market access, lower cost of production and
enhanced employee management capabilities.
Today's young people need to know how important livestock and crop production is to the
world and learn how they can have an active role in maintaining our state's agricultural
leadership. In order to be successful in agricultural production, youth must be well educated.
We use a variety of methods to provide to youth accurate, timely and unbiased information
in the areas of swine production and consumer information. In addition to personally useful
information, we also encourage consideration of post-secondary enrollment at Iowa State
University in animal science and human science fields.

It is important to develop and maintain a 'sustainable' agriculture industry in Iowa.
Sustainability has various components, such as economic viability, social acceptance and
environmental impact. The best way to accomplish all three areas of sustainability is to
integrate the crop and livestock industries of Iowa. Livestock are the primary users of Iowa
grown crops. Livestock produce highly valuable nutrients that are needed by the crop
producers to fertilize the land and produce the high levels of product needed for economic
viability. And the inclusion of livestock production (such as a swine finisher) in the business
plan of a crop farmer adds both diversity to the operation, and is a mechanism for a young
beginning farmer to enter agriculture. In addition, these swine production enterprises add to
the tax base of our rural communities and create jobs where the proceeds stay in the
community.

A national animal identification system is necessary to help protect American animal
agriculture from disease threats. The ability to find potentially sick or exposed animals early
in a disease outbreak is essential to controlling the outbreak quickly. The NAIS would allow
for rapid traceback of animals in the event of an outbreak, helping to limit the outbreak and
minimize the impact on markets.

The NAIS may benefit producers in other areas as well, including providing additional
marketing opportunities. The NAIS also helps uphold the reputation of Iowa and the United
States as having healthy animals, and it will promote continued confidence in American
agricultural and animal products.




The pork industry is under attack from activist groups with an agenda against animal
agriculture. One way they have attacked the animal industries is the method of penning
females during reproduction. The traditional method of housing sows in environmentally
controlled individual crates has been a target of criticism and legislative action (to ban such
pens). As a result, pork producers need to be aware of alternative group sow housing
systems and their strength and weaknesses.
An essential part of efficient production of profitable pork is to maintain a healthy herd. With
the increasing oversight over food safety and the tightening profit margins, it is imperative
for pork producers to adopt optimal animal health programs and procedures for their herds.
Information on these improved animal health protocols and procedures must come from
unbiased source of information who works with the most advanced discovery teams.


Small scale farmers, state government, consumers


Scientific communitee


Graduate students, university department, college and graduate school.


College and University administration, the scientific community, other funding agencies and
proposal reviewers.
Project PI, AES Administration. It is an indication of the impact of the publications produced
by the research program.




The project PI, AES, college and university administration, other funding agencies.

Hawaii has been transitioning from plantation agriculture (sugar and pineapple) to diversified
agriculture over the last 20 years. Hawaii imports nearly 90% of the food it consumes despite
year round growing conditions. Aquaculture is an important component of diversified
agriculture.
Grants and contracts numbers should be an output measure, not an outcome measure. We
will correct this next year.
High feed costs, transportation costs (increase by 29% in 2007), waste management issues,
and other factors are forcing the closure of many livestock operations. The last dairy on Oahu
closed in 2007, and the last egg farm on the island of Hawaii closed in 2007. Hawaii has
finally realized that too much of our food and energy have to be shipped into Hawaii and
makes us vulnerable to any disasters or other events that affect shipping into Hawaii; this
started a major coordinated effort towards sustainability
PIs, administrators, and proposal reviewers use journal impact factors as in indication of how
successfully project results have been disseminated.

Students and Professionals who are interested in the animal production, aquaculture, dairy
farming, poultry production etc.

Forage fed beef presents a niche marking opportunity for growers in the specialty foods area.
 Producers care because it has the potential to expand markets, consumers care because
they are interested in the potential health advantages of this variety of beef.




Livestock feed cost has been an on-going problem that discourages a lot of producers in
engaging themselves to farming. Pasture are poor and under-developed.Weeds overgrowing
the grass and there is lack of water source for irrigation. People's behavior are not too
receptive to change. Technical knowledge was an issue for most producers.




Inbreeding is a problem for swine and ruminants.Diseases associated with low immunity due
to genetics have been identified. In order to improve production parameters associated with
genetics, a need to upgrade the breeding stock is needed.
The primary problems are low percent calf crops weaned - research indicates average
percent calf crops of 70-75% instead of 90%, and light calf weaning weights - often around
300 or 400 lbs instead of 500 to 600 lbs. Having fewer calves for sale and fewer pounds of
calf for sale means less farm income. This lowered income for livestock means the producer's
income is less thann it's potential. Also if the producer is operating on a FSA loan or a loan
from another organization, it means he/she will have problems in repaying the loan. This will
also impact the loan agency as a defaulted or problem loan.


Mycoplasma sp. that cause mastitis are emerging mastitis pathogens. Recent reports from
Washington State University and the National Animal Health Monitoring Service concur that
emergence of this disease is correlated with increasing herd size. The US dairy population is
likely to continue to suffer from an increase in this disease as average herd size continues to
increase in the nation. Mycoplasma mastitis normally begins with high prevalence and then a
decreasing herd prevalence. Mycoplasma mastitis is an insidious disease given problems in
diagnosis and the propensity for asymptomatic carriage of the agent in cattle on the farm.

changed to Assess Epidemiology of Micoplasma Mastitis ; see added outcome.




Corn silage yields less in New York than is the case in other dairy states. New York dairy
producers need new methods to improve corn silage yields and increase quality to remain
competitive. This study offered improved management practices and hybrid
recommendations annually to New York corn silage producers, improving profitability of the
dairy industry.


Marine aquaculture industry, especially fish hatcheries.
Production of fish in ponds, tanks, raceways, or in any kind of confinement at all requires
artificial feeding and the preparation of commercial feeds by feed manufacturers, or the
formulation of experimental diets by scientists. Evaluating feedstuffs for use in aquaculture
diets may employ a number of procedures. These procedures should identify nutrient
composition, palatability, digestibility, productive value, physical and handling characteristics,
and provide economic comparisons. These analytical methods require a wet laboratory
facility equipped with modern analytical equipment to perform necessary experiments.

 Lincoln University has adequate technical expertise on board to address its aquaculture
nutrition research priorities. The expertise comprises a fish nutritionist, a laboratory
technician, and an aquaculture facility technician. However, the team needs at least two
student research assistants for help.

Lincoln University lacks both the bioassay fish tanks at the Busby farm for fish nutrition
studies and the appropriate laboratory equipment instruments and supplies for the analyses
of nutrient and tissue compositions.


Currently the United States is a major importer of seafood products which contributes to the
trade deficit. Increasing U.S. aquaculture production could reduce need for imports and
enable diversification of farm production. The relatively young aquaculture industry needs a
greater range of species and methods to be based upon to enable sustainable production.
Environmental concerns, especially those pertaining to exotics, are directing much of the
efforts to expand aquaculture to include native species. Most species already developed or
being investigated readily reach sizes suitable for the existing markets and tend to be
predators on other fishes. The latter characteristic has challenged the developers of least
cost manufactured diets to reduce the need for feedstuffs of fisheries origins (i.e. fishmeal
and fish oil).
We have decided to concentrate our efforts on bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus. It is
native to much of the United States and has a naturally more omnivorous diet that may
enable rapid development of diets using agricultural rather than fishery derived feedstuffs.
Limitations of the bluegill sunfish are also evident in limited ability to reach market size
within the 18 months desired by the aquaculture industry and their propensity to reproduce
uncontrollably in production ponds.

Many individuals involved in various aspects of agriculture do not realize the potential for
tilapia production in tank based systems. This is an enterprise that has potential for
diversifying farm income on Guam and for subsistence producers providing a significant
amount of fish for the family diet.
The water from aquaculture tanks is rich in nutrients. If it is possible to use it with drip
irrigation without clogging the lines this holds potential of providing nutrients to plants as a
by product of aquaculture production providing innovative use of current resources for a
variety of fruit and vegetable production.




To prevent disease outbreaks, the prevalence, sources, and routes of transfer of resistant
bacteria and resistance genes in livestock environments are important.

Catfish and other aquaculture enterprises (bait fish, etc.) are important sources of income for
producers in the Delta region of Arkansas. With the importation of catfish and other fishes
from around the world, profitably from Aguaculture is more and more diffcult.

The need for outreach programs on traditional and innovative conservation and production
practices is highlighted by the number of new farms on Guam spurred by the Chamorro Land
Trust agricultural lease program. These new farmers have limited farming experience.

Demonstration farms are an important tool in educating our stakeholders in conservation
programs and practices. A lack of farm community exposure to conservation programs and
practices due in part to the absence of demonstration sites that farmers can easily visit has
limited our efforts.




Embryo transfer pregnancy rates are a critical concern for beef cattle producers.
Deer damage to agriculture is one of the most significant wildlife issues in the eastern United
States. Deer also provide important opportunities for hunters and wildlife watchers. Deer
management must address the needs of all stakeholders.


Mastitis infections reduce milk production and degrade milk quality.
Trichothecene mycotoxin (T-2) toxin is best known as an immunosuppressant and
compromises growth and reproductive performance of birds.




Poor genetics has reduced returns for Tennessee beef and dairy producers.


Infertility coupled with reduced milk production in dairy cows experiencing summer heat
stress is one of the most important economic problems in the dairy industry.


Reproductive inefficiency has a dramatic negative impact on the economics of the livestock
producer.


Development of assays to determine and measure physiological stress in livestock and
companion animals has high relevance to animal welfare.

Poor quality milk in Tennessee and in the Southern Region continues to be of concern. Lost
premiums and/or penalties due to poor quality milk have a significant financial impact on
dairy producers.

Weaning constitutes a tremendous stress on the pig resulting in weight loss and increased
mortality.




Hybrid striped bass priducers want to produce fingerlings
The Latest News in Calf and Heifer Management was an instructional, hands-on training
program for anyone who feeds and manages dairy replacements in Madison County. With
dairy farming being the county's largest agricultural enterprise, it is the mainstay of close to
200 farms. Recent changes in the value of calves and heifers, makes every newborn dairy calf
worth $500 today and possibly $2,200 two years from now.




Production of fish for as both food and sport fish requires a sophisticated level of
understanding, not the least in the area of nutrition.




Changing animal waste to energy




Livestock producers face management challenges, including grazing management, in
achieving a profitable enterprise.
ETP 11B - Sheep, Goat and Rabbit Production

Consumer demand for lamb and goat meat is rising and many farmers are raising small
ruminants as a way to diversify their products and bring additional income to their
operations. Given that there are not enough sheep and goats produced in the U.S., farmers in
Alabama have a tremendous potential to expand and supply some of the growing demand for
lamb and goat meat. However, to ensure that farmers improve the efficiency of lamb and
goat production and enhance their profitability and competitiveness in the national and
world markets, educational resources in alternative animal production and technological
advances was needed.




Livestock producers, local veterinarians, and local government identified an increasing need
for veterinarian care in an area of New York State that is experiencing a dwindling supply of
large animal veterinarians. There are only 8 large animal veterinarians to serve the needs of
livestock producers in Chenango County.
Investments that improve cow comfort on dairy farms can often result in increased
productivity that can then result in increased profitability for the farm operation. Dairy
farmers are becoming increasingly aware of the impact cow comfort has on milk production
and overall profitability. Opportunities to improve cow comfort exist on many of the local
dairy farms with older facilities.




Supplemental feed is the largest expense for most livestock producers, accounting for up to
50% of variable production costs. A producer with inadequate knowledge of nutrition tends
to overfeed (incurring unnessary cost) or underfeed (jeopardizing reproductive performance
and animal health). Most beef producers in Oregon have not fully utilized modern nutritional
techniques and technologies to imporve their feeding efficiency.




Disaster and Emergency Preparedness for Small Ruminant Producers

Small Animal and Small Farm Profitability and Sustainability. Meat-goat production,
management, and marketing continue to drive Florida A&M University Research and
Extension Programs through its Small Animal Meat-Goat Program. Significant production
information continues to be requested by small farmers and other enthusiast throughout the
world.
Increased animal production and decline in the numbers of producers in the U.S. have led to
megascale livestock operations. The confinement of animals on relatively small land areas
has resulted in the accumulation and need for disposal of large amounts of animal wastes
worldwide. Among the most common causes of viral infectious diarrhea in pigs, porcine
noroviruses (PoNoVs), porcine sapoviruses (PoSaVs), and rotaviruses [(RVs)-group A, B and C]
are of particular concern because of their environmental stability, resistance to disinfectants
and prolonged infectivity in feces. With a greater opportunity for horizontal spread of
infectious agents among closely confined animals, manure contains pathogens that can be
transmitted to other animals, to farm workers or to the public via contaminated meat
products, vegetables or water sources.




Environmental impacts from the food animal industry have both economic and social costs;
reduction of such impacts benefits both the industry and society as a whole.
Alternative nutrition strategies have the potential to impact business decisions in the animal
industry yielding higher profitability, healthier animals, and or improved product and pricing.

Pig farmers are concerned because of inbreeding of their stock which has manifest itself in
lower production, due to increased mortality and overall slower growth. There is a need to
introduce biodiversity in the local pig gene pool, not only from an inbreeding perspective but
a homeland security one as well.




As an example: Early season pasture forage for livestock grazing is lacking in Oregon, and
producers must purchase harvested feed to supplement animals on sparse pasture.




Due high production inputs,few farmers were able to market their produce. Culturally,
produce are used for personal party and gatherings.
Island locations are prone to water contaminations. Soil are porous and are easily
contaminated that will result to water pollution in both ground and surface waters.The
campaign to transfer swine farmers to dry litter system has been a challenged for island
farmers. Probably because of limited service of the sole island chippers available to them.




Violations to the Livestock Show Reform Law 901-19 are recorded yearly. Some of these
violations are from illegal use of medications to enhance the appearance of an animal, and
others are from using either uninformed and/or poor management techniques.. The result
could be violative levels of drug residues as well as the use of un approved substance for
animal production.




It is our hope that the impact of QA training is long term and will impact production practices
of future producers.

Aside from organized QA sessions the youth in the state of Ohio that come to the state fair
are challenged in the area of QA through activities that are presented to them during the
State Skillathon Competitions during the Ohio State Fair. Youth that truly comprehend this
information excel in this are of the Ohio State Fair confirming that the Ohio QA program is
impacting the way that youth think about responsible livestock production. .




{ Forage-livestock production systems make a significant contribution to agricultural output in
Ohio. There is a need for educational programs and materials to assist clientele in developing
forage production and utilization systems that are profitable, environmentally sound, and
socially acceptable.

{ To increase participants knowledge about forages and grazing in order to increase net
profits, improve environmental quality and quality of life for farm families.
In 2005, Louisiana livestock and crop producers suffered substantial losses as a result of
hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Their ability to compete and be profitable was seriously
impacted, and some were in jeopardy of loosing their businesses and farms. In order to
maintain their competitiveness/profitability and manage high costs of farm inputs, unstable
prices of farm products, and the changing demographics of consumers, there was a need for
producers to diversify operations and/or adopt alternative enterprises.


{ Recycling animal manure nutrients in an economic, environmental and social manner is a
concern for food animal production facilities and neighbors within proximity and associated
communities.
{ Manure nutrient recycling practices are scrutinized more closely by various individuals in
proximity of food production facilities.

{ Recycling animal manure nutrients in an economic, environmental and social manner to
protect water quality is a concern for food animal production facilities and neighbors within
proximity and associated communities.
Growth rates of modern commercial broilers have a tendency to be reduced, whereas
efficiency of nutrient utilization and carcass yields have increased in modern strains of
broilers. To optimize profitability in commercial broilers, amino acid feeding regimes must be
fed in a strain-specific manner. Meeting amino acid needs in these new commercial strains
must be assessed, but care should be taken as amino acid nutrition represents significant diet
cost.




The producers of farm animals.




Mastitis is the most costly disease of dairy cattle, reducing protein in milk, cheesemaker
yields, shelf life, palatability, and dairy farm income. Treating mastitis and discarding the milk -
- or culling the cow from the herd -- can cost farmers dearly. In most developed dairy
countries, milk quality is measured by the somatic cell count, and the bacterial count
("standard plate count" or SPC) in pre-pasteurized bulk tank milk. Somatic cells are mainly
white blood cells that function as early warning signals when bacteria such as those causing
mastitis invade the udder. Commercial buyers consider milk containing less than 200,000
somatic cells per milliliter (SCC/ml) "good" quality.
To curb conflict and protect water resources as suburbs and dairy farms expand, the
Wisconsin legislature enacted the Livestock Facilities Siting Law -- Wisconsin Act 235,
implemented in 2006 by predictable uniform standards defined in Wisconsin Administrative
Code Chapter ATCP 51. This law can only be applied where communities adopt zoning
ordinances for siting large dairy or livestock operations with 500 or more animal units -- at
1,000 pounds per AU, about 360 Holstein cows.




For Wisconsin's 10,000 farmers still milking in old-fashioned tie stall barns, staying in business
means replacing or converting aging buildings. Yet reinvesting hundreds of thousands of
dollars in a new milking parlor, freestall barn and manure handling system remains cost-
prohibitive for some and too great a risk for others.




As dairy producers update their facilities and add more cows to their herds, they need
consistent, reliable employees trained in modern dairy practices. Needs Assessments
conducted in Brown and Outagamie Counties confirmed that farm safety is a major concern,
yet no safety program existed. Skid steer farm accidents are common, sometimes resulting in
death. As more farms employ Spanish-speaking workers and run skid steer loaders around
the clock, bilingual safety trainings are also needed.


n/a
One example is where federal and international officials have expressed deep concern about
the wide spread sickness and death of humans should a mutation of the Asian strain high
path avian influenza become transmissible from human to human. There would be a resulting
severe economic impact from such a pandemic as well. The disease has not been found in the
USA to date and the federal government is dedicated to finding outbreaks early and
eradicating them. Small flock owners need to know what bird flu would look like and who to
call. For this reason, there has been a growing concern by researchers that small backyard
flocks are a likely target for Asian strain high path avian influenza and possible human
infection.
Educating youth about aminal management systems will better prepare future farmers to
raise animals and have profitable businesses.




The goal of the project is to facilitate future collaborative research between the American
Institute for Goat Research of Langston University and institutions in Arabic-, Chinese-,
French-, and Spanish-speaking countries, as well as to gain knowledge of goat research and
production practices in other areas of the world. Objectives are to translate and adapt two
web-based goat production and research decision-support tools developed at the American
Institute for Goat Research (goat nutrient requirements and feed intake; goat production
system simulation model) for use and future collaborative research in the Middle East, China,
France and other French-speaking countries, and Central and South America.
The goal of the project is to facilitate future collaborative research between the American
Institute for Goat Research of Langston University and institutions in Arabic-, Chinese-,
French-, and Spanish-speaking countries, as well as to gain knowledge of goat research and
production practices in other areas of the world. Objectives are to translate and adapt two
web-based goat production and research decision-support tools developed at the American
Institute for Goat Research (goat nutrient requirements and feed intake; goat production
system simulation model) for use and future collaborative research in the Middle East, China,
France and other French-speaking countries, and Central and South America.
Fish producers need additional marketing opportunities to offset low prices from processors
and competition from imported catfish products. Consumers, particularly ethnic consumers,
want access to scaled fish.




Fish producers need additional marketing opportunities to offset low prices from processors
and competition from imported catfish products. Consumers, particularly ethnic consumers,
want access to scaled fish.
Fish producers need additional marketing opportunities to offset low prices from processors
and competition from imported catfish products. Consumers, particularly ethnic consumers,
want access to scaled fish.

Over 50% of all farms in Oregon are less than 50 acres in size but still constitute an important
contribution to the economy and represent an important group of people needing assistance
with management of natural resources.


Agriculture and natural resources will continue to be an important part of the economy of
rural and urban Oregon. Landowners of less than 50 acres with livestock and horses
represent a growing segment of the farming community. Many have little or no experience
raising animals and need assistance with management of natural resouces and new
enterprises.




Home owners in urban areas often become pond caretakers through community covenants
and home owners associations. The housing development is centered around a large pond.
The pond watershed includes the houses. These neighborhoods are often upscale and have
professional lawn services. The result is often high nutrient levels from lawn and garden
fertilization entering the pond and creating nuisance aquatic plant and algae problems with
attendant consequences of fish kills and odors.
Home owners in urban areas often become pond caretakers through community covenants
and home owners associations. The housing development is centered around a large pond.
The pond watershed includes the houses. These neighborhoods are often upscale and have
professional lawn services. The result is often high nutrient levels from lawn and garden
fertilization entering the pond and creating nuisance aquatic plant and algae problems with
attendant consequences of fish kills and odors.




Home owners in urban areas often become pond caretakers through community covenants
and home owners associations. The housing development is centered around a large pond.
The pond watershed includes the houses. These neighborhoods are often upscale and have
professional lawn services. The result is often high nutrient levels from lawn and garden
fertilization entering the pond and creating nuisance aquatic plant and algae problems with
attendant consequences of fish kills and odors.


Reindeer producers are interested in marketing this high quality lean meat which has a ready
market. Farmed reindeer can't survive on pasture grass alone and a high quality feed was
needed to keep deer in enclosures during caribou herd migrations and to increase
profitability.




The potential for diversification of Alaska's economy lies in the use of its lands. The projects
proposed here show potential for utilization of Alaska's available land base that may provide
entry into new markets for products from the land. There is high potential for value-added
processing of high value products for the food and non-food market.
One of the largest threats to the livestock industry is the natural or intentional disease
outbreak that affects the marketing of livestock products. A National Animal Identification
System (NAIS) has been proposed to help control a disease outbreak should it occur in the
United States. The NAIS proposes a combination of identifying locations where animals are
present (premise identification), unique animal identification, and a movement database to
allow determination of diseased animal movements and potential animals infected within
two days. A recent report suggest the being able to reduce the time to track diseased animals
from eight days to two days may reduce the direct economic impact on the livestock industry
by 7.2 billion dollars. While the NAIS has undergone a change to not be federally mandatory
by 2009, voluntary participation is being promoted under Federal/State/Industry
partnerships.




One of the largest threats to the livestock industry is the natural or intentional disease
outbreak that affects the marketing of livestock products. A National Animal Identification
System (NAIS) has been proposed to help control a disease outbreak should it occur in the
United States. The NAIS proposes a combination of identifying locations where animals are
present (premise identification), unique animal identification, and a movement database to
allow determination of diseased animal movements and potential animals infected within
two days. A recent report suggest the being able to reduce the time to track diseased animals
from eight days to two days may reduce the direct economic impact on the livestock industry
by 7.2 billion dollars. While the NAIS has undergone a change to not be federally mandatory
by 2009, voluntary participation is being promoted under Federal/State/Industry
partnerships.
Beef production accounts for approximately one-third of Oklahoma's agricultural production
in most years. Moreover, seventy percent of the state's 86,000 farms have some cattle and
over fifty percent of the land area in OK is pasture or rangeland. Most of the cattle operations
are small in size, with seventy-eight percent of the beef cow inventory in herds of fifty head
or less. Smaller cattle operations have higher cost of production and are less likely to
incorporate best management practices. The objective of this project is to enhance the
biological and economic efficiency, as well as enhance the quality of life of beef cattle
producers, through a comprehensive and consistent educational curriculum delivered locally.
The expected long-run impact of the Master cattleman program and associated education
programs is that producers will have a better base for making decisions, improving financial
and production performance and lowering (or reducing) risk.
Wheat Pasture Stocker Cattle Educational Programming
Over 600,000 stocker cattle, both imported and native, graze wheat pasture in Oklahoma in a
typical year. Wheat forage is utilized on part of the over five million acres of small grain
pasture in Oklahoma. The stocker cattle industry is the largest livestock enterprise in
Western Oklahoma and adds millions of dollars in gross income to the economy. Buy-sell
margin, stocker health, plus forage production, management and supplementation are key
factors that affect the profitability of stocker cattle producers. Stocker cattle producers
purchase both native calves and stocker calves imported from across the nation. Handling
the various health and nutritional challenges of these stressed stocker calves are in high
demand from stocker producer clientele. Many larger stocker operations manage large
numbers of high-risk, stressed calves and require specialized educational programming.
Other programming priorities for these producers include assisting these producers develop a
balanced, low-cost forage growing program, proper nutritional supplementation and
assistance with ration formulation utilizing various grain co-products.
The meat goat industry has been rapidly expanding in Oklahoma and the United States. Meat
goat numbers in Oklahoma have gone from not even being counted by USDA to 94,000 in
2007, ranking 5th in the U.S goat numbers. This rapid expansion in goat numbers has created
a need for meat goat production education. In addition to the differences between goat
production and other livestock production systems, many goat producers are relatively new
to livestock production. These producers not only need education on goat production
practices but also education on how to do the simple management techniques such as ear
tagging, castrating, and body scoring that many livestock producers take for granted. The
Oklahoma Meat Goat Boot Camp was created to meet the educational needs of these goat
producers.
Overpopulation of wild horses is a significant concern in the western United States. In
Nevada, where most of the wild horses are located, populations grow at a rate of 15-20% per
year on state lands while their range continues to shrink. Current management strategies of
removal and adoption are expensive, logistically challenging, and minimally effective.
Conflicting interests associated with increased movement of people into wild horse ranges,
sympathy to maintain wild horse populations because of their historic and cultural
importance, competition among horses and indigenous plant and wildlife species, as well as
ranching interests are issues impacted by wild horse overpopulation.
Controlling fertility of free-ranging horses is considered a viable option for population
control. Ideally, methods for contraception of wild horses should be safe and potentially
reversible, effective for several years and have minimal effect on reproductive or harem
behavior. Although fertility control of mares using existing porcine zona pellucida (PZP)
vaccines is safe and effective for 1-2 years, revaccination involves considerable expense,
manpower, and horse handling to maintain infertility. If long-acting contraceptives were
available, it may be possible to achieve effective population reduction, and reduce costs and
risks associated with frequent horse handling.
Improving livestock producer knowledge is important because the information will help
improve their herd health, the quality of the product and the viability of livestock operations.
Improving producer knowledge also impacts the people who buy Alaska-produced meat, milk
and fiber products because they receive a better product. Improved livestock operations also
could provide an economic benefit to the communities in which livestock producers reside.




Because of climate considerations and geographic isolation, Alaska does not have a large
livestock industry. Livestock includes beef and reindeer with small numbers of dairy cattle,
goat, sheep, yak and musk oxen. There are a large number of horses in areas along the road
system, although there is essentially no self-supporting horse production operations in the
state. Since Extension has only one livestock specialist, few opportunities exist for the
education of producers. Increased education translates into more commercially viable
operations and better herd health.




Increased education of producers as well as contacts with the livestock specialist will improve
producer abilities to assess their own production practices and will improve production
capabilities and animal health and well-being.
General livestock education will increase the knowledge of livestock producers, hopefully
improving their operations and their ability to apply optimum practices. This should lead to
increased profitability as problems that require veterinary care decrease and production is
optimized.




Improving producer practices and the ability to problem solve on their own should make
operations more productive.
Improving producers practices and the ability to problem solve on their own should make
operations more economically viable.




All Alaska livestock producers are small-sized operations based on the USDA definition of
small, medium or large farms. Principles learned by small-scale livestock operators, such as
by a 4-Her or a producer with a small operation, also apply to a larger operation if the small
operator chooses to grow.




Extension hopes that providing education through small classes and other educational
opportunities will lead to applying techniques they have learned and thus improving their
herd health and their operations.
Farmers (livestock producers) are directly affected by feed shortages due to drought
conditions because they need to purchase expensive supplemental feeds.
No active dairy farms. Operations ceased in August 2006.
For the livestock producers more sales equal more money. For the consumers it means
fresher more healthier product. Availability of local product leads to a healthier diet;
therefore, healthier life.
Producers that produce heavier calves at weaning can market the animals sooner thus
allowing a faster turnover in their herds and less tim and money spent on each animal
therefore increasing profits. Buyers like larger yet younger animals-more tender.

Livestock producers can manage herds/flocks better with all animals identified, simplifying
reproduction and feeding management. Identified animals can be recognized and recovered
when lost or stolen. Public and governement officials can trace lost, strayed or impounded
animals to protect general population health and well-being.
Livestock farmers need the proper facilities for rearing healthier animals which will increase
sales, reduce money spent on health care, and increase profit. Also, public and government
officials would like to see less pollution and contamination of the environment and a
healthier community.




Vegetables, tropical fruits, herbs and small livestock producers; members of farming
organizations; home gardeners; and residents are interested in the use of sustainable
agriculture production practices. The advantages of using these practices are important,
especially as it relates to local production and the benefits derived regarding environmental
protection and food safety. Producers are interested in instilling confidence in consumers
concerning the local food production systems. An enhanced quality of life for producers,
residents and visitors is important to everyone.


Vegetables, tropical fruits, herbs and small livestock producers; members of farmer
organizations; home gardeners; agriculture professionals; and residents all care about
increased local food production to meet consumer demands and consumer preferences.
Producers and other residents are concerned that production practices are sustainable and
environmentally friendly.




Farmers who establish aquaponic systems want to know the best varieties and production
levels of various crops.
Farmers in the Virgin Islands are very interested in shrimp culture. A biofloc system has been
developed for the production of tilapia in large (1/20 acre) tanks. If a polyculture system
involving tilapia and shrimp could be developed and demonstrated to increase profitability,
farmers would be interested in adopting this technology.




Agricultural production in the Virgin Islands is generally practiced as a part-time activity on
small parcels of land. Under these circumstances youth in the V.I. generally do not see
agriculture as a viable career. Therefore, a larger farm was established for whole farm
systems research and as a model to determine if it could be operated profitably while
providing full time employment to several farm workers. To increase chances for profitability
the farm employed water harvesting and storage and the integration of fish and vegetable
production. If this model was successful and widely adopted, it would be a vehicle to
increase agricultural production in the Virgin Islands, create employment and stimulate the
economy.
Agricultural producers need current information to make appropriate management decisions
about what crops to plant, how to effectively manage plants and animals, how to effectively
market products, and how to mitigate financial and environmental risk. The first step toward
positive impacts such is successful transfer of knowledge. WSU Extension programs must
provide information that is pertinent and understandable to producers.
While risk in inherent to agricultural production and marketing, many steps can be taken to
avoid or minimize it. Risk management involves choosing alternatives that can reduce
negative financial impacts from weather, differential yields, market changes, governmental
policy, global issues, and consumer response to real or perceived issues.

The annual stewardship ride, held on the Muleshoe Ranch, is co-sponsored by the Lemhi
Country Cattle and Horse Growers Association, Lemhi Soil and Water Conservation District
and Lemhi County Extension. The Muleshoe Ranch wanted input on issues with the BLM
allotment so the ride was organized to offer an on-the-ground discussion about the ranchers
challenges. One of the suggested changes was the use of protein barrels to help scatter the
cattle and keep them in the high country.
Alternative production techniques can lead to expanded markets, decreased environmental
impacts and an improved image for agriculture when properly applied. However, many of
these techniques are unproven. Therefore careful assessment is necessary in advance of
application. Additionally, producers need to be aware of both the risks and the benefits
associated with conversion to these production processes.




Interest in bio-intensive and organic agriculture is growing rapidly. Research and general
knowledge are lacking in many areas. Producers need current information about general
management of land, plant and animal resources.
Agricultural production near waterways may negatively impact water quality as a result of
leaching of animal waste and agricultural chemicals from the land into waterways.
Additionally, with the average slope of farmland in the Palouse region being about 13%, and
with some tilled acreage exceeding 50%, soil stability is a major issue across this productive
farming region. Conservation tillage and other soil-stabilizing practices are necessary to
reduce soil loss and stream sedimentation. Finally, agricultural pesticides used to control
insects and nematodes are often extremely toxic and may be transported into waterways.
Effective mechanisms are evolving to allow agricultural producers to minimize impacts on
waterways by stabilizing soils, more effectively managing animal waste and by transitioning
to less toxic insect and nematode control mechanisms. These should be rapidly applied to
reduce the environmental impacts resulting from agricultural production while reducing costs
of production and/or creating new income streams.
Immigrants often bring agrarian legacies from their native lands. In Washington State, this is
especially the case with recent immigrants from Latin America, SE Asia and Eastern Europe.
Production of high value crops offers great opportunities for these farmers by maximizing
profit potential on a relatively small land mass. However, production and marketing
techniques must be learned in these new surroundings in order for immigrants to effectively
compete and to create a livelihood for their families.




Organic production systems are rapidly growing in the Pacific Northwest. The research base
supporting these enterprises is often lacking. Producers need best available information to
effectively manage risk and to exploit profit opportunities associated with organic production
techniques.




The agricultural economy of Lincoln, Gooding, and Blaine counties is well supported by
livestock production. Vast areas of those counties are public lands, mostly Bureau of Land
Management and U.S. Forest Service. The idea of a school primarily for beef grazers was
brought to Extension by the Natural Resources Conservation Service. They recognized the
need in this area and wanted the help of Extension in organizing the program.
Timed AI programs help alleviate the difficulties associated with estrus detection and to
increase the AI submission rate. In an effort to further improve conception in beef heifers,
scientists studied methods to incorporate CIDR (controlled intravaginal progesterone
releasing device) in timed AI protocols.




poultry and sheep breeders




poultry breeders
Hoary cress is one of the most invasive plant species in rangelands, grasslands and natural
areas in the western U.S. Research contributing to a better understanding of the factors that
facilitate the invasiveness of herbaceous plant species in the U.S is needed. Also needed by
land managers and policy makers are access to effective biological control mechanisms for
this and other invasive species so that better long term management strategies without
excessive use of herbicides can be achieved.

Prolonged drought in central and western SD has effected ranchers and ranch communities in
central and western SD; as well as Native American communities and ranchers. The drought
has significantly decreased resources (water and grass), many ranchers have substantially
liquidated their herds. While this has led to an abnormal increase in income, this means
substantially less income in subsequent years since there will be less calves to sell. Also,
much of the range has been over-grazed and it will take a long time for it to recover. Overall,
this will have a tremendous impact on those communities since cattle and sheep are the only
source of income for the vast majority of the area.


Swine Producers have built sophisticated environmentally controlled barns to increase animal
welfare and reduce odor and environmental concerns. However, the ventilation systems are
very complex and not all producers can properly run them. This is exacerbated by the high
cost of propane. There are 1300 swine operations in SD and swine production is the second
largest livestock contributor to the state's ag economy. Over 60% of swine production occurs
in a unique group, the Hutterian Society or Hutterites, and they have a distinct need for
unbiased information.




A major focus of the extension livestock programming in all species in 2007 was helping
producers deal with the rapid increase in ingredient prices. The cost of production for
livestock producers increased dramatically throughout the 2007 calendar year and continues
to escalate through today. Beef, dairy, swine, poultry, and equine producers are all impacted.
Two main avenues to help reduce this impact are lower feed usage and increased
productivity.
The consequences of disease have severe implications, both on the economics of agriculture
as well as on public health.
Lipids are an important nutrient and also affect milk content, quality and animal health. Milk
contains many fatty acids that inhibit the growth of bacteria. The potential to alter milk fatty
acid content to reduce the risk of mastitis would be of tremendous economic importance to
the dairy industry.




How much space in Narragansett Bay and surrounding waters should be allocated to
aquaculture.

This outcome measure has been deleted.

Alternative Energy Education
Sunny Days-The Northeast Colorado Alternative Energy Summit

The economy of the eastern plains of Colorado revolves around farming and ranching. The
climate typically has a low relative humidity, abundant sunshine, light rainfall and moderate
to high winds. Community leaders face the challenge of attracting and keeping young people
in the region. Solar, wind and alternative fuels have the potential to revitalize the economy of
these communities through jobs and industry.
NOTE: This metric needs to be changed to % of participants.

CSU Beef Field Day

Fifteen thousand beef producers in the state help make cattle and calves Colorado's number
one agricultural commodity. Nearly one-third of Colorado's counties are considered
economically dependent on the cattle industry. Information on the latest research and
methods and solutions to the difficult issues facing the cattle industry are provided to
producers throughout the state through CSU animal sciences and the Extension beef team.
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - WHAT WAS DONE




Farmer to farmer discussions during local farm tours of established 'value-added' livestock
enterprises were coordinated by Extension faculty, with various topics being supplemented
with University research results. Topics included: Rotational grazing for healthy pastures;
diversified goat/ chicken/ horticulture farming; meat goats; bio diesel for tractors and milking
parlor; wind turbines investment and regulations.




The Sea Grant Extension Program convened workshops for state and federal agencies
involved in aquaculture permitting decisions to review the current policies and application
process, and develop a more streamlined, straightforward permit application process
UVM Extension conducted a survey of dairy farm operators. A mail survey instrument was
developed to include questions on farmer and farm demographics, uses of technology, future
plans, labor practices, satisfaction, and future needs. The mail survey followed the Dillman
(1978) method. The mailing list included all Vermont dairy farmers. A total of 870 completed
surveys were returned for analysis, for a response rated of 60.0 percent.




All available means of communications ranging from traditional county meetings, county
newsletters and communications in local media to multi-county events and cooperative
programs with state-wide commodity organizations were used to introduce and encourage
practices to increase income.




Traditional methods of information delivery were used with increasing emphasis on
electronic media as ways to get the attention of stakeholders needing to understand the
changing challenges to their wellbeing.




Extension personnel at all levels identified the most appropriate methods of dealing with the
issues. A combination of traditional local extension programming, electronic newsletters,
multi-county programming, cooperation with industry organizations, and all forms of mass
media and personal consultations were used to provide the latest information.
Extension personnel at all levels identified emerging issues of importance to their
stakeholders. Using appropriate information delivery venues, a combination of traditional
local extension programming, electronic newsletters, multi-county programming,
cooperation with industry organizations, and all forms of mass media and personal
consultations were used to provide options.




Reality is that the numbers of allied industries has shrunk drastically in the last few years as
corporations have consolidated.




Researchers and extension specialists are strongly encouraged to produce publishable work
and see that this work is followed through to publication




Information was disseminated on all these subjects, including not only rules and
requirements but information on modern technology to trace animals, record and store data
and comply with existing and emerging requirements.

Research has been published and made available to management of vertically integrated
companies and to allied industry representatives. Workships, one-on-one consultations,
newsletters and CES publications were used to disseminate information for allied industry
personnel.




Extension personnel at all levels identified emerging issues of importance to their
stakeholders. Using appropriate information delivery venues, a combination of traditional
local extension programming, electronic newsletters, multi-county programming,
cooperation with industry organizations, and all forms of mass media and personal
consultations were used to provide options.
Reality is that the numbers of allied industries has shrunk drastically in the last few years as
corporations have consolidated.




Programs included Texas Beef Quality Producer, Beef 101, 706, 2010, Bull Selection, Drought
Management,Horse 101, Mare/Foal Workshops, Dairy Outreach, and Youth Programs:35th
Summer Horsemanship Schools, Lamb/Goat Camps and Judging Camps.


Research has been published and made available to management of vertically integrated
companies. Information through meetings and other forms were disseminated to growers
with particular emphasis on envirmental regulations and proper use or disposal of litter.




Thirty-two grazing schools were held throughout Missouri. The schools are three days in
length and cover topics such as: the basics of developing and managing a grazing plan,
fencing, watering, selecting forages, winter stockpiling, economics, and soil testing.

Based on a thorough assessment of available technology, the Winter Feeding Systems for
Beef Cattle curriculum was assembled to teach producers six different techniques to reduce
the cost of feeding a beef cow during winter. These techniques are: 1) timely use of
stockpiled tall fescue to extend the grazing season, 2) grazing winter annual forages, 3)
ammoniation to improve quality of low-quality hay, 4) use of alfalfa hay to improve feed
quality, 5) low-cost silage making, and 6) minimization of losses during hay feeding.




The "Tall Fescue Toxicosis and Management" curriculum was modified in 2006. This
curriculum was taught at many county workshops and parts were used in forage meetings
held in the winter, spring and summer of 2007 and at field days.
Thirty-two grazing schools were held throughout Missouri. The schools are three days in
length and cover topics such as: the basics of developing and managing a grazing plan,
fencing, watering systems, selecting forages, winter stockpiling, economics, and soil testing.

Based on a thorough assessment of available technology, the Winter Feeding Systems for
Beef Cattle curriculum was assembled to teach producers six different techniques to reduce
the cost of feeding a beef cow during winter. These techniques are: 1) timely use of
stockpiled tall fescue to extend the grazing season, 2) grazing winter annual forages, 3)
ammoniation to improve quality of low-quality hay, 4) use of alfalfa hay to improve feed
quality, 5) low-cost silage making, and 6) minimization of losses during hay feeding.




A pasture-based dairies curriculum teaches producers three things: 1) how to develop a
written business plan, 2) how to use computerized record keeping, and 3) how to adopt
management-intensive grazing. This curriculum required production of new materials ranging
from a Dairy Grazing Manual to digital presentations. As the program progressed, the
curriculum called for additional materials, including record-keeping software, a "grazing
wedge" online calculator for managers, and a website.
Several state and county-level programs were held discussing feeding alternative ingredients
to swine. As part of this program we have trained 77 PQA Plus Advisors (who can now train
and certify producers) as well as certified 34 individuals directly. This has resulted in more
than 600 pork producers in Missouri becoming PQA Plus certified in 2007.




The three day Swine Institute (held in November) was started to bring nationally recognized
speakers into Missouri to discuss market access and industry issues such as: Increasing
efficiency of feed conversion leads to reduced environmental impact and may reduce odor.




MU Extension has held 23 seminars and short courses such as the Farrowing School, Pork
Quality Assurance, Growth and Quality Barrow Classic, and Pork Profit Seminars. Of course
on-farm visits have also been used, especially in demonstration research efforts. Countless
telephone and e-mail consultations have also been part of this effort. In addition, a
spreadsheet was developed to assist pork producers in evaluating the economic impact of
feeding distillers dried grains co-product from the ethanol industry.




MU Extension has held 23 seminars and short courses such as the Farrowing School, Pork
Quality Assurance, Growth and Quality Barrow Classic, and Pork Profit Seminars. In addition,
a spreadsheet was developed to assist pork producers in evaluating the economic impact of
feeding distillers dried grains co-product from the ethanol industry.


University of Missouri Extension has conducted classroom and on-farm workshops to
increase knowledge and understanding of grazing systems management. Expert producers
participating in the program also serve as mentors to newly established pasture-based dairy
systems to assist them in the process.


Comparison of the operating margins of Missouri dairy grazers and the MU Southwest
Research Center dairy with those of the large conventional dairies clearly demonstrates that
smaller dairies can compete on a per cow basis. Grazers continue to maintain strong control
over production costs. Obviously there is ample opportunity for Missouri grazers to lower
their costs when their data is compared with that from Wisconsin.
The Missouri Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program was designed to improve
reproductive efficiency of beef herds in Missouri and increase individual farm income. The
program objectives include: 1) a total quality management approach for health and
management of heifers from weaning to late gestation; 2) increased marketing opportunities
for, and added value to, Missouri-raised heifers; and 3) the creation of reliable sources of
quality commercial and purebred replacement females.




A number of management procedures have been cited to have a significant impact on beef
herds and their resulting performance as measured by reproduction and productivity. Only a
limited percentage of beef cattle operations use these management procedures. Best
management practices for replacement beef heifers, when collectively viewed as a
"program," can assist producers in more effectively managing reproduction, production and
marketing.




Implementation involved University specialists working closely with producers, regional
extension specialists and veterinarians. On-farm development programs that involve local
veterinarians, state and regional extension specialists, and individual farm operators provide
the structure through which change can occur.
Implementation involved University specialists working closely with producers, regional
extension specialists, and veterinarians. On-farm development programs that involve local
veterinarians, state and regional extension specialists, and individual farm operators provide
the structure through which change can occur.




Implementation of the Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program in Missouri has resulted
in expanded working relationships among producers, extension specialists, and veterinarians.
This has resulted in an increased adoption rate of management practices used in the
development of replacement beef heifers, and ultimately improved reproductive
management of cow herds across Missouri.


The Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program -- like Extension and the Land Grant
system—is based on the use and application of what we know to create new knowledge.
Meaningful assessment of this program began by building evaluation into its design. Data
collection is part of the delivery process and reinforces the development of sound
management practices through individual farms that participate in the program.
A number of management procedures have been cited to have a significant impact on beef
herds and their resulting performance as measured by reproduction and productivity. Only a
limited percentage of beef cattle operations use these management procedures. Best
management practices for replacement beef heifers, when collectively viewed as a
"program," can assist producers in more effectively managing reproduction, production and
marketing. These practices add value to the general performance and productivity of herds
both immediately and long-term.




The Missouri Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program was designed to improve
reproductive efficiency of beef herds in Missouri and increase individual farm income. The
program objectives include: 1) a total quality management approach for health and
management of heifers from weaning to late gestation; 2) increased marketing opportunities
for, and added value to, Missouri-raised heifers; and 3) the creation of reliable sources of
quality commercial and purebred replacement females.




A number of management procedures have been cited to have a significant impact on beef
herds and their resulting performance as measured by reproduction and productivity. Only a
limited percentage of beef cattle operations use these management procedures. Best
management practices for replacement beef heifers, when collectively viewed as a
"program," can assist producers in more effectively managing reproduction, production and
marketing.
Five 12-hour training modules on sustainable and organic agriculture were developed, used
initially for youth then for adults. Train the trainer workshops were held with agriculture
professionals at the Guam Department of Agriculture. These curriculum have into seven 4-
hour workshops for adults.


A memorandum of understanding was effectuated with Sanctuary Inc. to develop 60 hours of
curriculum on organic farming for youth. A working relationship between the Guam
Department of Agriculture and the Cooperative Extension Service Agriculture and Natural
Resources is in place, eight members of Department of Agriculture and Agriculture
Development Station have signed the MOU committing a percentage of their full-time
equivalency (FTE) to this program.




Workshops and field days were held on three demonstration sites which included bus tours
to other farms. Extension publications were developed and interagency sharing of technical
expertise between the Guam Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service and
NRCS has been extremely effective.
An in vivo method to evaluate dietary protein quality in larval fish was developed.




Clinton County Extension Service in cooperation with the Clinton County Pork Producers
sponsored a one-day program at Rossville High School on January 25, 2007. A total of 13
educational sessions were offered covering a variety of topics ranging from marketing
strategies to manure management and herd health.
A 2-day hands-on grazing school was held at the Feldun Purdue Ag Center. The program
allowed livestock producers to learn about topics such as: stocking density, the amount of
feed in a paddock, forage species selection and growth, ruminant nutrition, animal health
issues, pasture health and renovation, soil fertility, nutrient cycling and economics of.
Participants visited with 2 innovative producers utilizing rotational grazing.




We have generated an interactive website dealing with CAFOs and their possible effects on
air and water quality, public health, and the social/economic make-up of the surrounding
communities. There are currently 12 issues papers on the site. We have also identified areas
that require further study and set up teams to undertake this research. Current research
projects include the effects of CAFOs on the local economy and the effects of odor and
emissions on the respiratory health of neighbors.




1.Developed curriculum for improving information transfer with pasture walks.
2.Developed curriculum for improved calf gain and health through pasture weaning.
3.Drought-related advising
4.Workshops for drought management for forages
5.Using alternative feed the ration to offset use of hay
6.Individual request for information
7.Pasture improvement programs including:
o improving legume content in hay and pastures
o weaning calves on pasture
o educational program on liming
o demonstrations on weed control in pasture

Pasture improvement programs including:
o improving legume content in hay and pastures
o weaning calves on pasture
o educational program on liming
o demonstrations on weed control in pasture
Pasture improvement programs including:
o improving legume content in hay and pastures
o weaning calves on pasture
o educational program on liming
o demonstrations on weed control in pasture

Conducted pasture improvement programs including:
o improving legume content in hay and pastures
o weaning calves on pasture
o educational program on liming
o demonstrations on weed control in pasture




A total of 2,955 producers, nutritionists, veterinarians and industry advisors attended more
than 60 sessions that addressed feeding, storage, and economics of co-products during a 12-
month period. The meetings were often sponsored by ethanol plants, with IBC specialists
providing the technical expertise. Thus, the meetings were typically not included in the
Extension calendar counts.

Several field days, tours and meetings have been held for producers to better understand the
issue and see practical solutions to common problems. Research is being conducted on
alternative treatment systems, and the results are being shared when available. IBC is a
partner with DNR, NRCS, ICA, IDALS to develop an extensive education program for non-
permitted feedlots. A survey will be conducted to determine the current adoption of
practices and level of environmental knowledge.

IBC has been conducting educational programs and demonstration projects since 2000. IBC
developed and distributed information on Country of Origin Labeling, age and source
verification, and the national animal identification system. Templates and fact sheets were
developed to explain the process, and educational materials were prepared to help
producers prepare for the changes.
There are several practices that can improve efficiency of a beef cow herd, i.e., improved
reproduction, superior genetics, grazing management, and reducing winter feed costs.
Software has been developed and sold, and training has been provided on ration formulation
and estrus synchronization. Genetic evaluation for feed efficiency and overall profitability
has been conducted as well.


A group of 30-40 young cattlemen in Tama, Poweshiek, Benton and Iowa counties were
invited to participate in this project. Young is defined as cattlemen in their 20s or early 30s.
The group members were directly involved in determining their program‚'s needs by using a
typical needs assessment process. Each meeting has consisted of a presentation followed by
a group discussion.




Research confirmed that infestation occurs in April soon after planting. A synthetic sex
attractant was developed from analysis of secretions from virgin female borers. That lure was
used in traps to reveal the borer's flight period which will enable growers to pinpoint the
timing of preventive control measures.

The University of Kentucky Beef Extension Group offers numerous programs to improve beef
cattle production and profitability. Through the Allied Inputs and Marketing Program (AIM),
livestock producers learn about group purchasing and marketing and how small and medium-
sized producers are able to take advantage of economies of size. The AIM concept
encourages producers to form local alliances or cooperatives to enable producers to lower
input costs of production and create a greater demand for their product as well as to help
them organize and develop collective production and marketing plans.
A major emphasis of the Beef IRM Team has been to continue to promote usage and expand
the database generated by a software package for production and economic analysis. The
IRM Committee Chose CHAPS (Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software). Using a pocket
record book for producers, data has been used to create a database of Kentucky Beef
Production. The goal has been to develop a state-wide production and economic databsed
that we can use to aid in our education to demonstrate ‚"real world‚" economic impact of
incorporating certain practices.
The program consists of 10 four-hour sessions that focus on management, nutrition, facilities,
environmental stewardship, genetics, reproduction, herd health, and marketing. Materials
are developed by Extension specialists from the University of Kentucky, who deliver the
program and train extension personnel.


As optimized nutrition parameters are developed they will be communicated to stakeholders
via scientific, popular, and grower-target publications and presentations.
Optimum floor space requirement for Guinea fowl (French) was determined and the findings
will be presented to the Guinea Fowl Breeders Association.


Research has not reached this stage yet.


Research has not reached this stage yet.
VCE partnered with VDACS and APHIS to carry out the Virginia Johne's Disease Control and
Prevention Program. The group uses the Federal Johne's Control Guidelines to implement on-
farm control programs. The educational program, National Animal Identification System,
involves Extension specialists from several departments, as well as local Extension agents.
The primary focus of the program has been to provide education to livestock industries
regarding NAIS, and to facilitate registration of individual farms and animal premises as the
first step of preparedness for NAIS.

Agents and specialists instituted a number of workshops, meetings, field days, and
experiments that demonstrated BMPs to producers. These events not only demonstrate how
to successfully implement these practices, but help solve production problems that might
otherwise limit adoption. The economic impacts of these practices are evaluated in most
cases. Experimental data are also being collected to support the environmental benefits of
these practices.
Agents and specialists throughout VCE are advocating for use of no-till crop production where
feasible. Studies have shown that compared to conventionally tilled fields, losses of
sediment can be reduced by 99%, nitrogen by 94%, and phosphorus by 92%. A number of
demonstrations detailing appropriate techniques and methods of no-till crop production
have been conducted.
Agents and specialists have instituted a number of on-farm demonstrations, field days, and
workshops that demonstrate profitable practices to producers. Crop variety and
management evaluations, profitable dairy production strategies meetings, beef production
programs, and many other specialty crop and animal production meetings and
demonstrations were held.
* Assisted with establishment of new family-owned dairies relocating from Holland via the
new Farm Family Program
* Assisted with remodel and start-up of dairy enterprises for beginning farmers seeking low-
cost start-up strategy
* Provided educational programs or tours to community citizens, leaders, and economic
developers seeking information about potential impacts of new dairy start-ups in their
regions
* Assisted with start-up of new dairy producer organization dedicated to issues of dairy
growth, economic impact on rural communities, support to existing farmers, and
encouragement of beginning farmers
* Conducted educational farm tours for dairy producers to dairy farm sites that have been
remodeled/upgraded through installation of low-cost parlors
ISU Extension took the lead in developing and implementing on-farm demonstration and
research projects to evaluate use of separated manure solids and develop strategies and
guidelines for usage and implementation. 4 farms (2600 cows) were involved in a year-long
study.




Conducted Biological Risk Management assessments in NE and NW Iowa as part of
collaboration of researchers in Iowa and California seeking to understand association
between specific herd health practices and actual herd health performance.

On- farm herdsman and milker training for Hispanic employees on topics of herd
management.

Research project in conjunction with NADC to study transition dry cow nutrition.

Collaboration with industry partners to develop non-antibiotic technologies to prevent and
control mastitis.

Educational meetings and publications to dairy farmers and agri-business on mastitis
prevention and control; monitored impact via industry-wide survey (Hoard's Dairyman).

On-farm troubleshooting on mastitis issues, sometimes involving full-farm investigation and
milk culture analysis.

Developed and used an applied research model to evaluate teat health and effectiveness of
teat dips.
UVMs Center for Sustainable Agriculture conducted an ecological and economic assessment
of a biodiesel industry to determine the feasibility and impact of Vermont farmers producing
feedstock crops. They examined the:
•	 economic, environmental, and social sustainability of biomass crops production;	
•	 pros and cons of various feedstock crops; 	
•	 social barriers to production of non-food crops; and 	
•	 economic impacts of a bio-refinery industry, in particular upon potential feedstock
producers.


1. In 2007, seven Dairy /Beef Quality Assurance Level I & II trainings were held throughout
WV. More than 300 producers and students were trained in the seven programs offered.
2. 25 agents and youth volunteers participated in train the trainer programs for Youth Quality
Assurance.

1. The BQA educational and training materials are utilized by more than 5000 producers in
West Virginia.
2. The Quality Assurance Cattle Handling Practices, Procedures and Facilities Assessment: A
Farm and Ranch Producer Self Evaluation tool developed in 2006 is being distributed and
completed by all the members of the QA feeder calf marketing pools. The self audit will
provide the BQA team baseline data of the practices being adopted on selected farms that
have completed certification.


The marketing program has allowed 250 producers in 14 marketing pools to market

The Process Verification Program (PVP) coupled with BQA programs have assist producers
selling through market pools and livestock markets with requirements and verification that
the export markets and high end retailers are demanding.

Heterosis (hybrid vigor) has been used successfully by all other livestock species to improve
reproductive capability, health and survival, or commercial production. MAES research has
documented potential gains from crossbreeding of dairy cattle for improvement. Research
has shown that JerseyxHolstein crossbreds were not significantly different from pure
Holsteins for fat production. However, the JerseyxHolstein crossbreds had greater body
condition scores and had 23 days fewer days open than pure Holsteins at first calving.
MAES funding supported a three-year study that quantified leaching and runoff losses of
antibiotics from land application of liquid hog and solid beef manure under chisel plowing
and no-tillage systems. Chlortelracycline was only detected in runoff, while monesin and
tylosin were detected in both leachate and runoff. For all three antibiotics, greater than 90%
of detections and 99% of losses occurred during the non-growing season, due to fall manure
application and slow degradation of antibiotics at cold temperatures. During years of high
snowmelt, runoff accounted for nearly 100% of antibiotic losses, whereas during years of
minimal snowmelt, runoff accounted for approximately 40%. Antibiotic losses were generally
higher from the no-tillage compared to chisel plow treatment.




In 2007 the Phosphorus Feeding Incentive Program grew to 215 herds or 29% of Virginia dairy
farms. There were 1,941 feeds analyzed for a value to the dairy industry of $44,015. In
addition, in the herds that completed enough samplings in 2007 there were 66 farms that
qualified to receive $49,162 in incentive payments.




We conducted workshops with dairy farmers where milk samples from individual cows in
multiple herds were cultured in our mastitis laboratory. The workshops have increased
awareness of the value of milk culturing and the information provided by individual quarter
samples from cows suspect for mastitis. Results are used to make treatment and culling
decisions within each herd.




Training of youth occurs locally by Extension Agents, Volunteer 4H Leaders, and Agriculture
Educators. State contests are coordinated by campus-based Extension specialist faculty with
assistance of Extension Agents and volunteers, and agriculture educators. Comprehensive
competition is held at the state level for youth age 9-19. In these events, youth are asked to
evaluate quality, identify items, rank groups of items, perform calculations, and justify their
decisions to others.
Research and Extension efforts at the Southwest Agricultural Research and Extension Center
demonstrated the profitability and utility of hair sheep in low-input, easy-care production
systems. Results of this research have been disseminated throughout the region through field
days, publications, and demonstrations.




Research, education, consultation and on-farm trials of techniques all combine to make a
difference in SCC counts. As reported last year, the team's newest innovation -- worth
disseminating -- replaces concrete with soft cow beds.


1.Brochures on grass carp and where to purchase live fish were distributed state wide.
2.Numerous one on one consultations were conducted with landowners seeking to learn
about pond management and design.
3.Presentations regarding pond management and the use of farm raised fish in recreation
were made at events including field days, dinner meetings, university classes, and at
professional meetings.
4.Maintain Extension Aquaculture Web Site (www.wvu.edu/~agexten/aquaculture/).




• State-wide meeting – Aquaculture Forum	
• Two facilities demonstrate flowing water systems utilizing both spring water and treated
mine water.
• Two day Trout School, a hands –on workshop to teach landowners how to produce trout	
• Published four issues of the Fish Tales Newsletter, Conducted site visits to assess potential
for trout production
• Springfest Trout Rodeo	


The Virginia BQA is a founding member of the Mid-Atlantic BQA , an eight state consortium of
Extension and industry personnel that work together to create similar training materials and
programming across the region. The National BQA Guidelines and the National Manual for all
cattle producers (beef and dairy) outline areas of cattle management and record keeping.
These guidelines are updated periodically to reflect new information, technologies, and
regulations.
Developed and delivered 39 educational programs for training and certification of animal
facility operators. In addition, delivered 282 educational programs on livestock and forages.




Over 1,260 persons have been certified (some growers have more than one species
certification). Certified producers are required to obtain 10 hours of training credit every 5
years to maintain their certification. The Confined Animal Manure Manager program team is
charged with developing a recertification program for this need.




Agents have worked directly with farmers and livestock producers to provide educational
resources and demonstrations that allowed changes in ration formulation and livestock
feeding programs which led to improved growth and performance or improved efficiency of
production. For example, integrating alternative feeding programs relying less on corn for
energy can allow for similar performance at less cost. Another example is that NCSU
researchers have found that adding organic trace minerals to broiler breeder diets can, along
with proper egg incubation, improve bone development, leg health and bone biomechanical
parameters in broilers at processing age. These changes, in turn, led to improved income for
these operations.
Numerous research and outreach programs have been conducted to improve the
management of livestock. For example, researchers have discovered that control of avian
reovirus associated malabsorption syndrome in broiler chickens potentially can increase farm
gate revenue by more than a billion dollars annually in the United States. This is important for
North Carolina farmers because North Carolina is a major broiler producing state. Results
from this work with high selenium yeast has potential to be even more profitable as it can be
applied to other infective viruses in poultry and mammals, and can result in larger yields of
higher quality meat from greater numbers of animals. In another example, a study to
determine the effectiveness of growth promoting implants during the preconditioning period
conducted at the Mountain Research Station found that steers receiving growth promoting
implants had increased average daily gains compared to steers not receiving growth
promoting implants. However, a significant difference in the cost effectiveness of the
implants was detected.




Youth in North Carolina have participation in many animal projects working with swine,
cattle, poultry rabbits, goats, sheep, and aquaculture.

Agents across North Carolina have worked with farmers individually, in groups,, and
collectively to provide education and demonstration programs. For example, the use of
radiant tube heaters provided a favorable environment for turkey poults in both new and old
brooding facilities; however, gas usage was greater in older houses and the savings in gas in
newer houses might not be worth the added costs of using tube heaters in conjunction with
traditional hover heaters. In another example, A direct fed microbial product (probiotic) fed
to turkey poults improved performance and reduced intestinal tract colonization from an
oral Salmonella challenge. Researchers at NCSU have demonstrated a cost effective, small
footprint wastewater treatment system that can accommodate wastewater of up to
20,000mg/l BOD and can offer opportunities not only for animal production systems, but all
types of biological material (including food) processing as well as municipal and residential
needs for gray-water treatment and recycling and conservation of municipal water supplies.
Through these educational programs, farmers have learned to integrate new practices into
their farm operations.
Agents have developed and implemented educational programs for farmers to enhance their
ability to maintain proper records for their farming operations.


Youth scholarships have been recruited and establish across North Carolina to provide youth
with educational funds based on their activity in these projects and events.
Barrows and gilts of two genetic lines were used to evaluate differences in phenotypic, body
tissue weights, and body composition differences between these animals from 20 to 125 kg
body weight. The body composition and tissue weight data from barrrows and gilts as well as
the two genetic lines (low and high lean pigs) generated data using some of the common
genetic materials available today in the swine industry




OARDC has advanced the genetic improvement program of yellow perch; approximately 800
best fish were selected from 24,000 fish of 2005 year-class families as broodfish of the next
generation. Genotyping for selected broodfish from the 2005 year-class was completed using
microsatellite analysis. Combined genetic relatedness analysis of selected 2004 and 2005
class fish was completed and a large color-coded chart of relatedness was constructed in
spring 2007.




A series of cattle feeding experiments have been conducted at OADC to assess the effects of
breed, weaning age and post-weaning diet on cattle health, growth rate, efficiency of gain,
and carcass and characteristics. Two completed studies have looked at the differences in
growth rate, efficiency of growth, carcass characteristics, and meat fat content and
tenderness attributes.
Economic benefit was measured from the Texas Beef Quality Assurance, drought
management, and dairy and horse programs.


Educational programs were conducted and evaluated for large scale livestock producers,
small scale owners, producers or users and youth who own, produce, market and enjoy
livestock.




CES educators conducted over 45 educational programs including a statewide Ag Profitability
conference in conjunction with Wyoming Stock Growers and Wool Growers Associations.
Animal ID, master cattleman courses, newsletters, newspaper inserts in ag publications,
radio, and applied research are on-going efforts to disseminate information to producers.


CES educators have conducted educational programs to create awareness about the animal
ID program. Articles in newsletters and newspapers have been disseminated.
Educational classes were conducted by the State Extension Beef Specialist and area educators
on heifer development and marketing. Newsletter articles, and presentations at the
Wyoming Beef Cattle Improvement Association were held. UW CES sponsored the Wyoming
Ag Profitability Conference in conjunction with Wyoming Stock Growers winter meeting.


Educational programs conducted by CES educators, newsletter articles, newpaper columns,
applied research, individual consultations.




1. Held Genetic Symposia and Cattlemens Convention for 300
2. Held a conference on the care and production of sheep and goats for 64 producers
3. Held the Small Ruminant Short Course
4. Conducted a marketing tour and formed the lamb feeding and marketing alliance
5. Assisted with the Ag in the Classroom program
6. Held parasite management workshops
7. Conducted Sheep Safety and Quality Assurance training
8. Conducted WV Feedlot Test
9. Conducted WVU Educational Dinner Series attended by 1500 producers




1. Provided producers with a large selection of genetically superior bulls with genetic
information that can be used in making sire selection.
2. Conducted a program to allow producers to retain ownership, feed a small percentage of
their calf crop in a commercial feedlot, and obtain performance and carcass data which helps
them understand the genetics of their cattle.
3. Provided information on best management production, marketing and quality assurance
practices.
1. Breeding Soundness Exams were offered to producers to improve reproductive efficiency.
2. Clinics were held for producers of rams or bucks.
3. A survey was mailed to bull buyers at Wardensville to get their assessment of the
usefulness and value of the Wardensville Bull Evaluation program.
4. The Sheep Project provided evaluation service to producers and more than 100 fecal egg
counts were evaluated in the past year.




Research was conducted and information disseminated to producers in the various areas
including: grazing and forage quality on the production, growth and carcass of cattle and
goats; pasture rearing of poultry and rabbits; evaluation and usage of aquatic wastes as soil
amendment and feed; and production of alternative horticultural crops for niche markets.
Establishment of community gardens, participation in Farmers' Market activities and other
methods of adding value to farm products to increase producers' share of the food dollar
(and various related methods of ensuring competitiveness and profitability) were promoted.
The Small Farmers Agricultural Leadership Training Institute, Sustainable Agriculture Field
Days, Parish advisory council, farm/site visits, (to name a few) were some of the activities
conducted.

Participants in the Leadership Institute attended eight trainings sessions of intensive work
covering subjects such as:Developing the Leaders Within; Understanding Community and
Self; Agricultural Legal Issues and Risk; Diversity and Planning; Communicating for Business;
Creating an Entrepreneurial Mindset; and Networking and Professional Development.
By using a controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR) as a progestin source and timing
artificial insemination of cows, beef production units benefit without the necessity of
facilities for feeding pellets containing melengesterol acetate (MGA) and experiencing the
inconsistent results associated with feeding MGA.
The development of a subunit vaccine for brucellosis combined with live attenuated vaccines
will provide effective disease prevention for livestock. Once appropriately formulated, we
believe that we will be able to develop a cheap and effective brucellosis vaccine for wildlife
and cattle.

MSU is testing a mucosal vaccine delivery system to provide the basis for a future generation
of ruminant vaccines. Programs that focus on management, nutrition, and health
maintenance have been developed that provide cow-calf producers in Montana the tools to
produce safe beef and improve the quality of the beef that is raised.
Farm managers were encouraged to position the aerator for maximum circulation. Improved
pond circulation can lead to better water quality, which in turn leads to improved fish health
and growth.




A new hatchery method for fathead minnows is under development. Research studies on egg
collection and incubation, and try stocking, have been conducted, and the results presented
at the baitfish farmers association meetings




Three highly fed commercial golden shiner ponds equipped with a number of electric
paddlewheel aerators and oxygen monitoring systems were monitored throughout 2007.


Highly fed commercial golden shiner ponds equipped with a number of electric paddlewheel
aerators and oxygen monitoring systems were monitored throughout 2007.




In 2007, IANR program impact reports indicated over 4,500 (plus 50,000 online) ranchers,
feeders, and related agri-business professionals, representing over 4.1 million acres of range,
hay, and crop land, and over 3.5 million head of cattle participated in 152 workshops, field
days, tours, etc. to gain new research based information to be more profitable and develop
more sustainable ranch, feeding, and related agricultural business operations.

"The Risk Management Education for Sustainable Agriculture" is a comprehensive program
that provided risk management programs to over 1001 livestock, forage and speciality crop
producers in Nevada during 2007.
At PCC-CRE, poster and aquarium display of hatchery-produced rabbit fish fingerlings were
shown at various local and international events and activities. A series of lectures about fish
and aquaculture were conducted in different schools and students and the general public
made on-site visits to the hatchery facilities. Site visits and technical assistance was provided
in some aquaculture farms in Ngatpang and Ngechesar States. Their clam pens and fish cages
were stocked with rabbit fish.

At CMI-CRE, six outer islands trainees attended an extensive training in hatchery and farming
technology for pearl farming at the CMI-CRE hatchery. The trainees returned to their home
islands and established pearl farms there. Oyster spats were provided to all 6 demonstration
farms on these atolls and they were monitoring and measuring the growth rate of the spats
for information to be provided to the researcher.

At COM-FSM CRE, pearl harvest and seeding work were demonstrated at the Pakin Atoll pearl
farm in July - August 2007 for the community. The project's hatchery, ocean grow-out and
pearl culture methods were filmed at Nett Point by the USDA Land Grant Video News team
and by the Japanese filming team.




We determined responses of adipose (fat) tissues and liver to overfeeding versus slight
underfeeding and feeding to requirements during late pregnancy that may be associated with
increased incidence of disease. Such knowledge allows better feeding recommendations to
farmers to improve animal well-being and profitability of dairy farming.




Total number of persons directly contacted regarding aquatic plant management in 2007
were more than 300. Total number of indirect contacts wer more than 2000. During 2007
two posters and four formal workshop presentations were completed regarding aquatic plant
management in Arkansas ponds.
Total number of persons directly contacted regarding aquatic plant management were more
than 300. Total number of indirect contacts were more than 2000. Two posters and four
formal workshop presentations were completed regarding aquatic plant management in
Arkansas ponds.
Total number of persons directly contacted regarding aquatic plant management were more
than 300. Total number of indirect contacts were more than 2000. Two posters and four
formal workshop presentations were completed regarding aquatic plant management in
Arkansas ponds.
A fact sheet was written and distributed through county agents and on-line. Notebooks with
reference materials were assembled and contents supplied to clients looking for alternative
crops.




Extension programs staff from Iowa, Maine, and Pennsylvania worked with the USDA and the
Cornell Waste Management Institute to co-sponsor the International Carcass Disposal
Symposium: Connecting Research, Policy and Response in Beltsville Maryland in December
2006. Twenty-five presenters shared their collective expertise with more than 200 agriculture
service providers from 46 states and eight countries.


Studies at MU are designed to develop and evaluate practices that improve reproductive
management on farming and ranching operations involved with beef cow-calf production.
Research is focused on the use of progestins in combination with prostaglandin F2a (PG) and
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to synchronize or induce estrus in yearling beef
heifers and postpartum suckled beef cows. Research conducted at the University of Missouri
Thompson Farm characterized more accurately the timing of estrus among cows whose
estrous cycles are synchronized with a protocol developed at MU called MGA Select. An
intensive ultrasound study was conducted to characterize changes in patterns of dominant
follicle development among cows assigned to the MGA Select or 7-11 Synch protocols.

Distiller dried grain supplement (DDGS) is a byproduct of ethanol production and a protein
feed supplement that can be substituted for soybean meal in cattle diets. DDGS is a common
additive in dairy rations and research was conducted to evaluate its economical potential in
beef heifer and steer production. Studies were conducted to evaluate DDGS in corn / corn
silage diet. In addition, a grazing study was performed to determine optimal levels of DDGS
for growing heifers grazing tall fescue.
Investigators conduct experiments on weanling swine to evaluate the efficacy of a new
phytase feed enzyme derived from e-coli for the purpose of reducing phosphorus
supplementation in low-phosphorus diets, thereby reducing the excretion of phosphorus in
swine manure. Performance criteria for evaluation included animal growth performance,
bone breaking strength, and mineral balance for phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron,
copper, and zinc.




Research was conducted to develop forage systems that will maximize economic and
energetic efficiency of dairy cattle; increase efficiency of protein production and quality of
meat and milk in ruminants; improve milk production efficiency by maximizing lactation
potential of dairy heifers; develop and demonstrate on-farm strategies that reduce harmful
air emissions; and establish measurement/monitoring protocols and models for verification
of emissions reductions for dairy/livestock operations.




Research was conducted to evaluate the use of namman oligosaccharides in the diets of
laying hens and their effect on egg production/quality and disease; determine the influence
of fiber, potassium, copper and zinc sources and protein concentrations on fecal excretion in
lactating sows; determine the influence of quantity of feed consumed during lactation and
various fiber sources on daily fecal volume of swine; determine the influence of Zn on the
structural soundness and productivity of sows; and optimize protein and amino acid nutrition
of swine and equine related to performance and efficiency of protein utilization.




n/a
Research efforts to discover and evaluate genetic factors that influence growth, carcass merit
and meat quality of swine;identify characteristics of skeletal muscles associated with superior
and inferior meat quality, and develop strategies for consistent production of high quality
meat products.




Research to collect and screen for bacterial strains with antagonistic properties for food
borne pathogens and test their efficacy; develop better pest and disease control mechanisms
and strategies for honey bees that result in increased honey production and more effective
pollination of agricultural crops; develop a rapid, low-cost animal side biosensor for detecting
cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV); and detect new or
emerging infectious diseases in livestock and poultry.




Research efforts to develop analytical methods to measure inorganic and organic substances
in a variety of environmental situations; identify the environmental transformations
undergone by animal-feed additives and determine their environmental fate; and assess the
potential of these substances to alter the immune response of cause severe disease
symptoms in animals and humans.

Research is currently being conducted in relation to lowering the feed cost via replacement of
fish meal protein with proteins derived from digested poutry waste.

Trials are being conducted at this time.
Protein replacement experiments have been completed and data analyses are currently
taking place.




MAES research has investigated digester costs and the potential for using biogas for on-farm
heating. An economic feasibility assessment was also completed on a smaller-than-typical
digester.




The book and numerous presentations have educated farmers, town, state and national
government agencies in the US and Canada, on the central importance of grazing and
pasturing.
The book, public presentation, and other educational activities has reinforced this desire and
pointed out the role of pasture/grazing.




Participant surveys from 132 of the 383 workshops, field days, tours, clinics, and e-delivered
offerings included a variety of quantitative economic and behavioral change questions. Over
17,400 farmers, ranchers, feedlot, and related agribusiness professionals participated in the
132 educational offerings and they represented over 16 million acres of Nebraska crops and
3.5 million head of cattle.
Education of farmers, consumers and government agencies.




Participant surveys from 132 of the 383 workshops, field days, tours, clinics, and e-delivered
offerings included a variety of quantitative economic and behavioral change questions. Over
17,400 farmers, ranchers, feedlot, and related agribusiness professionals participated in the
132 educational offerings and they represented over 16 million acres of Nebraska crops and
3.5 million head of cattle.


Activities include numerous presentations to government agencies, plus the book.


Educate farmers, the public and regulators about the importance of optimum land use and
the value of locally produced food.


Education through publication and presentation.

At PCC-CRE, on-site technical support
Education on the benefits of grazing. in the natural food and seed production of grouper and
rabbit fish was done at the hatchery. Hands-on technical assistance/demonstrations on how
to collect milkfish fry from the wild and improved pond management was also done in
Ngatpang and Ngchesar States. Rabbit fish were transported and stocked in ponds, clam
pens and fish cages in Ngechesar, Airai and Koror States.

CMI-CRE aquaculture staff visited the six atolls where farms were established and held
community meetings with the traditional and political leaders and community members to
explain the status and progress of the pearl farms. The trainees on these atolls were given
the opportunity to update community members of successes and problems encountered in
the operation of those farms.

At COM-FSM-CRE, 3500 each of hatchery-produced adult oysters were transported to
Mwoakilloa and Pakin for simulate a small-scale commercial farming. The project staff
attended community meetings to instruct farm maintenance and to advice commercialization
process. Six youths from Pakin and Mwoakilloa were included in the farming skill training at
the project's Nett Point as apprentices, who learned grow-out farming protocols and later
returned to their atolls to continue farm maintenance work by demonstrating to their own
people.
At PCC-CRE, about 30,000 of hatchery-produced rabbit fish have been released in 5 separate
grow-out facilities.

At CMI-CRE, proper fish handling and transport procedures were demonstrated to fish
farmers. The
Rongelap Atoll Government provided funds to CMI-CRE to assist them in becoming a full-
scale black pearl commercial farm. Spats have been provided to them and the researcher
has been working with the project manager and staff in providing technical assistant and
monitoring of their existing farms.

COM-FSM-CRE, the project arranged and participated to several meetings with the Pakin
community people to establish Pakin Community Association (NGO), which represents all
walk of the community and acts as a decision making body of the community. The project
developed a close collaboration with the Pohnpei State Marine Development to realize
orderly and sustainable pearl industry development, which includes commercialization of
pearl farming as an integral part of community improvement activities such as MPAs
development and community-based fisheries management program. A trial restocking of
hatchery-produced blacklip pearl oysters was conducted in the reef areas of Pakin Atoll to
encourage community involvement.




Farm managers were encouraged to position the aerator for maximum circulation. Improved
pond circulation can lead to better water quality, which in turn leads to improved fish health
and growth.


Highly fed commercial golden shiner ponds equipped with a number of electric paddlewheel
aerators and oxygen monitoring systems were monitored throughout 2007.
Ongoing and planned collaborations with USDA laboratories in Stoneville Mississippi are
being developed


We developed a new grading sock.

UAPB personnel at Baxter Land Company continue to develop approaches to the production
of hybrid fry. UAPB researchers have supplied information to additional Arkansas fingerling
producers on infrastructue requirements and outlined INAD reporting requirements for the
use of chemicals not yet registered by the USFDA that are currently used under the INAD
permit maintained by the USFWS.

Research and extension projects to determine and demonstrate improved methods.
At this time, several producers have explored raising species other than catfish or in order to
diversify their operations and explore other marketing opportunities.
Sampling on four catfish farms and 3 ponds on each farm was begun in Dec 06. Weekly
sampling continued into April 07 and thereafter to Dec 07 monthly samples were taken. A
total of 1104 measurements were made.
UAPB ponds were sampled from Dec. 06 to Feb 07 on a monthly basis. Five ponds were fed
and five ponds were not fed. A total of 360 measurements were made.


Duplicate sediment samples were taken in each commercial catfish pond monthly during the
sampling period. A total of 960 measurements were taken. Duplicate sediment samples were
taken in UAPB ponds during the sample period. A total of 180 measurements were taken.

The University of Nebraska offers 27 undergraduate programs of study and two pre-
professional programs in agriculture and natural resources, and 15 Master of Science and 12
Ph.D. programs. Our programs include agribusiness, animal science, agronomy, biochemistry,
biological systems engineering, fisheries and wildlife, food science and technology, pre-
veterinary medicine, professional golf management, etc.




Demonstrations on an integrated approach utilizing plant and animal by-products are
maintained at demonstration site for farmers to observe. Several grants are being conducted
at the site to educate farmers. Local extension publications were distributed to visitors.




Farmers are provided assistance to apply for grants from SARE and NRCS. A limited number of
$500 mini-grants awarded to interested farmers.


A 300 egg incubator has been set up at the facility to hatch eggs from three breeds of dual
variety of poultry. Chicks were sold to local farmers and poultry hobbyists.There are plans to
get a bigger incubator and increase production of chicks.
On going programs in Tilapia and shrimp production are underway. New varieties of Tilapia
have been introduced with characteristics palatable to the local, live, fresh market. To
address the lack of Tilapia fry supply, efforts were made to transfer the "Hapa" and artificial
egg incubation technology to improve the availability of Tilapia fry and help increase the
number of Tilapia farmers locally. Shrimp production continues to improve with monthly
production of live, fresh shrimp for the local market increasing from 1mt to 5mt. With the
success in the shrimp for meat sector, more attention will be given to the development of the
shrimp broodstock industry with legislation to restrict the importation of live or moribund
crustaceans from countries with known disease problems and partnership with the University
of Guam Hatchery in the development of Specific Pathogen Free or Resistant shrimp stocks.
Furthermore, biosecurity education and demonstration for shrimp farmers will continue.

With shrimp production taking a foothold in the CNMI, the focus has been redirected to
protecting shrimp production from the devastating effect of all forms of shrimp pathogens.
To this end, an Aquaculture & Fisheries Development (A&FDP) officer was dispatched to the
University of Arizona's shrimp pathology short course for training on pathogen detection,




ISUE has worked with commodity pork producers for many years using the Iowa Swine
Business Enterprise Record system to approximate their cost of production and returns in an
annualized basis. Unfortunately, the expertise in the Economics department that worked
with this system has retired, and as a result, the program has not evolved recently to meet
the needs of a changing commodity pork production system. The ISUE swine field specialists
continue to use this system, on a limited basis, with a limited number of commodity pork
producers. In 2005, the Iowa Pork Industry Center was awarded an NRI grant to work with
niche market producers and assist them in implementing a system to accurately know their
cost of production.




The IPIC has identified QMS as a priority program for the next period of time. Working with
funding from the Smithfield-State of Iowa settlement, a part-time coordinator has been hired
to manage this program. Areas of potential QMS activities include: environmental
management systems, premise ID, national animal identification system, PQA+ certification
of producers, ISO9000/14000 certification and other process verification based programs.
IPIC and ISUE staff coordinate the Iowa State Fair 4-H Derby swine show and work with the
premier swine exhibitor scholarship program; we coordinate with the ISU Animal Science
Department staff in their recruitment effort during the annual 4-H Roundup program; we
coordinate and present three pork-related workshops during the annual Iowa State 4-H
Youth Conference; we encourage enrollment in the ISU Swine Fellows program; we work
with IPPA in its Youth Ambassador Program and arrange youth activities at the Iowa Pork
Congress; and we offer ultrasound scanning services to Iowa county fair shows.




A cash flow model has been developed for use by crop farmers, and others that might be
considering expansion of their business to include finishing of swine. Targeted publications
outlining the possibilities of diversifying farms to increase income and manage risk have been
developed. Also, ISUE Swine Field Specialists have coordinated meetings with county boards
of supervisors and county boards of health to expose them to this important topic of 'Animal
Agriculture'and the benefits of integrated crop and livestock production.




Producers and other landowners were encouraged to register their premises during the 2007
Iowa Pork Congress at a dedicated online computer in the IPIC/ISU display. Representatives
from IDALS were at the display much of the time to provide assistance and answer questions.
Also, producers were referred to the IDALS display at the same trade show for additional
information. ISUE swine field specialists affiliated with livestock production have registered
their own premises, and based on their experience, promote the program and its simple
registration process to attendees at educational programs throughout the year.


The ISUE Swine Field Specialists held one of their semi-annual in-service training events in
Denmark. Since most of Europe is being forced to use group sow housing, and Denmark has
been a leader in developing these housing systems, the field specialists (and accompanying
faculty) had the chance to learn these systems and evaluate how they might be used in Iowa.
Each field specialist developed a PowerPoint presentation targeted towards group sow
housing that was used for multiple audiences. In addition, this was a topic presented to
producers at our regional Advance Reproductive Management Conferences held in 2007.
Iowa State University has greatly re-invested in programs involving Food Supply Veterinarians
and the Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine unit. These programs are
designed to integrate a variety of disciplines to effectively address the needs of producers
and consumers, provide veterinary students with needed skills, knowledge and problems
solving ability to serve the needs of the pork industry of Iowa. These areas of discovery,
education and technology transfer are essentially needed by our clients of Iowa.


Education of stakeholders through presentation and the book.


Presentations were made at regional, national and international scientific meetings.

Graduate students worked on the AES projects as part of their graduate program
requirements.


Results of the projects have been published in eight peer reviewed publications, 6 MS theses,
and 1 PhD Dissertation, and numerous symposium abstracts.

This information was not requested from PIs in their annual reports, but will be in the future.

PI have been engouraged by NH AES and college administration to use AES funding to address
immediate issues in agriculture and to conduct research that will increase their ability to
attract additional funding for synergistic studies from other sources.


CTAHR is involved in research, outreach and educational efforts to help develop new
aquaculture industries. Research develops new technology, new species, improved species,
new markets, and new production techniques.
CTAHR formed the Beef Initiative which includes all faculty involved in cattle research and
extension. They collaboratively plan, organize and execute research and extension activities
to satisfy the needs of the cattle industry. Priority areas include substitutes for high cost
imported grain, waste management, invasive species, value added products.
Demonstrations, workshops, publications, websites, consultations, conferences and other
methods help to educate stakeholders.
Project PI's were not asked to provide this information in their annual reports. It is possible it
will be requested in future years.

Research results have been incorporated into existing and new courses at UNH and
presented in workshops to professionals


This is a new initiative. Initially warm season forage systems are being examined for potential
to support forage-finished beef production.




Introduction of innovative farming techniques like chicken tractor and dry litter wast
management that increases farm efficiency and are time and money saving.Technical
workshops about sustainable practices in collaboration with local and federal organization
promoting BMP's.
Re-submitted a proposal to WSARE Professional plus Producer grants. Technical discussions
with livestock upgrading with selected clients were initiated. Collaboration with University of
Hawaii and University of Guam on possible AI project once proposal gets funded. Requested
assistance from local agriculture department to allocate funds for livestock genetic
upgrading. Identified previous trained staff for AI and included them for the refreshers
training course.
Work has been conducted with three farms for several years involving basic herd records and
with two of these farms on herd performance records. Basic herd records involves ear
tagging and tattooing all the animals and then as calves are born, identifing them, recording
birth dates, sex of calf, etc. At weaning the records are summarized and different herd
production measures such as percent cows bred, percent cows calving, percent calf crop
weaned, etc. are developed. Performance records involve weighing calves at weaning and as
yearlings and determining weaning weights and yearling weights.
Work in southwest Arkansas has essentially just started with a group six to seven minority
cattlemen. Farm and office visits have been conducted. Discussions have centered around
general herd management practices with an emphasis on basic herd records. Also during
these visits we have listened to them and determined some of their problems and concerns.




A longitudinal study of the recurrence mycoplasma mastitis in the same herds for 1 year
period was done to provide the information to understand the epidemiology of the disease.
With a better understanding of the disease process better intervention strategies can be
developed to reduce the incidence and thus prevalence of the disease.




Results are shared through industry channels, at field days, extension workshops, and
through an integrated program work team of researchers, educators and external
stakeholders. Results are also communicated, and used by, extension and industry personnel
in New England, where resources do not exist to conduct this research.


Workshops and training.
Technologies and methods developed from this facilities and equipment may be applicable
to other areas of research and teaching at Lincoln University.

The project objectives were to complete the set up of a nutrition research laboratory,
complete the set up of an aquaculture water recirculation system; to evaluate commercial
diets for bluegill larvae.

Measurable outputs include the setting up of the nutrition research laboratory with the
essential procedures and the completion of the animal stage of objective 2.

Research activities include the completion of the animal growth phase in evaluating seven
popular commercial diets for growth parameters and survival rates for bluegill larvae
(Lepomis macrochirus); Animal performance has been statistically analyzed and feed stock is
undergoing additional nutritional analysis for fatty acid and amino acid profiles.

 Research Technician Greg Dudenhoeffer successfully attended a training course in
"Techniques of Ion Trap GC/MS" sponsored by Varain Products.

The aquaculture water recirculation system consists of 32 54 gallon tanks with a biofilter,
bead filter, sump tank and an ultraviolet light. The system is fully functional and has been
used for Objective 2 and several student projects. Some problems do exist with paint peeling
off the system tanks.

Proximate analyze equipment, supplies and procedures for Kjeldahl nitrogen, lipids, lipids
evaluation, minerals, and dry matter has been procured and set up. Other equipment set up
includes a freeze dryer and GC/MS. Equipment purchased but not yet set up is fiber digestion
and bomb calorimeter.
Wild and semi-domesticated bluegill were obtained from 12 locations, quarantined,
acclimated to laboratory conditions and then conditioned to breed naturally into pre-
fabricated nest under close observation. Multiple populations of northern and coppernose
bluegill, one population of putatively pure southwestern bluegill and one population of hand-
paint were sampled. Northern bluegills of existing Lincoln University of Missouri stock were
used for monosex development, interspecies hybridization and ploidy manipulation.
A preliminary family selection trial based on northern bluegill sunfish acquired within the
state of Missouri was run to test methods. Three females of Lincoln University stock were
mated to five males (two Lincoln University and one each from Fabius River, St. James Ditch
and North Fork White River) in a complete (3 x 5) factorial design yielding 15 broods. Broods
were reared separately under similar conditions until large enough to uniquely marked as
individuals. Broods were then combined into 12 "common garden" tanks and fed either
floating or sinking versions of the same manufactured trout diet formulation. Thereafter,
common garden groups were combined to yield 2 common gardens in outdoor ponds to be
finished over a single growing season fed a floating manufactured catfish diet.


Cooperating with the Guam Department of Agriculture, a demonstration system was
established appropriate for small and backyard producers at a very visible accessible public
site.
A demonstration system was established in the village of Dededo showing how using a
settlement tank and disk filtered water from tilapia tank systems can be used to irrigate crops.




PCR analysis was performed on E. coli and salmonella from chickens, pigs and sows in the US
and Thailand, and class 1 integrons were more prevalent in isolates from Thailand compared
with the US.


Research and outreach (Extension) efforts were collobrated by University of Arkansas and
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff (1890 institution) faculty.


A "Fruit Tree Windbreak Workshop", Guam Department of Agriculture's Dededo breeding
station open house, and a chicken tractor workshop was held.




Workshops at two farm demonstration sites were held this reporting year. Bus tours were
offered to two established farmers who are currently under the EQIP program




1)We evaluated whether heat-induced perturbations in the cytoplasm of a dairy cow ovum
may carry over to increase susceptibility of otherwise thermo-tolerant embryos to heat
stress. 2) Recovery of bovine embryos with flushing medium containing an FPr antagonist
improved pregnancy rates after transfer; no abnormalities in calf health, birth weight or
weaning weight were observed.

We have entered deer harvest and roadkill data from the Oak Ridge Wildlife Management
Area into an electronic spreadsheet for analysis.
In dairy cows vaccinated with a novel surface protein, recombinant SUAM (rSUAM), the
rSUAM induced antibodies that effectively blocked some strains of S. uberis (associated with
mastitis).
Research included in vitro testing of the enzyme as a protective agent against the toxin, and
evaluation of testicular function in quail selected for stress response and challenged with the
toxin.




In FY07, UT Extension partnered with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture in assisting
4,969 beef and dairy producers as they worked to improve the genetics of their beef cattle
herds.

Because previous efforts have shown that ovulatory follicle size may be reduced in heat-
stressed cows and that the oocyte may mature faster than in cows not experiencing heat-
stress, a research project was conducted to examine follicular growth and ovulation.

Studies were performed to identify specific phospholipase enzymes associated with bovine
endometrial epithelial cell prostaglandin production and to identify transcription factors
associated with the induction and termination of ovine conceptus interferon production.

An experiment was performed to assess physiological measures of health and well-being in
weaned pigs with or without subsequent transport, and to examine the role of pre-weaning
weight on the outcome of the weaning and transport processes.

A fee-based comprehensive program was launched, designed to motivate and educate dairy
producers on aspects of production that affect milk quality. A passing grade or completion of
activities will award producers with a level certification.
Experiments were conducted to document changes in feed intake, body weight, and immune
function in response to treatment with a single injection of syndyphalin-33 (SD33) in weaned
pigs.




Research results have been presented at meetings that producers and farmers have attended.
This program was a way to bring producers together with leading industry specialists and well-
known veterinarians. They provided classroom instruction and hands-on training at
Morrisville State College. Otherwise the producer's only way to access this caliber of
expertise would be to travel to distant conferences, which is difficult for many of our small
and mid-size family-run dairies.




OARDC scientists used triplicate groups of juvenile rainbow trout that were fed four
experimental gelatin-casein based diets containing different fatty acid levels for 8 weeks.




IFAS scientists have patented new anaerobic digestion technology to convert dairy wastes
into methane to produce energy.

The Dairy Grazing Brown Bagger was a distance delivery program offered for the first time in
March 2007 on four consecutive Fridays from noon to 1:15 pm. Participants (dairy graziers)
dialed in from their home/office utilizing an 800 phone number. In addition to the audio via
phone, they viewed Power Point slides of the speaker's presentation (sent on a CD). A
Question & Answer session followed the hour-long presentation. There was a different topic
and speaker at each of the four sessions. Topics addressed were: Transition to and
Strategies for Pasture Based Feeding Systems in Illinois, Supplementation of Pasture Forages
to Optimize Production & Reproduction in a Pasture Based Dairy System, Forage Specie
Selection & Management with Emphasis on Productivity & Longevity for a Pasture Based
Dairy System, and Thinking Outside the Box with a Pasture Based Dairy System. Speakers
represented the Universities of Penn State, Purdue, and Illinois plus a nationally recognized
dairy grazier from Indiana.
Did not collect data in 2007.


ETP 11B - Sheep, Goat and Rabbit Production

In an effort to help Alabama small ruminant producers manage their animals and improve the
profitability of their operation, the UANNP unit of ACES provided broadly-based and objective
information about small ruminants and their impact on Alabama's economy and natural
resources. Besides carrying out an array of outreach events (See Planned Program Activities),
UANNP specialists developed 16 new numbered publications on sheep, goats and rabbits.
These publications, which are available in print and on our ACES website (www.aces.edu)
under Urban Affairs and New Nontraditional Programs (Urban and Nontraditional Animal
Science), are listed below:

UNP-0060 Digestive System of Goats
UNP-0080 Guidelines for Entry into Meat Rabbit Production
UNP-0081 Ensuring Nutrition for Goats
UNP-0082 Summer Heat and Rabbit Production
UNP-0083 Increasing Successful Reproduction Among Goats
UNP-0085 Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL) in Goats and Sheep
UNP-0087 Foot Rot and Foot Scald in Goats & Sheep
UNP-0088 Keratoconjunctivitis (Pinkeye) in Goats
UNP-0089 Enterotoxemia (Overeating Disease) in Sheep and Goats
UNP-0090 Vaccination Protocol for a Goat Herd
UNP-0091 Bacterial Pneumonia in Goats
UNP-0092 Injection Site Blemishes
UNP-0096 Direct and Indirect Marketing Options for Small Ruminant Producers
UNP-0098 Niche Marketing for Small Ruminants
UNP-0099 Performance Evaluation for Small Ruminants
UNP-0100 Winter Challenges for Rabbit Producers


The Small Farms Veterinary Skills Program is a training session that provides technical
veterinary skills training to small, non-traditional livestock operations to increase self-
sufficiency, reduce business costs, and improve meat, dairy, and fiber products. CCE
Chenango has written and received grants to carry out beginning and advanced training in
veterinary skills. We have also partnered with local veterinarians and the Cornell University
School of Veterinary Medicine to teach and develop curriculum for these classes.
Formal educational programs on cow comfort have been conducted in the Central New York
region featuring research information indicating sound financial paybacks for many
investments that improve cow comfort. In addition to formal programs, individual
consultations with local dairy producers have focused on investments that improve cow
comfort and the expected financial returns from those investments.




Producers are educated about nutrient content of hay and pasture in classes and workshops
in which they analyzed hay and learned about feed value, animal requirements, ration
balancing, and economics of nutrition. Peer reviewed pubications and a ration fomulation
software also were developed as educational resources for producers.




A disaster emergency small ruminant program was initiated by Florida A&M University
Cooperative Extension Program in North Florida to provide information to small live-stock
producers and the public that would allow them to be aware of how to plan, recognize,
respond, recover, prevent and reduce the potential impacts of various disasters and
emergencies during hurricane season.




Improved genetics and quality through conducting a Master Goat Certification Program
proved significant in enhancing the knowledge base of 30 participants in a five day training
program to be certified as "Master Goat Producers.

Due to programmatic changes, this outcome has been absorbed into others and cannot be
reported independently.
Storage and treatment of animal waste before land application are typically done in
wastewater lagoons. Several alternative candidate Environmentally Superior Technologies
(ESTs) for animal waste treatment have been developed for treatment of animal wastes to
reduce their impact on the environment, the food supply and public health. We collaborated
with researchers at NC State University, to characterize swine enteric viruses (PoNoV, PoSaV,
RV-A, B and C) in fresh feces or manure and evaluate the effects of different candidate ESTs
for animal waste treatment on their detection. Untreated manure and samples collected at
different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms with
conventional waste management (CWM) and 5 different candidate ESTs: Aerobic Up Flow
Biofiltration System (AUFBS), Constructed Wetland System (CWS), Super Soil System (SSS),
High Rise House System (HRHS), and In Ground Ambient Temperature Anaerobic Digester
System (ATAD).




This OARDC experiment showed that changing from a high alfalfa diet to a diet high in corn
silage could reduce manure output by dairy cows by more than 10%.
The objectives were to add Liquid Feed (LF) at two concentrations while reducing non-fiber
carbohydrate (NFC) concentration to optimize the use of LF in dairy rations. Diets had 30%
corn silage, 15 % chopped alfalfa hay, and 8% whole cottonseeds (21% forage NDF, neutral
detergent fiber). A control was balanced for 40% NFC. Two diets with 3.25% LF (dry matter
basis) had 40 or 37 % NFC. Two more 37% NFC diets had 6.5% LF, but the second also had R
at 11.5 g/909kg of dry matter in the diet. Diets contained similar crude protein to
formulations (17.3%). Treatments lasted 12 wk after an initial 2-wk covariate period.




Because of the lack of an animal person, no artificial insemination has been conducted.




Applied research projects were conducted to determine whether early nitrogen (N)
application to pastures would stimulate early season forage growth without loss of N to the
environment. Presentations were made to producers about the findings. An Extension
publication and trade magazine articles were published on the early N application work.




Introduction of innovative farming techniques that reduced farm production inputs and
increases farm efficiency. Promotes pastured based system that supplemented animal
nutritions in poultry and cattle operations. The push for organic promotion and utilization of
natural resources has been the focus of promotion for the CNMI.
There are four demonstration sites two in Tinian, two in Palau and there were two more
ranchers applied for EQIP with NRCS. Videos has been disseminated to farmers and
advertized in local tv. Articles were written and produced in local newsprints in several
occassions promoting water quality and pollution prevention. Information dissemination thru
websites have been put through. Local, regional, and national presentations have been done
thru poster presentation and powerpoint presentation. There are still two pending applicants
from EQIP for the Dry litter system in Saipan office and another one in Guam.




ODA determines from tissue samples of each of the champion animals whether residues are
present and if the food product produced from the animal is safe for consumption. Each year
a report is given which indicates what the present investigations are and what the expected
out come will be.




Youth are challenged through Skillathons as to there comprehension of the subject matter.




{ Twenty-four extension publications were authored or co-authored including bulletins,
popular press and newsletter articles, and proceedings articles for extension clientele, and
technical information was provided for 11 articles written by mass media reporters. 20,300
copies of informational bulletins were distributed.

The Ohio forage team developed educational materials to be utilized in teaching, 9 schools
were conducted.
Research was conducted and information disseminated to producers in the various areas
including: grazing and forage quality on the production, growth and carcass of cattle and
goats; pasture rearing of poultry and rabbits; evaluation and usage of aquatic wastes as soil
amendment and feed; and production of alternative horticultural crops for niche markets.
Establishment of community gardens, participation in Farmers' Market activities and other
methods of adding value to farm products to increase producers' share of the food dollar
(and various related methods of ensuring competitiveness and profitability) were promoted.
The Small Farmers Agricultural Leadership Training Institute, Sustainable Agriculture Field
Days, Parish advisory council, farm/site visits, (to name a few) were some of the activities
conducted.




. Four educational programs have been identified, developed and implemented to address
many of the concerns associated with animal manure nutrient recycling.
Educational and certification program were developed to address manure nutrient recycling
application and management.

{ Educational and certification program were developed to address the value of manure
nutrients, appropriate recycling and application practices and how best to manage this
nutrient resource to protect water quality.
Research utilizing and comparing commercial strains of broilers used in Mississippi was
conducted with the emphasis of better understanding growth rate, feed conversion, and
carcass yields to diets with increased amino acid density. Least cost formulated diets were
formulated using digestible amino acids at levels near industry norms and then increased. In
addition to measuring growth performance and yields, economic models were assessed to
measure monetary income for commercial operations.




Genetic enhancement and parasite control.
Since 2001, the UW-Extension Dairy Team Cow Care Work Group, UW-Madison Dairy Science
Department and Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board helped 478 dairy producers establish local
milk quality teams, pulling together appropriate professionals to assess and address an
individual producer's milk quality problems. While WMMB funding ceased at the end of June,
dairy producers still have access to local milk quality teams in counties offering this resource
through their UW Extension office. County dairy and agriculture agents work with producers,
veterinarians, nutrition consultants, experts on housing and milking equipment, farm service
professionals and others to develop a comprehensive approach to improving milk quality.

More than 1,300 dairy producers, agribusiness, extension and university personnel registered
as program participants. UW-Extension agents have led about 80% of milk quality teams and
participated in 1,500 Milk Quality team meetings. Milk quality educators trained more than
130 veterinarians, dairy plant field staff, dairy cooperatives and other agri-business
professionals as team leaders who participated in 540 team meetings and 40 trainings for
producers. For example, Ken Bolton (35% Milk Money Program through June supported 11
local milk quality teams in 2007, trained 23 Spanish-speaking dairy workers on udder
County agriculture and community development educators collaborated with Discovery
Farms, Local Government Center and Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and
Consumer Protection colleagues to provide research-based educational materials and
programs that built capacity among community leaders, farmers and their non-farm
neighbors for making local decisions and new ordinances consistent with state law. About
2,000 elected and appointed officials from 47 counties -- town and county supervisors, zoning
administrators, planning commissioners, assessors, conservationists and other officials --
learned about the state's new Livestock Facilities Siting Law. Workshop series in Waupaca,
Fond du Lac, Manitowoc, Calumet and Kewaunee counties helped local officials weigh
considerations for adopting the new technical standards.


The UW-Extension Dairy Team Modernization Work Group offers options and planning
support to help producers make sound financial decisions and cut costs. Small-scale, risk-
averse and beginning farmers get help with business planning, adopting managed rotational
grazing, specializing in a more profitable niche market, and modernizing with a more labor
efficient system such as a low-cost retrofit milking parlor or freestall barn. As a result, new
and retrofit facilities are improving herd health, efficiency and profitability statewide, and
easing the backbreaking labor of milking cows.

Led by agriculture development agent Tom Cadwallader, the new Wisconsin School for
Beginning Dairy and Livestock Farmers is demonstrating the importance of local facilitation in
providing a place to meet and network in a positive learning environment. In 2007, the joint
UW-Extension, UW-Marathon County Spooner Agriculture Research Station and Madison
Area Technical College program reached 96 beginning farmers at 5 sites combining online
instruction with local facilitation and co-taught with area farmers.
Led by Outagamie County dairy and livestock agent Zen Miller, the Dairy Team Hispanic Labor
Work Group has developed bilingual Dairy Worker Trainings in Spanish and English to help
producers communicate key concepts for improving milking, reproductive care, calf
management and herdsmanship skills including helping cows with calving and fresh cow
exams. In 2007, Sheboygan County dairy and livestock agent Tina Kohlman partnered with
her neighboring technical college on seven trainings for more than 200 mostly Spanish-
speaking dairy workers. The bilingual Dairy Partner/El Compa±ero newsletter reinforces these
trainings, reaching 2,000 employees on 550 Northeast Wisconsin farms and published online
by Fond du Lac County dairy and livestock agent Paul Dyk:
http://www.uwex.edu/ces/cty/fonddulac/ag/dairy.html

The curriculum developers added bilingual modules on driver, machinery and animal handling
safety. Brown County Agriculture Educator Mark Hagedorn and Zen Miller developed a pilot
bilingual safety training on skid steer loaders. Supervised students participated in an outside
skills course to reinforce what they learned in class. Trainers reinforced good safety habits
and pointed out lapses in operator skills. Bilingual dairy worker training modules produced


n/a
The small flock outreach program was developed by the MSUE AoE Poultry team, MSU
Emergency Management, ANR Communications and the MSU Animal Science Department to
address this possible threat. The MSU Extension program educates people about the
symptoms of this disease in poultry, how it is spread and who they can turn to in the event of
a disease outbreak. The program also educates the people about steps they can take to
protect themselves and their families from bird flu. The commercial poultry industry is testing
their poultry regularly for avian influenza, but this is impractical for small flock owners. So
another outreach goal of this program was to open lines of communication with small flock
owners to help disseminate important information and answer questions. In the event of an
outbreak of Asian strain bird flu, it maybe necessary to impose quarantines, test near by
poultry and destroy sick birds to contain and eradicate the disease. Eight regional seminars
were held in the evening or on Saturday to accommodate clients that likely work or attend
school during week days. Seminars were held in Cass, Monroe, Lapeer, Ingham, Wexford,
Chippewa and Delta counties. Overall there were 323 people attending the 8 seminars, an
average of 40 per meeting.




4-H clubs were developed to focus on animal management systems.
In China, translations of the web-based goat nutrient requirement calculation system
(WBGNRCS) and the goat production system simulation model (GPSSM) are complete. The
Chinese websites are under construction, with completion expected by the end of the year.
A website for the WGBNRCS with both English and Chinese is
http://210.27.80.20/goatsite/goat/calc/nutreqgoats.html. Translation into Spanish of the
WBGNRCS in Mexico is essentially complete, with only a few pop-up windows in English
remaining (available at
http://www.chapingo.uruza.edu.mx/cabrasesp/calc/nutreqgoats.html). Translation of the
GPSSM into Spanish has commenced as well. Translation of the WBGNRCS into French in
Rwanda is approximately half-way completed, as is also the case for the GPSSM in Cote
d'Ivoire. In Jordan, translation of the WBGNRCS into Arabic is nearly complete, and that of
the GPSSM will begin in early August.
In China, translations of the web-based goat nutrient requirement calculation system
(WBGNRCS) and the goat production system simulation model (GPSSM) are complete. The
Chinese websites are under construction, with completion expected by the end of the year.
A website for the WGBNRCS with both English and Chinese is
http://210.27.80.20/goatsite/goat/calc/nutreqgoats.html). Translation into Spanish of the
WBGNRCS in Mexico is essentially complete, with only a few pop-up windows in English
remaining (available at
http://www.chapingo.uruza.edu.mx/cabrasesp/calc/nutreqgoats.html. Translation of the
GPSSM into Spanish has commenced as well. Translation of the WBGNRCS into French in
Rwanda is approximately half-way completed, as is also the case for the GPSSM in Cote
d'Ivoire. In Jordan, translation of the WBGNRCS into Arabic is nearly complete, and that of
the GPSSM will begin in early August.


We compared the growth of bigmouth and smallmouth buffalo in channel catfish ponds to
determine if smallmouth buffalo would be better suited for polyculture production than
bigmouth buffalo.
We compared the growth of bigmouth and smallmouth buffalo in channel catfish ponds to
determine if smallmouth buffalo would be better suited for polyculture production than
bigmouth buffalo.


We compared the growth of bigmouth and smallmouth buffalo in channel catfish ponds to
determine if smallmouth buffalo would be better suited for polyculture production than
bigmouth buffalo.


Living on the Land trainings used a variety of delivery methods to teach management
practices for achieving small farm stewardship, with emphasis on water and soil.

Workshops offering a basic course in small acreage stewardship and animal husbandry were
offered for new and beginning farmers. Workshop evaluations were used at the end of the
Horses and Mud and Wintertime Cattle Management workshops to collect basic data about
the educational progam and evaluate if the landowner intended to use the information
presented. Additonally, post-workshop surveys were distributed to evaluate which
management practices they implemented as a result of the educational program.




On-site visits were made to individual pond owners, home owners associations and
representatives of these associations. Pond problems were evaluated and recommendations
made concerning remedies for existing problems and methods of preventing future
problems. Education was concentrated on nutrient reduction in the watershed and annual
pond maintenance.
On-site visits were made to individual pond owners, home owners associations and
representatives of these associations. Pond problems were evaluated and recommendations
made concerning remedies for existing problems and methods of preventing future
problems. Education was concentrated on nutrient reduction in the watershed and annual
pond maintenance.




On-site visits were made to individual pond owners, home owners associations and
representatives of these associations. Pond problems were evaluated and recommendations
made concerning remedies for existing problems and methods of preventing future
problems. Education was concentrated on nutrient reduction in the watershed and annual
pond maintenance.




The biomass production and nutritional profile of two pasture grasses were evaluated.




Two agricultural crop opportunities that have resulted from recent research are high quality
reindeer meat and peony crops for the floral market.
In 2007, four external grants and three internal grants were submitted related to electronic
animal technologies and NAIS related education. A survey was conducted at the Oklahoma
Cattlemen's Convention to determine the attitudes and perception of Oklahoma cattlemen
related to the NAIS. Five Extension Educator, 29 adult producer, and 6 youth/adult activities
were held in which use of electronic identification (EID) technologies for NAIS or production
management were discussed or demonstrated. Both the Willard Sparks Research Center and
the North Range Beef Cattle Unit have been equipped with EID technologies which are being
integrated into the unit management systems. As technology advancements occur, they are
evaluated for practical usefulness at the research stations. We continue to expand and
update educational material on our www.OKAnimalID.com website. Shirt pocket NAIS and
electronic identification management folders developed and printed in late 2006 were
distributed to County Educators.


In 2007, four external grants and three internal grants were submitted related to electronic
animal technologies and NAIS related education. A survey was conducted at the Oklahoma
Cattlemen's Convention to determine the attitudes and perception of Oklahoma cattlemen
related to the NAIS. Five Extension Educator, 29 adult producer, and 6 youth/adult activities
were held in which use of electronic identification (EID) technologies for NAIS or production
management were discussed or demonstrated. Both the Willard Sparks Research Center and
the North Range Beef Cattle Unit have been equipped with EID technologies which are being
integrated into the unit management systems. As technology advancements occur, they are
evaluated for practical usefulness at the research stations. We continue to expand and
update educational material on our www.OKAnimalID.com website. Shirt pocket NAIS and
electronic identification management folders developed and printed in late 2006 were
distributed to County Educators.
Beef Cattle Manual
An interdisciplinary team of state specialists, area specialists and other professionals
published a Beef Cattle Manual in spring 2004, which was updated and reprinted in fall 2005.
The manual contains 40 chapters addressing various business, production, and natural
resource topics. Updates for a new edition were begun in fall 2007.

Master Cattleman Program
A Master Cattleman program was developed using the Beef Cattle Manual as the primary
reference. Learning modules including PowerPoint slides, lesson plans, a quiz and a quiz key
were developed and made accessible to local educators and participants through the
website, www.agecon.okstate.edu/cattleman. Extension educators coordinate meetings and
provide instruction in cooperation with state and area specialists. To become a "Master
Cattleman", a producer must complete twenty eight hours of instruction and successfully
complete the quiz associated with each learning module.

Master Cattleman Summit
In August 2006, the first Master Cattleman Summit was held on campus with nearly 200
participants. The second Master Cattleman Summit was held in August 2007 on the OSU
campus. Attendance was excellent with 140 participants for the two-day conference. For this
conference, we were able to incorporate both the Electronic Cattle Management
components and make use of the Clickers to enhance the learning experience. Feedback from
these participants indicates that this was one of the most effective educational events our
project management team has organized to date.
Wheat Pasture Stocker Cattle Educational Programming
Two wheat pasture stocker cattle conferences (Wheatland Stocker Conference, Enid &
Southwest Stocker Cattle Conference, Lawton) were attended by over 350 stocker producers
in 2007 to update producers on key management information. Three major topics are the
center of the conference program. 1) Stocker health during the 45 day receiving period.
Emphasis is placed on vaccine research, proper antibiotic use, and following beef quality
assurance guidelines. 2) Market analysis for both buying stockers and selling feeder cattle.
3) A research update from the OSU Wheat Pasture Research Station.
Over 450 cattlemen attended 15 county educational meetings related to wheat pasture
grazing. Topics covered included: 1) Supplementation to stretch wheat pasture. 2) Feeding
the OSU small package supplement program. 3) Prevention of wheat pasture bloat. 4)
Proper mineral supplementation. 5) Removing cattle from grazing at first hollow stem for
maximum grain production. 6) Stocking rate research data. 7) Instruction and distribution of
OSU computer programs to budget stocker purchases and evaluate feed rations. These
topics were also covered in numerous farm visits, phone consultations, newspaper columns
and county newsletter articles.
A statewide/multi-state conference - Stocker Receiving Management Conference - was held
in Enid with more than 150 stocker producers, managers and veterinarians from 4 states
attending. Stocker cattle receiving management, health and nutrition, are the major topics
emphasized. Low Stress Cattle Handling was the topic that received the most positive
producer feedback from the 2007 conference.
The Oklahoma Meat Goat Boot Camp is a three day workshop that combines hands-on
demonstration and activities with classroom presentations and exercises. Camps size was
limited to 50 participants. Cost to the participants was $100. During the three days each
participant would attend each of the following sessions:

*Ear Tagging, Castrating and Tattooing - This session explains the importance of animal
identification and the different methods used for identification as well as the USDA Scrapies
identification program. Participants are given a demonstration on how to place ear tags in a
goat's ear and how to tattoo a goat. Also, a discussion on the different methods of castration
and why male goats are castrated is conducted. A demonstration on how to castrate a goat
using the banding method is also performed. Participants are then allowed to practice any or
all of these management practices on live goats.
*Hoof Trimming and Aging - This session demonstrates how to properly trim goat's hooves
and age mature goats. Participants then have the opportunity to trim hooves and age live
goats.
*Electric Fence Building - Educators talk about the basics of constructing electric fencing for
goats and demonstrate how to build an electric fence. After the demonstration participants
are encouraged to practice some of the techniques shown.
*Forage Evaluation Techniques - This session gives the participants a presentation on the
effect of forage quality on a goat's diet and performance. Participants are then shown
different types of forages and given a demonstration on how to take a forage sample and
interpret the results. Participants participate in a forage evaluation exercise and contest.
*Forage Systems - Participants are given a short presentation about forage budgeting and
the different varieties advantages and disadvantages. Participants are divided into 6 groups.
Each group, with the help of an extension facilitator has to develop a forage grazing plan for a
case study farm. The groups are then brought back together to discuss the different forage
plans.
*Business Management - Participants are given a presentation about budgeting and
The objective of this study was to evaluate the multi-year contraceptive efficacy of the GnRH
vaccine GonaConTM, the PZP vaccine SpayVacTM, and the human intrauterine device 380
Copper "T". We also observed any contraindications associated with treatments. In the fall of
2002 and the spring of 2003, the single-shot vaccines were administered with AdjuVacTM
adjuvant. The Nevada Department of Agriculture provided mares that were captured on state
lands and maintained at the Nevada State Penitentiary, Carson City. Eight untreated control
mares were compared to 12 mares treated with SpayVacTM, 16 mares treated with
GonaConTM and 15 mares treated with the copper-containing IUD. Rates of contraception
for years 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively for SpayVacTM were 100% (12/12), 83% (10/12), 83%
(10/12), and 83% (10/12); rates for GonaConTM were 94% (15/16), 60% (9/15), 60% (9/15),
and 40% (6/15); and rates for IUD-treated mares were 80% (12/15), 29% (4/14),14% (2/14),
and 0% (0/14).
For mares given SpayVacTM, but not GonaConTM, uterine edema was commonly observed.
Mares treated with SpayVacTM were generally more difficult to manage during data
collection. IUDs were visible by ultrasonography in non-pregnant mares, suggesting that
pregnant mares did not retain their IUD. Ability of mares to retain an IUD may be a function
of uterine size; our IUD studies with pony mares at Penn State University have high retention
The Extension livestock specialist continues to develop and update 22 animal science-related
Extension workshop modules. He has taken these modules on the road as workshops in the
Winter Animal Science Series. During the past year, he presented workshops at Delta,
Fairbanks, Homer, Kenai and Palmer attended by 250 producers and 4-Hers. Topics included
animal nutrition, genetics and animal breeding, reproductive physiology, physiology of
lactation, environmental physiology, ethology, animal behavior, animal welfare and well-
being.

The livestock specialist also organized and moderated four statewide teleconferences for
livestock producers and veterinarians. Eighty producers participated in these exchanges
about livestock diseases and herd management.

Livestock specialist co-authored a chapter on reproductive management in reindeer for Large
Animal Theriogenology, a text that is used in every veterinary school in the United States and
Canada. This is the first time any text has included this type of information on reindeer.




Extension livestock specialist presented workshops in five communities attended by 250
producers and 4-Hers. Topics included animal nutrition, genetics and animal breeding,
reproductive physiology, physiology of lactation, environmental physiology, ethology and
animal behavior, animal welfare and well-being. The livestock specialist also organized and
hosted four statewide teleconferences for livestock producers and veterinarians. In addition
to these educational efforts, the livestock specialist devoted 200 hours last year to answering
individual producer questions. The help was offered to 160 producers, who contacted the
livestock specialist by phone, e-mail, or walked into Extension offices. Help was also offered
on site at producer operations.

The Extension livestock specialist presented a series of workshops in five communities with
the largest livestock populations nearby. These were attended by 250 producers and 4-Hers
who learned about animal nutrition and breeding, lactation, animal behavior, physiology and
animal welfare and well-being.The livestock specialist also organized and hosted four
statewide teleconferences for livestock producers and veterinarians.

The livestock specialist, in addition to offering educational opportunities to livestock
producers, consults with them individually. During the past year, he responded to 160 clients
by phone, e-mail, visits to Extension offices and on-site visits to their operations. He recorded
200 hours of work in this area.
The livestock specialist, in addition to offering educational opportunities to livestock
producers, consults with them individually. While working with cattle producers in
southcentral Alaska, the livestock specialist became aware that calf death losses during the
neonatal period were high. Since many regions of Alaska are selenium deficient, he suggested
that producers place SE TM salt blocks on their grazing lease for consumption by pre- and
postpartum cows.
A dairy farmer near Delta Junction indicated that his cows were experiencing a 50 percent
rate of milk fever during the paripartum period. The livestock specialist realized that the
producer was feeding a high calcium mineral during the dry period. He suggested that the
producer replace that mineral with one that was similar except for reduced calcium.

Several educational and consultation efforts led by the livestock specialist should contribute
to improving livestock production, but neither Extension nor the state of Alaska has
measured individual production of operations so it is not possible to give this statistic. The
livestock specialist knows of a few situations in which particular operations have increased
their productivity by solving problems.

Recommendation to add selenium blocks to grazing land in Homer solved calf mortality
problems for a group of 10 cattle producers in that area.

A recommendation to lower calcium supplements led to eradicating a milk fever problem
affecting a Delta dairy herd. Milk production also increased.
Alaska Extension does not currently track the economic viability of individual farms, so even
estimating this number is impossible. It is reasonable, however, to assume that improved
understanding of livestock practices and challenges will lead to improved economic viability
of producer operations.

In two instances, however, producer operations have become more profitable:

The livestock specialist recommended the placement of selenium salt blocks on producers
grazing lease near Homer, which solved a troubling calf mortality problem.

A dairy farmer near Delta Junction indicated that his dairy cows were experiencing a 50
percent rate of milk fever (parturient paresis) during the paripartum period. Looking at
rations and food regimes, the livestock specialist realized that the producer was feeding a
high calcium mineral during the dry period. He suggested that the producer replace that
mineral with one that was similar except for reduced calcium.




4-Hers and small-scale livestock producers also participate in educational workshops offered
by the livestock specialist in a variety of communities.

The livestock specialist also teaches a 15-week university-level class in animal science, which
uses distance teaching technology to offer the class in Palmer and in Fairbanks. Because of his
background in livestock agriculture, the livestock specialist brings practical problems from the
farm to the classroom. He also takes students out to producer farms where they hear of
problems and successes first-hand.




More than 200 small producers, including 4-Hers attended a series of workshops offered by
the livestock specialist in five communities. Topics included animal nutrition, genetics and
animal breeding, reproductive physiology, physiology of lactation, environmental physiology,
ethology, animal behavior, animal welfare and well-being. Several livestock problems were
raised by participants and the livestock specialist offered research-based solutions to those
producers.

About 80 producers participated in four teleconferences with veterinarians who discussed
animal health and disease management.
Research is ongoing.




Program is ongoing.
Periodic weighing of calves.




Workshops and on-farm training.




Workshop and training




A series of 6-week training courses were conducted related to sustainable agriculture
production practices for a wide range of vegetable, fruits, herbs and small livestock.




A series of training courses and demonstrations related to sustainable agriculture were
conducted, covering a wide range of crops (vegetables, tropical fruits, and herbs) and small
livestock production practices.

Four varieties of cantaloupe were grown in a commercial-scale aquaponic system in three
staggered crop cycles. The initial seeding in the greenhouse was August 21 with subsequent
seeding at two week intervals. Seedlings were transplanted from the greenhouse into the
system after two weeks. Plant density on the aquaponic rafts was 0.67/m2. The hydroponic
growing area (214 m2) was organized into blocks (8.9 m2), and each block was randomly
assigned a variety and transplant date. Biological pest controls were used to prevent
infestation with caterpillars and aphids. Harvests began 70 days after transplanting and
continued for 50 days to December 19.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of polyculture of monosex male Nile
tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and two densities of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus
vannamei) on growth, total production, and water quality in a low-salinity, biofloc system.
The experiment was conducted in six, 30-m3 tanks and consisted of two treatments with
three replicates each. Treatments were: low-density polyculture (LDP) and high-density
polyculture (HDP). A commercially available sea salt (Crystal Sea(r) Marinemix) was added to
each tank to achieve a salinity of 5 parts per thousand. All tanks contained four, 1-m3 cages.
One-hundred male tilapia (average weight = 116 g) were stocked into each cage. Additionally,
the LDP and HDP treatments were stocked with shrimp (PL20) at a rate of 100 shrimp/m3
and 200 shrimp/m3, respectively. Fish were fed ad libitum a 32% protein floating diet twice
daily for twenty minutes and shrimp were fed three times daily based on a feed chart using a
30% protein shrimp diet. Water quality parameters were measured biweekly. Shrimp were
sampled biweekly to determine growth rates.




A 5-acre farm was established. It consisted of a 1-acre rainwater catchment, a 500-m3
rainwater storage pond, seven 80-m3 fish culture tanks, a 150-m3 sludge pond, a 24-m3 clear
water holding pond, a refrigerated feed storage container, an implement storage container, a
small greenhouse for seedlings, a packing shed, an irrigation system and 3 acres of land for
vegetable production. The farm was operated as a commercial farm while whole farm
systems data was collected.

Tilapia were cultured in the fish tanks using a biofloc technology. Production was staggered
to produce a continuous supply of fish. The bottom of the fish tank sloped at 3% slope to the
middle of the tank, which contained a 45 degree cone. A valve on the drain line was opened
daily to discharge sludge from the bottom of the cone into the sludge storage pond. The
concentration of solids in the sludge was too high for drip irrigation. Initially a clarifier was
installed to remove the solids and produce a clear supernatant for irrigation. Later a geotube
was installed, and polymer was used to coagulate solids prior to filtration through the
geotextile membrane of the geotube.

The initial strategy was to grow three to four vegetable crops on a large scale and sell them at
a wholesale level to supermarkets and other large buyers. The strategy eventually shifted to
producing a large number of crops on a smaller scale and selling them at retail value. A farm
store was constructed at the university to sell the model farm produce as well as produce
from other research projects. The farm store contained a fish holding tank and a fish
processing room.
WSU Extension educators create and deliver programs to agricultural producers and allied
industries through workshops, tours, demonstrations, electronic and traditional media, and
other mechanisms. These programs are evaluated to ensure that audiences are effectively
learning new techniques and technologies and that they plan to apply this newly acquired
knowledge.
WSU Extension educators conducted applied research, workshops, tours, and other
educational venues along with delivery of print and electronic materials to educate
agricultural producers about risk management techniques.

Low-moisture blocks have been successfully used in Montana and New Mexico to alter
grazing patterns and extend grazing seasons, but never in the summer or on steep terrain.
Under the guidance of University of Idaho Dr. Karen Launchbaugh, the rancher and
cooperators applied for and received a grant to start this project. Beginning in June of 2007,
low moisture blocks were placed on various pastures within the Gould Basin allotment and
cattle use was monitored with gps then mapped.
One workshop was delivered to 20 participatns, in an effort to train professionals who would
then extend the information to other end users.
WSU Extension and the Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources conducted
applied research, workshops, tours, and seminars related to alternative production
techniques. Additionally, numerous electronic and print materials have been developed and
distributed.




Twelve privately owned properties have become biologically intensive and organic learning
sites to support applied research and demonstration of non-traditional production
techniques. Additionally, WSU Extension educators have conducted seminars, workshops,
tours and demonstration projects related to organic and other biologically intensive
production systems.
Applied research, demonstration, and educational programming are being conducted to
develop new products and processes and to help livestock and crop producers recognize the
importance of management techniques that minimize negative environmental impacts.
Extension educators have been hired with in depth knowledge of the cultures and languages
among Latino, Hmong, and Russian communities throughout the state. Educational
programming such as Cultivating Success, pesticide safety, and other programs have been re-
designed to address the needs of diverse clientele including crop production methods, pest
and soil management, marketing and business management, and enterprise development.




WSU Extension has developed and delivered educational programs to support these
production systems with science-based information, and biologically intensive and organic
(bio-ag) program partnerships have been formed with 12 farms statewide to demonstrate
and monitor effectiveness of varying production methodologies.




A group of advisory council members from both the Big Wood Soil Conservation District and
Lincoln County Extension met and determined possible topics that would be of interest and
timely for beef cattle producers of the area. We took that information and developed a day-
long program, providing a catered lunch. Extension made arrangements for Extension
Specialists and State and Federal agency personnel to present the topics of the program.
We hypothesized that shortening the length of CIDR treatment from 7 to 5 days would
improve reproductive performance in beef heifers. The objective of this experiment was to
determine the effect of reducing the length of CIDR exposure in a CIDR-based timed-AI
synchronization protocol (CIDR-PGF2alpha-GNRH and AI) on conception and pregnancy rates
in beef heifers.




Investigators are currently working to identify and evaluate ewe genotypes and to determine
timing of lambing and other relevant parameters.




Investigators in the poultry breeding subprogram have identified two previously unknown
embryonic failures of genetic origins.
UI researchers compared the growth and insect herbivory of the invasive mustard weed
hoary cress (Lepidium draba) in the western U. S. and Europe.




A multi-disciplinary Extension and research approach has been taken. Through a series of
seminars, newspaper articles, press releases, and one-on-one consultations, ranchers have
been given decision tools on how best to manage for long-term survival in the drought.
Alternative feedstuffs, different leasing arrangements, new marketing arrangements, and
new management techniques like early-weaning and intense-focused culling protocols have
all been presented to the stakeholders.


Extension faculty from SDSU (Ag & Bio Systems Engineering and Animal & Range Science),
UNL, ISU, and U of MN created a novel Ventilation Training program. A specially created
working model of a swine barn was developed and made portable. It was carried all across
the Midwest in Extension programs. The first half day has devoted to classroom training and
the afternoon portion was in the model. It was so successful it won the National Pork Board's
Excellence and Innovation in Extension award. Other states have developed similar programs
based on it. Also, due to producer demand, an advanced ventilation shortcourse was created.




Livestock producers were educated through conferences, one-on-one consultation, phone
calls, news releases, magazine articles, radio interviews, and trade publications. The process
was to first create awareness of the impact of the rise in grain and other ingredient prices on
cost of production. Then, major avenues to reduce feed usage were communicated using
field trials, demonstrations, and results of research trials.
generation of recombinant vaccine for type A influenza viruses using avian infectious
laryngotracheitis virus as a vector; determination of the genetic difference between alpaca
BVDV and bovine BVDV
An alternative dietary lipid source for dairy cattle was evaluated. Fatty acids of palm oil were
fed to lactating dairy cows. Activity of the delta-9 desaturase enzyme in lactating cows was
evaluated using 13C labeled fatty acids. The desaturation of lauric (LA), myristic (MA),
palmitic (PA), stearic (SA), and vaccenic (VA) acids by the lactating dairy cow fed a saturated
or unsaturated lipid was investigated. Multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were
continuously abomasally infused with 400 g/d of coconut oil or corn oil for 7 d in a cross over
design with 3 d between each period. On d 5, a bolus of [1-13C] labeled fatty acids (7 g LA,
7.5 g MA, 50 g PA, 65 g SA, and 2 g VA) was abomasally infused to determine desaturase
activity. Work also is continuing that examines the impact of various fatty acids found in milk
on growth of Staphylococcus aureus and to evaluate the potential role of milk fatty acids in
inhibiting the risk of mastitis.




Commission impaneled to examine issue.




The Northeast Colorado Alternative Energy Summit in Akron, Colo., hosted in part by CSU
Extension was organized to showcase renewable energy options such as an anaerobic
biodigester system for livestock operations. 125 producers, investors and legislators learned
about the direct economic benefits of renewable energy businesses.
The opportunity to network with other producers and view state cattle operations has been
identified by ranchers as a productive way to 1. hear about the latest CSU research, 2.
exchange ideas on a regular basis, and 3. become familiar with the local CSU Extension beef
team member. In 2007, the newly organized CSU Extension Beef Team launched a new, more
interactive and accessible annual CSU Beef Field Day as part of the Colorado Farm Show. Beef
Field day will rotate locations from one side of the Rocky Mountains to the other.
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - RESULTS




Agent resignation

Agent Resignation




Changed behavior by 70% of participants following attnedance at crop production programs
including: grass forage production; soil fertility and pasture management; weed identification
and control; Livestock production including: beef and sheep nutrition; slaughter regulations;
direct marketing of meat cuts; breakeven price of meat to cover fixed and variable expenses.

As a result of the workshops, the agencies have a better and more efficient working
relationship; more importantly, individuals and businesses applying for new aquaculture
permits have developed improved lines of communication with the resource managers.

The immediate impact of this outreach effort was a significant reduction in the time it takes
for aquaculture applications to be permitted. The longer-term goal is to achieve cost savings
for aquaculture operations, as well as for resource managers. These results will be realized as
resource managers begin to take a proactive rather than reactive approach to reviewing
aquaculture operations.

A guide to marine aquaculture permitting in Connecticut is under review. This 8-page
publication will contain information including: factors to consider when developing an
application (i.e. environmental, structural engineering, business management, navigation,
safety and security, public etiquette, etc.), detailed instructions on the permitting process, a
sample application, a checklist for applications and contact information for permitting
authorities.
Farmers were least satisfied with time away from farm and profits. Milk prices and real estate
taxes were greatest future concerns. Survey results directed UVM Extension staff to respond
by offering 90 workshops for farmers in how to increase profits through a variety of means.
As a result,
  127
•	 farmers made at least one change to address farm profits, 	
  87
•	 reported making a change in on-farm production, marketing, financial management, legal
or human resource aspects of their business
  104
•	 farmers had soil tested to reduce fertilizer used for amendments	
  11
•	 farmers showed a 5% or more increase in farm profitability after implementing
recommended changes
One farm family said, "UVM Extension's VT Ag Profitability Team has been a very valuable
asset in helping us get where we are today. In 6 short years we have gone from a rented
conventional dairy, milking 9 animals, to a beautiful organic dairy that we own with 80
healthy and hearty cows…	




Farm income changes from year to year due to many variables in addition to management
and even marketing. The national economy, government policies such as biofuels mandates,
weather in Arkansas and the world for that matter can all affect commodity prices. Our goal
was to make Arkansans aware of factors that were, or could, affect prices of their livestock
and poultry, and to offer alternatives where those existed.

Producers were made aware that many of their production priorities may have changed
because of the sudden, and potentially long term changes in some input costs - fuel, fertilizer
and feed. These costs impacted the pricing patterns for heavier weight calves and resulted in
altered market end points to capture the greater value of forage brought about by increased
feed costs. Those producing and/or using poultry litter increased emphasis on proper
management plans for sale or use of their litter. In summary, Extension and research
programs focused on helping people identify their issues and provided workable alternatives
to minimize negative impacts.


By-product feeds from biofuels production have replaced much of traditional sources of feed
for cattle. Practices long known to be important (ie. simple soil testing) have been brought to
the attention of producers who once again understood their importance. Management
techniques like stockpiling forage rather than baling, using no-til or minimum til to reduce
fuel use, planning grazing systems to maximize production and reduce input costs, addressing
the issue of increased internal parasite resistance, understanding target points for marketing
cattle, and developing BMP's for poultry litter use have helped Arkansas producers adapt to
the challenges presented in 2007.
Because of heighten awareness that provided teachable moments, new practices ranging
from more efficient grazing systems, stockpiling forage rather than expensive hay baling, well-
designed fertilization programs, changed market inpoints for cattle to capture the increased
value of forage brought on by high feedlot finishing costs, increased targeted use of by-
products from biofuels production, better designed programs for efficient and
environmentally sustainable use of poultry litter on pastures and other practices have been
adapted.

While no direct contacts are shown with the allied industries, Extension personnel provided
unbiased information about products to stakeholders. From the research side, intensive
research with internal parasite control is ongoing with both livestock and poultry, much in
partnership with allied industries. Likewise, research with diseases from standpoints of
prevention to management is ongoing. This information is eventually conveyed to allied
industry personnel working with producers with the information coming through company
research and technical service specialists.
Refereed journal publications from University of Arkansas professionals in the Animal and
Poultry Science Departments published in the recognized journals in our field. Articles
ranged from applied production and management to very basic molecular level physiology,
genomics and immunology. A number of our scientists served as editorial board members,
section editors and journal editors.

Best management practices for utilization of poultry litter are being adopted and used. A
number of cattle producers are utilizing electronic identification tags for their calves in order
to receive bonus for age and source verified calves. Producers are aware that they are going
to have to document age, source, management practices and other information to compete
in a marketplace that increasingly is requiring proof of these factors. Data from records are
being used to make selection records at the herd level and document the real value of cattle
in the market place.
Results show increased knowledge and adoption of practices in areas critical to sustainablity
of the poultry industry. Surveys of allied industry personnel show increased knowledge that
improved production efficiency. Allied industry personnel reported changing attitudes and
increased adoption of scientifically based information involving compliance with
environmental regulations.

Because of heighten awareness that provided teachable moments, new practices ranging
from more efficient grazing systems, stockpiling forage rather than expensive hay baling, well-
designed fertilization programs, changed market inpoints for cattle to capture the increased
value of forage brought on by high feedlot finishing costs, increased targeted use of by-
products from biofuels production, better designed programs for efficient and
environmentally sustainable use of poultry litter on pastures and other practices have been
adopted.
Extension personnel provided unbiased information about products to stakeholders. From
the research side, intensive research with internal parasite control is ongoing with both
livestock and poultry, much in partnership with allied industries. Likewise, research with
diseases from standpoints of prevention to management is ongoing. Results of this research
are passed to allied industry personnel dealing directly with livestock and poultry producers,
usually through company research and technical service people, who communicate with
researchers.


From measures including beef, meats, dairy, horse, and sheep/goats, 54%-100% reported
adoption of at least one best management practice. 56%-90% reported elimination of non-
productive practices. 50% established anti-theft measures, 61% financial plans, 72% drought
management plans, 70% hay analysis, 85% adopted EPD's and fertility testing, 92% reported
use of cost/lb strategies for alternative feedstuffs and 92% body condition scoring as a
management tool.

The industry continues to adopt technology that enhances production efficiency, product
safety and sustainability. Growers are developing and implementing plans to comply with
state and federal regulations for litter management, mortalities and other by-products of
poultry production.

More than 450 producers attended the grazing schools throughout the eight regions of the
state. More than 90 percent of the producers who attended these workshops indicated they
plan to adopt fencing, watering and pasture management changes as presented in the
schools. Fifty percent of those producers implemented these changes without cost-share
assistance.

More than 3,800 producers attended educational programming on "Winter Feeding Systems
for Beef Cattle." The adoption rate of practices outlined in these programs was
approximately 46 percent. From 1998 to 2005, the percentage of producers using stockpiled
tall fescue for winter feeding has doubled, from 26 percent to more than 52 percent. The
increased use of stockpiled tall fescue saves the state's beef producers $19 million dollars
annually.

The MU plant scientists have developed management practices to reduce toxins present in
the grass and consumed by the animal. The practices, taught at the workshops, involve
cautious fertilization of pastures, moving cattle to nontoxic pastures during the late spring,
and seeding in new plant varieties. Missouri farm families are beginning to adopt these
management practices, which increase calf gains by a half-pound per day. If only half of the
cattle producers adopt the management practices, Missouri's beef industry would realize an
additional $30 million in profits. If the state's cattlemen plant the forthcoming plant varieties
on one-third of Missouri's pastures, the state will increase revenue to the beef industry by
$183 million annually; Missouri would see additional profits to other Missouri livestock
industries, including dairy cattle and horses.
Many of these farmers are awaiting their funding, which is expected to come.

More than 3,800 producers attended educational programming on "Winter Feeding Systems
for Beef Cattle." The adoption rate of practices outlined in these programs was
approximately 46 percent. From 1998 to 2005, the percentage of producers using stockpiled
tall fescue for winter feeding has doubled, from 26 percent to more than 52 percent. The
increased use of stockpiled tall fescue saves the state's beef producers $19 million dollars
annually.

Several next-generation, larger-scale pasture-based dairies owned by three New Zealand
investment groups began development and operation in Missouri. The largest of these dairies
manages more than 3,000 cows and the smallest, 500 cows. The New Zealand groups have
invested over $50 million to date and more farms are being developed. One of the
investment groups began operating a 500-cow operation in February 2007. By 2008,
expansion and growth already planned by these new dairies is expected to increase the total
new investment to $63 million, generate $28 million in annual milk sales, add $87 million in
total annual economic impact and sustain 777 additional jobs in the state of Missouri. These
dairies were attracted to Missouri by the ongoing dairy grazing research and extension efforts
being conducted by the University of Missouri.
Data on number of producers certified by each PQA Plus Advisor are being collected
currently. This certification is required for market access as certification in the old PQA
program expires, so within three years all producers will go through this new program.

More than 50 people representing over half of the sow production in Missouri attended the
Swine Institute, where producers gained an increased understanding of possible impacts on
the future of swine production. Working with partners has led to increased feed efficiency,
tree plantings on seven farms to diffuse odors (web site was created to support this effort),
and media relations to discuss the importance of livestock production in general.

Providing educational presentations at least twice a year and updating the swine feeding
programs yearly for the Show-Me Buying Cooperative, a group of about 60 independent pork
producers, has resulted in a huge economic advantage. This program has enabled
independent swine producers to buy feed ingredients at the same competitive and bulk rate
prices as large corporate operations, which has saved 30 to 40 percent in total feed costs
depending on the ingredients purchased and past sources. For example, vitamin premix
prices dropped from $0.80 to $0.50 per pound and Phase 1 nursery diet prices have been
decreasing from $480 to $325 per ton based on formulation evaluation or ingredient
acquisition.

Providing educational presentations at least twice a year and updating the swine feeding
programs yearly for the Sho-Me Buying Cooperative, a group of about 60 independent pork
producers, has resulted in a huge economic advantage. This program has enabled
independent swine producers to buy feed ingredients at the same competitive and bulk rate
prices as large corporate operations, which has saved 30 to 40 percent in total feed costs
depending on the ingredients purchased and past sources. For example, vitamin premix
prices dropped from $0.80 to $0.50 per pound and Phase 1 nursery diet prices have been
decreasing from $480 to $325 per ton based on formulation evaluation or ingredient
acquisition.


Understanding of grazing systems management increases rapidly after the first year of
establishing the system. Forage utilization will be approximately 50 percent the first year, but
will increase to almost 70 percent after the second year. This increase in utilization will
significantly decrease the demand for supplemental feeding and increases profitability.


Rapidly escalating input costs have affected not only pasture-based dairy operations but also
the large conventional operations. Even with this factor, pasture-based operations are still
producing milk for almost $3.00 less per hundredweight than the other type of operations.
Grazers have worked to increase forage utilization and are more accurately timing fertilizer
applications.
The Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program is the first comprehensive, statewide, on-
farm beef heifer development and marketing program in the United States. Participation in
the program from 1997 to 2007 involved 77,784 heifers on 640 farms across Missouri, 186
local veterinarians, 10 regional extension livestock coordinators, and 17 regional extension
livestock specialists. The marketing component of the program over this same period
involved 82 sales at 10 locations. During this time, 19,141 heifers sold through sanctioned
Show-Me-Select sales with gross receipts of $20,748,692. Total net impact on Missouri's
economy from the first 11 years of the Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program and
sales exceeded $35,000,000. Producers from 98 of Missouri's 114 counties (86%) have
enrolled heifers in the program, and 64 counties in Missouri (56% of the total) list the Show-
Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program as a priority program for their county in the their
current Program of Work.


The reproductive goals for heifers enrolled in the program are aimed at improving breeding
performance during the heifers' first breeding period, minimizing the incidence and severity
of dystocia, and increasing successful rebreeding of heifers during the subsequent breeding
season. Producers are using available technologies for on-farm heifer development that are
now spilling over into the cow herd. Significantly increased interest in, and use of, estrus
synchronization and AI stems perhaps from a differential in sale prices but, more important,
from successful application. In general, there has been a growing awareness, understanding
and appreciation for the importance of reproductive management to the whole herd.

The success of this program over the past years is largely due to reaching this target audience
and to the associated impact of that connection. Numerous sectors of the Missouri livestock
industry came together as a result of this program, including University of Missouri Extension,
the College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, the College of Veterinary Medicine,
the Commercial Agriculture Program, the Missouri Beef Cattle Improvement Association, the
Missouri Cattlemen's Association, the Missouri Department of Agriculture, and the Missouri
Livestock Marketing Association. Regional extension livestock specialists serve as
coordinators of the program locally and work closely with the 186 veterinarians involved with
the program statewide. State specialists provide program support to regional extension field
staff and participating veterinarians.
Veterinarians provide expertise in the areas of health, assessment of reproductive potential,
fetal aging and pregnancy diagnosis. Veterinarians serve as key information sources for U.S.
beef producers and are essential in facilitating the adoption of various reproductive
procedures. Nearly two-thirds (60.8%) of cow-calf producers cited their veterinarian as a
"very important" source of information for their cow-calf operation including health,
nutrition, production and management.

The success of this program over the past years is largely due to reaching this target audience
and to the associated impact of that connection. Implementation involved University
specialists working closely with producers, regional extension specialists, and veterinarians.
On-farm development programs that involve local veterinarians, state and regional extension
specialists, and individual farm operators provide the structure through which change can
occur.
During the past 11 years, 640 farms enrolled 77,784 heifers in the program. Regional
extension livestock specialists serve as coordinators of the program locally and work closely
with the 186 veterinarians involved with the program statewide. State specialists provide
program support to regional extension field staff and participating veterinarians. The
reproductive goals for heifers enrolled in the program are aimed at improving breeding
performance during the heifers' first breeding period, minimizing the incidence and severity
of dystocia, with the resulting delivery of healthy vigorous calves, and successful rebreeding
of heifers during the subsequent breeding season. The marketing component of the program
facilitated the sale of 19,141 heifers in 82 sales across Missouri from 1997 through the fall
sales in 2007. These sales generated interest from 6,528 prospective buyers that formally
registered to buy heifers, and 2,409 individuals that purchased heifers from the various sales.
Heifers from the program have now sold to farms in Arkansas, Arizona, Florida, Georgia,
Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Carolina,
South Dakota, Tennessee and Texas. Collectively, 82 sales have generated $20,748,692 in

The marketing component of the program facilitated the sale of 19,141 heifers in 82 sales
across Missouri from 1997 through the fall sales in 2007. These sales generated interest from
6,528 prospective buyers that formally registered to buy heifers, and 2,409 individuals that
purchased heifers from the various sales. Heifers from the program have now sold to farms in
Arkansas, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Kansas, Missouri,
Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee and Texas.
The Missouri Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program illustrates the economic impact
an organized program that supports use of best management practices. Heifers that sold
(n=19,141) between the fall of 1996 and the fall of 2007 at Show-Me-Select Program Sales
sold for an average of $1084 per heifer, which is over $100/head greater than the price
received per head for bred heifers at conventional livestock sales. The impact on Missouri's
economy from the first 11 years of the Show-Me-Select program exceeds $35,000,000.
Producers from 103 (90%) of 114 counties have participated in the Show-Me-Select
Replacement Heifer Program. Buyers from 112 (98%) of 114 counties registered to purchase
heifers from 1997 to 2007 Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Sales. Buyers from 108 (95%)
of the 114 counties purchased heifers from 1997 to 2007 Show-Me-Select Replacement
Heifer sales. Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifers have now sold into 16 states.


During the past 11 years, 640 farms enrolled 77,784 heifers in the program. The reproductive
goals for heifers enrolled in the program are aimed at improving breeding performance
during the heifers' first breeding period, minimizing the incidence and severity of dystocia,
and successful rebreeding of heifers during the subsequent breeding season. The marketing
component of the program facilitated the sale of 19,141 heifers in 82 sales across Missouri
from 1997 through the fall sales in 2007. These sales generated interest from 6,528
prospective buyers that formally registered to buy heifers, and 2,409 individuals that
purchased heifers from the various sales. Heifers from the program have now sold to farms in
Arkansas, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Kansas, Missouri,
Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee and Texas.

The Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program is the first comprehensive, statewide, on-
farm beef heifer development and marketing program in the United States. Participation in
the program from 1997 to 2007 involved 77,784 heifers on 640 farms across Missouri, 186
local veterinarians, 10 regional extension livestock coordinators, and 17 regional extension
livestock specialists. The marketing component of the program over this same period
involved 82 sales at 10 locations. During this time, 19,141 heifers sold through sanctioned
Show-Me-Select sales with gross receipts of $20,748,692. Producers from 103 (90%) of 114
counties have participated in the Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program. Buyers from
112 (98%) of 114 counties registered to purchase heifers from 1997-2007 Show-Me-Select
Replacement Heifer Sales. Buyers from 108 (95%) of the 114 counties purchased heifers from
1997-2007 Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer sales. Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifers
have now sold into 16 states.
Fourteen agricultural professionals completed "New Farmer" training workshops increasing
skills and knowledge of conservation and environmental practices. Training workshop
modules are now being delivered to AmeriCorps volunteers, Sanctuary,Inc. (a home for at-
risk youth) by Guam Department of Agriculture staff. The Guam Department of Corrections
is also using this curriculum to teach clients new opportunities to earn money when they are
released.




One agency has committed one FTE to this program. A model to leverage personnel and
fiscal resources among collaborating agencies can now be replicated to other projects
requiring shared expertise and resources. There was increased number of stakeholders
gaining knowledge and understanding of conservation practices because of the partners
ability to increase workshops and outreach.




Five farmers adopted several recommended demonstration practices like mulching,
composting, and windbreaks. In addition to farmers, Guam Community College, Guma Mami,
and Sanctuary have also adopted these practices.
We were able to develop an in vivo method to measure protein digestibility of microdiets in
larval marine fish. This has not been possible before using conventional techniques. This
change in knowledge will allow, for the first time ever, to measure digestibility of microdiets
in marine larval fish. Using this technique we will be able to develop improved microdiets for
larval marine fish.

A total of 56 Pork Producers and Agri-business people attended the program. The
participants represented 12 Indiana counties and were responsible for an annual production
of over 180,000 hogs. Of those completing surveys;

- 100% felt the Conference provided them with information they would be able to use on
their operation
- 100% felt the Conference provided them with sources of information that would assist them
with their operation
- 100% believed they would be able to better address issues facing their operation as a result
of this Conference
- 93% believed the Conference had improved their networks and gained them additional
contacts
- 87% stated that they would do something differently on their operation as a result of the
conference

The majority of the respondents felt that having a program such as this on an annual basis
would be beneficial so the 2008 Conference has been scheduled for January 22.
A follow up survey was conducted in October 2006 (2007 follow-up will be sent Oct 2007) to
determine what producers had been able to plan and implement in 3 months following the
grazing program. Surveys were sent to the managers of 13 farms (15 attendees). Seven were
returned.
As a result of the 2006 program, 1 producer had already redesigned and implemented a new
paddock system and 4 others indicated they were planning a new system. Due to the grazing
program producers had or planned to track costs, test their soils and forages for nutrient
levels, prolong the grazing system using stockpile forages and/or utilize crop residues. Five of
seven (70%) indicated the Grazing 102 program had increased their net income, two said it
was too early to tell.




The website currently has 12 issue papers dealing with different aspects of CAFOs. This
website is linked by governmental organizations, environmental groups, and popular press
outlets and the information has been presented to zoning board members (the original target
audience). Results from the two current research projects should be available within the next
year and will provide much needed information in the areas of economics and public health.




   310
‚*	 trainees increased knowledge on how to reducing hay production costs through
management.
   360
‚*	 trainees increased knowledge on how to improve hay quality through harvest and
storage management
   159
‚*	 trainees increased knowledge of how to improving information transfer with pasture
walks
   73
‚*	 trainees increased knowledge of how to improve calf gain and health through pasture
weaning - Number of producers trained.
   265
‚*	 trainees increased their knowledge on how to reduce cow/calf production costs.	




1. 162 producers expressed a willingness to adopt one BMP for hay or pasture management.
1. 142 Producers adopted one BMP to reduce costs.
2. One producer used recommended herbicides to clean up weeds growing in his electric
fence line, saving at least 7 days labor. This reduced the voltage drainage, increasing the
effectiveness of the fence for weaning of calves. Estimated saving was $500 after purchase of
a sprayer and chemicals.
3. The Right Now Mineral Program, conducted by the WVU-E Grassland team provides part of
the $24 million dollar per year impact of the program in the region.




360 trainees increased knowledge on how to improve hay quality through harvest and
storage management




Of those responding to a post-meeting survey, the economic value of the information
presented averaged greater than $1,000. More than 40% of the respondents indicated they
would feed more corn co-products, change how they store corn co-products, and evaluate
the price paid for corn co-products. More than 25% indicated they would use more nutrient
analysis of products and evaluate their purchasing method. A follow-up survey was returned
by 349 producers. Of those, 243 marketed fed cattle and 215 had beef cow herds; some
producers had both. Large operations were more actively feeding co-products. About 87% of
beef cow operations over 200 head and more than 90% of all producers marketing more than
500 head indicated they were feeding corn co-products. Seventy-seven percent indicated
that price was the primary advantage for using co-products.

A follow-up survey for two events shows that because of information producers gained, they
are willing to make changes to their facility and management practices. Of eleven returned
surveys, five changed how they manage their manure handling system in open lots, two
modified their manure handling system, one built a new settling basin and stacking area, one
replaced an earthen basin with concrete, and four applied for government cost share funds
for manure handling structures.


Very few producers have taken any action in this regard, but the few who have are now
receiving premiums in the marketing place. The Tri-County Steer Carcass Futurity trained
cow herds and qualified feedlots under the Tyson Quality System Assessment program for
the age verification program.
Two surveys of beef cow herds found that more than half of those surveyed were using some
type of production technology to improve efficiency. One survey found that 59% of
respondents were feeding corn co-products to reduce feed cost. Another survey questioned
Iowa producers with beef cow herds about their pasture management and practices. Of
those responding, more than half (52%) reported they used rotational grazing with 4-7
paddocks, an additional 16% used 7+ paddocks, 41% were frost seeding a legume, 33% said
they test soil every 5 years or less, 38% have improved water systems, and 25% limit access
to waterways to protect water quality. The objective was to have 10% of cow herds using
technology to improve efficiency. While not all producers with beef cow herds responded to
the survey, these results indicate moderate adoption of proven grazing technologies to
improve efficiency.

The group has met four times, discussing the following topics: profitability in cattle feeding in
Iowa, legal concerns, leasing arrangements, fence laws, reproduction and conception in cows
and heifers, heifer development, and pasture walk and grazing system designs. A core group
of 15-20 producers have evolved, with about 5-10 of them having the business potential to
remain profitable for the long term. The group has begun very openly sharing with each
other about their operations, their questions and their concerns.

Left unmanaged, maple shoot borer typically kills the terminal leader of 30-40% of the trees
requiring costly retraining and loss in tree value. A protocol was developed whereby
nursery producers can obtain 99% control with a single timed application. Our work also
greatly extended the window for management providing growers flexibility during the busy
spring planting season. Research on pest-resistant maples will reduce production costs and
chemical inputs while supporting recommendations regarding the best-adapted trees to use
for Kentucky landscapes.




Currently, six AIM alliances are functioning in Kentucky. Together they encompass 378
producers who own approximately 21,000 cows. Purchased costs of products were 20-30%
lower than available through traditional markets. Financial analyses have indicated that
production costs were reduced $45 per cow. Cooperative marketing efforts have also been
successful. Feeder calf sales have generated a $5-12 / cwt. premium over other cattle sold in
Kentucky that same day.
The economic impact of the CHAPS program is difficult to measure because the results of
better records is generally reflected in decreased costs instead of increased income. With the
average herd size of our participants being approximately 50 head, we feel we are are
improving economic efficiency by at least 5%.
The Master Cattlemen program was conducted in 62 counties with 716 producers completing
the program and making production improvements affecting over 83,000 head of cattle and
82,000 acres of forages.

These producers sold over 22,000 calves through CPH sales which have very stringent
ownership, weaning, feeding and vaccination requirements. Even for those non-CPH calves
marketed by these producers, vaccination and castration before weaning were management
practice most commonly adopted.
Record keeping is a part of the cattle business that few producers enjoy, but keeping good
records is very important to an operation's success. Keeping accurate records allows
producers to make decisions based on cow performance, not guess work. As a result of
participation in Master Cattleman 235 producers reported adopting record-keeping systems
for their livestock operations.
Master Cattlemen 62 Counties Reported Participating
716 Number of producers completing the Master Cattleman Program.
30 Number of non-producers/industry reps, vets or others completing program.

Number of Participants adopting record-keeping systems as a result of participation in
Master Cattlemen (enter a number for each)
83 CHAPS
27 SPA
125 Other

36778 Number of cows in a controlled breeding/calving season.
33859 Number of cows exposed to semen tested bull.
9490 Number of cows bred using estrus synchronization and AI.
33562 Number of cows placed in a cross breeding system.
37958 Number of cows placed on a complete mineral.
Over $0.7 million has been received in federal grants to implement the program based on risk
assessments and management plans to help producers lower the risk of the disease.
Veterinarians and VCE agents have been trained in administering the program. Over 100
farms have been enrolled in the program to date. In 2007, 1,284 additional Virginia livestock
premises were registered with USDA.




Agricultural BMP's are currently cost-shared on over 40% of the acres in Virginia. These
practices are probably implemented on many more acres because this approach does not
account for BMP's implemented without cost share or outside programs. The adoption of
agriculture BMP's has been increasing at an additional 5% of acres annually.

In 2000, the Northeast Extension District had less than 10,000 acres in continous no-till crops.
 By 2007, a survey showed the District had increased to over 280,000 acres (83%) of total
grain cropland in continous no-till. During the same time period the statewide continuous no-
till crop acreage increased from 5% to 41% (440,000 acres).




Overall agricultural profitability has been growing, 1-8%, annual for the last several years in
Virginia.




1. 4 Dutch families assisted with re-location of family to Iowa and with the building of new
dairies.
2. 10 operations assisted with transition to rotational grazing
3. 12 dairy owners assisted with the establishing new compost barn housing system
4. 14 operations assisted with the remodel from tie stall to low cost milking parlor
5. 12 dairy operations assisted with farm organization and transfer
1.Farm 1 (1600) developed and achieved a consistent product (included composting
following solid separation) based on ISUE monitoring and advise.
a.Farm was able to maintain herd SCC and improved animal comfort score in stalls.
Elevations in herd SCC were associated with poor milking hygiene (also monitored by ISUE)
rather than bedding characteristics and bacterial loads.
2.Farms 2-4 used the same material from farm 2 (700 cows, solids separated following
anaerobic digestion) and were monitored on farm bimonthly for 1 year. Also, DHI and
creamery records were monitored monthly.
b.Use of separated manure solids resulted in decreased SCC in all herds (40,000- 140,000),
improved feet and leg health, decreased culling due to feet and leg problems, and all 3 herds
improved milk production (also related to nutrition, etc).
c.Differences in SCC were related more to milking hygiene issues (also monitored).
d.Herds saved $7000 -$24,000+ on annual bedding costs.
e.Trials have resulted in publications and presentations at local, state, national, and
international meetings as well as developed an integrated framework of all systems to make
this technology work .
40 farms participated in Biological Risk Management Assessments, and received feedback as
to disease risks present on their farm, followed by recommendations on actions to take to
reduce risk. Full follow-up on changes and on overall research report are in progress.

On-farm herdsman/milker training resulted in improvement in the SCC score, a measure of
milk quality, and increase in milk production. These improvements translated to $25,000
added profit to herd owner.

Research report in progress on "Methodologies to Reduce the Cation-Anion Balance in Hays
of Dry Cows"

2 peer-reviewed publications on mastitis control

42% industry-wide adoption rate of mastitis control strategies and technologies.

75% reduction in clinical mastitis in cows and heifers resulting from use of mastitis control
strategies and technologies. With each mastitis case causing a loss of $110 in revenue and
increased costs, the economic value of widespread herd owners' adoption of new mastitis
control strategy is estimated at $16 million.

Use of the non-antibiotic mastitis prevention strategies saves dairy farmers an estimated $36
million in antibiotic treatment costs.

Active troubleshooting on 18 farms (6000 cows involved) to investigate milk quality problems
resulted in 95% of herds achieving improved milk quality as evidenced by reduced somatic
cell counts. These improvements in udder health resulted in milk production gains valued at
$300,000, and milk quality premiums earned valued at $414,000.
Ethanol from corn and biodiesel from oilseeds were identified as economically feasible in the
current economic context. Due to concerns about the environmental efficiency of ethanol
from corn, the simulation model analyzed the economic feasibility and ecological, economic,
and social impacts of biodiesel production, assessing profitability, macroeconomic impact,
potential changes in Vermont land use, green house gas emissions, and energy utilization.
Results indicate a private biodiesel plant would not be feasible. However a growers
cooperative would benefit from a facility using Vermont-grown soybeans, with the meal used
for dairy feed.

Benefits included the development of a renewable fuel source, a potential reduction in
greenhouse gas emissions, and reduced air pollution. Disadvantages included significant
environmental impact, including increased soil erosion, groundwater depletion, groundwater
and soil contamination, and increased fertilizer applications to increase yields.




300 producers and students gained knowledge and skills about beef quality assurance.


Healthier calves
Reduced costs
The development of leadership skills
Increased sense of pride, character and integrity




An additional value was added to more than 9500 calves and yearlings.

The buyers of WV feeder cattle have an appreciation for the records and the feedback that
accompany the WV Quality Assurance calves. The information is being requested by the
feeders purchasing the calves to improve their access to export markets or alliance programs.




Many dairy producers domestically and internationally have initiated crossbreeeding
programs in their dairy herds based on the scientific recommendations from the results of
this research project.
The results from this study suggest that small quantities of dissolved antiobiotics could
potentially reach surface and ground waters in the Upper Midwest. The study further
demonstrates the need for 1) spring application over fall application of manure, and also 2)
injection or mixing of manure into the soil right after its aplication. Based on presentation of
this antibiotic research to producers in Minnesota, some organic vegetable producers have
changed their manure use practices.

Researchers are also part of the team invited by the Livestock and Poultry Environmental
Learning Center in Nebraska to contribute their expertise to the development of a national
web site on pharmaceuticals in animal agriculture. The Center is a national initiative funded
by USDA to explore innovative methods to connect national experts on animal manure
management issues and individuals who advise livestock producers on environmental issues.




In the herds that completed their first year in 2007, there was a reduction of phosphorus fed
of 109 lbs. per day from the beginning to the end of the year. If this level is maintained, it
would result in 39,759 lbs. or 19.9 tons less phosphorus fed and excreted in the coming year
in the 18,994 cows in these groups. There are other groups that will complete their first year
in 2008.

Milk culture workshops included 41 dairy herds across the state in 2007. Of that number, a
minimum of 8 (19%) decreased bulk tank somatic cell counts, reduced primary incubation
counts and/or fewer cases of clinical mastitis. We have observed a decrease in the bulk tank
somatic cell count, decrease in the preliminary incubation count and/or a decrease in the
rate of new clinical mastitis cases. All of which will increase production and increase the
quality of the milk leaving the farm, in turn affecting long term profitability of the dairy
operation in a very unstable market.


Youth participation in animal projects and embryology totaled 25,563 in 2007. An additional
4,304 youth participated in state level contests. In these events, youth are asked to evaluate
quality, identify items, rank groups of items, perform calculations, and justify their decisions
to others. Preparation for the contests fortifies student skills and abilities. Ability to observe
and evaluate, ability to make decisions, and communication skills are enhanced by the
students' participation in these events. A Livestock Quality Assurance Program was initiated
in Loudoun County to educate and certify youth producers in best management practices
that improve the safety and quality of livestock projects with 37 youth producers obtaining
initial certification in 2007. Numerous educational programs were held for youth. Post-
program course evaluations indicated that participants increased their knowledge of record
keeping by 55%, animal health by 60%, and proper animal selection by 72%.
Sheep numbers in Southwest Virginia increased 5% in 2007 according to USDA. With the
renewed interest in sheep, Virginia Cooperative Extension assisted local sheep producers
with production and marketing endeavors. A partnership between local producers and a
regional retail grocery chain was formed. Sales to the local grocery chain increased from
116,000 pounds sold to over 225,000 pounds sold. As a result, over $650,000 of lamb was
purchased from approximately 55 local producers in 2007 resulting in an additional $41,000
value being returned to producers.
Dramatic decreases early in the life of the project are becoming incremental decreases. Still,
2007's count decreased from 2006's cell count by 6% -- from an average of 361.38 in 2006 to
341.75 in 2007.

The QC Initiative started in 2003 and workshops to consultants and farms began in June
2003. Since then, the project has improved SCC 20% overall.




Increased knowledge of weed management fish management, pond design and where to
obtain live fish.
322 grass carp permits for approximately 8000 fish in 2007.
Two WV vendors now sell and distribute grass carp throughout the state and at farm supply
stores.




• Increased knowledge regarding how to produce and market trout	
• $1,145,000 sales of trout from 21 operations in 2005-06	


In 2007, 438 beef producers obtained initial certification. This brings the total number of
certified producers in Virginia to 4,226 which makes Virginia one of the national leaders in
BQA. Certification is achieved by producers through participation in intensive educational
sessions conducted by local Extension agents. BQA certification is necessary for producer
participation in value-added marketing opportunities. Producers from 50 counties in Virginia
participated in BQA certification in 2007.
349 growers who attended the recertification trainings obtained 2 hours of credit for this
year. Over 87% of producers attending other educational programs reported knowledge
gained. 92 producers established improved forage cultivars and 144 improved breeding by
utilizing EPD's in sire selection/proper breed complementation and/or adopted improved
health and reproduction methods.




120 growers used grazing management practices enhance their production systems. Many
growers were initially less than enthusiastic concerning the training but after the trainings the
vast majority indicated that the information was beneficial and they really appreciated our
efforts to provide up to date, relevant information concerning their operations.




Livestock producers experienced improved animal production which was manifested in $4.59
million increased income.
Farmers adopting improved animal management programs have experienced improvement
in animal growth and performance resulting in increased farm income.


In North Carolina, 12,478 youth have been successful in programs where they have enjoyed
personal growth and learned about the importance of animal agriculture to their world,
nation, and community.




Through agent activities, 12,968 farmers have adopted new practices that will allow them to
enjoy improved farming operations and increase their farm income.
Agents have been successful in providing 6,239 farmers successful adoption of improved
planning and financial record keeping practices.




North Carolina youth have received $123,088 as scholarships.
These findings provides valuable data for modeling pig growth and nutrient requirements at
various stages of the pig from 20 to 125 kg body weight. The published work (collaborative
with NCCR042) conducted with B vitamin supplemental levels demonstrated that excess
vitamins are not necessary for the modern high lean pig. Most feed industry personnel and
many university extension personnel have recommended levels of 200 to 1000% over NRC
requirements. This research clearly shows that such levels are unnecessary but are costly.
Implementation of this research will save the swine producers millions of dollars annually.

By crossing selected broodfish of 2004 and 2005 year-class based on the chart, five improved
lines with approximately 105,000 fingerlings were achieved. The selected first generation of
superior broodfish consolidated the foundation for a marker-assisted breeding program for
yellow perch. A superior growth rate of 25-54% of improved lines vs. controls shows a great
promise for the breeding program and potential impact on the yellow perch industry.
Additional research into commercially grown bluegill demonstrated that the establishment of
XY female bluegill population will allow development of a YY-male broodstock population.
Progeny from this broodstock will be entirely male and are expected to grow 30-50% faster
than mixed-gender population. From both studies aquaculturalists are adapting the new
findings to their industry.

Results of the experiment to determine the effects of weaning age and post-weaning diet and
management with Angus steers showed that if Angus cattle are marketed on a live weight
basis, there may be benefits from marketing cattle that have been placed into the feedlot as
yearlings, compared with Angus steers weaned at 100 days of age or 205 days of age and
immediately started on a high-grain feedlot diet, if forage costs from weaning until feedlot
entry are minimal with the yearling feedlot entry steers. This is due to the reduction in total
pounds of concentrate required to finish the cattle to harvest weight and the increase in
harvest weight as cattle are placed into the feedlot at an older age. The major decision points
regarding age-at-weaning and the management of Charolais x Anguscalves should be cost of
feed, expected harvest weight, and expected date of harvest as carcass prices vary by month
in a relatively predictable manner.
Cattle producers reported saving $9.47 - $29/weaned calf and 85% said knowledge gained in
livestock handling and immunization protocols saved $36.25/head. 47% of dairy
producers,73% of Horse 101 & 94% of Beef Cattle Conference participants expected savings
from adoption of practices. 78% of Mare/Foal workshops attendees set the savings at 5%-
8.2%per horse annually. Drought management practices produced returns of $95/cow.
Southwest Beef Symposium valued at $290/person.

68%-90% reported increased decision-making ability. 70%-100% increased confidence in
management and use, 75% learned information that saves time in management. 80% had
knowledge gains of 30%-56% for cattle handling, record keeping, food safety control,
environmental management, livestock evaluation and general management practices.




Producers participating in educational programs or individual consultations reported
increased knowledge and awareness.


100 percent of participants in educational programs have reported increased knowledge and
awareness.
100 percent of participants reported increased knowledge and awareness of heifer
development and genetic improvement.


Participants in educational programs report increased knowledge and awareness during this
first year of programming.


1. More than 3000 WV producers and their families learned best management practices.
2. Producers in the quality assurance calf marketing pools purchased 15 composite bulls or
bulls to crossbreed as a result of the program recommendations.
3. 20 producers agreed to the addition of 180 head of small ruminants into their production
program for the control of invasive species.
3. Producers in the lamb feeding and marketing alliance marketed lambs directly to chefs in
white tablecloth restaurants in the country.
4. Over 60 teachers increased their knowledge and skill of sheep shearing and other best
management production practices.
6. The National Sheep Quality Assurance Level I certification was awarded to 55 producers
that completed the training.

1. Improvements in the Angus bulls have improved over years. Positive change has also
occurred for percent intramuscular fat and rib eye area. Phenotypically, the bulls have
improved dramatically over the past few years and are thicker, have more volume and easier
fleshing.
2. There were 98 bulls sold in the 2007 sale at an average of $2640 or a net return to
consignors after expenses were deducted of $800.00 per head. Since the average value of
these bulls was $690.00. producers netted $1150.00 more than they would have received as
feeder calves.
Birth Weight EPD was the most important trait in their selection process. Results of the
survey indicated that 76.1% of respondents believed they had decreased calving difficulties
as a result of using bulls from this program. Furthermore, 85.6% of respondents believe the
program helped them to increase their weaning weights an estimated 53.6 pounds and 83.8%
believe the program has helped to improve the productivity of their cow herd. Of those
responding, 94% believed the bulls they purchased from the sale have improved the quality
of their calves.
In 2007 15 producers took advantage of the program to evaluate 71 rams. The average flock
in WV is about 25 ewes or single ram flocks. The introduction of an infertile or sub-fertile
rams has potential losses of about 30 lambs valued at $4000.00. It is not unusual to find
about 6% of the rams tested to have potential breeding problems. In 2007, 15 produces
participated in the WV Feedlot test program feeding approximately 250 head of yearling and
calves. Performance and market data was collected and distributed to producers.

Our surveys indicated that 52 percent of the participants in the various extension and
research activities adopted recommended practices. With the help of research and extension
staff, goat producers are organizing meetings to form a cooperative. At a FAMACHA Training
15 producers were certified on assessing goats for diseases. Some 75 farmers who
participated in demonstrations to detect parasites using FAMACHA eye color chart saved
$300 each (a total of $22,500) annually in costs. Goat herds belonging to nine participants
averaged about 150 percent kidding rate or a market value of approximately $4,000 each.
These nine farmers currently act as peer mentors, model farmers and advisors to other
limited resource clients. SUAREC's Agricultural Experiment Station is serving as a laboratory
for training in production, management, nutrition, and health of goats, cattle, and other
livestock.
A producer (participant) in the 2007 Leadership Training Institute was elected President of
the North Carolina Willing Workers Foundation, a nonprofit organization. Along with her
husband and co-owner, she also shared the honor of being selected as the North Carolina
2008 Farmer of the Year. SUAREC assisted in the establishment of community gardens. One
garden belonging to the Lighthouse Mission, a homeless shelter provided skills and assistance
to 10 homeless men. These men are now utilizing knowledge and skills gained in enhancing
their livelihood. Four other producers are harvesting and selling produce from their gardens
in the local farmers' markets.

As a result of information presented during Goat Field Days organized by SUAREC, producers
came together through the help of the project staff to form a goat cooperative. The
Southeast Goat Cooperative of Louisiana (SOGOCOLA) received its incorporation in 2007. The
Cooperative held its regular meetings during the period and decided to join the Louisiana


More enterprises are using controlled estrus and developing management plans to improve
the economics of raising healthy calves to market.
Results of the bison and mouse vaccination studies are encouraging because protective
efficacy was obtained in both bison and mouse systems. Our results from the bison and
mouse vaccination studies are encouraging because protective efficacy was obtained in both
animal systems through the identification of a smaller number of effective protein sub-units
in the test vaccine.

Because of bluetongue presence in Montana, Canadian trade restrictions prevent shipping
feeder cattle from Montana to Canada outside of the non-fly season (March to October).
Study results have demonstrated that transmission in Montana is not an issue and cattle
shipments should not be subjected to trade restrictions.




No producers have moved aerators due to cost or other considerations.


Progress has been made in developing the new method, and research needs have been
identified. Baitfish producers have been kept informed on the research through a newsletter
article.
Despite the relatively high feeding rates reaching over 20 lb/ac/day, water quality
parameters such as dissolved oxygen concentration, total ammonia nitrogen, and pH
remained within safe limits for golden shiner production. The nightly paddlewheel aeration
prevented oxygen depletion. Yields reach 800 lb/ac. The farmers where the study was
conducted decided to expand the feeding and aeration recommendations to most of his farm
in 2008.


The cooperating farmer in the study adopted Extension recommendations on a selected
number of ponds.


Clientele surveys valued the information provided at $14.33/head, averaged across all
livestock related impact reports. Total value was over $58 million. Selected impacts include:
Ranch Practicum influenced decisions of 1,160 attendees representing 603,000 acres of
range, hay, and crops, and 42,200 head of cattle; Feeding Wet Byproducts of the ethanol
industry had an estimated benefit to Nebraska of almost $500 million over the past 15 years.
IANR research determined the feasibility, benefits and economic advantages of feeding
byproducts wet; E. coli O 157:H7 control in cattle before slaughter is a critical step in reducing
outbreaks of this food borne pathogen. IANR research demonstrated the effectiveness of a
new vaccine and a bacterial feed additive to reduce E. coli in the manure of feedlot cattle.
Beef Feedlot Roundtable participants indicated they gained value worth $5.05/head, with a
total value to the state of over $15 million. Attendees represented 3 million head of cattle.
80% of the participants felt they could appy their new knowledge in their jobs/operations.
After six months almost half had incorporated changes in their operations based on the
knowledge gained and many program participants reported increased profits or financial
benfits of 5-10%.
At PCC-CRE, visitors were able to understand the early life history of rabbit fish and how to
rear them from eggs to juveniles. Students gained knowledge about the basics of aquaculture
and fish farm workers in Ngatpang and Ngechesar states learned how to identify and collect
wild milkfish and tiger shrimp fry as well as the proper feeding and pond management.
Existing clam farmers in Airai learned the importance of growing rabbit fish in their clam pens
to control the growth of filamentous algae that usually damage their stock.

The trainees in the Marshall Islands have shown their interest in pearl farming and have been
diligent in monitoring and collecting data. Everyone on those atolls felt a sense of ownership
of the farms and had contributed a lot of their time to their maintenance.

In FSM, Pakin people from the groups of youths, women, church, school and fishermen
participated to pearl harvest and seeding operation, which enhanced their awareness and
practical planning toward implementing their community-owned pearl farming. Pakin
Elementary School children were also invited to observe the farming operation as a part of
school program. People in Pohnpei were able to watch the project's low tech methodologies
and activities through the Islands Cable TV and tens of thousands of Japanese became aware
of a new industry development work through BS Hi-vision TV program.




This project led to a change in knowledge of both fundamental and applied aspects of dairy
cattle nutrition and physiology. Our findings demonstrate that allowing cows to consume an
excess of dietary energy during the 6-8 week period of late gestation before calving (the dry
period) leads to inflammatory responses in liver and adipose tissue that may contribute to
disease around calving. These inflammatory changes are prevented by feeding a lower-
energy high-bulk diet rich in straw or other slowly digestible roughages. The applied aspects
of this project have led to a change in actions of dairy producers and their advisors. The
dietary changes are being widely implemented around the United States and worldwide.
Implementation of our findings has led to a change in conditions for dairy producers and
dairy cows. By lessening disease around and after calving, dairy producer incomes have been
positively affected. Well-being of the cows has also been improved.




More than 100 pond owners implemented improved weed control, and over 50 pond owners
reported fewer problems with aquatic weeds than in previous years.
As a result, more than 100 pond owners implemented imporved weed control, and over 50
pond owners reported fewer problems with aquatic weeds than in previous years.


As a result, more than 100 pond owners implemented imporved weed control, and over 50
pond owners reported fewer problems with aquatic weeds than in previous years.

There have been numerous request for largemouth bass and crawfish information. At least
one catfish farmer is testing bass culture

Many regulatory entities are now developing or modifying carcass management regulations
in response to information transferred at the symposium. As an example, Michigan now has
state policy that includes using best practices as an option for composting livestock
mortalities, where none previously existed. California law, which currently does not allow
composting of mammalian tissue, is being challenged based on scientific information
disseminated at the Symposium. A best management program has been shared with
regulators in Washington, Virginia, Iowa, California, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New
York, and New Hampshire; and the USDA Animal, Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has
used the information to develop a decision protocol for emergency carcass management.
These new regulations have positioned the U.S. livestock industry to better handle routine
and catastrophic mortality events through increased awareness of bio-security and the need
to protect the food supply.




These studies will lead to highly effective and economical protocol(s) to synchronize estrus in
postpartum beef cows and replacement beef heifers which will result in excellent pregnancy
rates following artificial insemination (AI) at a fixed time.




DDGS was found to be a more economical protein source than soybean meal in terms of gain
and cost per pound of gain. Utilizing this byproduct of ethanol production has the potential to
reduce cattle producers costs while maintaining the rate of gain.
Results indicate that the new phytase enzyme derived from e-coli was highly efficacious in
significantly improving animal growth, bone and mineral balance. In addition, phosphorus
excretion in manure was significantly reduced, thereby reducing the quantity of potential
pollutants in animal waste.

A model approach of predicting P excretion from dairy cattle as (intake P - milk P) has been
developed and now is widely accepted in Michigan and the U.S.A. as a component of the
"mass balance" approach to estimate the amount of P in manure for planning fertilization
strategies and development of comprehensive nutrient management plans.

It was demonstrated that feeding 0.21% phosphorus (P) pre-partum is adequate for
periparturient Holstein cows with high metabolic demands and genetic potential for milk
production. Results have been shared with professional dairy nutritionists and producers in
Michigan and elsewhere. Compared with previous practice, the new practice reduces the
amount of P excreted in manure during this stage of the lactation cycle (dry period) and
improves the metabolic well-being of cows during the transition from pregnancy to
lactation.




Because of the potential outbreak of Avian Flu, research data was used to educate small flock
owners about avian flu and discuss nutritional management and food biosecurity issues.
Seven workshops were conducted around the state with approximately 100 in attendance at
each. These workshops provided a rare opportunity to improve nutritional management of
birds for small producers through out the state.

Nitrogen excretion and ammonia emissions can be cut in half with a 3 to 4 percent reduction
of protein in swine diets without affecting performance.

Research findings demonstrated that by freeing up the organic phosphorus available in feed
grains and feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in swine diets, there is a lot
more available phosphorus. As a result, phosphorus doesn't need to be supplemented for
pigs close to market. This approach, which provides an economic advantage and greatly
reduces the amount of phosphorus excreted, has been adopted by large producers in
Michigan,Illinois and other Midwest swine operations.

This project has been combined with the following outcome measure: Number of research
programs to understand the environmental fate and biological effects of vaccines, steroids
and other substances fed to animals. Quantitative target will be added there.
Research advances in understanding the genetic factors that influence growth, carcass merit
and meat quality in swine were made available to the scientific community at the 2007
annual meetings of the American Society of Animal Science and the National Swine
Improvement Federation and have been disseminated to the NC-1131 multi-state research
group on muscle growth and differentiation.

Fetal myogenesis and postnatal skeletal muscle hypertrophy are critical yet poorly
understood processes in growing pigs. Understanding developmental changes in myogenic
cell activity will allow targeting of strategies to modify cell activity and effectively improve
muscle growth. Microarray analysis of undifferentiated cells from pigs at 105 days gestation
and birth revealed no differences in global gene expression. Collectively, these data suggest
that the in vivo environment, rather than inherent cellular differences, govern the
proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells during development.


After field testing of the Spartan Mitezapper device in 2007 demonstrated a significant
suppression of the verroa mite population – the largest pest of honeybees - a working
prototype has been developed by Mite Zapper LLC in Detroit and 50 copies will be produced
and used for a beta test in early 2008.

Further refinement of the biosensor used to detect BVDV took place in 2007, and a new
patent on processes related to manufacturing of the biosensor has been applied for. This
research is also the basis of active collaboration between researchers that are expanding the
knowledge gleaned from this project in the detection of other important animal and human
pathogens, including Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cattle, and important food
pathogens including E.coli and Salmonella.

A new model that acts as a surrogate for they study of Campylobacter juni virulence in the
host has bee developed. The model will serve as the basis for typing Campylobacters to
determine which have genetic attributes capable of causing sever disease. Researchers have
also published all the past work on identifying the prevalence and mechanisms of antibiotic
resistance in campylobacters from dairy cows.

The use of non-antibiotic antimicrobial proteins can reduce the risk of antibiotics in food
products and lower the risk of drug resistance in pre-harvest pathogens. Research
demonstrated that nisin is a safe antimicrobial protein that is effective against staphylococcal
and streptococcal pathogens, including antibiotic resistant pathogens. On farm studies have
shown that through the use of this on-farm pathogen testing many farms can reduce their
antibiotic use over 50%. Demonstration farms have been established to measure the
economic impact.


Data are currently being analyzed.

Data will become avaiable after feeding trials and analyses.
Results will be available after completion of data analyses.




A smaller than typical digester is now under construction on a 170 cow Minnesota dairy farm
to evaluate a lower-cost design. To support another potential option, a spreadsheet decision
tool was completed that addresses the potential for centralized digesters that would serve
groups of small livestock operations that could not support digesters individually.




The long-term goal is a change in farming practices. Through education, regulation and
market pressure this should be accomplished
There is documented evidence of increased demand for organically and sustainably produced
dairy and other food products.

The surveys indicated that over 80% of clientele participating in University of Nebraska
sponsored workshops, field days, tours and e-delivered events definitely would or probably
would make changes as a result of the new research based information presented. The
participants attending the events represented over 87.6% of the crop acres and 66.7% of the
cattle in the state. These results indicate the information provides economic value to the
producers in the state, with over 80% using the information to make or consider changes in
their operations. The information influences decision on 60-85% of agricultural production in
the state.
This is a long-term outcome, but an awareness the importance of grazing and optimum farm
land use is increasingly apparent in state and federal legislation.

The surveys indicated that over 80% of clientele participating in University of Nebraska
sponsored workshops, field days, tours and e-delivered events definitely would or probably
would make changes as a result of the new research based information presented. The
participants attending the events represented over 87.6% of the crop acres and 66.7% of the
cattle in the state. These results indicate the information provides economic value to the
producers in the state, with over 80% using the information to make or consider changes in
their operations. The information influences decision on 60-85% of agricultural production in
the state.
Perhaps the most apparent indication that regulators have become increasing aware of the
importance of grazing is that fact that the NH Commissioner of Agriculture wrote the forward
to the book.

Unfortunately, once farm land is lost to development it is never regained. With the
population of the state increasin, there is pressure for building and development. It will be
impossible to maintain the amount of farm land without public pressure and state regulation.

Educational efforts have contributed to an increased awareness of the importance of
diversification both in terms of pasture management and in overall farm management.
UNH and local dairy farmers have increased and improved grazing programs to offset
increasing costs of energy and feed.




An increasing number of local governments and community members are adopting the
aquaculture technologies and are showing interest in engaging in aquaculture programs.
At PCC-CRE, fish farmers obtained their rabbit fish fingerling requirements. However, success
in production was not significant because some of their fish stock had escaped and were
infested by predatory birds. The major problem observed was the failure of fish farmers to
conduct regular and thorough monitoring of their stocks as well as provision of feeds.

At CMI-CRE, no data collection and monitoring were done due to a problem with the small
airplanes that service those atolls. However, the people on those atolls did maintenance
work and monitoring of the farms.

At COM-FSM-CRE, Pakin community developed by-laws of its island council (NGO), which is to
be registered in October 2007 under the Pohnpei State registration. A preliminary monitoring
work of the restocked and farmed pearl oysters was commenced at Pakin and Mwoakilloa
with participation of Pakin and Mwoakilloa communities. Approximately 2000 round pearls
were harvested from quality experiments at Pakin farm and about1,000 half-pearls, or
"Mabe" pearls. Half-pearl nuclei had been implanted in the previous year by two of the
project staffs, who have been learning seeding skill from the project's hired seeding
technician.




At present, no producers have moved aerators due to cost and other considerations


The cooperating farmer in the study increased fish yields in ponds where Extension
recommendations were adopted.
By understanding the science as well as the practical implications of mass-producing hybrid
catfish, scientists can better serve the industry.

Growout operations have adopted improved harvesting methodologies developed at UAPB
specifically for pond-grading food-size hybrid catfish.




Arkansas producers are actively seeking information regarding teh economics and practical
implications of growing hybrid catfish. Our research and extension efforts are helping
producers decide if this is a good fish for their particular farm.

Farms have adopted new practices leading to greater efficiency.
Over 500 acres of ponds have been stocked with largemouth bass, freshwater prawns or
crayfish.

Data from the catfish ponds have not been analyzed. In the UAPB pond study, feeding
resulted in a more than double density of phytoplankton, but not biomass. Thus algae were
smaller with feeding. Species composition did not significantly differ between treatments.
Zooplankton density and composition also did not significantly differ between treatments.


No identifiable off-flavor algal spores were seen in sediments samples. However, spores were
identified in the plankton in July and August of the major off-flavor alga and a major scum-
producing alga.


In 2007, there were 231 Baccalaureate, 105 Masters, and 34 Doctoral degrees conferred at
the University of Nebraska in agricultural and natural resources related areas. Over 85% of
our Baccalaureate degree students find jobs in their fields or continue with their professional
education, and approximately 70% take their first job in Nebraska.

Through demonstration surveys, fifty participants showed increases in knowledge, awareness
and understanding of husbandry skills on integrated approaches to animal and plant farm
operations. Demonstrations helped farmers to increase innovation methods of capturing
nutrients from animal waste. Also, farmers have improved their operations with innovate
ideas after participating in demonstrations. Inquiries have increased from farmers on how to
look for grants to assist them to implement new information at their farm operations.

Two farmers have adopted innovative practices from our demonstrations. One farmer has
used a junked van instead of using the container van (from demonstration site)for poultry
housing to raise his layers. Another farmer used bamboo instead of wood to build his chicken
tractor. Five farmers applied for the mini-grants.

Twenty producers are now practicing regular replacement of broodstock. There is now strong
demand for replacement chicks from the local and regional poultry producers. The bi-weekly
production of 50-60 chicks was sold out immediately. Farmers are adopting practices leading
to regular replacement of broodstocks. We expect demand to continue to increase.
As a result of these activities, training on biosecurity measures and shrimp production
strategies were conducted on Saipan, Tinian, and Rota to improve the knowledge and skills of
farmers in protecting their crop from shrimp diseases. Additionally, a stakeholder led effort
to enact legislation declaring Rota as a Specific Pathogen Free Zone is underway.
Furthermore, a collaborative effort between the University of Guam and NMC CREES to write
and submit a proposal to fund a Micronesia-wide biosecurity demonstration project to
provide shrimp farmers' hands-on training on biosecurity measures is being pursued. As a
result of our continued extension outreach efforts, a farmer is now exporting shrimp brood
stock and has increased his production capacity from 1 to 5 metric tons. His efforts have
sparked further interest and now a farmer from the island of Rota is constructing tanks to
cater to the same market.




We targeted 30 producers in the NRI project, and now have 44 herds participating with
accurate cost of production records. Currently, we are examining an expansion of the project
to include farms outside the Midwestern United States.


A pilot group of 12 farms are participating in an Environmental Management System
initiation program. A major program is the PQA+ program coordinated by the National Pork
Board. This requires that producers successfully complete an educational program aimed at
insuring the highest food safety and animal well-being results from their farms. The IPIC has
four persons who have become certified PQA+ trainers. Their job is to train PQA+ advisors,
who will then certify producers in this industry based program. To date, the IPIC has
conducted 15+ meetings resulting in more than 200 certified PQA+ advisors. As producers
are required to become PQA+ certified, it will be the job of these advisors to conduct either
group or individual training for producers. To date, three of the major processors in Iowa
now require that all suppliers be PQA+ certified within the next three years or sooner. ISUE
and IPIC have the largest and most active program in this area in the nation. People trained
by IPIC in PQA+ include veterinarians, educators, and producers directly.
In 2007-08: more than 300 youth exhibited in the State Fair youth swine show; 85 youth
participated in Roundup; more than 50 youth and adult State 4-H conference attendees
participated in the workshops; 12 ISU students are part of the Swine Fellows program; the
Pork Youth Ambassador program has been restructured, yet nearly 100 youth participated in
special activities including the scavenger hunt at Iowa Pork Congress; and more than 2,700
head of hogs were scanned for county fair shows in 33 Iowa counties.




Meetings were held with representative of eight county boards of health or boards of
supervisors on the benefits of integrated crop and livestock production in the past year.
Displays outlining the possible advantages of these systems were put up and manned at the
Iowa Farm Bureau Federation annual meeting, the Iowa Pork Congress and many regional
and local events. The IPIC has worked very closely with the Coalition to Support Iowa‚'s
Farmers in articulating this concept, and in assisting producers in evaluating potential sites for
swine barns that would have the least probability of odor or negative impacts on neighbors.




Our target goal of 2,500 registered premises in Iowa was easily reached, since we are in the
early phases of the program. In fact, according to the latest numbers available from the USDA-
APHIS Web site on the NAIS program, more than 44 percent of all premises in Iowa have
been registered as of 1-22-08: 20,886 of an estimated 47,273 premises. This puts Iowa in 5th
place nationally for number of premises registered and 13th place in percentage of estimated
premises registered. In 2007, Iowa ranked first in number of new premises registered, due in
part to the opportunity at Iowa Pork Congress in January and continued encouragement by
ISUE field specialists.




More than 5000 of our pork producers and allied industry have been exposed directly to the
concepts of group sow housing, and the strengths and limitations of these facilities at
commodity conferences such as Iowa Pork Congress. ISUE sponsored Reproductive
Management Conferences were attended by 150 in the past year.
The capabilities of the Veterinary Diagnostic Lab at ISU have been greatly enhanced over the
past year. Major investments in facilities, faculty and staff have increased the capability to
serve our clients. Ongoing programs, such as the Iowa Swine Disease Conference, continue
to be the model for other universities across the nation. Furthermore, the cooperative
activities between the College of Veterinary Medicine and the College of Agriculture and Life
Sciences have been greatly enhanced recently. Cooperative efforts in areas such as PQA+
education, sow lifetime productive lifetime, animal well-being and care, and computerized
data management systems have recently evolved and are having a tremendous impact on
pork production in Iowa, the nation, and worldwide.

There is increased interest amoung consumers to buy foods that have been produced locally
in a sustainble manner. This has increased the support of local small-scale farms.

An increase in knowledge of scientists in the respective disciplines. Understanding has been
advanced. AES researchers have benefitted from feedback from conference attendees.

Seven graduate students working on the AES projects completed their degrees (6 MS and 1
PhD)and became experts in their respective fields and contributed to our knowledge.

In addition to disseminating knowledge to the scientific community and other stakeholders,
publications are one indication of research productivity. They enhance the reputation of the
NH AES and increase the competitiveness of research proposals for further studies.

None

Submission of proposals to competitive programs in the USDA and other funding agencies is a
way of leveraging AES formula funds. It has allowed us to find additional resources to solve
issues that are central to the mission of the AES.
One stakeholder who came to the aquaculture production workshops a few years ago not
knowing very much about the industry, started an aquaculture business, and is now a
reviewer of projects and industry liaison for the USDA Center for Tropical and Subtropical
Aquaculture. The value of aquaculture increased in 10 years from $16.6M to $26M, an
increase of over 60%.
Over 645 cattle producers have attended one or more of the workshops, demonstrations, or
conferences. The Beef Cattle industry conducted a 2-day strategic planning session facilitated
by CTAHR with over 69 participants contributing to the plan. Results demonstrate that an
application of 150# of urea produced over 10 tons of biomass more than untreated plots in 3
to 4 months which would allow an additional 25 animal unit months of grazing. Twenty-two
cattle producers have adopted one or more of the best management practices to restore non-
productive former sugar or pineapple lands to highly productive pastures. Because of the
high cost of livestock feed and as a survival measure, two dairies have begun installing
irrigation systems to utilize waste lagoon water for forage production.


n/a

Seventeen courses taught to undergraduates and graduates at UNH include knowledge
developed from NH AES projects in this program.




Four local farmers are now engaged in poultry layer operation in Rota and Saipan. Both
operations were supplying local stores and competing with quality against imported eggs. A
producer in Rota was collecting 71 dozens of eggs in a day. There was approximately 40%
reduction of egg importation in the island of Rota alone. Mortalities are below the standard
and expected value, which favors the operation. There are still more local farmers who
wanted to venture to poultry operations. Small scale (backyard) goat production is an
increasing enterprise in the island of Tinian and Saipan. One farmer used to gather 71 dozens
of eggs per day. The demand is high for local fresh eggs and the farmer wanted to meet that
demand by increasing numbers of layers in his farm. This is seen with the increase number of
clients requesting for health check up for goats.

It is expected that more than 30 farmers will receive AI technology once grant is received.
Received a word from Western SARE Producer plus Professional Grant that it was selected for
funding by June 2008. Artificial insemination training and actual insemination will be done
thru WSARE funding to the three islands. Ai expert from University of Hawaii have extended
their service.
With the three herds that are keeping basic records, they are reporting percent calf crops
weaned in the range of 85 to 90%. One of the herds on performance test reported a herd
average weaning weight of 662 lbs on their fall born calves and 563 lbs on thier spring born
calves. The other herd on test reported a herd average weaning weight of 569 lbs on fall born
calves. This particular herd had an average weaning weight of 230 lbs when they first started
performance testing. All three of these herds are selling bulls to other cattlemen for breeding
and are considered to be top cattlemen in their areas.
The group in southwest Arkansas have been visited several times for individual farm trips,
office visits and two production meetings. Interest in their herds is developing since they are
beginning to ask questions about different practices, concerns involving the beef industry and
their herds and they are starting to request informantion on livestock.




It was determined that the percentage of farms with a recurrence of mycoplasma mastitis
was 57.5% (n=23/40), the average number of the recurrences was 2.45, and that bulk milk
samples from 4 herds that were examined in the same month of a first positive culture of
Mycoplasma spp. were negative at the second test, as opposed to the 6 herds also tested
twice in the same month that remained positive.




This research, updated annually, results in corn silage hybrid recommendations, which are
communicated via industry and extension channels to New York dairy farmers. Each year we
send out the results of our corn silage hybrid testing program in the fall to members of the
Northeast Dairy Producers Association (NEDPA), as well as field crop educators who
disseminate the results to other dairy farmers in their counties. Many dairy producers use
select corn silage hybrids, based on the yield and quality results of our trial. We get the data
out in late October/early November so that dairy producers can take advantage of the early-
buy discounts that seed companies provide through mid-November. Dairy producers receive
a "win-win" result by selecting the best hybrids at a reduced cost. Dairy producers also used
the results of our seed treatment work to help them decide whether to use seed-applied
insecticides on their corn silage in 2007. In 2007, we sent out the results to the NEDPA
members and our field crop educators on 11/12/07 and the results were used by NEDPA
members in hybrid selection and the field crop educators included the results in their county
newsletters.
The primary supplier of juvenile cod for the northeast marine aquaculture industry as
adopted the techniques developed by the project and has increased production and quality
of fish supplied to growers
Developing the technologies and methods to implement aquaculture nutrition studies at
Lincoln University has the potential to increase production of marketable fish in Missouri and
other North central states. The results of the studies could have a positive effect on
aquaculture industry in Missouri by providing information applicable to many small farms.

The development of aquaculture water recycled system allows us to conduct practical
research experiments that can provide valuable information to farmers and other
researchers. The evaluation of the commercial feeds experiment has already assisted one
local farmer that has changed commercial feeds and commented to us how well his larvae
are flourishing since doing so. Our fish nursery is also in the process of changing our larval
feed supply. Once our laboratory results are in; the data published and presented; and one
undergraduate student working on a preliminary project that should result in several
presentations and two possible scientific journal articles.

The principal investigator was on a sabbatical leave for six months. He was awarded a six-
month U.S Fulbright Scholarship to Uganda, Fall 2007.




Developed a breeding system ideal for family selection of bluegill sunfish. Selective breeding
of bluegill sunfish is worth effort. We have produced at least some male bluegill sunfish that
produce broods with a desired male dominated sex ratio. Methods used to produce
allotriploids are likely not to be appropriate for optimal production of allotriploids.




A visible and accessible site now provide residents who might never had considered tilapia
production an opportunity to learn how they can grow tilapia right where they live. Eighteen
participants have increased their knowledge on aquaculture technology.
One aquaculture producer has adopted new aquaculture technology from information and
assistance provided by CES. The system is being run to demonstrate it's long term feasibility
for interested producers.




The information derived from these studies will provide much-needed guidance to maintain
livestock health and productivity while reducing the risk of antibiotic resistance in foodborne
bacteria that may infect humans.

Aquaculture income changes from year to year to many variables in addition to management
changes. Improving Aquaculture cost of production will improve the overall efficiency of the
industy.


Thirteen agriculture land lease holders have increased knowledge, understanding and skills of
conservation and production practices.
One hundred and eighty participants have increased knowledge and understanding of
conservation practices. Through initial exposure at the demonstration farms, farmers have
adopted practices such as windbreaks and mulching. Additional workshops, not previously
planned, were conducted to address the high demand for education on windbreaks and
mulching.

This outcome was not evaluated.
This outcome was not evaluated.


1) Results raise possible concerns regarding current practices of utilizing MOET in heat-
stressed cattle with the intent of obtaining 'developmentally-competent' embryos.
2) Utilization of a prostaglandin F2¡ receptor antagonist during embryo recovery will
significantly improve pregnancy rates of recipient animals and thus efficiency of production.
The data will be used to analyze the relationships between deer harvest and roadkill spatially
over time. This will provide essential information for managers to develop deer harvest
strategies.
A novel surface protein, SUAM, may be a promising antigen for the control of S. uberis
mastitis in dairy cows; our research may help develop non-antibiotic strategies for controlling
this form of mastitis.
Chicken cells were totally protected against the toxin when co-incubated with the enzyme.
The reproductive performance of high stress quail was negatively impacted by the toxin. A
novel protein is effective in reducing the toxicity of this toxin, and should lead to intervention
strategies.


The producers purchased improved sires or semen that met minimum standards established
by UT Extension for birth weights, growth, milk production and other performance factors.
Agents provided education and one-on-one assistance in making sire selection decisions. The
state provided $2,028,935 in cost share funding for improved genetics, and the total
investment statewide at the farm level was $7,206,237. This investment will provide benefits
for several years, as heifers that are retained from these improved genetics are added to the
state's beef and dairy herds. In addition, the calves from these better sires show improved
performance and quality, increasing revenue for Tennessee beef and dairy producers.

While follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) did not increase ovulatory follicle size, earlier
ovulation occurred when FSH was given. Information gained from these studies constitutes
an important first step toward the development of management strategies.
Our results indicate that specific phospholipase inhibitors could be used to enhance
reproduction in livestock, and that stimulation of other biochemical pathways may improve
pregnancy rates, reproductive efficiency, and decrease problems associated with the birthing
process.

Results of this work will be useful in improving management and husbandry procedures that
impact the health and well-being of animals thereby ensuring the productivity and
profitability of farms and enhancing the interactions of humans and companion animals.

Eight TQMI educational meetings that were held throughout the state, attracting 239 dairy
producers from 211 dairy farms, which represents approximately 37% of dairy farms in
Tennessee.

This research may lead to management tools to combat post-weaning declines in pig health
and well-being.




Hybrid striped bass fingerling producers have information to help increase production; at this
time the improvements ahve not been implemented.
Dairy producers and employees have reduced calf and heifer mortality and morbidity when
they discontinue buying young calves at auction barns and properly collect, freeze, thaw and
feed stored colostrums milk to newborn calves. Each farm represented at the first meeting,
which dealt with Newborn and Calf management, reported improvement in calf survival
during the first month on the farm. Two operators stopped buying young calves at auction
barns. Three other conventional dairy operators improved first month calf survival by 8%
compared to the same period in 2006. Altogether, it amounted to 23 more calves on these
three farms. One grass based, seasonal dairy reduced their calf mortality by 35% by
managing colostrum harvest and feeding to newborn calves. On this 400-cow dairy, this
change amounted to 12 more live calves during the calving season. Half of these will be sold
as steers, while the other half will enter the milking herd.


The results indicate that compounds such as soybean phospholipids provided at very high
levels, never tested before, have growth enhancing effects in rainbow trout juveniles. The
compounds of interest would have high polarity and can be added to starter diets possibly in
many other fish species. In a followup experiment with indispensable amino acid imbalanced
diets the scientists demonstrated feed intake enhancing effect and consequently growth
promoting results of a new feeding strategy that encompass switching diets with imbalanced
amino acids. We continued to explore the function of lipoic acid, a substance with enormous
potential in fish feeds because this compound has an antioxidant capacity that might prevent
deterioration of many susceptible dietary compounds and consequently increase resistance
against stress and/or diseases. The study provided the first evidence that lipoic acid might be
conditionally indispensable in young fish diets.




Besides producing energy, the system saves valuable nutrients for biofertilizer, cuts
greenhouse gas emissions and reduces offensive odors.




Fifteen of the 21 participants (16 Illinois Dairy graziers, 3 out-of-state graziers, and 2 industry
representatives) returned a questionnaire mailed to them a few days after the last session.
All respondents strongly agreed or agreed that the distance delivery format and quality was
acceptable, that they would like to see another series next year, and that the program will
help them to make more informed dairy grazing management decisions.
(See specific planned practice changes in the evaluation section of this planned program
report.) Ten of the respondents indicated they planned to increase the acres of pasture in
the coming year and five indicated they planned to maintain their pasture acreage.




Data was not collected for this Outcome Indicator in 2007.
See crosscutting outcome measure narrative.


See crosscutting outcome measure narrative.




ETP 11B - Sheep, Goat and Rabbit Production

Alabama small ruminant producers have become more knowledgeable and stayed open to
new and different management practices that allowed their operations to be more
productive and profitable. Registration records showed that a total of 994 sheep and goat
producers attended educational activities carried out by ACES. Post surveys indicated that
835 participants (84%) gained knowledge as a result of the educational activities. Moreover,
676 participants (68%) reported improvements in herd health and production efficiency, and
497 participants (50%) reported increases in profitability ranging from 2 to 15%.

The small ruminant industry, in particular the meat goat segment, is one of the fastest
growing enterprises of the Alabama agriculture economy. In 2007, there were nearly 48,000
goats in Alabama, more than an 11% increase since 2006.


As a result of our efforts, 85 livestock producers have gone through basic training. These
producers have learned care skills that they are currently employing on their own farms, from
vaccinations to disease diagnosis to reproductive procedures. 95% of respondents to a 6-
month follow-up survey stated that they employed to information that they learned at the
class daily. The majority of repsondents were using the information on their own farms and
several are also using it to teach local 4-H groups.
A recent one on one consultation resulted in news stalls being installed on an area dairy farm.
The 110 cow farm reported a 10 pound increase in production per cow, of which at least 50%
of the increase is attributable to the new stalls. Under current economic conditions this
would equate to around $45,000 additional annual income for this herd. Even accounting for
additional feed being consumed, this farm will likely add $30,000 to $35,000 of net income to
their bottom line. Other improvements attributed to programming in the area of cow
comfort include the installation of many tunnel ventilation systems in tie-stall barns in the
area. New lighting systems that provide at least 15 foot candles of light intensity and that
manipulate photoperiod length have resulted in increased production as well. Sidewall
curtains installations on old free-stall barns have improved cow comfort in many instances.




Participating producers reported saving an average of $21/head by using these technologies.
Examples include a producer who reduced feed cost by $45/cow by substituting low-quality
grass seed straw for 25% of his feed; another sold 90 tons of high-quality hay he determined
he would not need; a third reduced the cost per pound gain on weaned calves by adding
barley to a forage-based program.

To date, 10 workshops representing 13 counties have featured the program across Oregon.
Approximately 9% of Oregon's total cattle ranches are participating in the program with an
estimated net profit gain of $7,000/ranch/year. Total savings for participant ranches is
approximarely $840,000. Most recent data available show 645,900 head of beef cattle in the
state. If $21/head were saved on only 10% of Oregon cattle rances, producers would save
almost $1.35 million/year.

Protecting animals during a hurricane and other disaster emergency periods was significant in
fiscal year 2007 for more than 50 small farmers engaged in the production of sheep and meat
goats. The most significant aspect of this program provided knowledge on the need for good
record keeping inclusive of an animal and premise identification system as well as
photographs of animals to prove ownership was one of the highlights of this particular
program. This program will continue in the future to assist farmers and farm families with
the proper identification and care of small ruminant animals during natural disaster periods.

The results of the program show that several goat producers have adopted at least 5 or more
sustainable production practices. The practices include: establishing an on farm bio-security
program, using a record keeping system, developing a breeding, nutrition and herd health
programs, using the FAMACHA system and rotational grazing. Due to its success, the program
will be offered three to four times per year throughout the state.
RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by RT-PCR and cell-culture
inmunofluorescence (CCIF) and inoculation of Gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine
RV-A/C infectivity in post-treatment samples. PoSaV, RV-A and RV-C were detected in 83%,
70% and 51% of pre-treatment samples, respectively. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in
pre-treatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pre-
treatment feces from 3/5 or 4/5 candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment PoSaV RNA
was only detected in the CWM, and not from the candidate ESTs. Rotavirus-A and C RNA was
detected in 4/5 and 3/4 candidate ESTs after treatment (not detectable from ATAD samples),
but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion
detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral
infectivity was detected after treatments.

Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding
swine production units. Although only one candidate EST (ATAD) reduced virus
concentrations to undetectable levels as evaluated by molecular techniques, all the
technologies tested were effective in reducing virus infectivity as evaluated by virus
infectivity assay (CCIF) and Gn pig inoculation. However these findings should also be
evaluated in consideration of the ability of each technology to reduce the impact of other


Increasing the concentration of starch from 22 up to 30% of the diet would reduce manure
production by an additional 9%. These two factors were independent, thereby increasing
corn silage and increasing starch could reduce manure output by almost 20%. As expected
the amount of ammonia produced from manure increased as cows were fed more protein
but we found that by feeding a diet just adequate in protein plus high starch and high alfalfa
the amount of ammonia produced from manure (on a per cow basis) could be reduced by
almost 50% with no effect on milk production. Since increasing alfalfa was associated with
increased manure output, to reduce ammonia produced from manure the farmer will have to
compromise and formulate diets that probably will lead to an increase in total manure output
(the increase was entirely water). Overall this experiment clearly showed that the
environmental impact of dairy farming could be reduced substantially with no effect on milk
production an virtually no effect on feed costs.
Liquid feeds (LF) reduce forage particle sorting, improve palatability, and increase energy
density of TMR. However, excess sugars could promote rumen acidosis or could reduce milk
fat production, particularly if combined with Rumensin (R). Liquid feeds containing molasses
help reduce sorting behavior by dairy cows. Therefore, more cows in a group consume the
components of the total diet more uniformly in between feedings, which helps to reduce
rumen acidosis and metabolic problems. However, over consumption of sugars (a major
component of liquid feeds) can negate these benefits and cause rumen acidosis. Decreasing
rumen pH can depress milk fat percentage, and a combination of low pH with supplemental
unsaturated fat plus Rumensin can further exacerbate milk fat depression. The liquid feed
used in our trial did not promote milk fat depression when the dietary non-fiber
carbohydrates were diluted, even when Rumensin was fed. In fact, liquid feeds improved
palatability of the diets and promoted feed intake, which increased milk fat production.
These findings can be used by nutrition advisors in the dairy sector to improve feed efficiency
and profitability because milk fat depression can decrease profit margin by up to one-third.




Pigs from CNR's herd have been traded with farmers to introduce diversity introduced in the
late 1990's where some sows were successfully artificially inseminated. Four farmers have
received our stock and CNR received stock from these farmers. Both farmers and CNR
piggeries have benefited from the trade by increasing the diversity in their gene pools.

Early application of N to pastures increased yield and protein content of forage early in the
growing season without significant loss of N, and provided economical supplimental feed
early in the growing season. Early forage was produced at a savings of $0.03 per pound of
feed when compared to harvested forage. Livestock producers pastured animals about three
weeks earlier than traditionally, and saved $16 in feed costs per cow during that period. On a
resource base of 850,000 acres of cultivated or improved pastureland, adding the potential
estimated benefits and deducting the increased management costs involved nets Oregon
livestock producers around $2 million/year.




Their is increasing involvement of farmers adopting innovative farming techniques such as
pastured poultry, pastured beef and pastured pork in small scale. Two poultry raisers were
selling their produce in store and local flea markets. Six farmers with pastured beef and
pastured pork sell their produce via live weight. And many unrecorded goat raisers do their
marketing by themselves.
Four local farmers were currently applying and practicing the dry litter system and USDA
NRCS is helping us promote the system by including it in the Best management practices
(BMP's). Posters,brochures, websites, and videos were disseminated all over the US and
pacific islands for the promotion of the dry litter system. It was funded by US Environmental
Protection Agency ($70,000). There are more farmers that are expected to adapt the system
once information dissemination will continue and once NRCS fully included it in the BMP's for
EQIP.

During the 2007 fair season the result was a higher number of violations, yet of that number
there were less total violations that were due to illegal or off label drug use. There was an
increase in poor management techniques resulting in lambs that did not meet the criteria
listed in the general rules of fair codes for the state of Ohio (ex: testicular tissue that was
present as a result of sloppy castration techniques. Although these animals were found to be
in violation they would not have made a consumer sick. This is an improvement over
previous years.




The Skillathon QA stations across all food producing species have resulted in the highest
scores when compared to other production based stations that are in each of these
skillathons.

Ohio has increased the number of managed and planned grazing acres, protecting water
quality, improving production. Development of the beginning grazing school curriculum is in
the final review stages and will be introduced spring of 2008 at a Train the Trainer session.
Since November, 2007, 5 different Forage Team members have posted information to the
blog. In the Pasture Measurement Project one of the volunteers was quoted in a publication
that their participation was one of the best things they have done. Over 460 producers
attended educational programs offered. After one presentation over 60% indicated that they
would make changes to their grazing management.

Tens of thousands of acres have adopted managed grazing. List practices to be implemented
as a result of what you have learned in cow calf school:
Participants received information and training in various areas of agricultural operations,
record keeping, pesticide application, parasite symptom detection, alternative enterprises,
financing, real estate planning, legal issues, profitability, etc. Overall assessment conducted
during the sessions indicated that 80 percent of the participants gained new knowledge and
skills while 78 percent indicated that they will utilize knowledge and skills gained.


More than 1180 individuals participate in educational programs targeting manure nutrient
management, soil and manure testing, Best Management Practices for manure nutrient
application and recycling as well as equipment maintenance and calibration.


More than 800 individuals participate in state-wide educational programs promoting the
economic value of manure nutrients, how to best utilize this resource through soil and
manure testing, and Best Management Practices to protect water quality and maintain
environmental, economic and social viability.
Increasing amino acid regimes increased broiler live performance and carcass yields. Much of
this response was due to the fact that modern commercial strains are consuming less and
yielding more, and therefore feeding programs need to be adjusted. Increasing amino acid
minimums 10% across all diets fed (0 to 55 days of age) resulted in a 0.50% increase in breast
meat yield. This resulted in an income over feed costs increase of $0.051/bird. However,
increasing amino acids only to 35 days of age (the critical periods of growth) increased
income over feed costs $0.052/bird. These results point to the importance of feeding
modern commercial broilers levels of amino acids needed to overcome reduced feed intake,
especially early in life




Genetic improvement and reduction in the incidencies of parasite outbreaks.




By 2007, 478 farms participated in the Milk Money team process in Wisconsin. As a result,
producers adopted best management practices such as performing bulk tank cultures;
culturing for clinical mastitis; keeping better treatment records; developing standard, written
milking routines; wearing gloves during milking; training Spanish-speaking workers in best
practices, consulting with dairy professionals and using team management. After 4 months in
the program, the average farm dropped their bulk tank somatic cell count by about 77,000
SCC/ml and increased income by $1,650 per month. From 2000 to 2006, the Dairy Herd
Improvement Association (DHIA) average bulk tank counts for Wisconsin dairy herds dropped
from 306,000 to 258,000 SCC/ml, while the California state DHIA average increased from
248,000 to 291,000 SCC/ml.
Working with educational partners to engage public participation in achieving a measurable,
agreed-on regulatory process, UW-Extension educators address the needs of both farmers
and rural communities, build local capacity to meet these needs, and support community
action. The 22 participating county educators reported that 9 towns or counties have
adopted new zoning ordinances, and 6 more are in process. These ordinances protect public
health and safety by establishing standards and procedures for issuing licenses for new and
expanded livestock and waste storage facilities.




Based on 46 on-farm visits in 2007, new Northern Wisconsin dairy agent Sam Zimmermann
wrote 24 recommendations that included computer-assisted drawings of building layouts,
aerial photos, herd tables, milking parlor plans and written proposals based on University
recommendations. Zimmermann reached another 72 producers at a tri-county Compost Barn
Workshop and Tour, He keeps current dairy modernization virtual tours and photo galleries
showing how dairy farms improved facilities as a result of UW-Extension education:
http://marathon.uwex.edu/ag/modern/index.html




Since 2004, more than 500 Spanish-speaking dairy workers have attended bilingual Dairy
Worker Trainings. Evaluation results show that participants made large gains in skill level and
knowledge. Bilingual trainings help transcend communication barriers to the benefit of both
English-speaking employers and Spanish-speaking workers. From the 2007 pilot safety
training, evaluations indicated that pre-inspection, driving, maintenance and over all
knowledge increased. Participants asked for more hands on training in switching skid steer
attachments and lifting different loads. The trainers are using this feedback to improve farm
safety trainings for next spring.


n/a
Over all clients indicated a very good learning experience and behavior change anticipated. A
total of 87 evaluations were collected at several of the meetings. The summary follows.
1. After attending this meeting do you feel that you have a better understanding of good
small flock poultry production practices? Yes_75_; Somewhat_11_; No_1_ Yes 85 %,
Somewhat 12%

2. Do you have a better understanding about the concerns for bird flu? Yes_78_;
Somewhat_8_; No___ Yes 89%, Somewhat 9%

3. Do you feel that you better understand how bird flu is transmitted to poultry? Yes_77_;
Somewhat_10_; No___ Yes 88%, Somewhat 11%

4. Do you feel that you understand how to reduce the chances of you or your poultry getting
bird flu? Yes_76_; Somewhat_10_; No___ Yes 86%, Somewhat 11%

5. As a result of this meeting, are you likely to change the way you manage your poultry flock
to reduce their chance of getting bird flu? Yes_55_; Maybe_24_; No_7_; Don't have poultry
_7_ Yes 62%, Maybe 27%, No 8%, Don't have poultry 8%

6. Do you feel that you understand the symptoms of bird flu and who to call if you see them?
Yes_66_; Somewhat_11_; No___; Don't have poultry __8_ Yes 75%, Somewhat 12%; No;
Don't have poultry 9%

7. Do you have an improved understanding of good food handling procedures to avoid food
borne illness? Yes_76_; Somewhat_11_; No__ Yes 86%; Somewhat 12%

8. Are you likely to talk to others about what you learned here today? Yes_79_; Maybe_8_;
No_1_ Yes 90%; Maybe 9%; No 1%
It is estimated from previous evaluations that 88% of the youth gained knowledge in the area
of animal management systems.




The dissemination of the WBGNRIC and GPSSM by installation and translations at foreign
institutions will increase potential collaboration with Langston University, elevate the level of
production and (or) decrease costs for greater profit to farmers around the world raising
goats, enhance product availability and lower costs for consumers, increase other benefits
from rearing goats such as weed and brush control, and increase knowledge of personnel at
Langston University in the area of goat production in other countries. This will strengthen
the University's domestic research and extension programs. The web-based decision support
aids will be used at collaborating foreign institutions in research activities and for training of
extension officers, graduate students, and leader farmers.
The dissemination of the WBGNRIC and GPSSM by installation and translations at foreign
institutions will increase potential collaboration with Langston University, elevate the level of
production and (or) decrease costs for greater profit to farmers around the world raising
goats, enhance product availability and lower costs for consumers, increase other benefits
from rearing goats such as weed and brush control, and increase knowledge of personnel at
Langston University in the area of goat production in other countries. This will strengthen
the University's domestic research and extension programs. The web-based decision support
aids will be used at collaborating foreign institutions in research activities and for training of
extension officers, graduate students, and leader farmers.


Based on this study, neither species of buffalo fish grew as quickly as channel catfish. This
information may prevent some catfish producers from losing money by investing heavily in
buffalo fish production.


Based on this study, neither species of buffalo fish grew as quickly as channel catfish. This
information may prevent some catfish producers from losing money by investing heavily in
buffalo fish production.
Based on this study, neither species of buffalo fish grew as quickly as channel catfish. This
information may prevent some catfish producers from losing money by investing heavily in
buffalo fish production.

In a follow up survey 176 best management practices were planned for implementation on
private land in the Marys River and Long Tom River watersheds as a result of the program.
89% of the participants had already implemetned at least 1 practice since the training.




Evaluation data collected directly after Extension small farm workshops indicated that 82% of
the participants planned to use the information presented. In follow up surveys mailed 8 to
10 months after the workshop 92% of the participants reported they had implemented at
least one practice learned; 38% of the participants implemented 4 or more practices.
Pond owners were generally very receptive to proposed solutions to problems. They were
interested in working with lawn service enterprises to reduce phosphorus and nitrogen
applications to lawn. However, many believed that neighbors would be reluctant to do
anything that reduced perceived lawn quality. Some home owners associations produced
newsletters and sent them to their members. Best Management Practices for lawn
application of fertilizers and other pond related information were included in the
newsletters. Aeration devices were installed in some ponds. Overall improvement in urban
pond water quality and consequently in watershed streams is likely to occur in the addressed
areas.
Pond owners were generally very receptive to proposed solutions to problems. They were
interested in working with lawn service enterprises to reduce phosphorus and nitrogen
applications to lawn. However, many believed that neighbors would be reluctant to do
anything that reduced perceived lawn quality. Some home owners associations produced
newsletters and sent them to their members. Best Management Practices for lawn
application of fertilizers and other pond related information were included in the
newsletters. Aeration devices were installed in some ponds. Overall improvement in urban
pond water quality and consequently in watershed streams is likely to occur in the addressed
areas.
Pond owners were generally very receptive to proposed solutions to problems. They were
interested in working with lawn service enterprises to reduce phosphorus and nitrogen
applications to lawn. However, many believed that neighbors would be reluctant to do
anything that reduced perceived lawn quality. Some home owners associations produced
newsletters and sent them to their members. Best Management Practices for lawn
application of fertilizers and other pond related information were included in the
newsletters. Aeration devices were installed in some ponds. Overall improvement in urban
pond water quality and consequently in watershed streams is likely to occur in the addressed
areas.

Recommendations can be made to reindeer producers that Kentucky bluegrass has a better
nutritional profile and is palatable to reindeer. However, smooth bromegrass may be more
profitable since it can be used for pasture and hay production. In previous reporting periods it
was determined that use of local feed can save as much as 50% in the cost of reindeer rations
when the deer are ranched.

Reindeer: By using enclosures and supplemental feed reindeer quickly socialize to humans.
This allows producers increased control of free-ranging animals. Socialized reindeer are easily
penned which reduces losses to migrating caribou and predators. Supplemental feed
improved body condition and reproduction when green forage was not available. The use of
enclosures and supplemental feeding shows promise to increase the productivity of free
ranging reindeer herds in Alaska. Peonies: Mayesh Wholesale Flower Distributor evaluated a
sample of Alaska-grown peonies when they were harvested in early July. Our trial cutting of
peonies was received favorably by Mayesh. They offered to purchase peonies next year for
$1.25 per stem.
In 2007 external grants were secured for related research totaling over $324,000 and
extension grants totaling $50,440.
While our goal is to provide education related to NAIS, records indicate that 3,178 Oklahoma
livestock premises were registered in 2007
We have directly assisted in the tagging of over 22,000 animals with electronic identification
tags in OSU livestock production units and youth livestock projects.
Assisted 5 Oklahoma companies developing electronic livestock identification and monitoring
solutions with various aspects of grant funding seeking, product testing and evaluation.
Efforts have resulted in 1 peer reviewed publication, two abstracts with presentations, and a
web article.




In 2007 external grants were secured for related research totaling over $324,000 and
extension grants totaling $50,440.
While our goal is to provide education related to NAIS, records indicate that 3,178 Oklahoma
livestock premises were registered in 2007
We have directly assisted in the tagging of over 22,000 animals with electronic identification
tags in OSU livestock production units and youth livestock projects.
Assisted 5 Oklahoma companies developing electronic livestock identification and monitoring
solutions with various aspects of grant funding seeking, product testing and evaluation.
Efforts have resulted in 1 peer reviewed publication, two abstracts with presentations, and a
web article.
Beef Cattle Manual
Approximately 7,500 manuals have been distributed through local Extension offices through
2007.

Master Cattleman Program
More than 550 students have enrolled in the program and more than 350 have "graduated",
43% of the graduations occurred in 2007. At present, there are approximately 130
continuing MC students. Twenty six county or multi-county units have initiated a Master
Cattleman educational program. Through 2007, approximately 485 educational sessions
have been conducted, with 101 of those held in 2007. Table 2 lists individual events for 2007.


Cow-calf assessment data continued and analysis of stocker assessment data was begun.
*Vestal, Mallory, C. Ward, D. Doye and D. Lalman. "Cow-Calf Production Practices in
Oklahoma - Part 1." OSU AGEC-245. October 2007.
*Vestal, Mallory, C. Ward, D. Doye and D. Lalman. "Cow-Calf Production Practices in
Oklahoma - Part 2." OSU AGEC-245. October 2007.
*Vestal, M., C. Ward, D. Doye and D. Lalman. "Is Anyone Doing What Experts Recommend?
Analysis of Oklahoma Cow-Calf Producers' Management Practices." Selected Poster. SAEA
Annual Meeting. Mobile, AL. February 2007.
At the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists annual meeting in February, the
principal investigators participated in an Organized Symposia, "Master Cattlemen/Cattle
Producer Educational Programs in the South". In addition, a presentation, "Reaching New
Audiences with Oklahoma's Master Cattleman Program" was made at the National Farm
Wheat Pasture Stocker Cattle Educational Programming
Producers gained key economic skills in determining the proper amount and type of feed
supplements to provide to stockers on wheat pasture. Knowledge was gained for utilizing
available feed grains or byproduct feeds as low cost alternatives for wheat pasture
supplementation and for efficient growing programs prior to grazing. Producer attitudes
were improved regarding their commitment to follow beef quality assurance guidelines. Key
stocker budget factors were reviewed and lowering cost of production emphasized in
presentations.
Reducing stocker health impacts and death loss is a key component to a profitable stocker
cattle enterprise. The Stocker Receiving Management Conference reached influential
managers and veterinarians to update them on the latest educational information on stocker
topics regarding low stress handling, vaccination protocols, antibiotic effectiveness, and
stressed calf nutritional requirements.

Forage Breeding
One new forage bermudagrass cultivar 'Goodwell' was released by Oklahoma Agricultural
Experiment Station in Mach 2007. The cultivar has excellent cold hardness and high forage
yield potential under irrigation in the High Plains. Goodwell is shorter in plant height, and has
larger stems and wider leaves and produces a denser sod than "hay type" standards Midland,
Midland 99 and Tifton 44. Compared to "grazing type" cultivars like Greenfield, Goodwell is
taller growing and has much larger stems and leaves, but forms a less dense sod. Planting
stock of Goodwell will be distributed through licensed growers and a plant patent application
has been submitted.

Half-sib seed of selected forage bermudagrass parents has been harvested in the fall 2007
and will be used to establish a selection nursery in the summer 2008.

Improved efficiency of feed and forage use by beef cattle
The demand for this educational experience has been outstanding. Class size was limited to
50 participants so that producers would be in smaller groups. The first camp filled up before
local advertising could begin. This demand caused the organizers to conduct a second boot
camp four months later. As the organizers, we underestimated the interest from goat
producers from outside of Oklahoma. To date two camps have been completed with 111
participants from fifteen states. Participants have come from as far away as Michigan, New
Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky and Georgia.
All participants were asked to evaluate the program and determine the impact to their
operation. The following are the results from the evaluations.

*80% of the sessions taught were of great value to participants
*42.5% potential adoption rate of information and management practices from the boot
camp
*Average perceived dollar value of the information presented was $20.89/goat
*Total value perceived for both camps $93,600

Quotes from participants:

"This class was awesome! I think it should be taught in high schools or at least tech schools!
The instructors were invaluable, knowledgeable, very friendly, nice and ready to answer any
questions. They went above and beyond." - October 07 Boot Camp

"I really thought this was a great opportunity and it certainly helped me better understand
concepts on the industry." - June 07 Boot Camp

"The best educational program on livestock production that I have attended. I plan returning
for more education programs." - June 07 Boot Camp

Researchers at the University of Nevada have demonstrated that long-term contraception of
wild mares with a single shot of either the SpayVacTM or GonaConTM vaccine is possible.
They also concluded that long-term contraception of wild horse mares may also be possible
with modifications to the IUD to achieve long-term retention.
Reduction of free-ranging horses by limiting fertility holds the greatest promise for economic,
humane, and effective population control. Contraception in feral horses should be safe and
potentially reversible, cost effective, efficacious for several years with minimal handling
required, and should not affect normal reproductive and harem maintenance behavior.
To date, reproductive control by injectable contraceptive formulations, principally the PZP
formulation, has not shown consistent effectiveness for more than 1-2 years, and involves
much expense, manpower, and horse handling to maintain infertility. Long-acting
contraceptive approaches are urgently needed for feral horse population control.
This study has added significantly to the understanding of the behavior effects and duration
of two different long-term contraceptive products. Either product will potentially add an
economical tool for range management of wild and feral horse populations when compared
to round-ups and adoptions.
Between the Winter Animal Science Series and the teleconferences with veterinarians, more
than 250 producers and 4-Hers learned information about livestock diseases, nutrition,
breeding, and animal well-being. (Several producers participated in more than one
workshop.) These workshops further the knowledge of producers toward optimum care of
livestock and their health. Better livestock health contributes to a better product and will
make livestock operations more economically viable.

Publishing the chapter on reproductive management in a veterinary text will help produce
veterinarians with some knowledge of reproduction in this species.

The livestock workshops further the knowledge and understanding of producers toward
optimum care of livestock and their health.

Pretests were administered before and and posttests were administered after these classes
in all locations and mean test score show increased understanding in each of the following
subject matter areas:

Animal nutrition, 28.8 percent in the pretest, 84.7 percent in the posttest.

Animal reproduction, 19.1 percent in the pretest to 76.4 percent in the posttest

Animal lactation, 9.2 percent in the pretest to 71 percent in the posttest




Through multiple contacts with producers, the livestock specialist has become aware of
challenges Alaska livestock producers face. He gives them the understanding and tools to
improve their operations, sometimes troubleshooting on site. Helping producers solve their
problems increases their ability to assess their production practices in the future.
Since producers in Southcentral added the selenium salt blocks in the spring of 2005, this
group of 10 livestock producers has not lost a single calf for unknown reasons. In livestock
production, successful reproduction is paramount to financial success and this simple change
for these producers has benefitted these producers by the increased number of steers that
survive and the increased number of replacement heifers for their herds.

The dairy farmer followed the livestock specialist recommendations and no milk fever cases
have been reported since October 2006. The producer feels that the number of retained
placentas in his herd has declined dramatically. Both of these problems were likely the result
of cows not being able to turn on the physiologic mechanism responsible for mobilizing the
large amount of calcium needed for muscle function and concurrent milk production in high-
producing cows. Milk production among fresh cows has increased, likely increasing
profitability along with reducing costs that were associated with treating sick cows.

Resolving these problems contributed to the producer ability to deal with these issues in the
future.




The work of the livestock specialist has led to increased production but Extension has not
tracked the individual productivity of farms. Since Extension has one livestock specialist who
is shared with the Experiment Station, we lack staffing to track numbers of this kind.
Solving the calf mortality problem in Southcentral improved the profit margin for 10 livestock
producers.In livestock production, successful reproduction is necessary for financial success.
The simple change of adding selenium blocks to grazing lands has benefited these producers
by the increased number of steers that can be grown out and the increased number of
replacement heifers for their herds.

The dairy farmer followed the livestock specialist recommendation and no milk fever cases
have been reported since October 2006. The producer feels that the number of retained
placentas in his herd has declined dramatically. Milk production among fresh cows has
increased, likely increasing profitability along with reducing costs that were associated with
treating sick cows. All this adds up to an improved financial situation for the producer.




The students receive practical solutions from the producers themselves, and they also
become aware of how producers rely on the land grant university and how the university
serves the livestock producers. Gaining this knowledge will help these students in the future
with their own operations.


One yardstick on whether producers apply what they have learned is that they show an
understanding of the topics offered in classes. Producers show that they understood the
concepts presented in three classes through surveys undertaken before and after:

Animal nutrition, 28.8 percent in the pretest, 84.7 percent in the posttest.

Animal reproduction, 19.1 percent in the pretest to 76.4 percent in the posttest

Animal lactation, 9.2 percent in the pretest to 71 percent in the posttest

Livestock specialist has followed up with some producers to find whether the solutions
offered have been successful. The livestock specialist became aware of the calf mortality
problem through one of these workshops and followed up with recommended solution.
Pending


Two farms have been successful in selling local meat every week. One farm is selling fresh
eggs daily.
Variable. Two farms had an increase in weaning weights.




Five farms had their animals identified and started a farm recordkeeping system this year.




One wastewater treatment facility (digester) under construction.




Producers have increased their knowledge of sustainable agriculture practices and more
farmers are now implementing the production practices they have learnt as a part of their
farming operations.

Producers (both crop and small livestock) have not only increased their overall production
but have also increased the number of sustainable agriculture practices utilized on their
farms. IPM practices, especially for internal parasite of small ruminants, was widely adopted
by most small livestock producers who attended the training courses related to that topic. A
number of producers have also adopted practices related to the efficient use of
nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources.

Total production (kg/m2) for the three harvests was 31.0 for Jaipur 18.6 for Primo, 13.8 for
Ambrosia and 0.2 for Honey Bun. Total number of fruits (#/m2) for the three harvests was
11.2 for Jaipur, 9.2 for Primo, 7.8 for Ambrosia and 0.2 for Honey Bun. Production declined
considerably between the first and the second two plantings for three most productive
varieties, possibly resulting from a decrease day length and/or nutrient concentrations. The
variety Honey Bun succumbed to fungus caused by heavy rains. Jaipur produced the highest
number of fruits and the largest fruits. However, Jaipur's large fruit size made it less
marketable.
There was no significant difference in water quality between the two treatments for
parameters measured. There was a significantly higher average weight of tilapia in HDP (586
g) compared to LDP (550 g). There was no significant difference in tilapia FCR (1.5) or survival
(99%) between treatments. Tilapia production was significantly higher in the HDP (7.7 kg/m3)
compared to the LDP (7.3 kg/m3). There was no significant difference in shrimp average
weight (14.3 and 12.5 g) with the LDP and HDP, respectively. There was no significant
difference in survival (6%), shrimp production (0.1 kg/m3), or FCR (15.0) between treatments.
Total tank production was significantly higher in HDP (7.9 kg/m3) compared to LDP (7.6
kg/m3). There was no significant difference in overall FCR (1.6) between the two treatments.


Results showed the temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, alkalinity, and hardness were
optimal for shrimp and tilapia growth. However, nitrogenous waste levels were persistently
high throughout the experiment for low-salinity shrimp culture, and the total suspended
solids levels were low for a biofloc system. Confined tilapia are unable to effectively
resuspend solids in the production system. Total suspended solids, an important component
The rainwater of a biofloc system, create a three-dimensional well for nitrifying bacteria to
to the success catchment and rainwater storage pond worked area to provide a reliable water
supply for the farm. Supplemental water was only required in two of the last 16 months of
this project. Availability of water is one of the major limitations to vegetable production in
the V.I., and therefore rainwater harvesting and storage demonstrated a viable solution to
the water supply problem.

The use of fish culture effluent for the fertilization and irrigation of field crops was not
accomplished. The use of clarification to produce a clear supernatant with low total dissolved
solids (TSS) did not work. When geotube technology became available, it produced a clear
filtrate that was very low in TSS and suitable for drip irrigation. In addition, the solids that
remained were dry enough (13% dry weight) to be shoveled and incorporated into soil as an
organic fertilizer. However, by the time this technique was tested, the farm manager resigned
in August, 2007, effectively ending the project.

The approach to raise three to four crops for the wholesale market not effective. The prices
received were low, and the time involved in making deliveries was excessive. In addition,
there was no ready market for unprocessed fish. In response to these obstacles the university
provided funds to construct a farm store, which included a fish holding tank and a fish
processing room. Produce was sold at retail values and tilapia were sold live, cleaned or as
fillets. The vegetable production strategy shifted to the continuous production of many crops
to provide variety and consistency of farm store products. In the first 7 months of 2007 the
following quantities of 20 crops were produced:

CropAmount (lbs)CropAmount (lbs)
Tilapia6,428Sweet Potato 218
Tomato1,664Sugarcane 119
Eggplant 1,471Bell Pepper 95
Banana1,226Mint 36
Overall, approximately 70% of attendees indicated that they had increased their knowledge
about practices that can enhance profitability and competitiveness of their operations. The
following are examples of survey results from individual programs. Many of the outcomes
exceed knowledge acquisition and strongly support application and change in condition.

- Growers have utilized results from the small grains variety testing program to make critical
decisions about the varieties that they will plant in the coming year. Information provided by
the program have affected these decisions on approximately 70% of acres planted to small
grains in Eastern Washington.

- As a result of hard red winter wheat research, demonstration and associated educational
venues, acreage of this crop increased by 100% (200,000 acres) in 2007.

- Application of novel wheat varieties with Clearfield technology developed at WSU
exceeded 100,000 acres in the first year of commercial availability.

- 74% of alfalfa producers indicate that they consult WSU variety trials before purchasing
seed.

- 94% of participants in the 2007 Beef 300 program indicated that they planned to
implement at least one acquired technique to improve the economic status of their
operations.

- Information provided to potato growers via workshops, conferences, and a hotline has
resulted in 70% of producers changing timing of fungicide application to effectively manage
white mold.
Risk management takes on numerous forms and impacts all phases of agriculture including
fisheries. The following are examples of knowledge gained and intent to apply knowledge
related with risk mitigation.

- Over 50% of landscape professionals attending sudden oak death workshops indicate that
they learned techniques that have saved them from costly eradication that would result from
infestations on their property.

- Beef producers attending the Beef 300 series indicated that they had increased their
knowledge related to reduction of the risk of carcass defects by 1.25 units on a 5-point scale
overall.

- WSU Extension marine educators have produced educational materials, conducted
workshops, and engaged policy makers to clearly delineate tow lanes along the Pacific Coast.
New advisory tow lanes have been established along with charts to help separate fishers and
barge traffic. This has led to reduce risk to fishers by minimizing the contact between tow
barges and crabbing and fishing grounds.

- Every commercial fisher attending Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Courses made
significant improvements in safety equipment on board their vessels.

- 57% of persons participating in statewide EFNEP programs indicated that they improved
one or more food safety practices.

- In a cooperative venture with Washington and Oregon Sea Grant programs, a new weather
buoy was launched 75 miles west of Seaside Oregon. This is providing key information about
current weather conditions to mariners and providing critical data to the National Weather
Service.

The maps showed cattle utilization patterns over the pastures where low-moisture blocks
were located. Approximately 500 acres of range went from being slightly utilized to light to
moderate utilization. Gould Basin was grazed for 30 days with 200 head of cows with calves
in both 2006 and 2007. Though there wasnt an increase in grazing days, there was better
distribution of the cattle throughout the pasture. This was a major accomplishment
considering it was over 100 degrees during the grazing period.
A survey was done of youth who attended the 7th grade science day. Things they recalled
include:
*certain kinds of insects live in them
*come back every year
*goats eat weeds
*grow fast almost anywhere
*hard to get rid of
*how to kill or contain them
*knapweed has roots about 7 feet long
*not always ugly
*seeds spread easily
*sheep are used to control them
*the have a billion seeds in each little stem thing
*the have people that try to keep it from spreading
*they spread rapidly and easily




At the Pasture Management Professional Development Workshop regarding animal behavior
as it relates to grazing management. Understanding animal behavior and applying those
concepts can help producers meet their grazing objectives. Participants in the workshop
gained knowledge of how important it is to consider where the animal was raised, what the
mother utilized as forage and how that can affect the grazing goals. To solidify the point of
the introduction of "novel/new" foods and an animal's hesitancy to try it I passed around a
treat bowl filled with various mini candy bars and also "novel/ new" foods" that included bar-
b-que larva and suckers with crickets in them. Of 29 participants, only 1 selected the
"novel/new" food. Some were disappointed that there was none of their favorite chocolate
and had to take what was left. As animals graze, they have the same reaction to new forages.
Producers are successfully incorporating alternative and sustainable production practices.
The following outlines several successes.

- 100 persons increased their knowledge of issues related to intensive grazing and riparian
management as well as application of best management practices for riparian buffer areas.

- 20 producers implemented managed intensive grazing programs.

- WSU Extension educators have worked jointly with individuals in Oregon to develop
statistics on organic tree fruit production. These data are currently unavailable through
USDA or any other sources. Data are posted on the Center for Sustaining Agriculture and
Natural Resources web site: http://csanr.wsu.edu/Organic/OrganicStats.htm . This
information has been cited by a number of publications including the Wall Street Journal.

- As a result of WSU's Tree Fruit Pest Management program, several environmentally-
friendly pest management products have been registered for use for control of the cherry
fruit fly. These have been employed leading to a reduction of 90,000 pounds of
organophosphates applied annually.

This is a new program and outcomes are in the initial stages. Some early indicators of
progress are listed below.

- In 2007, 120 farmers, students and agricultural professionals were trained in soil
monitoring and non-traditional nutrient management techniques.

- A nationally-prominent database was created to track organic tree fruit production in the
Pacific Northwest.
- A WSU Extension faculty member has developed a product from digested animal waste that
has similar properties to peat moss. This product may help dairy farmers create an additional
income stream while reducing the need to harvest peat moss. Because significant qualities of
carbon are sequestered in peat moss, this alternative product also holds promise for reducing
greenhouse gas production.

- Another WSU Extension faculty member is perfecting technologies for extracting
phosphorous from dairy manure creating a dry, commercially saleable fertilizer. This will
permit transportation of phosphorus away from farms reducing impact on soils and adjacent
waterways.

- The Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources in cooperation with the Paul G.
Allen Foundation has supported creation of a pilot anaerobic digester that is yielding on-farm
electricity and biogas which has been used experimentally as a vehicle fuel.

- The number of acres in direct seeding is increasing rapidly as a result of applied research
and extension educational programs. This positively impacts soil stability and reduces energy
inputs used in small grains production.

- 200 persons have indicated grazing animal management changes to improve riparian
quality.
- Siltation and nitrate, phosphorus, coliform, and pesticide levels have decreased in the
Yakima River.

- GF-120 bait was registered as a result of applied research conducted by WSU Extension
faculty. This provides a viable non-organophosphate-based control mechanism for the cherry
fly.
- 75% of those participating in Cultivating Success programs indicated that they have
increased their awareness of issues and concerns among small farmers.

- 86% of those participating in Cultivating Success programs indicate increased awareness of
agency, university, and community resources.

- 64% indicate that their knowledge of marketing strategies has been significantly increased.

- As a result of outreach to the Hmong community, farmers have become much more
prepared for natural disasters such as flooding. Therefore, impacts of December 2007
flooding was minimal as compared to previous events.

- Latino farmers represent the fastest growing sector within agriculture in Washington State.
WSU Extension programs are teaching farm management and marketing skills in Spanish.
Educational materials have also been converted to Spanish language.

- WSU educators engaged Slavic seniors in Spokane along with youth from their communities
to produce flowers, herbs, vegetables, and strawberries. This culminated in a Harvest
Festival in September 2007 creating a greater sense of community across three generations.


Extension programs support over 200 organic tree fruit producers

In 2007, more than 120 farmers, students, and agricultural professionals learned about
simple soil quality measurements, soil management and nutrient management. We have
applied for funding for a survey to learn about practice changes made by farmers who have
taken the Cultivating Success classes in past years, so that we can assess the long-term
impacts of the classes.




At this first annual program there were 8 attendees. The size of the audience allowed for
excellent group discussion of the topics. The topics that were presented were: Managing
Grazing Behavior of Livestock on Pasture and Rangeland, Monitoring Range and Pasture
Utilization, Livestock Grazing and Fish, Wintering Cattle without Feeding Hay, Management
Intensive Grazing, and The Situation and Outlook of the Cattle Market. After the program,
participants were given a survey form with each topic listed, and a Likert scale from 5-1 with
room provided for open ended responses. Topics were ranked in quality from 2.125-4.25. The
topic of Wintering Cattle without Feeding Hay was the best received. With high hay and corn
prices, this made logical sense. When asked on the evaluation if they would put any of the
management techniques into practice, all participants responded and all listed one of two
specific topics: Wintering Cattle without Feeding Hay and Management Intensive Grazing.
Results from this study indicate that reducing the length of CIDR treatment (5 d vs. 7 d) in a
CIDR-based timed-AI synchronization protocol may improve conception to AI in beef heifers.
The 5-d CPG protocol was also desirable as it eliminated one injection of GnRH and reduced
the need for additional animal handling. All characteristics of the protocol seems desirable
for improving the reproductive efficiency of beef heifers but further studies are warranted.
This protocol may have a significant impact on increased conception in beef heifers and
improve economic efficiency of cow-calf production units.




Investigators in the sheep breeding program continue to amass genetic data into a database,
recording maternal and fetal effects on embryonic loss. Investigators in the poultry breeding
subprogram have identified two previously unknown embryonic failures of genetic origins.
These findings contribute to the limited knowledge base of genes that reduce the hatchability
of fertile eggs.




The awareness of these genes will allow poultry breeders the knowledge necessary to
remove these harmful genes from populations of economically important poultry,
subsequently improving bird performance at lowered costs of production.
The data set represents one of the most comprehensive bio-geographic comparisons of an
invasive herbaceous plant between its native and invasive range and greatly helps to identify
why this and similar plant species may be invasive in North America. These results indicate
that plant competition is less in the U.S. and open space to invade is greater in the U.S. when
compared to Europe. The comparison of the herbivorous insect communities associated with
hoary cress in Europe and the U.S. revealed that species richness, and number and diversity
of specialist herbivores, i.e., those that feed exclusively on hoary cress and few closely
related plant species is greater in Europe. The research concluded that a lack of biotic
resistance and the release from specialist natural enemies may explain the invasiveness of
hoary cress in North America. Therefore, our involvement in the foreign exploration for
biological control agents for L. draba seems highly justified as a result of the research
conducted under this project.

Through these educational programs, ranchers have been able to decrease herd and flock
size to a level compatible with the limited resources. They are positioned for future success
by being able to retain their elite seedstock for when the drought ends and production can
increase. However, for other producers, it was an opportunity to exit livestock production in
a manner that allowed them to keep the majority of their equity for new careers or
retirement. Also, through research, producers were able to identify the factors in their
operation most responsible for profit/loss and were able to adjust and focus on the items
having the greatest impact on their ranches.




One producer from Huron saved over $65,000 in one year just in propane costs by properly
setting his fans to run in conjunction with his heaters and air inlets. Not only did this lead to
economic savings, but it also created a better microenvironment for the pigs and people.
Also, veterinarian clinics and feed companies have also sponsored workshops for their
clientele.


Although the impact of high ingredient prices on the cost of production can not be
eliminated, the impact was reduced through our work. A short-term response of producers
was to reduce feed wastage through improved feeder adjustment, better bunk management,
reduced grain particle size, and selling cull animals more quickly. Producers increased use of
alternative ingredients, such as dried distiller grains, pet food fines, and other byproduct
ingredients. Producers also reformulated diets to lower margins of safety to more closely
meet the nutrient requirements of the livestock. Producers also focused on market weights
to limit the impact of the rise in feed cost. As a longer-term focus, some producers changed
their genetic selection programs in anticipation that feed efficiency will be at a premium for
the foreseeable future. This is one important example where K-State Research and Extension
helped limit the impact of the rise in ingredient costs on Kansas farms.
Investigations continue in this area.
In animals fed palm oil fatty acids, milk yield and milk fat increased without affecting dry
matter intake or milk protein suggesting this highly saturated fat supplement had little impact
on rumen function. Milk yield was greater with corn oil compared to coconut oil (32.9 vs 34.8
kg/d). Delivering coconut or corn oil post-ruminally resulted in increased LA (9.1 vs. 3.0 %) or
linoleic acid (3.7 vs. 15.8 %) concentrations in milk fat, respectively. Lipid treatment did not
alter the percent of product originating from substrate or percent of substrate desaturated.




It was determined that up to 5% of Narragansett Bay and surrounding waters should be
allocated to aquaculture.




Gary and Laura Teague, of Teague Diversified in Fort Morgan, Colo. installed an anaerobic
biodigester system as part of their livestock operation. They rely on Extension for everything
from nutritional data to alternative management plans. They are among a group of farmers
nationwide who are on the leading edge of developing business models that incorporate
renewable energy. State Representative Cory Gardner said about the conference, We have to
capture the imagination and offer exciting new things for young families to bring them to the
region.
The initial meeting was held in Limon on the eastern plans - rotating throughout the beef
producing areas, it will be held in the western high country in 2008. In 2007 there were over
250 in attendance from Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas and Wyoming. Participants learned
about the ranches' health management program, their participation in the Red Angus
Association of America's (RAAA) carcass evaluation program and estrous synchronization
strategies. Tour attendees were able to see intensive grazing strategies including plant
utilization and growth and learn about the pros and cons of summer calving vs. traditional
calving seasons. Outstanding networking, excellent education and a strong connection with
the CSU Beef Team was reinforced.

				
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