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Companies Bankrupt by Unions - PowerPoint

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									South Korea‟s Conservative Turn
        & U.S.-Korea Relations
                      Chaibong Hahm
              Senior Political Scientist
                  RAND Corporation
                  2007 Election

 Lee Myung-bak: Conservative GNP
   48.7%
   11.49 million votes
 Chung Dong-young: UNDP
   26.2%
   6.17 million votes
 Lee Hoe-chang: Ultra-Conservative Independent
   15.6%
                  Two Koreans

 Roh Mu-hyun (DOB: Aug.       Lee Myung-bak (DOB:
  6, 1946)                      Dec. 9, 1941)
    Poverty                        Poverty
    High school, Bar Exam:         College, student activist
     Judge, lawyer
                                    CEO, Hyundai Construction
    Human Rights lawyer
                                    Ruling Party Politician
    Opposition Politician
                                    Mayor of Seoul
    Minister
                                    Conservative
    Progressive
             IDEOLOGY

 Left/Progressive          Right/Conservative
    Democracy                   Development
       Anti-authoritarianism       Mobilization
    Nationalism                 Anti-Communism
       Reconciliation w/ NK        S.Korean State
    Labor (Minjung)             Capital (e.g.Chaebol)
                   „87 System

 1987: Democratization
    Authoritarianism de-legitimized

 1997: Financial Crisis
    Developmental State de-legitimized

 Left Dictated the Terms of Political Discourse:
    “Democracy v. Dictatorship”
    “National Reunification v. National Division”
    “Workers (Minjung) v. Capitalists (Chaebol)”
              Contradictions
 1997 Financial Crisis:
    Limits of Developmental State
    Inevitability of Globalization
 Progressive Govts‟ Pro-Market Reforms
    Kim Dae-jung: FDI, Consumer Credit, Dot.com
       Cooperated w/ the IMF to open Korean Market
    Roh Mu-hyun: Free Trade Agreement w/ U.S.
 Rhetoric:
    Nationalism, Anti-Americanism
    Anti-capital (anti-chaebol)
                The Economy

 Destruction of powerful labor unions as
  companies go bankrupt and massive layoffs take
  place
 Those chaebols that survive become globally
  competitive w/ less government interference
 Free-market forces increasingly take over
 income disparity and job insecurity increases
  under leftist/progressive governments
           Housing & Education

 Restricting new housing while trying to
  keep the real estate prices down in Seoul
  through “anti-speculation” measures
 Keeping Education “fair” and “equal” by
  severely restricting Universities‟ student
  selection method & criteria
 => Explosion of social discontent
                   Politics

 Undercutting workers, political base of
  progressive governments

 Undercutting the middle class while calling
  for “Citizens‟ Participatory Democracy”
                Politics of History

 Preoccupation w/ History
    Pro-Authoritarian Government Collaborators
    Atrocities of U.S. & S. Korean Forces during the
     Korean War
    Pro-Japanese Collaborators
    Japanese History Book Revisions
    Chinese Revision of Northeast Asian History

 Moralistic Past-Orientation in the Age of
  Globalization & Information Revolution
      Korean Nationalism & the U.S.
 Selling out Korea to Japan: 1905 Taft-Katsura
  Agreement
 Imposing Rightist/Pro-U.S. Government on South
  Korea: U.S. Military Rule (1945-48)
 U.S. military atrocities against Korean civilians
  during the Korean War
 Supporting Military Dictators: exploitation of
  workers, Kwangju Massacre
 Killing of Two School Girls by U.S. army on
  exercise
 2002 Election of Roh Mu-hyun: never been to the
  U.S.
            Fraying of the Alliance

 S. Korea: a more independent foreign policy:

    “balancer between U.S. & China”

    De-linking inter-Korean relations from U.S.-ROK
     alliance
        Loosening Military Ties:


 Progressives wanting to reduce U.S. military presence
  in S. Korea
 U.S. Military‟s global restructuring: emphasizing
  burden sharing, increasing the contribution of host
  country
 Roh & Rumsfeld perversely re-enforced each other‟s
  policy: agreement to transfer wartime operational
  control
          Contradictory Policies

 Transfer of Wartime Operations Command
  & Control

 Sending troops to Iraq

 Free Trade Agreement
       Rise of the New-Right
 Shifting the Terms of Political Discourse
   What comes after Industrialization &
    Democratization?

      Left: Left: reckoning w/ the past

      New Right: “Advanced Industrialization Nation”:
       future orientation
            The New Discourse

 Liberty v. Equality

 Growth v. Welfare

 Market v. State

 Globalization v. Nationalism
      Pragmatism in Foreign Policy

 Reaffirm alliance w/ U.S.

 Improve ties w/ Japan

 Sunshine towards N.K. but demand
  reciprocity (de-nuclearization)
       Pragmatic Economic Policies

 Growth through de-regulation & market
  liberalization: “747”

   7% per annum growth rate

   $40,000 per capita income

   7th largest economy in the world
                Challenges

 Between U.S. & China

 KORUS FTA

 Down-grading of Military Alliance

 Global Economic Downturn

								
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