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Intelligent Finance Credit Card Application2

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					                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rural Finance Database




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Is Ag finance                                                                       Innovative
                                                                                                                                          Existing report or case       Date of                                                                                                                                                                   principal focus   Breakdown of Principal                                            Technologies/Outreach/Distribution
Country            Name                                          Legal Form           Est.   Source of Information                        study                         Information   Funding Sources                                Financial Product/Service Offered                   Non Financial Products/Services Offered                  of provider?      Activities Financed             Lending Methdology                Channels                                          Back Office Operations/Strategies                   Risk Mitigation Strategies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tripartite collateral
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    management agreement
                                                                                             2002 Paper by J. Coulter and G. Onumah                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 involving bank (recepit           WR system that serces smallholders can
                                                                                             entitled "Role of Wharehouse Receipt                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   holder) borrower (depositor)      improve markets by reducing problems of                                                               receipts document evidence of specified commodities of
Africa (Malawi,                                                                              Systems in Enhanced Commodity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and inspection                    imperfect information and high transaction                                                            stated quantity and quality deposited in particular location;
Ethiopia, Ghana)                                                                      80's   Marketing and Rural Livelihoods in Africa"                                 2002                                                         warehouse receipts as collateral                                                                             yes                                               company/warehouse operator        costs                                                                                                 transferrable from depositor to other party

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         assistance to network to develop appropriate rural                                                         AFRACa has 42 member
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         finance policies and to implement strategies for                                                           institution in its profolio and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         disseminating product innovation and training to                                                           they use both individual
                   African Agricultural Credit Association                                                                                                                                                                           Credit,saviings and policy building withing the     member institutions; develop and disseminate concept                                                       lending and group lending
Africa region      (AFRACA)                                      NGO                  1975   GTZ                                          GTZ (2003) paper?             2003          GTZ/BMZ/IFAD/FAO                               cooperatives                                        of linkage banking                                       yes                                               methodologies.
Azerbaijan         CredAgro                                      NGO                  2000   ACDI/VOCA                                    USAID ACDI/VOCA (2003)        2003          USAID, ADCI/VOCA                               loan                                                                                                                                                           individual loans, asset based                                                       Integrated MIS under implementation                 donated loan fund as subordinated liability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    collateral
Benin                                                            NGO                  1997   www.themix.org                               USAID - PHR and ILO (2001)    2003          Institutional capital                          Credit, savings
                   Cercle Communautaire Mieux
Benin              FECECAM (Federation of Mutual Agricultural    Credit Union         1993   CIDR Renee Chao Beroff UNCDF paper           UN (1993)/ GTZ (1999)         1999          Sghareholders, grants                          Savings, credit                                                                                                                                                CVEC-grant small loans, with      CVEC system created- when there are 500
                   Savings and Loan Funds)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          monthly repayment,                members and 50 mil CFAF in deposits, a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CLCAM is created; CVECs may be refinanced
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      by sponsoring CLCAM if have problems;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CVECs are pre-funds, operating under
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      protection of CLCAM
Burkino Faso       RCPB                                          Credit Union         1992   CIDR Renee Chao Beroff UNCDF paper           UN (1992)                     1999          PNUD,DANIDA, European Union                    Savings, credit                                     Educational services                                                                                       Village level instititions in Links a cluster of 45 village level institutions      Policy of refinancing credit unions once they are   Establish security fund, requires rural and urban credit unions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    RCPB network-village lending around a rural credit union to develop small           established                                         to become self-financing within 3 years are subjected to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    approach for women; loan      loans on broad scale                                                                                      oversight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    sizes $5-$166
Burkino Faso       Pilot Project for Small Rural Loans (PPPCR)   Joint Stock Comp     1988   CIDR Renee Chao Beroff UNCDF paper           UN (1988)                     1999          CRA                                            Credit to women -solidarity groups                                                                           No                                                Solidarity lending program;                                                         Delinquency crisis in 1997 when project was try
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    loans of 35,000 CFAF, joint                                                         ot become a joint stock company
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    guarantee system
Ethiopia           Amhara Credit and Savings Institution         Bank                 1996   www. Themix.com                                                            2002          Association of Ethiopian Microfinance          Loans, voluntary savings, fund transfer services BDS                                                         No                                                individual loans, asset based
                                                                                                                                                                                      Institutions                                   and pension fund management                                                                                                                                    collateral
Ethiopia           Bank of Abyssinia                             Bank                        ACDI/VOCA                                                                  2003          Deposits, DCA                                  Line of credit to unions of grain cooperatives

Ethiopia           Cooperative Unions                            Credit Union                ACDI/VOCA                                                                  2003          Equity, commercial bank lines of credit with                                                       Grain marketing                                          No
                                                                                                                                                                                      DCA guarantee
Ghana              Brakwa Bremen, Nsoatrema, Bonzali,                                        CGAP FII research matrix                     CGAP (on going) ??            2003          n/a                                            Banking services                                                                                                                                                                                 Over 115 supervised rural/community banks
                   Bawkoase, Upper Manya Kro
Ghana              City Savings and Loan Company                 Non-bank finance            MBP USAID                                    Alternative Finance (2004),                 USAID                                          credit, passport savings                                                                                                                                       ROSCA methodology; provide Based on client survey--extended operating               demand driven through client surveys
                                                                 company                                                                  USAID MBP (2000)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          financial services to 15 susu hours, collections made on site rather than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         internet based inventory that provides an overview                                                         clubs                         requiring collectors to come to bank, adjusted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         about the main rural based financial intermediaries in
global             AgriBank-Stat                                 Information bureau          GTZ                                                                        2003          GTZ/FAO                                                                                            the world
Guinea             Rural Credit in Guinea (CRG)                                       1989   CIDR Renee Chao Beroff UNCDF paper           UN (1989)                     1999                                                         Savings, credit                                                                                                                                                Solidarity lending program-       Testing two forms of contractual relationships    Pyramidal network structure made it difficult to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Grameen replication               with village: Village contracts-monitoring and    break-even
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      recovery of loans delegated to village agents;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      establishment of CIVEC-inter-village savings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      and loan funds

Kenya              Equity Building Society (EBS)                 Credit Union         1984   www.swwb.org                                 CGAP, Microsave/DFID (2002) CGAP Case       Deposits                                       Working capital, checking accounts, education  Client workshops and training                                 No                                                Collateral-personal               Mobile banking units, handheld computers          Close up follow up loans; peg loan appraisal to     Linking lending to client savings and client's available sources
                                                                                                                                                                      Study 2004                                                     loans, credit cards, start up loans, special                                                                                                                   guarantee, personal asset, co                                                       ability to repay; Microscoring                      of income
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     purpose loans, consumption loan passport, time                                                                                                                 signature, property, group,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     deposit, scheduled savings, youth/old age                                                                                                                      savings acct,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     savings account                                                                                                                                                employment/paycheck

Kenya              K-REP KDA Small Holder Farmer Savings         Bank                 1999   CGAP List                                    CGAP (on going)               2002          Ford Foundation                                Loans for input supplies, seed, and labor,          TA                                                       No                                                Group lending-disburse loans      Small farmer project is being pilot tested with                                                       Insurance required for agribusiness loans, animals must be
                   and Credit Program                                                                                                                                                                                                voluntary savings,                                                                                                                                             in staggered form, Members        intent to scale up ag lendingin next 2-3 yrs                                                          insured for dairy loans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    eligible for loans after 8
Kenya              Research study of ILC market                                              Michagan State University; Interlinked                                     2003                                                         Study on interlinked credit and marketing                                                                    Yes                                               weeks of savings after            Interlinked credit-input-commodity-marketing
                                                                                             Credit and Farm Intensification                                                                                                         relationshiop-redit for farmers purchasing and                                                                                                                                                   relationship between smallholder farmers and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     processing commercialized crops                                                                                                                                                                  marketing firms
Kenya              Rural Enterprise Agriculture Promotion        CARE project                Doug Pearce "Buyer and Supplier Credit:                                    2003          CARE                                           Credit guarantee for small farmers                  Technical and advisory services to develop farmer                                                          Guarantee scheme to attract       Input supply loan fund--private sector            Financial and non financial activities should be
                   Project (REAP)                                                            Role of Donors                                                                                                                                                                              associations, meet export standards; provide resources                                                     credit from private sector        eventually expected to lend without guarantee     operationaly separated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to farmers to establish irrigation infrastructure                                                          buyers and processors and         from REAP, loan fund enables farmers to get
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    provides direct loans to          more flexible and diverse funds in addition to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    farmer associations               standard seasonal input credit; Provide input
Kenya                                                            warehouse receipts          ACDI/VOCA                                    USAID (on going)                            CARE                                                                                                                                                        grain storage

Kenya              StanBic bank                                  Commercial Bank      1993   ACDI/VOCA                                    USAID (on going) ??           2003          Includes DCA                                   Loans against warehouse receipts

Madagascar         CEM                                                                1988   CI report on CEM III/ Chemonics              USAID/Chemonics??             2003                                                         Savings, money transfers                                                                                     No                Savings, plans to expand into   Minimum deposit is FMG 100        Partnership with Western Union for money
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    microcredit and strengthen                                        transfers and with cooperative microfinance




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Rural Finance Database




Madagascar   CECAM                                        Non-bank finance    1991   MBP USAID                                  USAID/BASIS (2004)                 1992              Fert Association                              hire lease product for farmers for ag equipment;                                                                                                                   must be network member to         payment schedule adapated to client's
                                                          company                                                                                                                                                                  livestock, equipment for rural craftspeople,                                                                                                                       get lease, pay 25% of total       production cycle,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   sewing machines, solar power lights                                                                                                                                equipment value up front, 4-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 months; lease secured by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      equipment rental; after final
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      payment ownership legally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      transferred to client


Malawi       SACCO                                        Credit Union        70's                                              WOCCU (1995)                       2003              Loans from MUSCCO                             Loans, insurance, savings to members                                                                           Yes                                                 Individual loans, multiple                                                           Accounting system computerized and                centralized treasury function
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      products                                                                             centralized to MUSCCO
Malawi       MUSCCO                                       Credit Union        70's   ACDI/VOCA                                  WOCCU (1995)                       2004              Cooperative investors/savings and USAID       Savings, risk insurance, loans to member            Treasury services, Training, Financial management.         Yes                                                 Individual loans, consumer                                                                                                             risk exposure limited by saving multiplier factor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SACCOs.                                                                                                                                                            and business loans
Malawi       NASFAM                                                                  Doug Pearce "Buyer and Supplier Credit:                                       2003              USAID                                         Pearce does not mention in his paper about          Training in negotiating terms of market involvement for    Yes                                                                                   Small farmers now have standard contracts
                                                          Farmers                    Role of Donors                                                                                                                                specific finacial products offered by NASFAM.       farmers                                                                                                                                          with buyers and transporters; representation
                                                          associations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in tobacco associations,
Mali         CVECA (Self managed village savings and                          1986   CIDR Renee Chao Beroff UNCDF paper ;       UN (1986)                          1999, CGAP        BNDA (National Development Bank)              demand (non interest earning) deposits, term                                                                                                                       Operations managed by fund        BNFA financing scheme has deepened                 self managed, financial self sufficiency,
             loan funds)                                                             MBP case study                                                                Case Study 2004   through line of credit at KfW; deposits       (fixed term and withdrawal date) deposits,                                                                                                                         of villagers; genuine financial   institutional landscape in formal financial        integration into institutional environment of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   savings accounts (interest earning); loans                                                                                                                         intermediation-can borrow         market; Service Commun team conducts               village; CVECAs must meet certain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      without depositing; collateral-   feasilibity studies for creation of new CVECA      requirements before they can borrow funds;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      jewerlry, livestock, tools                                                           member not required to make a deposit to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           receive a loan; open for transactions 1x/wk to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           reduce transaction costs
Mali         Savings and Loans Village Banks              NGO                 1986   Koro Ouattara, Genevieve Thi-Dieu,         USAID - MBP (1999)                 1997              own sources; (savings-first approach);        loans and savings mobilization;                                                                                                                                                                      complete local ownership, limited to members
                                                                                     Claudio Gonz.The Caisses villageoises                                                           National Ag.Dev.Bank
                                                                                     d'epargne et de credit autogerees in the
                                                                                     DogonRegion of Mali: Elements of Impact,
                                                                                     OSU ESO #2395

Mali         Piyely                                                           1996   Maria Pagura's PhD dissertation            Pagura (2000)                      2000                                                            loans for working capital and investment group                                                                 no                                                  group lending                     combination of small and large groups,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   and indiv savings                                                                                                                                                                                    sequential loan size
Mali         BNDA Banque nationale Development            Bank                       CGAP FII research matrix                   CGAP (0n going)                    2003              Government of Mali                            Wholesale credit to MFIs, village associations                                                                                                                     Wholesaler to MFIs for
             Agricole                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 several year term (CIDR, Kafo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jiginew, CVECAs), finances
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      village associations with in-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      kind credit and provides input
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      credit


             Partner's Fund                                                                                                     ??                                                                                                 Not mentioned                                                                                                                      Training in agricultural                                                                                             An innovative Partners Fund provides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      production and processing                                                                                            subcontracting opportunities to Malian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      techniques, accountancy,                                                                                             companies while strengthening ability to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      management, finance;                                                                                                 compete and deliver services. An Agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Business support services                                                                                            Information Center disseminates real-time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      network development;                                                                                                 market and technical information, benefiting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           from an agribusiness information exchange
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           system with partners in Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and Burkina Faso. And an apprenticeship
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           program trains graduates in marketable skills
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Large-scale demonstration testing of new
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           products in processing and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                     USAID, Oikocredit, PUFS, APDF, IFC,
Mali                                                      embedded services   1998                                                                                 2004              MSED / DFA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   N/a

                                                                                     Privatization and Inerlinked Credit-
                                                                                     Output contracts in Francophone                                                                                                                                                                   interlocking of input credit and output markets in an
                                                                                     Africa: An Illustration of the Cotton                                                                                                                                                             integrated production and marketing system during
Mali                                                                                 Subsector in Mali                                                             2003                                                                                                                privatization


                                                                                                                                FAO/IFAD/GTZ (2003, on
Mauritania   Agricultural Bank                                                       GTZ                                        going?)                            2003              GTZ/BMZ                                       N/a Source not found
Mozambique   CLUSA                                        Association of      1995   CGAP Case Study 2004                       CGAP (on going)                                      USAID                                         It is not clear that CLUSA prvides financial        Institution building, business management training and     Yes                                                                                   Strengthen group-based rural enterprises as        Farmer-owners encouraged to invest own
                                                          cooperatives                                                                                                                                                             services to the farners. It provides credit         advising, functional literacy and numeracy training,                                                                                             independent, viable private sector businesses      resources and resolve production and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   trainning for farmers and serves as a link          auditing, marketing information and agricultural                                                                                                 in which small scale farmers own businesses        marketing problems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   between farmers and financial institutions.         commodity brokering, credit training and technology                                                                                              and make all decisions for producer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       information; linking producer associations to credit and                                                                                         associations. contract and develop an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       markets                                                                                                                                          intensive marketing system;and development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of sustainable links between commercial,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        private sector businesses (agribusinesses,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        private traders and transporters), extension
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        service providers and network of farmer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        organizations.
                                                                                                                                                                   2004
Mozambique   GAPI                                         Joint Stock Comp    1999   CGAP Short List                            CGAP (on going)                    2002              USAID, KFW, AFD, DANIDA, EU                   Investment and working capital loans for a                                                                     Yes                 20%-ag loans                    Each fora on-lends to             Approx 300 farmers in each fora (30 farmers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (federation of associations) of small farmers                                                                                                                      member associations who           and 10 assoc per forum), Loans on lent by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   and SMEs-maize/related group and                                                                                                                                   collect produce from individ      forums to member assoc, farmers sells
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cashew/pigeon peas associations                                                                                                                                    members and other area            produce to assoc in exchange for $, assoc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      farmers in return for loan;       delivers produce to forum and forum finds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      GAPI decides which forums         buyers to sell produce to; Loans 3-4 mo, no
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      receive loans; Loan amt is        collateral required; solidarity group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      flexible,late payments fined,     methodoloy ensures forums pay on behalf of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Principal payments are            defaulting forums
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      flexible according to forum,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Interest paid monthly by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      associations

             Agricultural Developmet Bank of Nepal
Nepal        (ADBN)                                       Bank                1975   GTZ                                        IFAD/GTZ (2003)                    2003              GTZ/BMZ/IFAD/ADB                              Loans and deposits
             National Microfinance Bank of Tanzania and                                                                                                                              Government of Tanzania, Government            ag loans to sugar farmers through linkage with                                                                 yes to finance                                                                                                                                                                              Kilombero sugar processor has agreed to forward contract on
Tanzania     Kilombero                                    Bank                2004   DAI/John Lwande                            Gov Of Tanzania/ World bank        Apr-04            Treasury Bills, savings mobilization          largestsugar processor in Tanzania                                                                             inputs              all loans for seed and inputs   Individual loans                                                                                                                        all production from these farmers
Uganda       Centenary Rural Development Bank             Commercial Bank     1983   CGAP Short List; Jerry Skees "Risk Mgt"    CGAP; USAID (Paving the            2002              Treasury bills, reliance on income from       SME Individual loans, passport savings-fixed        none                                                       No                  Rural loans-82%; 85% to         Borrowers propose                 Weather based insurance to clients to hedge        Customer incentives: If repayment performance Bank policy limits ag lending to 25% of portfolio;
             (CERUDEB or CRDB)                                                                                                  Way Forward) "CRDB: Rural                            investment has been 100% , with bank          deposits, current/checking accounts, money                                                                                         SME sector; Indiv. ag loans-    repayment schedule based          against correlated risks from natural disasters-   is 100%, clients qualify for increasing loan sizes
                                                                                                                                Financial Institutions and                           incurring loss , mgt considering increasing   transfers, TTS, Drafts and Electronic (Western                                                                                     11.8%                           on cash; May pay in advance       eliminates moral hazard by insuring against        and automatic loans at lower interest rates Staff
                                                                                                                                Savings Mobilization"; IFAD by                       lending to SME sector                         Union and Swift); Managed funds (Loan                                                                                                                              during loan cycle; Loan           single verifiable weather event; requires a        incentives: Incentives amt to 45% of salary,
                                                                                                                                Hans Seibel "CRDB: A                                                                               guarantee fund); Foreign Currency                                                                                                                                  officers monitor clients          deductible based on expected income loss;          based on repayment not disbursement; Daily
                                                                                                                                flagship of rural bank reform in                                                                   Transactions; Loans for inputs and labor;                                                                                                                          regularly; Flexible               premiums low, reduces admin costs, weather         loan tracking on MIS, next day action on
                                                                                                                                Africa"                                                                                            weather index insurance                                                                                                                                            requirements, incl land w/o a     events between provinces of country not            overdues; Decentralized decision making
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      title, personal guarantors,       correlated; IPC design of technology;              Instant Communication-direct line between
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      household items                   emphasis in close officer-client relationship,     supervision dept and branches; New MIS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        thorough evaluation of potential clients and       system will improve info mgt and customer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tailoring terms                                    service, however slow progress in transferring
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           data; Loan officers only with ag lending exper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           hired



Uganda       DCA to expand credit for micro,small and     USAID Program       1997   Chemonics                                  Chemonics, SPEED project           2004              USAID                                         Multibank loan portfolio guarantee for private      none                                                       Yes                                                 Rigorous banks assessment         Stanbic, which is using the guarantee faclity
             medium business                                                                                                    DCA LGP report, May 2003                                                                           banks that provide access to finance to MSEs                                                                                                                       an appraisal process              for the top end of the agrubusiness chain and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   and MFIs in Uganda.                                                                                                                                                                                  is mainly financing aro industry, has
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        disbursed the largets amount of DCA loans.

Uganda       DFCU                                         Limited Liability   1995   CGAP Short List                            CGAP; USAID (Paving the            2002              DFID (Small Lease Purchase Program) to        Leases from $1200-290,000; option to buy at                                                                    No                  Leasing of durable assets,      Rigorous customer                 Linkages to ag market: produce collected       Good relationship with equipment suppliers;           Leased equipment is given mechanical check, insured by
                                                          Company                                                               Way Forward) "DFCU Case                              promote leasing to micro/small farmers        end of lease                                                                                                                       factory, equipment,             assessment an appraisal           from collection points by trucks leased by     60% of leased equipment is used, currently            applicant and equipment performance is monitored until final
                                                                                                                                Study" - Agribusiness Vendor                                                                                                                                                                                                          machinery, commercial           process, Officer screens          DFCU to faciliating marketing of fresh produce expanding rural leasing activities to 4 new rural     installment
                                                                                                                                Financing in Input Markets                                                                                                                                                                                                            vehicle, business car,          application and submits to                                                       leasing companies; Good MIS and accounting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      computer                        committee; Lease facility                                                        systems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      structured to suite lessee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      specific cash flow and needs;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Customized lease financing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      packages, Flexible repayment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      schedule, 2-5 years, average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      is 2.5 years

Uganda       Uganda Microfinance Union                    NGO                 1998   www.themix.org                             GTZ (2002)                         2002              ACCION,USAID,Bank of Uganda, NOVIB            Loans, insurance, savings,fund tranfers,            Trainning and consulting                                   No                                                  Group (solidariy groups) nd       Remmitance services as a means to lnk rural
                                                                                                                                                                                     (fund), Triodos Bank                          remittances                                                                                                                                                        individual loans.                 poor to financial services
Zambia       AGRIFLORA                                    Private company     1994   CGAP Short List; Doug Pearce "Buyer and    CGAP                               2002              NORAD gives funds to providing TA to          Provides input (seeds, fertilizer) credit to 8      Uses CLUSA's support to provide TA to set up farmer        Yes                 Horticulture production-100%    Group guarantee                   300 smallholders in 8 cooperatives have
                                                                                     Supplier Credit: Role of Donors"                                                                farmers, In conjuction with USAID and         cooperatives; irrigation credit in exchange for     associations                                                                                                   methodology used for input        supply contracts with Agriflora; Collection
                                                                                                                                                                                     ZATAC, has created irrigation credit for      purchasing contracts                                                                                                                                               credit, to qualify a farmer       centers with refrigerated containers and input
                                                                                                                                                                                     small farmers                                                                                                                                                                                                    must own min of 1 hectare of      stores set up near each coop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      land; Farmers are paid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      monthly in exchange for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      produce supplied; Seeds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      provided on cost for 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      months, Fertilizers and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      chemicals provided at 10%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      interest rate annualy


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Agribusiess and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Trade Finance, Equipment loans, and working                                                                    agricultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   capital loans to SME's (including producer                                                                     production          Trade finance; Equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   owned and operated enterprises for eg.              Technical (production) asssitance, Marketing and           financing: one of   finanicing at both SME and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cooperatives, and associations) and small           Market assistance, BDS, market/business linkages,          the key focuses     smallholder production levels; Individual lending, group
Zambia       Zatac Investment Fund (ZIF)                  Fund                1999   DAI                                        USAID/DAI??                        2004              USAID; Japanese; GRZ (MACO);                  holders.                                            policy advocacy, information assistance                    of the provider.     working capital loans         lending,
             Natural Resources Institute                                             Juan Bucheau "Innovations"                 ???                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Warehouse receipts
                                                          Not mentioned by
Zambia                                                    the source                                                                                               2003                                                            warehouse receipts as collateral
Zimbabwe     Agent                                        DFID programme      1996   Doug Pearce "Buyer and Supplier Credit:    DFID/EDIAIS(1999)                  2003              CARE/CIDA/DFID                                Credit guarantee for small rural traders            Business skills to traders                                 No                                                  Guarantee scheme used to          Input distribution model by building up
                                                                                     Role of Donors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   attract wholesale/distributors    network of rural traders to gives small holder
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to give credit to traders by      farmers access to input and output markets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      AGENT's guarantee;                on improved terms, with credit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      guarantee eliminated after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      one ag season of trading




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Innovative
                                                                                                                                                                              Non Financial                                           Breakdown of                               Technologies/O Back Office        Risk
                                                                                      Source of         Existing report Date of                       Financial               Products/Services Is Ag finance principal               Principal           Lending                utreach/Distribu Operations/Str Mitigation
Country      Name                                  Legal Form                  Est.   Information       or case study   Information   Funding Sources Product/Service Offered Offered           focus of provider?                    Activities Financed Methdology             tion Channels    ategies          Strategies
Armenia      Sustained Guaranteed Agricultural     Branch of NGO unit          1998   CGAP Short List   CGAP (on going) 2002          Donor equity    Loans (different                          No                                    Ag loans-65% for                                            Lending activity
             Assistance for Women (AREGAK/UMCOR-A) of UMCOR                                                                           (98%) USAID,    size/target markets)                                                            ag production,                                              well
                                                                                                                                      BRPM, UNHCR                                                                                     processing, trade,                                          standardized
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      livestock, poultry                                          via strong
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      leasing for MSMEs                                                            legal changes
                                                                                                                                                          Leasing to MSMEs for                                                        for equipment and                                                            to improve
                                                                                                                                                          equipment and vehicles                                                      vehicles for ag                                                              moveable
                                                                                                                                                          for ag production and                                                       production and                                                               property
Armenia      ACBA                                      Bank                           DAI               ???              2004         USAID               processing                                         Yes                      processing                                 Leasing                           registration;
Bulgaria     6 banksincudin SG, Expressbank, Unionbank Banks                          ACDI/VOCA         ???                           EBRD credit lines   Loans against warehouse                            No                       Commercial loans Receipts-backed                                             Indemnity fund
                                                                                                                                                          receipts                                                                                        loans to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          producers and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          marketers

Bulgaria     Group of more than 40 farmers associations farmers associations          ACDI/VOCA         ???              2002                             Issuance of reciepts        grain storage                                                                                                                  Indemnity fund
                                                                                                                                                          (1036 in 2002)
Bulgaria     Indemnity fund                               Fund provided by            ACDI/VOCA         ???              2002         GoB and EBRD        Insures deposits in         insurance
                                                          the government                                                              loans, fees         licensed warehouses
             MEB Bank                                                                 Juan Bucheau      IPC/FAO (2000)                                    MEB Bank uses ATMs as
                                                                                      "Innovations"                                                       tools for farmers to                                                                                                   ATM system to
                                                                                                                                                          witdraw money that come                                                                                                access
                                                                                                                                                          originally from                                                                                                        remittances
                                                                                                                                                          remittances sent y                                                                                                     from relatives
Kosovo                                                    Cooperative bank     2000                                      2003                             relatives from abroad.                                                                                                 that live abroad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 providing a wide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 range of
                                                                                                        DFID?? For                                                                                                                    Agricultural loans,                        financial and
                                                                                                        release 2005:                 EBRD, EUTACIS, Loans to individual                                                              Ag loans based in                          non-financial
                                                                                                        USAID RAF                     USAID, UK's    producers, rural                                                                 foreign curreny,                           services such as
Moldova      AgroInd Bank                                 Commercial bank             DAI               case study       2004         know-how fund  enterprises                      No                     Yes                      consumer lending      Individual loans     credit cards and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Operations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    count wit TA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    provided by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rabobank Intl.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Russian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        individual                                  Agribusiness
                                                                                                                                                      Loans to individual                                                                               leasing;long                                Technical
                                                                                                                                      IFC,FMO,Raboban producers, rural                                                                                  term individual                             assistance
Russia       Farm Finance Center                          finance company      2002   IFC               ???              2004         k               enterprises                     No                     Yes                      Commercial leases loans                    Leasing            Project
Russia       RCCDF                                        NGO                  1998   ACDI/VOCA         ???              2002         GoR; USAID      Loans to farmer coops           Training, certifying   Yes                      Credit fund to    individiual loans        Funds to rural     Rural credit
                                                                                                                                                                                      cooperatives                                    cooperatives      to credit coop.          coop.              coop. have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    access to TA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    provided by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    RCCDF.
Serbia &     AgroInvest                                   NGO                  1999   Sent to CGAP      ???              2002         Sida, CIDA,         Loans to rural business o                          Yes                      Ag
Montenegro                                                                                                                            BPRM, World         to EUR 3,000                                                                production/processi
                                                                                                                                      Vision                                                                                          ng 92%; Service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3%; Manufacturing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3%, Trade 2%


                                                                                                                                                          Consumer, small
                                                                                                                                                          business and ag loans;
                                                                                                                                                          deposits up to 3 months,
                                                                                                                                                          6 months, 1 year, sight
                                                                                      USAID Credit Union                              CIDA, USAID/        deposits, children's
Ukraine      Samopomitch Chortkiv (Ternopil Oblast)       Credit cooperative   1994   Assessment 2000    USAID (2000)    2000         WOCCU               savings                                                                                           individual lending



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      77% ag, 13%
                                                                                      USAID Credit Union                                                  Agricultural loans (77%),                          yes, 77% of loans were   consumer, 10%
Ukraine      Farmer's Credit Cooperative                  Credit cooperative   1997   Assessment 2000    USAID (2000)    2000         CIDA                consumer loans, savings                            ag related               other                 individual lending



                                                                                                                                                          Consumer, ag and SME
                                                                                      USAID Credit Union                                                  loans, sight and fixed
Ukraine      Vidrozhennia, Capenchinsi (Ternopil Oblast) Credit cooperative    1997   Assessment 2000    USAID (2000)    2000         CIDA, USAID         term deposits                                                                                     individual lending
                                                                                                                                          Consumer, ag, education,
                                                                                                                                          special purpose and SME
                                                                                                                                          Loans, children;'s
                                                                                  USAID Credit Union                       CIDA, USAID/   savings, fixed term        no. they offer a variety
Ukraine   Tereboliya Credit Union (Ternopil Oblast)   Credit cooperative   1997   Assessment 2000    USAID (2000)   2000   WOCCU          deposits,                  of financial services      individual lending
Notes




will get
official data
next week
Referncing
WHR-
backed
loans only




data is old




data is old




data is old
data is old
                                                                            Existing
                                                       Source of            report or
Country   Name            Legal Form      Est.         Information          case study
Bolivia   ANED            NGO             1978          Mark Wenner (ed.)'s IDB (2003)
                          programme                    book "Promising
                                                       Practices in rural
                                                       Finance"




Bolivia   Agrocapital     NGO             1992         ACDI/VOCA; Javier IDB and
                                                       Alvarado and        USAID (2003)
                                                       Francisco Galarza n
                                                       Mark Wenner (ed.)'s
                                                       book "Promising
                                                       Practices in rural
                                                       Finance"

Bolivia   Caja Los Andes Private          1995         www.bellanet.org;   USAID (2004)
                         financial fund                Jorge Rodriguez
                                                       Meza and Claudio
                                                       Gonzalez Cuaderno
                                                       de SEFIR




Bolivia   Fondo                          2000 as FFP
                          Non-bank finance company     Jorge Rodriguez-   USAID (2003)
          Financiero                                   Meza and CGV
          Privado                                      Cuaderno de SEFIR;
          PRODEM                                       CGAP Short List;
                                                       "What Works" case
                                                       study by World
                                                       Resources, funded
                                                       by USAID

Bolivia   CRECER          NGO             1990         Rodolfo Quiros,     USAID (2003)
                                                       Jorge Rodriguez &
                                                       Claudio
                                                       Gonz.Cuaderno de
                                                       SEFIR
Bolivia   FADES           NGO             1986         Jorge Rodriguez-    USAID (2003)
                                                       Meza and Claudio
                                                       Gonzalez Cuaderno
                                                       de SEFIR

Brazil    Cresol          Credit Union    1988         www.cresol.org.br   ???
Costa Rica     Associacion                      1986   www.themix.org      ???
               para el
               Desarollo Rural
               Integrado
               (ADRI)


Costa Rica                                      1980   IADB                USAID RAF
(and                                                                       case study
Honduras and                                                               (March 2005)
Nicaragua)


               Hortifruti
Costa Rica     FINCA             NGO            1985   Claudio Gonzalez,   World Bank
                                                       Ronulfo Jimenez     (1999), IDB
                                                       and Rodolfo Quiros (1996)
                                                       (World Bank
                                                       Sustainable Banking
                                                       for Poor)
Costa Rica     Financiera        Finance               Wenner, Mark book   IDB (2001,
               Trisan            company,                                  2000)
                                 member of
                                 holding
                                 company
                                 Trisan Group




Ecuador        Credife/Banco     Commercial     1999   www.themix.org
               del Pinchincha    bank




Ecuador        La Merced         Credit Union   1964   www.themix.org




Ecuador        Accion Rural      Credit Union   2000   www.themix.org
Ecuador       Banco Solidario Bank             1995   CGAP FII research    CGAP (on
                                                      matrix-              going??)




El Salvador   Financiera         Non-bank      1995   Wenner, Mark book    OSU Rural
              Calpia             finance              Sergio Navajas and   Finance
                                 company              Gonzalez Vega        Program
                                                      paper in OSU         (2002), GTZ
                                                      website              (2002)




Guatemala     Banrural      Commercial         1998   DAI                  USAID (2004)
              S.A.Developme bank
              nt Bank.

                                                      www.fonkoze.org,
                                                      CGAP Rural Pro
                                                      Poor Innovation
                                                      Award, DAI FINNET
Haiti         Fonkoze            NGO           1994   project              ???
Honduras      Fintrac            Consulting           Doug Pearce "Buyer ???
                                 Company              and Supplier Credit:
                                                      Role of Donors;
                                                      USAID case study
                                                      (forthcoming
                                                      January 2005)



Honduras      Hortifruti - see
              Costa Rica for
              more detail



Honduras      FINACOOP           Non-bank      1999   ACDI/VOCA            ???
                                 cooperative
                                 finance
                                 company
Jamaica       Worker's Bank      Commercial    1973   Wenner, Mark book    ??
                                 bank
                                 Non-bank
                                 finance              Jerry Skees "Risk    World Bank
Mexico        Agroasemex         company       1998   Mgt"                 (on going) ??
Nicaragua     Hortifruti - see
              Costa Rica for
              more detail
Nicaragua   Fondo de        NGO            1989           Credito para el
            Desarollo Local                               Desarrollo Rural en
                                                          Nicaragua Johan
                                                          Bastiaensen (ed.)

Paraguay    Financiera El    Non-bank      1998           CGAP FII research     CGAP (on
            Comercio         finance       (microcredit   matrix                going)?/
                             company       program)                             USAID (2003)



Peru        Centro de                      1980           Wenner, Mark book     IDB
            Estudios
            Sociales
            Solidaridad
            (CES)/ Wiese
            Bank




Peru        CMACs (2 non-                  1980          FAO "Better Practice
            profit savings                               in Ag Lending"
            banks in rural
            area)                                                             ???
Peru                        Non-bank finance company
                                           1982
            Peruvian Municipal Banks (Cajas Municipales) Janina Leon, PhD.    World Bank
                                                         Dissertation         (1999)




Peru        Caja Rural San   Rural bank    1994           CGAP Short List       CGAP (on going)??
            Martin




Peru        Confianza        Non bank      1994           www.mixmarket.org     CGAP (on
                             financial                                          going)??
                             institution
Peru   Critecnia         Consultany     1996   Wenner, Mark book   IDB (2000)
                         firm


Peru   Instituto Rural   Non profit     1965   CGAP Short List     CGAP (on going) ???
       Valle Grande      organization
                                                                                       Non Financial
Date of                                                                                Products/Services
Information       Funding Sources         Financial Product/Service Offered            Offered
2003              IDB                     Associative, financial leasing, indivdual,
                                          village banks, solidarity , line of credit




2003              GoB, USAID, donors, Individal loans to farmers, rural enterprises, No
                  commercial banks,   microloans, investment loans; short,
                  retained earnings   medium and long term loans




2004              Asociacion Pro-         MSME loans; credits for gold pawns,          no
                  Credito 47%;            housing improvements, wage earners,
                  International Micro     savings accounts and time deposits , no
                  Investors 25%,          checking
                  Corporaciуn Andina
                  de Fomento 19%,
                  International Project
                  Consult 2%, private
                  investors 7%; profits
2002              re-invested
                  Public deposits 74%,  Loans to MSME; Savings deposits-fixed          no
                  avg interest rate on  term; National and international transfers
                  deposits-6.5%; Other: third party invoicing and payments
                  26%-NAFIBO,
                  FONDESIF, Prodem




2002              USAID                   loans from external account; loans from      education (child
                                          internal account; compulsory savings         care, household
                                                                                       mgt


2002              FONDESIF - Bolivia      individual loans, group, associative         none




CGAP Case Study   BNDES; Banco do         Loans, insurance, checking account,          Trainning/Consultin
2004              Brasil, Institutional   savings                                      g
                  capital
2002   ACCION                 Solidarity credit and indiidual loans         Trainning/Consultin
                                                                            g




2004   Corporacion de         Financing and TA to growers; links to banks Trainning/Consultin
       Supermercados          for credit                                  g
       Unidos




1993   FINCA USA              loans from internal and external account,
                              compulsory savings




2003   Interest income,       Two types of Agrimax credit cards-green
       commissions from       card for retail distributors of ag chemical
       retailers who accept   products; silver card for producers to
       credit cards           purchase inputs and suppliers from
                              retailers; Maxicuenta card for preferred
                              customers to finance short term ag and
                              livestock production and marketing;




2002   USAID, ACCION          Loans and savings                             No




2002   Members and savers     Loans and vountary savings                    Health (?)




2002                                                                        Training/Consulting




                            Loans,
       Rabo Bank, Fundacion Marco vountary Savings
2003   IDB, Accion             Loans;saving and loans to Ecuadorian
                               migrants to Spain; international
                               transfers/remittances




1998   IPC, IFC,Fundación                                                no
       Salvadoreña de
       Desarrollo y Vivienda
       Mínima del Salvador
       (Fundasal)




                               Loans, vountary Savings
2004   IDB,USAID,WOCCU         Loans, savings, it operates as a          No
                               commercial bank




       USAID, private                                                    credit with
       donors, Doen           savings, remittances/money transfers,      education, literacy
2003   Foundation, Microstart loans for rural enterprises                program
2003   USAID                  Not mentioned by source




2004   GOH, USAID,             Loans to farmers, rural enterprises, ag   No
       cooperative investors   cooperatives


2003   Deposits,            Savings products for various market
                            segments; Gold Stamp Savings-passport
                            Use of weather markets to reinsure part of TA on rural
                            savings plan with life insurance policy that
                            their multiple crop insurance program-index reinsurance and
2003   Government of Mexico based on temp and rainfall to correlate with insurance topics
2002              PRESTAMOS              credit , savings, Fund trannfer services




2003              IADB                   Microloans, consumer credit, savings, credit
                                         cards, credit cooperatives,




2003              European Union         Village banks, FONDEMI loans, linking loan
                                         (for working capital), and solidarity




1999              GTZ; IADB; deposits,   Loans to small enterprises, personal, pawn
                  commerical loans       loans,


2001              IADB                   Short and long-term loans, savings mobilization




2002              Cofide- 58% of    Ag lending, Housing, Personal, consumer
                  lending, bonds,   loans, other enterprise loans, Free
                  commercial loans, accounts and time deposits.
                  partnerships with
                  CORDAID-FINANCE,
                  NOVIB, HIVOS
                  TRIVIODOS--13% of
                  total lending




CGAP Case Study                       group-based loans for small and rural
                  COFIDE, European Union, Peru-Canada countervalue fund
2004                                  producers. Loan size ranges from US$100
                                      to 3,000
2003   IDB /                    Critecnia is a service provider for cottom     Technical
                                farmers in Peru. Farmers sign a cntract with   assistance
                                Critecnia, which buys and markets their        includes
                                products.It also links farmers to financing    management,
2002   Internally generated     Supplier of credit (in kind and cash) for ag   TA, training, mgt
       income 53%; Local        financing                                      assistance,
       donors-13%;                                                             marketing of ag
       international org-33%                                                   products
       (non financial
       activities); DISAC and
       Vinasol financed by
       commercial banks,
       input providers
Is Ag finance
principal focus of   Breakdown of Principal Activities
provider?            Financed                                Lending Methdology
No                                                           ANED analyzes cash flow of client to
                                                             determine if generates sufficient income to
                                                             cover lease payments and cost of
                                                             operating equipment, assesses whether
                                                             client can operate machinery




Yes                  producc: 47%; service and trade 48%     Ind'l and comm'l loans; signature
                     consump and housing 5%                  guarantee on micro/ real and movable
                                                             property on larger loans, varying interest
                                                             rates, monthly and irregular payments




No                   37% trade, 19% services, 17%            individual lending
                     production, 15% gold credit, 12%
                     agriculture, 1% salaried workers




no                   Historical information; Urban: ag 2%;   Loan repayment based on individual cash
                     manu 18%; trade 39%, services 25%,      flow analysis on total household income;
                     other 16%, rural: ag 21%, manu 14%,     End of payment amt can't exceed 60% of
                     trade 34% services 17%, other 14%       total amt of loan disbursed. Real
                                                             guarantee for loan approval; client
                                                             responsible for formalizing documents




no                                                           village banking




yes                  Manuf=6%; Ag-43%; Trade 38%,            individual loan appraisal, group lending,
                     Services 14%                            joint liability along with indiv loan appraisal




Yes                  Ag - 100%                               individual loan appraisal, group lending,
                                                             joint liability along with indiv loan appraisal
Yes   6 different types of credit dependin on   Solidarity groups - ACCION technology
      the size of the enterprise




no    specific crops in which no banks will     In cases where Hortifruti lends directly,
      finance the production.                   they base decision on past relationship,
                                                and their knowledge of the producer




yes




Yes                                             Typical guarantee is co signer with assets
                                                to pledge for indiv. Accounts, real property
                                                for distributor accounts; Maxicuenta cards
                                                allows for allows for lump sum payment
                                                after harvest




No                                              Solidarity and individual loans




No                                              ??




Yes                                             ??
No                                                          Pilot testing lending in rural areas




no                                                          individual lending




Yes                                                         Group and individual lending




no                      micro loans, savings, remittances   solidarity group lending
TA in market linkages
and embedded
services, facilitate
linkage to crop
insurance and credit




Yes




No                      Savings, loans                      Savings Plan-clients could choose 16, 24,
                                                            36, or 48 week savings plans; eventually
                                                            learned that interest rates on savings plan
Yes
yes                      61.4% agriculture, 21.6% commerce,     individual lending, interesting evolution
                         7.3% services, 2.9% small industry,    from joint solidarity and village banking
                         6.8% wage workers                      concepts to more traditional finance


                                                                Individual lending,




Yes                      Linking approach program (linked ag    All products are individual loans but client
                         loans) -70%                            selection through groups; Loan size range
                                                                $1000->$12,000; loan terms range from 8-
                                                                20 months; collateral-land title or
                                                                mortgage, self screening of group




                                                                Savings mobilization, credit




No




Yes, but not in future   Ag finance-32%          Personal-25%   Clients must have land title, irrigation, 3
                                  Microenterprise-15%           yrs experience, Loans for working capital,
                         Housing 9%; Other 19%                  equipment, machinery, 4.5% interest mo,
                                                                declining balance, no commissions,
                                                                flexible repayment schedule,
                                                                interest/principal paid at end of crop cycle,
                                                                2-3 fixed disbursements, guarantee-land
                                                                title, chattel; Loan disbursed at different
                                                                times of production cycle to smooth out
                                                                income streams




No
Yes   Collateral-mortgage + ag lien; ; no
      outstanding debts in formal system;
      groups form a limited liability company to
      control at least 100 hectares
No    Solidarity groups of 7-25 members;
      Guarantee is peer pressure and farmer
      harvest and IRVG, Loan disbursements
      are in inputs and in cash depending on
      time in production cycle; subject to prior
      visit by ag technician; Loan principal and
      interest reapid once product is sold by
      IRVD
Innovative
Technologies/Outreach/Distribution
Channels                                          Back Office Operations/Strategies          Risk Mitigation Strategies
Financial leasing-ANED established                Incentive to maintain equipment by
relationship with product supplier and            first paying at 15-25% of value,
purchases asset wholesale and leases to           contract term of 5 yr or less to prevent
client who makes regular payments, with           clients from loosing interest; low final
purchase option; ANED retains ownership           payment to encourage client to
                                                  become owner




IPC design of technology, emphasis on close                                                  choice of clients, with diverse
officer-client relationship, thorough                                                        sources of income




emphasis in close officer-client relationship,    smart cards, large network of branches     Offices can't concentrate
thorough evaluation of clients segmentation       and ATM; Small farmers with only one       more than 30% of loan
by maket size;Extensive network of branches       crop and those w/o access to markets       portfor in single economic
in rural areas, ITM Intelligent Teller Machines   are ineligible for loans; Clients must     activity;
enables outreach-- uses smart cards               engage in complementary activities
fingerprints technology; ITM in three
languages; spoken instructions so illiterate
can use

joint participatory enforcement, almost no
client screening




The instittiona works with an extensive           High trust between clients and staff, no Security fund (enforrced by
netwrok of banches in the rural areas of          corruption                               law - Ministry of Finance of
South Brazil (71 branches)                                                                 Brazil)
Utilizes credit with trainning in order to
improve managerial skills of clients




In some cases, (specific crops), utilizes credit   Hortfruti is a
with training in order to improve skills of        purchaser/whosaler/distributor that
clients. Other cases, link producers to banks      supplies the majority of fresh fruits and
for credit, while they provide TA.                 vegetables to the main supermarkets
                                                   of Costa Rica and the rest of Central
                                                   America.
recent breakdown of individual banks into
shareholding associations of producers
separate from FINCA




Issued credit cards to purchase inputs at          Credit card limits based on repayment          Transfers default risk from
POS terminals, smart cards used o purchase         capacity, larger credit limit for retailer ,   supplier to finance company
inputs; credit card for retailer and for           evaluation and approval for cards is
producer; Substitute for 30 day line of supplier   rigorous the first time and simpler for
credit; Reduces transaction costs through          subsequent purchases
electronic POS device, increases credit sales
volume;after high delinquency and loan write
offs-shift to smart card based system with
more flexible interest rates,terms which allows
for different models of credit



Banco Pichinha uses the Service Compay             Credi Fe is a service company and              Credife is fully responsible
model through Credife                              utilizes Banco del Pichincha’s funds as        for credit evaluation and lan
                                                   the administrator of the                       approval and it receives TA
                                                   microenterprise loan portfolio of Banco        providede by ACCION.
                                                   del Pichincha. Loans and savings are
                                                   financing sources that are not
                                                   maintained as liabilities on the
                                                   financial statements of Credi Fe, but
                                                   rather on the Financial Statements of
                                                   Banco del Pichincha. Currently, the
                                                   principal source of financing for Credi
                                                   Fe’s loans is Banco del Pichincha.




??                                                 ??                                             ??
My Family, My Country, My Return program
for migrants to Spain-savings and loan
products to those who have employment
there for trip, housing and business
expenses; Relatives receiving remittances
use Smart card to collect funds at bank

IPC design of technology; emphasis in close                                                  choice of clients with diverse
officer-client relationship, thorough evaluation                                             sources of income
of potential clients and tailoring terms and
conditions to the client




A state-owned ank with profitable rural
microfinance operations due to the private
sector participation in its capital structure.




remittance channel in US
                                                   Links farmers to commercial bank
                                                   financing and improved product-
                                                   market opportunities; bank lends to
                                                   farmer if farmer receives TA from
                                                   FINTRAC; FINTRAC negotiates fixed
                                                   price contracts with processors and
                                                   foreign buyers; crop insurance; link to
                                                   MFIs




                                                   Integrated/ automated MIS




 Partner Savings Plan- contracted savings      Initially bank paid bonus to clients
product patterned after practices of informal  who paid on time, however, not cost
savings group system; allowed better cash      effective, client now pay taxes on
Work with Fondos, mutual insurance funds
whose members small farmers (commercially
oriented) to offer weather index insurance and
Planning to use portacredit handheld loan
processing software in rural areas




Linkage between Wiese Bank, CES NGO,              CES regularly monitors and assists         Bank gives loan tracking
and small farmers; CES-cleint sreening and        with delinquent clients; If default on     reports to CES monthly;
TA; Bank opened line of credit to screen and      loan, collateral is seized and             Credit Bureau check on
approved applicants; farmer or groups of 2-3      information sent to Credit Bureau;         potential clients; Producers
repay bank; CES regularly monitors and            CES's strong organizational structure;     may sell or store crop in
assists with delinquent clients                   CES strong technical expertise             authorized mills to control
                                                                                             warehousing and hidding
                                                                                             crops--monitoring tool to
                                                                                             ensure sale of crop used to
                                                                                             pay off loan




Loan disburses directly to ag input supplier to   Farmer must begin planting season          Ag lending accounted for
lower farmers transaction costs; Marketing        before getting loan, promotes more         50% of portfolio btw 1994-
company Agronegocio created to provide            risk sharing btw farmer and FI, but also   2000 to small and med rice
mkting service to rice producers--problems        shuts out poor farmer who can't            farmers; After El Nino, crop
due to poor mgt and strategy                      assume up front costs; Regulated by        plague, and other factors,
                                                  Peruvian Banking Supervision; Caja is      decline in ag portfolio and
                                                  trying to partner with NGO CIPCA and       diversified to MF lending; In
                                                  an input supplier to create an assoc of    2002, Caja discont'd lending
                                                  specialized institutions that provides     for rice production; No longer
                                                  services for financial (Caja), tech and    lends to low income small
                                                  logistical support (CIPCA), and inputs     farmers-risk adverse
                                                  (supplier) needs of farmer during
                                                  entire chain of production; New
                                                  strategy leaves gap for small farmer
                                                  financing
Links producers to commercial banking              If client defaults, Bank seizes property   Area coordinators play role in
sector; Critecnia identifies farmers to be         of farmer without affecting Critecnia or   monitoring and recovery of
farmer association area coordinators, who          company created;                           loans; design harvest plans
educate farmers on linkage model,                                                             and ensure that committed
Financed by IRVG who borrows from banks            IRVG prepares client files and credit
and input suppliers, and provides TA to            application and tech follow on crops;
farmer, overall manager, offers loan               Ag specialist makes periodic visits to
guarantee to bank, DISAC and VinaSol--             provide TA and assist in controlling
financial intermediaries--manage loan              pests
portfolio, disburse funds for payment of labor
and other services to farmers o; they market
goods and pay small farmers for products
sold in market; Farmer pays fixed fee for
each service rendered (credit, TA, other
services), and benefits if get higher sale price
Country   Name    Legal Form        Est.   Source of Information
Egypt     PBDAC   Commercial bank   1962   The Rural Finance Network in
                                           Egypt. PBDAC's Future Role
                                           and Policy Actions
                                                                 Financial         Non Financial
                                   Date of       Funding         Product/Service   Products/Services
Existing report or case study      Information   Sources         Offered           Offered
                                   1994          Government of   credit, savings   n/a
                                                 Egypt

OSU Rural Finance Program (1993)
Is Ag finance                                              Innovative
principal focus of   Breakdown of Principal   Lending      Technologies/Outreach/Distribu
provider?            Activities Financed      Methdology   tion Channels
yes
Back Office
Operations/Strateg Risk Mitigation
ies                Strategies
Country               Name                             Legal Form                          Est.




                      Asian Pacific Rural and
                      Agricultural Credit Association
Asia Pacific Region   (APRACA)                        Association of Credit unions         1977
Bangladesh            BRAC                            NGO                                  1972




Bangladesh            SafeSave                         Credit cooperative                  2001




Cambodia                                               private liability company HKLTD     1996

                      Hattha Kaksekar Ltd.
Cambodia              Ennatien Moulethan               Licensed MFI                        1991
                      Tchonnebat (EMT)




India                 Mulukanoor Cooperative Rural     Cooperative (registered under the   1956
                      Bank and Marketing Society       Mutually aided cooperative
                      (MCRB)                           Societies Act since 1995




India                 The Swayamkrushi Women's         Credit Union                        1996
                      Development Mutually Aided
                      Cooperative Thrift Society
                      Limited

India                                                  NGO                                 1998

                      Spandana
India        BASIX                            Non Bank Financial Company   1996




India        ICICI Bank                       Commercial Bank              1994




             NABARD




India                                         Public commercial bank       1982
Indonesia    Bank Shinta Daya                 Bank                         1970



Indonesia    BRI Bank Rakyat Indonesia-MF Bank                             1984
             through Unit Desa System


Indonesia    Bank Shinta Daya                 Bank                         1966; 1998-MF program




Kazakhstan                                    Licensed Public Warehouses

Kazakhstan   5 including Kazkommertsbank      Banks                        2002
             and Turan Alem Bank


             Agriculture Credit Corporation
Kazakstan
             Fund for Assistinance to
             Farmers (5)
Kazakstan
Kyrgyzstan   Bai Tushum FF                    Foundation                   2000




Kyrgyzstan   Farm Development Fund
             Kyrgyz Agricultural Finance      Non Bank Financial Company
             Corporation (KAFC)

Kyrgyzstan                                                                 1996
Mongolia      XAAN/Ag Bank of Mongolia        Former state owned bank. Today - 2003 (privatized)
                                              prvate commercial bank.




Mongolia      XacBank                         Commercial Bank                   1998


Mongolia      World Bank Feasibility study,    WB Project
              Livlihood Sustainability Project




Nepal         Agricultural Bank
Philippines   Rural Bank of Panabo            Commercial Bank                   1967



Philippines   Dungganon                       Non Bank Financial Company        1989



Philippines   Rural Bank of Philippines       Bank                              1997




Philippines   PAICOR                          Credit cooperative


Sri Lanka     Sarvodaya Economic              Non Bank Financial Company        1986
              Enterprise Development
              Services

Sri Lanka     HATTON National Bank            Private bank                      1989



Thailand      Bank for Agriculture and        Bank
              Agricultural Cooperatives
              (BAAC)
              USAID microfinance
              programme in 1995




Thailand                                      Programme                         1995
Source of Information                          Donors papers                  Date of Information




                                               FAO (2004) Did the conference
GTZ                                            result in any papers??          2003
Credit Information for the Rural Poor Aminul   OSU Rural inance Program (1992) 1992
Alam OSU Acts file 5673 (there is a more
recent case study by the World Bank in the
program Sustainable Banking with the Poor)


Juan Bucheau "Innovations"                     CGAP (focus note 2000)/ ADB    2003
                                               (focus note 2000)




www.themix.org                                 ADB (journal, 2001)            2002


CGAP Short List                                CGAP (on going)??              2002




CGAP Short List                                CGAP (on going)??              2002




www.themix.org                                 ??                             2002




www.themix.org                                 ??                             2002
CGAP Short List; FAO: Term Financing in         CGAP/ MBB (2000)            2003
Agriculutre: A Review of Relevant Experience




CGAP FII research matrix                        CGAP (on going)??           2003




Juan Bucheau "Innovations"                      USAID (2003) "Paving"
                                                conference case



                                                                            2002
Hans Dieter & Uben Parshuip, Microfinance in    OSU Rural Finance Program   1998
Indonesia: an assessment, OSU, ESO #2365        (1998)

CGAP FII research matrix; IRDB pub-Rural        CGAP (on going)??           1997
Finance, Jacob Yaron


 CGAP FII research matrix; IRDB pub-Rural       CGAP Case Study 2004 IRDB   1997
Finance, Jacob Yaron; FAO: Term Financing       1997 (Jacob's paper)
in Agriculutre: A Review of Relevant
Experience

ACDI/VOCA                                       USAID?

ACDI/VOCA




Evaluation of Central Asisan MFIs for World
Bank                                            World Bank                  2003

Evaluation of Central Asisan MFIs for World
Bank                                            World Bank                  2003
ACDI/VOCA                                       USAID/ ACDI/VOCA (2003)



Evaluation of Central Asisan MFIs for World
Bank                                            World Bank                  2003

USAID "Paving the way to forward rural
finance , an international conference on best   USAID (2003) "Paving"
practices" 2003.                                conference case             2003
CGAP FII research matrix                       CGAP (on going)?? / GTZ (2002)/ 2003
                                               USAID "Paving the way
                                               series"(2003)"The Agricultural
                                               Bank of Mongolia: From Insolvent
                                               State Bank to Thriving Private
                                               Bank"/USAID (2003) AG
                                               [Agricultural] Bank's turnaround :
                                               from insolvency to profits -- final
                                               report of the EPSP's technical
                                               assistance to the Ag Bank of
                                               Mongolia
Mercy Corps                                    UNDP (2004)                    2002


                                                                              2003


Jerry Skees "Risk Mgt"


GTZ. Reforming an Agricultural Development
Bank - Insights from an ex Bank CEO in Nepal
Working Paper No. 4                          GTZ (2004)                       2003
FAO: Term Financing in Agriculutre: A Review CGAP/ GTZ (1999)                 2003
of Relevant Experience


Vi\rginia Abia Financial Innovation in Rural   ??                             1993 (inlucded in WB
Credit Markets Institute of Developing                                        inventory 1996)
Economies
MABS Quarterly Report                          ??                             2004




FAO: Term Financing in Agriculutre: A Review   USAID (2003) / UNCTAD (2004)   2003
of Relevant Experience

www.themix.org                                 ADB                            2001



Cyrran and Natilson's paper                    USAID (to be released 2005)/   2004
                                               World Bank (1997)


                                               GTZ (1999)




USAID Evaluation Highlight no. 38, March
1995, Agricusiness Program in Thailand,
ACDI/VOCA website                              USAID (1995)                   1995
Funding Sources                             Financial Product/Service Offered




                                            Credit and savings for farmers and other rural
GTZ/BMZ                                     businessmen
USAID, Irish Aid, DFID Pakistan and Swiss   credit , savings
Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC)




DFID                                        Credit, flexible savings. This special kind of savings
                                            relies on local colectors wo visit clients to collet savings
                                            orrepayments of credits.The flexible credit basically
                                            allows cients to pay whatever amounts they wish to
                                            collectors but the interest is charged up-front.



Rural Dev ank of Cambodia and commecial     loans and savings mobilization;
loans

USAID, AFD, Shareholders-GRET, SIDI         Solidarity credit-93% of loan portfolio; Indiv credit,
                                            Testing a community savings product




Govt refinances crop loan portfolio every   Crop loans-short, medium, long term; Consumption
year at 9%, commercial rate is 11-13%,      loans; Compulsory deposit and voluntary savings, time
Savings used to finance consumption,        deposits; Accidental and life insurance
medium and long term loans; Cooperative
Development Foundation




                                            Loans, credit and insurance




SIDBI and institutional capital
                                            Loans, savings, insurance

FWWB, ICICI Bank, GTB, UTI Bank, HDFC. HDFC Bank
Lendors--Holding company Basic LTD, SIDBI,    Crop and non farm loans to joint liability groups up to 11
CORDAID, ICICI Ban. Interest rates from 10-   months, Individual loans for farm equipment for 1-3 yrs,
12%; Commercial rate is 15%; All funds are    SME loans, SHG loans, housing, indirect loans through
subsidized, concessional loans with lower     input suppliers, microinsurance
interest rate




                                              Wholesale credit to MFIs, links to SHGs; links with MFIs
                                              to provide life and credit insurance




German KfW, GTZ, IFAD, IDA, OPEC, National $600-11,000 line of credit on credit card
                                           Bank- Swiss Development
private village bank                       Loan using individual and group-lending technologies



                                              Credit and voluntary savings products, fund transfers




GTZ, IFC, savings                             medium and long term loans, savings




GTZ, IFC, savings                             Issuance of reciepts

EBRD credit lines                             Loans against warehouse receipts




                                              Source not avaiable


USAID, Winrock, regional government funds     rural and urban lending
USDA, Swiss Caritas, retained earnings        Loans to individual producers, enterprises; pilot leasing




                                              Source not avaiable

                                              Short, medium and long term loans to farmers and other
                                              entrepreneurs that operate in rural aeas. They ofer both
WB, ADB, EBRD, DFID                           individual and group loans.
owned by HS Securities, Japan. TA by       Savings, term deposits and loans
USAID/DAI,GTZ, ADB & WB




UNDP, Mercy Corps, USAID thorugh XAC-GE Rural and urban lending, deposits, savings, remittances.
Group

World Bank                                 Social livestock insurance program




GTZ/BMZ                                    N/a
Land Bank of Philippines                   Equity finance for rice mills in joint ventures
                                           w/producers., short and medium term loans


                                           loans, compulsory savings



USAID                                      Savings, credit




                                           equity finance, loan, finance


savings from members                       loans, savings



ADB and Sri Lankan Gov.                    development and rural credit




USAID                                      See next cell
                                                            Is Ag finance principal focus of
Non Financial Products/Services Offered                     provider?



AFRACA works as a facilitator between banks and rural
cooperatives in Asia. Banks use the village groups
recommended by AFRACA as an alternaive type of
cllateral for their credit products.assistance to network
to develop appropriate rural finance policies and to
implement strategies for disseminating product
innovation and training to member institutions; develop
and disseminate concept of linkage banking                  Yes
technical assistance




Not menioned




Not menioned                                                Yes


Not menioned                                                Yes




Not menioned                                                Yes, 40% of portfolio-short term crop
                                                            loans for 9 months




Trainning/Consulting                                        Yes




Technicl assistance                                         Yes
Not mentioned             No, crops loans are limited to 25% of
                          total portfolio




Not mentioned




Not mentioned




Not mentioned             No



Training and consulting   No




                          Yes




grain storage




No                        Yes




Training and consulting   Yes
No                                                            Yes




No                                                            No




technical assitance, education                                no



management and staff training programs, market                No
analysis, new product development, business planning
and MIS consulting for rural banks


rice processing, marketing


Trainning/Consulting                                          Yes



                                                              Yes




contract farming. Under contract farming, farmers agree
to plant specific crops and to sell all or a fixed share of
their produce at a preset price to a contracting
agribusiness. Under this system, smallholders have
been able to participate in and benefit from USAID
agribusiness programs.
                                                              No
Breakdown of Principal Activities Financed          Lending Methdology




                                                    group lending




Max loan permitted is based on savings balance      Allows flexible repayment ; repayment capacity not
and loan history; ; no fixed repayment schedule,    assessed, but collector visits client regularly; Savings-
not loan term; repay daily or lump sum; interest    local collectors visit clients everyday to collect savings ,
paid monthly                                        repay of loans, or make withdrawals-lowers transaction
                                                    costs; may withdraw full balance but those who build up
                                                    over long term are given 10% annual interest


??                                                  ??


Ag and ag related activities (livestock, fertilizers)- Village associations (w/committees) control loan approval
80%                                                    and repayment; When group is eligible for loan, members
                                                       may defer loan request; Groups of 5 self screening
                                                       selection; Borrowers propose repayment schedule based
                                                       on cash; May pay in advance during loan cycle; Loan
                                                       officers monitor clients regularly; 3/4 clients are women


Ag loans-67%; of those 40% crop loans; 13%          Coop staff responsible for loan appraisal- check on client
medium term loans; 14% long term loans;             crediblity, land holding (at least .5 acres of land), and
                   Consumption loans-33%            indebtedness to other lenders, landholding documents
                                                    given to coop during membership-land guarantee
                                                    required; Crop loans- 2 installments at end of two
                                                    seasons




                                                    Linkages between self-help groups and banks. But this
                                                    process take longer that desired in terms of loan
                                                    disbursement.



                                                    ??
Ag loans-47% (24% for crop loans) Non farm Cash flow based for ag loan, non farm loans, and general
loans-44% ; General purpose loans to SHGs, purpose loans, Group members borrow different amt at
ROSCAs)-9%                                 same time, groups form before applying for loan;
                                           character based appraisal, land holding of applicant and
                                           existing crop in field, technical skill of farmer, irrigation
                                           system; Letter of credits issued and used to purchase
                                           inputs who send bill to BASIX; All loans secured by 10%
                                           of loan amt which is returned w/o interest when loan
                                           repaid; Defaulters are penalized 2% of loan principal




                                                group and lending , technology




short term 42%, medium 20%, long term 38%       joint liability and individual traditionall securitized loans




                                                individual loans, asset base collateral, monthly interest
                                                rate, grace period




                                                group lending
Loan services designed for rural agriculture
sector; such as herder, crop, vegetable growers,
traders and salary-based loans. Deposit services.




Only 6,5% of the portfolio is in rural areas.       leasing, franchising




non-ag: 54%, ag 42%                                 group lending, Grameen replication



                                                    Character-based lending, individual lending




                                                    Individual and group lending - including village banks.



ag 28%                                              Individual lending
Innovative Technologies/Outreach/Distribution
Channels                                                      Back Office Operations/Strategies




When client applies for loan, specifies desired maturity  Palm pilot results in stronger internal control,
not to exceed 12 months; pay interest up front; once      reduced use of paper, but high costs
disbursed client make whatever payment they want; Pilot
testing use of palm pilots to manage savings collection
and at end of day, info from palm fed into instituition's
central info system to update accounts




                                                              High trust between clients and staff, no corruption




Approx 60% of crop loans given in cash to pay labor,          Strong leadership, multi service and multi
electricity, water, 40% for fertilizers, seeds, and in kind   commodity, extraordinary general body in coop,
through input distribution stores; Long term and med          sound accounting and mgt practices, rare
loans (except tractors and livestock) are provided in kind    example of successful and innovative model of
through coop store; farmers gives produce to coop             coop that has not been able to be duplicated b/c
warehouse in exchange for credit to loan account, higher      a multi commodity and multi purpose coop can't
procuring price above mket value serves as incentive for      be started at once and due to regulatory issues
farmers to sell to coop and obtain credit




                                                              Its in the process becoming a regulated MFI
Smart card (ID plus electronic loan book) technology       On time borrower incentive of 2%, repayment
introduced for rural borrowers in isolated areas; reduced loans collected at home
cost of monitoring and administration; Planning to scale
up Smart Card product; microinsurance relies on peer
monitoring to reduce moral hazard and adverse selection;
payments based on individual losses and premiums are
high at 20%; half premium goes to village fund, other half
to provide indemnity payments



Per regulation, only ATMs in rural areas, no branch
offices, experimenting with electronic rural kiosks and
provision of financial services through kiosks

Kisan credit card scheme-clients use cards to pay for ag
inputs, and access cash by using withdrawal slips; credit
limit based on operational land holding, cropping pattern
and scale of finance; withdrawals must be repaid within
12 months




BRI-UD is a nationwide network of small rural banks




                                                            Integrated/automated MIS




Broad coverage with service points
Broad coverage with 371 service points




The franchising produc in rural aeas is aimed at credir
unions.The bank already designed a toolkit for credit
unions and will be testing it this year.
Mortality index insurance would pay herders once the      The bank has not a large branch network. It only
mortality rate exceeded a threshold amt; payment to       has 34 compared to 372 to what the Ag Bank of
herder dependent on amt of protection purchased           Mongolia - the main competitor - has.




Modifications to Grameen scheme, intro to guarantee
support fund

Setting up Microfianance units within 40 rural banks to   TA--anti-backsliding, sustainable technical
reach poor and underserved microentrepreneur. MIS         services, outreach to Religious and ethnic
software-basic banking modules that include info on       minorities, MF policy and standards, M&E,
deposits and loans, fully integrated general ledger       project mgt
system, ATMs, General ledger interface




Usage of microfinance branches to deliver savings
accounts in rural areas.


Usage of microfinance branches to deliver rural finance
producst such as leasing and various kinds of loans.
Risk Mitigation Strategies




Small loan sizes to minimize risk
and increases in subsequent
cycles
IGS supports action research and
testing of new products; Testing a
crop insurance product




Indemnity fund
insurance offered through
insurance company




Developing Nationwide Credit
Bureau and rating system

				
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Description: Intelligent Finance Credit Card Application document sample