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									InterWar Years
  1.)
• There had been a small group who had
  questioned society before the war. After
  the war, these voices became louder.
  They rejected the notions of "progress"
  and came to view society through a
  pessimistic lens. The destruction of the
  war had strengthened their opinions that
  humanity was savage.
  2.)
• Valery was a French writer who summed
  up the idea of an "age of anxiety". He and
  others believed that humanity had seen its'
  apex, and that the future held dark times.
  3.)
• Friedrich Nietzsche perhaps best symbolizes
  this ideology. He was a German philosopher
  whose name today summons the grim mindset
  of the time. He rejected Christianity and said that
  rationalism stifled human emotion and passion.
  Calling Christianity "slave morality" which
  glorified weakness, he called on societies to
  reject the staid values of the middle class on
  focus on animalistic competition, which gave life
  its true meaning. His influence on German is
  tremendous.
  4.)
• Existentialism is the idea that there is no creator
  God. Human beings, instead, simply appear on
  the scene and seek to define themselves, since
  there's no God to help them. Without true
  meaning, then, existentialists were hounded by
  "despair and the meaninglessness of life".
• Without God to give life meaning, these people
  believed in action. The actions a person
  undertook, it was thought, would give life its'
  meaning.
  5.)
• The terrible ravages of WWII in France
  caused that country to become a center of
  existential thought during and after the
  war. People were forced to choice a "life of
  action" or to accept tyranny. Thus, the
  existential movement caused many to join
  the Resistance or otherwise oppose the
  Nazis. Their actions, thus, gave their lives
  meaning.
 6.)
• Previous psychologists had assumed that
  the human consciousness was unified,
  and that it always processed the
  information in the same rational way.
• Freud said that the human mind was in
  fact irrational. Furthermore, he claimed
  that the mind was actually composed of
  different parts:
• *the "id". This was the primitive, irrational unconscious. It
  focused on sexual, pleasure seeking desires. It is always
  competing with other parts of the mind.
• *the "ego". This is the rational part of the mind that
  determines what a person can do (what is possible).
• *the "superego". This is the highest part of the sub
  consciousness. It determines what a person should do.
• Therefore, for Freud, human behavior was the result of
  these components constantly battling for control of our
  consciousness. He believed that the ego and superego
  could be too strong and repress our sexual desires,
  which in turn could lead to various psychological
  traumas.
  7.)
• Many middle class people, especially
  women, interpreted Freud to mean that
  they should experiment sexually for a
  healthy mental state. For others, though,
  Freud reflected the anxiety of the time by
  supposing a dark, disturbed side to human
  nature.
  8.)
• Germany was angered and humiliated by
  the Versailles Treaty. France, Britain, and
  the U.S., meanwhile, were all becoming
  isolated. The newly formed U.S.S.R. was
  an unknown, and the eastern European
  countries were too unstable to be a force.
 9.)
• The French countryside had been ravaged
  by the fighting, especially the wealthy
  parts of North France. The French
  believed that reparations from Germany
  were vital to the French economy. But
  moreover, they saw the heavy burden of
  reparations as the means to keep
  Germany down and out.
  10.)
• The British soon changed the opinions
  they had held at the Versailles conference.
  They came to see a healthy Germany as
  vital to their own economic interests.
  Furthermore, they became guilty about the
  heavy punishments with which the Treaty
  had saddled Germany. Thus, reparations
  were unpopular in Britain.
• Their attitude about France also soon
  changed. They didn't trust French
  intentions in postwar Europe and feared
  the French might try to dominate the
  Continent. There was also disagreement
  over the administration of Germany's
  former overseas colonies. With Britain and
  France at odds and the U.S. turning its'
  back on Europe, there was no real control
  on the volatile situation.
  11.)
• In 1921i t was announced that Germany would have to
  repay 33 billion dollars, 2.5 billion yearly. In 1922 the
  Weimar government responded by announcing a
  moratorium on the repayments. This was completely
  unacceptable to the French. To them it seemed as if the
  Versailles Treaty, especially the components that
  guaranteed French security, was being abandoned. In
  1923, against the wishes of the British, the French and
  Belgians sent troops into the Ruhr, the German industrial
  heartland. The intention was to collect reparations "in
  kind"-steel, coal, and iron ore.
  12.)
• This occupation stirred German anger and a wave of
  patriotism. The government ordered the people of the
  Ruhr to stay home. With the factories and mines silent,
  the French couldn't collect. But, German poverty
  increased.
• The French responded by threatening to create a
  separate Rhineland state. The situation got worse when
  the Weimar government, to compensate for the lost
  production of the Ruhr, began to print more paper money
  to support the people. Inflation spiraled, and people's
  savings were wiped out. The little good will that the
  Western governments had with the Germans vanished.
  In its place were anger, humiliation, and acrimony. The
  Germans blamed the Jews, the communists, and the
  Weimar government.
  13.)
• Such a situation was unpopular in Britain and the U.S.,
  and was becoming increasingly unpopular with the
  French people. By 1923 the French and Germans were
  ready for compromise. The Dawes plan was meant to
  soften the blow of reparations. It placed the amount the
  Germans would pay on a sliding scale, and
  recommended large American loans to Germany, which
  could then meet its' payments.
• The problem was that the money that the Germans were
  repaying to France and Britain was then being repaid to
  the U.S. for war loans. In effect, the U.S. was repaying
  itself. This was a risky strategy that worked in the short
  term but would ultimately lead to the collapse of 1929.
  14.)
• By 1929 the German economy had picked
  up steam. Germany was 50% wealthier in
  1929 than in 1913. For a time it seemed
  as if the crisis had passed. As
  unemployment and inflation dropped, the
  German people began to trust their young
  republican government.
• This recovery was due mainly to the influx
  of foreign money, especially from the U.S.
  15.)
• Germany's political situation was improving in the
  1920's. Early in the decade, as the Ruhr crisis crippled
  the economy, it seemed as if the infant Weimar
  government might collapse. Communists had won
  elections in several parts of Germany, and Adolph Hitler
  had attempted an ill-conceived "putsch" in Munich in
  1923.
• But by mid-decade things improved. Germany was
  admitted to the League of Nations in 1926, a new
  currency was established, and the re-opened Ruhr
  (along with American loans) had primed the booming
  German economy. People regained faith in the
  government. There was an undercurrent of radical
  political parties but for the time being, they were unable
  to gain any traction.
  16.)
• The Great Depression was unlike any that
  had occurred before. It was more intense,
  it was worldwide, and it lasted longer than
  nearly any that had come before. During
  the 1920's the global economy had
  boomed (Roaring 20's). Because the
  European economy was devastated by
  war, American factories and farms
  boomed as their goods were shipped
  overseas.
• It began in the U.S. when the stock market
  collapsed. The stock market bubble had
  been built on borrowed money.
  Speculators had borrowed to buy stock,
  paying only a little down (buying on
  margin) in the hopes of making a quick
  profit. When a chain reaction of falling
  stock values began, the lenders began
  calling their loans. Most investors didn't
  have the cash on hand and were ruined.
• The panic spread quickly. With confidence
  down, consumers bought fewer goods.
  This caused the factories to close down,
  which raised unemployment. Furthermore,
  American factories had been producing
  too much for several years, which
  eventually led to a surplus. The whole
  process was a vicious cycle.
  17.)
• In Europe, much of the money that
  America had lent was recalled. A panic
  began, which devastated European
  economies. The Depression became
  global. Worldwide output fell 38% from
  1929-33.
  18.)
• Roosevelt's New Deal was a series of
  government-sponsored programs
  designed to revive the economy and
  provide employment and relief to the
  people. It rested on higher taxes, which in
  turn funded these vast new public
  programs. During this period Social
  Security was founded. Other new
  programs included:
•   Works Progress Administration
•   National Recovery Act
•   Civilian Conservation Corps
•   Tennessee Valley Authority
•   Agricultural Adjustment Administration
•   Rural Electric Administration
•   Home Owners Loan Corporation
•   Securities and Exchange Commission
•   Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
•   Federal Housing Administration
•   National Labor relations Board
•   Social Security Board
The Rise of Totalitarianism
  1.)
• The traditional forms of government had
  been monarchies, usually absolutist, such
  as the Bourbons, Habsburgs,
  Hohenzollerns, or Romanovs. They were
  conservative authoritarian states that
  resisted any social change that might
  undermine their authority.
  2.)
• This type of mindset was revived after WWI for
  several reasons:
• *many of the newly formed states had no
  traditions of democratic government and thus
  couldn't sustain democracy.
• *dictatorship appealed to many segments of the
  population such as landowners, the Church, and
  middle classes. These people desired stability.
  This was especially true in Eastern Europe.
  3.)
• The three brothers were Fascism, Nazism,
  and Communism, all totalitarian
  movements. Their "common father", or
  reason that they could thrive, was the
  nature of modern war where a small
  dedicated group could take over and
  control a large state. This was due mainly
  to technology.
  4.)
• The typical totalitarian state had several
  common features:
• *use of mass propaganda and modern
  communications spread it
• *state tried to control all aspects of life (Orwellian
  state)
• *they represented a radical revolt against
  liberalism
• *they were built on "mass' movements, the idea
  that whole peoples and societies were
  mobilized, seeking a never-ending change.
 5.)
• Upon taking power, Lenin was faced with
  the truth that Russia was so
  underdeveloped economically and
  industrially that true communism could
  never emerge. He was forced to allow
  some limited economic freedom to the
  peasants, which raised enough in taxes to
  begin to build industry.
  6.)
• Upon the death of Lenin in 1924 the Communist party
  was in flux. Lenin had named no successor, though the
  two main contenders were Trotsky and young Joseph
  Dzhugashvili (Stalin). Stalin was of a middle class origin.
  He had joined the Bolsheviks in 1903. He was a good
  organizer and quickly rose through the party ranks,
  catching the attention of Lenin.
• Though never as brilliant as Trotsky, he gained influence
  in the party because he was better able to relate Marxist
  teachings to the realities of the Russian economy. When
  the time came, he had more party support than Trotsky.
• This was mainly because of Stalin's belief in "socialism
  in one country". Whereas Lenin and Trotsky had
  believed that Soviet communism could succeed only with
  a worldwide revolution, Stalin maintained that
  communism could steadily and successfully be achieved
  in Russia, and then exported. This made him popular
  among his fellow Russians. Once in power, he
  eliminated his party allies and became a true dictator.
• Trotsky escaped Russia, but in 1940 he was hunted
  down by Russian agents in Mexico and murdered.
  7.)
• Stalin knew full well that the still underdeveloped
  Russian economy could never compete with the
  West. He ordered huge new programs aimed at
  raising industrial and agricultural output. He was
  trying to accomplish in Russia what had taken a
  century to do in the West.
• The results were impressive. Hundreds of new
  factories were built. Steel production jumped
  500% from 1928-37. Coal mines, timber yards,
  railroads were all built. Cities boomed.
• This came at a heavy price. The government was
  investing 1/3 of its national income in this effort. As a
  result, the standard of living fell for the people in the
  name of this sacrifice. Furthermore, workers were forced
  to move to wherever they were needed.
• The Five Year Plans would require the gradual
  elimination of the land owning peasantry. Communist
  writers called these people the "little capitalists",
  believing that as they acquired more property, they
  would eventually oppose the Soviet government.
  Furthermore, the agricultural goals of the Five Year
  Plans meant that small farms would have to be
  consolidated in to huge new "collective" farms.
  8.)
• Collectivization, then, was the great tragedy of
  Stalinist Russia. Whole villages were forced to
  relocate to farm camps, where they provided
  labor. They were stripped of property. Some
  villages were simply destroyed. In retaliation, the
  peasantry destroyed crops and livestock. This
  simply created a vast famine. Combined with
  Soviet brutality, this famine wiped out ten million
  peasants in the 1930's
   9.)
• *The secret police were used to instill fear. Political assassination
  was common
• *Stalin was famously paranoid. He occasionally used systematic
  murder to eliminate people he considered threats, both real and
  imaginary. As a result, many innocents died. Around 6 million total.
• *Soviet era art and literature became propaganda pieces. Mass
  technology such as radio and film were used to indoctrinate and
  brainwash the people. Christianity was outlawed, and Marx and
  Lenin became the new icons, with Stalin as God.
• *Unemployment was wiped out. Free health care, education, and
  day care was provided
• *The roles of women were expanded as never before. They were a
  necessary part of the Communist revolution. Divorce and abortion
  became completely accessible. They were encouraged to become
  sexually liberated. They were encouraged as equals, and were
  mobilized to benefit the state.
  10.)
• Italians had enthusiastically supported the
  government in WWI. But the government lost
  support in the war's aftermath for several
  reasons:
• *the government promised reforms to the
  peasants and workers but didn't follow through.
• *the government failed to grab territory from
  Austria at Versailles.
• *the Catholic Church opposed the Italian
  government
  11.)
• Benito Mussolini was from a humble
  background. He was a socialist newspaper
  editor and joined the army. He was wounded on
  the Austrian front in 1917, and when he returned
  home he began organizing bitter war veterans
  like himself into a new party, the "fascists".
  There demands were nationalistic and socialist.
• His band of thugs, the "Black shirts", began
  terrorizing other parties, especially communists.
  By 1922 their power was so great that they
  forced the king, Victor Emmanuel III to name
  Mussolini chief minister.
The Fasces
 12.)
• The people generally accepted Mussolini's
  fascist government for several reasons.
  Chiefly, they were afraid of a Bolshevik
  uprising, yet didn't want a liberal,
  parliamentary government. As the saying
  went, Mussolini "made the trains run on
  time."
    13.)
•   Whether Mussolini's Italy was totalitarian is debatable:
•   *He did abolish a free press.
•   *He fixed all elections
•   * Arrested political opponents
•   *Created fascist youth groups


• *He never became all-powerful, like Stalin or Hitler
• *He never tried to destroy the existing power structure (the Church,
  the big landowners). In fact, Vatican City was created on his watch.
• *He never socialized business
• *He never "liberated" women.
   14.)
• *Hitler was born in Austria in 1889.
• *In his youth he became an extreme German nationalist and came
  to believe in the superiority of German culture.
• *He was strongly influenced by the mayor of Vienna, Karl Leger,
  who used mass propaganda to gain the support of the people of
  Vienna.
• *In his youth he became deeply racist, both anti-Semitic and anti-
  Slavic
• *He fought in WWI and was angered by Germany's defeat.
• By 1919 he had joined a tiny radical group in Munich called the
  German Worker's party. He emerged in control of it, giving speeches
  on street corners. He claimed Germany must be unified under
  "national socialism". The Nazi party members soon began wearing
  uniforms and badges, staging parades through the streets. Their
  rallies became larger and larger.
  15.)
• By 1923 Hitler felt ready to attempt his
  revolution. He jumped on a table in a
  Munich beer garden and proclaimed
  revolution against the Weimar
  government, for which he was arrested
  and tossed in to jail for treason. While
  incarcerated he wrote Mein Kampf, his
  manifesto that spoke of three themes: anti-
  Semitism, "lebensraum“ or living space,
  and a leader with unlimited power.
  16.)
• Upon his release from prison in 1924, he concentrated
  on building up his party. He had learned a lesson from
  the failed beer hall putsch-the way to defeat democracy
  was to use democracy. He started entering Nazi
  candidates in to elections all over the country, and into
  contests for seats in the Reichstag.
• The Depression was a blessing for him. Unemployment
  shot up over 30%, inflation was out of control. The brief
  prosperity of the late 20's was over and again people
  started casting about for meaning. Hitler stepped in to
  provide answers.
  17.)
• Hitler had a great deal of appeal to various groups:
• *He promised the middle class economic reform, and
  played on their fear of Jews and socialists.
• *He promised Big Business that he would destroy
  organized labor.
• *He promised the army that he'd overturn the Versailles
  Treaty and re-arm.
• *Nazism was a young movement and Hitler himself was
  a young man. It promised recovery, change, an
  advancement, and appealed to young people. The
  "Hitler Youth" was the prime example.
 18.)
• Nazism continued to gain ground. In 1930
  they were the second biggest party in
  Germany. By 1932 they were the largest.
  19.)
• Communists never took Hitler seriously.
  They regarded him not as a threat but as a
  "symptom" of a society that was ripe for
  communist revolution. By the time they
  realized his power it was too late.
  20.)
• Hitler was appointed Chancellor by
  President Hindenburg in 1933 under the
  mistaken belief that Hitler's Nazi followers
  could be used to stabilize power in
  Germany. Instead, Hitler quickly moved to
  consolidate power.
  21.)
• In 1933 the Reichstag building burned.
  Hitler blamed the communists, though
  many thought the Nazis probably had the
  fire set. The Nazis smeared communist
  leaders until they were literally hounded
  out of Germany.
  22.)
• Hitler passed laws abolishing labor unions, as too
  socialist. He then moved to control all print and media.
  The Nazis staged huge book-burning rallies, and
  outlawed all "subversive“ material. They outlawed
  modern art and architecture. Said Joseph Gobbles,
  "When I hear the word culture I reach for my gun."
• Gaining the respect of the army was his biggest
  challenge. They would never accept his party hacks that
  had helped him come up from the streets, and Hitler
  knew this. So he purged them, leaving the business of
  the army in the hands of the professional soldiers. This
  earned their trust, and they soon became loyal to him. A
  smaller group of soldiers, the SS, became Hitler's elite
  units.
  23.)
• Almost as soon as the Nazis took power they
  began persecution of the Jews. Many Jews, like
  Einstein, had foreseen the rise of Hitler and
  escaped Germany and Europe. But others
  became ensnared in the Nazi web. New laws
  were passed restricting movement and property
  rights. Businesses and bank accounts were
  stripped. The Nuremburg laws declared that
  Jews were to be stripped of citizenship rights.
  Later, open violence against the Jews occurred
  (Kristallnacht). But the worst was yet to come.
 24.)
• His popularity rested on the simple fact
  that he had revived German greatness,
  rearmed the military, ended
  unemployment, and was moving to undo
  the Versailles Treaty. Many Germans were
  uncomfortable with the actions of the
  Nazis but most were afraid to act.
   25.)
• Joseph Goebbels- Hitler's minister of propaganda who unashamedly
  bragged that Nazi power rested on the "big lie": that the bigger a lie
  was, and the louder it was repeated, that soon the majority of people
  would start to believe it.
• Hitler Youth- paramilitary clubs for boys and girls that indoctrinated
  them and built future soldiers and mothers.
• Paul Von Hindenburg- aging WWI hero, he was President of the
  Weimar Republic and appointed Hitler to the Chancellorship in
  1933.
• Brown shirts- Hitler's street thugs as the party grew; also called the
  SA
• SS- Hitler's elite troops and bodyguards.
• Heinrich Himmler- leader of the SS and the Gestapo
• Gestapo- Nazi police who used terror to repress the people.
Nazi Expansion and WWII
  1.)
• Hitler had made clear in Mein Kampf that
  the future of Nazism depended on
  expansion-"lebensraum“ as Hitler called it.
  Part of Germany's destiny according to
  him was the "drang nach osten"- the drive
  to the East.
  2.)
• Hitler withdrew Germany from the League
  of Nations and laid bare his intentions to
  rearm Germany in clear violation of the
  Versailles Treaty
  3.)
• Appeasement simply meant backing down
  and giving in, on the hopes of maintaining
  peace. The British were guilty about
  Germany because they realized that the
  Versailles treaty had done much to create
  Hitler. Also, they viewed Hitler as a long
  term buffer against Bolshevik expansion
  into Europe.
  4.)
• In 1935 Hitler forced an agreement with
  Britain that enabled him to begin building
  up his navy. In 1936 he took another
  brazen step when he re-occupied the
  Rhineland. The French and British failed to
  act, reinforcing Hitler's view of their
  weakness.
  5.)
• Mussolini sought territorial conquest to
  enhance Italy's prestige. From Italian
  Somaliland in 1935 he launched an
  invasion of Ethiopia. Hitler supported this
  action, so that in the next year and
  agreement was signed between Rome
  and Berlin. The "Axis" had been born.
  6.)
• Hitler had long desired a permanent union
  of all Germans (the Anschluss). The Nazis
  had murdered the Austrian Chancellor in
  1934; by 1938 Hitler bullied the Austrians
  to hand over control to the Nazis. Austria
  had been brought under Nazi control.
 7.)
• The Sudetenland was the western part of
  Czechoslovakia. It was a heavily German-
  speaking region, rich in industry. Hitler
  demanded loudly that it was only natural
  that it should be rejoined to Germany.
  8.)
• The Czechs were ready to defend their young
  country along with French help. The crisis was
  defused when British PM Neville Chamberlain,
  along with the French, ceded the Sudetenland to
  Hitler in 1938. The Czechs had been sold out,
  while Chamberlain proclaimed "Peace in our
  time."
• Hitler now realized that the Western
  democracies had no will, and forcefully took the
  rest of the Czech republic. The backlash against
  Chamberlain would eventually drive him from
  office.
My good friends, for the
 second time in our
 history, a British
 Prime Minister has
 returned from
 Germany bringing
 peace with honour. I
 believe it is peace for
 our time.
  9.)
• Hitler next demanded that the Polish city
  of Danzig (formerly German) be ceded to
  the Reich. The West now realized their
  mistakes and threatened to fight, but Hitler
  believed they would continue to back
  down.
 10.)
• Hitler and Stalin, mutually suspicious,
  nevertheless signed a pact in August 1939
  in which they promised not to attack one
  another. The British and French were
  stunned, for it was never suspected that
  the Nazis and Communists could ever be
  on the same side.
  11.)
• With the Soviets pacified, Hitler was now
  ready to commence his war. On Sept. 1,
  1939, the Nazi blitzkrieg roared into
  Poland, while the red Army rolled in from
  the East. Britain and France declared war,
  and WWII had begun.
Lightning War
  12.)
• Over the winter of 1939-40 there was little
  action. People dubbed it "Sitzkrieg" of the
  "Phony War". But in spring 1940 Hitler
  struck again: Denmark, Norway, Holland,
  Belgium, and France in quick succession.
  Only a miraculous evacuation from
  Dunkirk saved the British Army from
  surrender.
  13.)
• The French surrendered that spring. The Nazis
  installed a puppet government under old
  Marshall Pertain in the southern city of Vichy.
  French overseas possessions became the
  property of the Nazis. In the North African city of
  Oran, the British steamed in and destroyed the
  French fleet. Casablanca became the gateway
  to the Free West. In Britain, Charles de Gaulle
  became the leader of the Free French
  government-in-exile.
  14.)
• Hitler's next logical step was to knock out Britain.
  Before he could risk a Channel crossing though
  he needed to eliminate their air cover. Beginning
  in summer 1940, wave after wave of attacks
  aimed at the British RAF commenced. In
  September of that year, Hitler changed his
  strategy and began bombing cities. Through it all
  the British were defiant. By October the Nazis
  had postponed their planned invasion of Britain.
  According to Churchill, never had "so many
  owed so much to so few".
“History will be kind to me, for I
       intend to write it!”
                 “their finest Hour”
• the Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is
  about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian
  civilization. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long
  continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and
  might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us. Hitler knows
  that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can
  stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may
  move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the
  whole world, including the United States, including all that we have
  known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age
  made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of
  perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties
  and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its
  Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This
  was their finest hour.'
  15.)
• By April 1941 Hitler had conquered
  Greece and Yugoslavia, while forcing
  Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria into
  alliance. The Nazis now threatened the oil
  fields of the Caucuses and the Suez
  Canal.
  16.)
• Hitler had decided that the time had come
  to take the "living space" he'd dreamed of
  in Mein Kampf. In June 1941 over a million
  German troops crashed into the Soviet
  Union, catching the Russians unprepared.
  This would eventually be Hitler's downfall,
  though, because it was unnecessary. By
  invading the East he'd locked himself in a
  two-front war when he could have kept
  striking at Britain.
  17.)
• After the Pearl Harbor raid, Hitler decided
  to honor his treaty with Japan and declare
  war on the United States. This was not
  really necessary but nevertheless it
  brought the U.S. into the European
  conflict.
  18.)
• From 1940-42 the Nazis set about killing as
  many undesirables as possible.
• *The Nordic Peoples, or Aryans, received
  preferential treatment in all countries. The
  "Master Race" would govern the other groups.
• *the French and other occupied" Latin" peoples
  were the next group. They were considered
  inferior but could be made to be allies.
• *Last were the Jews, Slavs, and other "sub-
  human" groups. They were to be cleared out
  wherever possible to make way for the Aryan.
  They were also used as labor.
The Holocaust
  19.)
• Early in the war, the Nazis used death
  squads (the SS or einsatzgruppen) to
  eliminate undesirables. As the war went
  on it became clear that they couldn't kill as
  many as needed. The Final Solution to the
  "Jewish Questions" was then proposed:
  industrial slaughter on a mass scale. The
  Holocaust began in earnest.
Einsatzgruppen
Ghettos
          The Final Solution
• Aryans
• “Mediterranean
  Peoples”
• Slavs
• Jews, colored people
Concentration Camp
Death Camp
           The Worst Camps
•   Auschwitz
•   Bergen-Belsen
•   Dachau
•   Sobibor
•   Treblinka
•   …and over 300 more
           Who was targeted?
•   Jews
•   Retarded People
•   Gypsies
•   Homosexuals
•   Soviet POW’s
•   Intellectuals
•   Communists
  20.)
• Hitler was considered the immediate
  threat. If either the British or Soviets were
  ever knocked out of the war (or both) the
  U.S. would never be able to win alone.
  Concentrating on Hitler also would serve
  to keep the paranoid Stalin satisfied.
  21.)
• *The U.S. mainly provided Industry, technology,
  and aid.
• *The huge British Empire provided manpower,
  resources, and strategic locations from which to
  launch attacks against the Axis. Also the British
  Islands were a perfect location to launch an
  invasion against Hitler.
• *The Soviets provided endless cannon fodder.
  Their troops were extremely motivated through
  harsh communist ideology.
• *They undermined Nazi efforts everywhere, at
  great personal sacrifice.
  22.)
• Stalingrad was strategically important. Situated on the
  Volga, it was a railroad junction and the gateway to the
  oilfields of South Russia. Being Stalin's name sake it
  also was a point of pride. Hitler was determined to take
  it.
• It was a months long battle, the worst kind of urban
  warfare imaginable. House to house and room to room, it
  was extremely costly to both sides. The Germans
  eventually lost 1,000,000 casualties and thousands of
  tanks, while the Soviets may have lost millions. It was
  this defeat that broke Hitler's back, and changed the
  momentum on the Eastern Front. The Red Army would
  be on the offensive from this point onward.
  23.)
• The attack at Pearl Harbor had crippled the U.S. Pacific
  Fleet. Luckily, the U.S. carriers were not at Pearl and
  escaped. The Japanese captured the Philippines and by
  May of 1942 were threatening Australia. They were
  stopped at the Coral Sea by a combined U.S.-Australian
  fleet.
• The next month at Midway, the U.S. scored a huge
  victory by sinking 4 of the best Japanese carriers, losing
  only 1. With these two victories, the U.S. fleet regained
  the initiative in the Pacific and went on the offensive.
• This led to the beginning of the "island hopping"
  campaign.
• Guadalcanal was the first island to be invaded.
  Conditions were brutal. Tropical heat, poisonous plants
  and animals, malaria and dysentery, jungle rot, constant
  rain were just some of the problems. The Japanese were
  fanatical opponents who would rather die than surrender.
  The American public realized that the Pacific campaign
  would be brutal. The Solomon, Marshall, Caroline, and
  Marianas would all be taken in succession. Names of
  islands like Guam, Tarawa, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa
  became common to Americans as the navy and Marines
  inched closer to Japan.
  24.)
• In North Africa, the Afrika Korps under the
  command of Erwin Rommel sought to capture
  Egypt and the Suez Canal from the British. With
  the Suez, the way would be open to the oil of the
  Mid-east and an eventual link-up with the
  Japanese.
• The war in Africa see-sawed back and forth until
  a British victory at El Alamein stopped the Nazi
  advance. By 1942 the U.S forces had landed in
  Morocco. The British and U.S. combined to force
  the Nazis out of Africa by 1943.
  25.)
• The Allies launched an invasion of Sicily
  almost immediately to keep the
  momentum. Patton and Montgomery led
  the way. By 1944 the advance had stalled
  out at a place called Monte Cassino.
  Eventually the Allies captured Rome, and
  Mussolini was deposed, later killed by his
  own people. Italy was never a factor again.
  26.)
• D-Day was an enormous gamble. From 1941-44, U.S.
  and British heavy bombers had carried on a massive air
  campaign against Germany. By 1944 millions of men
  and billions of tons of material had been massed in the
  British Isles in preparation of an attack against Hitler's
  Atlantic Wall.
• The question was where. The Germans expected it near
  Calais, the traditional cross-channel invasion point, and
  the Allies made every attempt to make them believe it.
  Instead Normandy was chosen, in the hopes of getting
  enough men and tanks ashore before the Germans
  could react. It was a gamble that would pay off.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
    Eisenhower’s Order of the Day
•   Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied
    Expeditionary Force!
•   You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade,
    toward which we have striven these many months.
    The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and
    prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march
    with you. In company with our brave Allies and
    brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring
    about the destruction of the German war machine,
    the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed
    peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a
    free world.
•   Your task will not be an easy one. Your enemy is
    well trained, well equipped and battle hardened. He
    will fight savagely.
•   But this is the year 1944 ! Much has happened
    since the Nazi triumphs of 1940-41. The United
    Nations have inflicted upon the Germans great
    defeats, in open battle, man-to-man. Our air
    offensive has seriously reduced their strength in the
    air and their capacity to wage war on the ground.
•   Our Home Fronts have given us an superiority in
    weapons and munitions of war, and placed at our
    disposal great reserves of trained fighting men. The
    tide has turned! The free men of the world marching
    together to Victory!
•   I have full confidence in your devotion to duty and
    skill in battle.
    We will accept nothing less than full Victory!
•   Good Luck! And let us all beseech blessing of
    Almighty God upon this great and noble
    undertaking.
•   Dwight D. Eisenhower
  27.)
• By December of 1944 the Americans and British
  had liberated Paris and had pushed the
  Germans back into the Ardennes in Belgium. It
  was believed that Hitler was finished. But in one
  last gamble, the Nazis launched a desperate
  counter-attack in Dec. 1944. Taking advantage
  of bad weather and surprise, they drove 50
  miles into the Allied lines, cutting off Bastogne.
  Patton's Third Army would eventually push them
  back. By late January 1945 Hitler had lost his
  gamble.
 28.)
• In April 1945 the Soviet and U.S. forces
  made contact near the Elbe River in
  Central Germany, setting off massive
  celebrations.
• By May 7 (V -E day), Hitler had killed
  himself and the Nazis commanders were
  surrendering. The Americans and Soviets
  now eyed each other with suspicion.
  29.)
• ln the Pacific the island hopping campaign
  had paid off. By 1945 the Philippines were
  back in U.S. hands. Attention was turned
  towards the Japanese home islands. After
  gaining bloody Iwo Jima and Okinawa, the
  way was cleared for a massive invasion
  that would dwarf D-Day. Instead, the
  decision was made by Harry Truman to
  use the atomic bomb. The Japanese
  surrendered on August 14. (V -J day)
           Hiroshima and Nagasaki
•   When the bomb left the airplane, the
    plane jumped because you released
    10,000 lbs. Immediately Paul took the
    airplane to a 180° turn. We lost 2,000
    ft. on the turn and ran away as fast as
    we could. Then it exploded. All we saw
    in the airplane was a bright flash.
    Shortly after that, the first shock wave
    hit us, and the plane snapped all over.
    We looked to see what happened to
    the target, and we could make
    absolutely no visual observation
    because the entire city of Hiroshima
    was covered in black smoke and dust,
    debris that had been kicked up by the
    bomb and the blast, and a large white
    cloud that you've seen pictures of.

								
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