InterWar Years 1.) • There had been a small group who had questioned society before the war. After the war, these voices became louder. They rejected the notions of "progress" and came to view society through a pessimistic lens. The destruction of the war had strengthened their opinions that humanity was savage. 2.) • Valery was a French writer who summed up the idea of an "age of anxiety". He and others believed that humanity had seen its' apex, and that the future held dark times. 3.) • Friedrich Nietzsche perhaps best symbolizes this ideology. He was a German philosopher whose name today summons the grim mindset of the time. He rejected Christianity and said that rationalism stifled human emotion and passion. Calling Christianity "slave morality" which glorified weakness, he called on societies to reject the staid values of the middle class on focus on animalistic competition, which gave life its true meaning. His influence on German is tremendous. 4.) • Existentialism is the idea that there is no creator God. Human beings, instead, simply appear on the scene and seek to define themselves, since there's no God to help them. Without true meaning, then, existentialists were hounded by "despair and the meaninglessness of life". • Without God to give life meaning, these people believed in action. The actions a person undertook, it was thought, would give life its' meaning. 5.) • The terrible ravages of WWII in France caused that country to become a center of existential thought during and after the war. People were forced to choice a "life of action" or to accept tyranny. Thus, the existential movement caused many to join the Resistance or otherwise oppose the Nazis. Their actions, thus, gave their lives meaning. 6.) • Previous psychologists had assumed that the human consciousness was unified, and that it always processed the information in the same rational way. • Freud said that the human mind was in fact irrational. Furthermore, he claimed that the mind was actually composed of different parts: • *the "id". This was the primitive, irrational unconscious. It focused on sexual, pleasure seeking desires. It is always competing with other parts of the mind. • *the "ego". This is the rational part of the mind that determines what a person can do (what is possible). • *the "superego". This is the highest part of the sub consciousness. It determines what a person should do. • Therefore, for Freud, human behavior was the result of these components constantly battling for control of our consciousness. He believed that the ego and superego could be too strong and repress our sexual desires, which in turn could lead to various psychological traumas. 7.) • Many middle class people, especially women, interpreted Freud to mean that they should experiment sexually for a healthy mental state. For others, though, Freud reflected the anxiety of the time by supposing a dark, disturbed side to human nature. 8.) • Germany was angered and humiliated by the Versailles Treaty. France, Britain, and the U.S., meanwhile, were all becoming isolated. The newly formed U.S.S.R. was an unknown, and the eastern European countries were too unstable to be a force. 9.) • The French countryside had been ravaged by the fighting, especially the wealthy parts of North France. The French believed that reparations from Germany were vital to the French economy. But moreover, they saw the heavy burden of reparations as the means to keep Germany down and out. 10.) • The British soon changed the opinions they had held at the Versailles conference. They came to see a healthy Germany as vital to their own economic interests. Furthermore, they became guilty about the heavy punishments with which the Treaty had saddled Germany. Thus, reparations were unpopular in Britain. • Their attitude about France also soon changed. They didn't trust French intentions in postwar Europe and feared the French might try to dominate the Continent. There was also disagreement over the administration of Germany's former overseas colonies. With Britain and France at odds and the U.S. turning its' back on Europe, there was no real control on the volatile situation. 11.) • In 1921i t was announced that Germany would have to repay 33 billion dollars, 2.5 billion yearly. In 1922 the Weimar government responded by announcing a moratorium on the repayments. This was completely unacceptable to the French. To them it seemed as if the Versailles Treaty, especially the components that guaranteed French security, was being abandoned. In 1923, against the wishes of the British, the French and Belgians sent troops into the Ruhr, the German industrial heartland. The intention was to collect reparations "in kind"-steel, coal, and iron ore. 12.) • This occupation stirred German anger and a wave of patriotism. The government ordered the people of the Ruhr to stay home. With the factories and mines silent, the French couldn't collect. But, German poverty increased. • The French responded by threatening to create a separate Rhineland state. The situation got worse when the Weimar government, to compensate for the lost production of the Ruhr, began to print more paper money to support the people. Inflation spiraled, and people's savings were wiped out. The little good will that the Western governments had with the Germans vanished. In its place were anger, humiliation, and acrimony. The Germans blamed the Jews, the communists, and the Weimar government. 13.) • Such a situation was unpopular in Britain and the U.S., and was becoming increasingly unpopular with the French people. By 1923 the French and Germans were ready for compromise. The Dawes plan was meant to soften the blow of reparations. It placed the amount the Germans would pay on a sliding scale, and recommended large American loans to Germany, which could then meet its' payments. • The problem was that the money that the Germans were repaying to France and Britain was then being repaid to the U.S. for war loans. In effect, the U.S. was repaying itself. This was a risky strategy that worked in the short term but would ultimately lead to the collapse of 1929. 14.) • By 1929 the German economy had picked up steam. Germany was 50% wealthier in 1929 than in 1913. For a time it seemed as if the crisis had passed. As unemployment and inflation dropped, the German people began to trust their young republican government. • This recovery was due mainly to the influx of foreign money, especially from the U.S. 15.) • Germany's political situation was improving in the 1920's. Early in the decade, as the Ruhr crisis crippled the economy, it seemed as if the infant Weimar government might collapse. Communists had won elections in several parts of Germany, and Adolph Hitler had attempted an ill-conceived "putsch" in Munich in 1923. • But by mid-decade things improved. Germany was admitted to the League of Nations in 1926, a new currency was established, and the re-opened Ruhr (along with American loans) had primed the booming German economy. People regained faith in the government. There was an undercurrent of radical political parties but for the time being, they were unable to gain any traction. 16.) • The Great Depression was unlike any that had occurred before. It was more intense, it was worldwide, and it lasted longer than nearly any that had come before. During the 1920's the global economy had boomed (Roaring 20's). Because the European economy was devastated by war, American factories and farms boomed as their goods were shipped overseas. • It began in the U.S. when the stock market collapsed. The stock market bubble had been built on borrowed money. Speculators had borrowed to buy stock, paying only a little down (buying on margin) in the hopes of making a quick profit. When a chain reaction of falling stock values began, the lenders began calling their loans. Most investors didn't have the cash on hand and were ruined. • The panic spread quickly. With confidence down, consumers bought fewer goods. This caused the factories to close down, which raised unemployment. Furthermore, American factories had been producing too much for several years, which eventually led to a surplus. The whole process was a vicious cycle. 17.) • In Europe, much of the money that America had lent was recalled. A panic began, which devastated European economies. The Depression became global. Worldwide output fell 38% from 1929-33. 18.) • Roosevelt's New Deal was a series of government-sponsored programs designed to revive the economy and provide employment and relief to the people. It rested on higher taxes, which in turn funded these vast new public programs. During this period Social Security was founded. Other new programs included: • Works Progress Administration • National Recovery Act • Civilian Conservation Corps • Tennessee Valley Authority • Agricultural Adjustment Administration • Rural Electric Administration • Home Owners Loan Corporation • Securities and Exchange Commission • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation • Federal Housing Administration • National Labor relations Board • Social Security Board The Rise of Totalitarianism 1.) • The traditional forms of government had been monarchies, usually absolutist, such as the Bourbons, Habsburgs, Hohenzollerns, or Romanovs. They were conservative authoritarian states that resisted any social change that might undermine their authority. 2.) • This type of mindset was revived after WWI for several reasons: • *many of the newly formed states had no traditions of democratic government and thus couldn't sustain democracy. • *dictatorship appealed to many segments of the population such as landowners, the Church, and middle classes. These people desired stability. This was especially true in Eastern Europe. 3.) • The three brothers were Fascism, Nazism, and Communism, all totalitarian movements. Their "common father", or reason that they could thrive, was the nature of modern war where a small dedicated group could take over and control a large state. This was due mainly to technology. 4.) • The typical totalitarian state had several common features: • *use of mass propaganda and modern communications spread it • *state tried to control all aspects of life (Orwellian state) • *they represented a radical revolt against liberalism • *they were built on "mass' movements, the idea that whole peoples and societies were mobilized, seeking a never-ending change. 5.) • Upon taking power, Lenin was faced with the truth that Russia was so underdeveloped economically and industrially that true communism could never emerge. He was forced to allow some limited economic freedom to the peasants, which raised enough in taxes to begin to build industry. 6.) • Upon the death of Lenin in 1924 the Communist party was in flux. Lenin had named no successor, though the two main contenders were Trotsky and young Joseph Dzhugashvili (Stalin). Stalin was of a middle class origin. He had joined the Bolsheviks in 1903. He was a good organizer and quickly rose through the party ranks, catching the attention of Lenin. • Though never as brilliant as Trotsky, he gained influence in the party because he was better able to relate Marxist teachings to the realities of the Russian economy. When the time came, he had more party support than Trotsky. • This was mainly because of Stalin's belief in "socialism in one country". Whereas Lenin and Trotsky had believed that Soviet communism could succeed only with a worldwide revolution, Stalin maintained that communism could steadily and successfully be achieved in Russia, and then exported. This made him popular among his fellow Russians. Once in power, he eliminated his party allies and became a true dictator. • Trotsky escaped Russia, but in 1940 he was hunted down by Russian agents in Mexico and murdered. 7.) • Stalin knew full well that the still underdeveloped Russian economy could never compete with the West. He ordered huge new programs aimed at raising industrial and agricultural output. He was trying to accomplish in Russia what had taken a century to do in the West. • The results were impressive. Hundreds of new factories were built. Steel production jumped 500% from 1928-37. Coal mines, timber yards, railroads were all built. Cities boomed. • This came at a heavy price. The government was investing 1/3 of its national income in this effort. As a result, the standard of living fell for the people in the name of this sacrifice. Furthermore, workers were forced to move to wherever they were needed. • The Five Year Plans would require the gradual elimination of the land owning peasantry. Communist writers called these people the "little capitalists", believing that as they acquired more property, they would eventually oppose the Soviet government. Furthermore, the agricultural goals of the Five Year Plans meant that small farms would have to be consolidated in to huge new "collective" farms. 8.) • Collectivization, then, was the great tragedy of Stalinist Russia. Whole villages were forced to relocate to farm camps, where they provided labor. They were stripped of property. Some villages were simply destroyed. In retaliation, the peasantry destroyed crops and livestock. This simply created a vast famine. Combined with Soviet brutality, this famine wiped out ten million peasants in the 1930's 9.) • *The secret police were used to instill fear. Political assassination was common • *Stalin was famously paranoid. He occasionally used systematic murder to eliminate people he considered threats, both real and imaginary. As a result, many innocents died. Around 6 million total. • *Soviet era art and literature became propaganda pieces. Mass technology such as radio and film were used to indoctrinate and brainwash the people. Christianity was outlawed, and Marx and Lenin became the new icons, with Stalin as God. • *Unemployment was wiped out. Free health care, education, and day care was provided • *The roles of women were expanded as never before. They were a necessary part of the Communist revolution. Divorce and abortion became completely accessible. They were encouraged to become sexually liberated. They were encouraged as equals, and were mobilized to benefit the state. 10.) • Italians had enthusiastically supported the government in WWI. But the government lost support in the war's aftermath for several reasons: • *the government promised reforms to the peasants and workers but didn't follow through. • *the government failed to grab territory from Austria at Versailles. • *the Catholic Church opposed the Italian government 11.) • Benito Mussolini was from a humble background. He was a socialist newspaper editor and joined the army. He was wounded on the Austrian front in 1917, and when he returned home he began organizing bitter war veterans like himself into a new party, the "fascists". There demands were nationalistic and socialist. • His band of thugs, the "Black shirts", began terrorizing other parties, especially communists. By 1922 their power was so great that they forced the king, Victor Emmanuel III to name Mussolini chief minister. The Fasces 12.) • The people generally accepted Mussolini's fascist government for several reasons. Chiefly, they were afraid of a Bolshevik uprising, yet didn't want a liberal, parliamentary government. As the saying went, Mussolini "made the trains run on time." 13.) • Whether Mussolini's Italy was totalitarian is debatable: • *He did abolish a free press. • *He fixed all elections • * Arrested political opponents • *Created fascist youth groups • *He never became all-powerful, like Stalin or Hitler • *He never tried to destroy the existing power structure (the Church, the big landowners). In fact, Vatican City was created on his watch. • *He never socialized business • *He never "liberated" women. 14.) • *Hitler was born in Austria in 1889. • *In his youth he became an extreme German nationalist and came to believe in the superiority of German culture. • *He was strongly influenced by the mayor of Vienna, Karl Leger, who used mass propaganda to gain the support of the people of Vienna. • *In his youth he became deeply racist, both anti-Semitic and anti- Slavic • *He fought in WWI and was angered by Germany's defeat. • By 1919 he had joined a tiny radical group in Munich called the German Worker's party. He emerged in control of it, giving speeches on street corners. He claimed Germany must be unified under "national socialism". The Nazi party members soon began wearing uniforms and badges, staging parades through the streets. Their rallies became larger and larger. 15.) • By 1923 Hitler felt ready to attempt his revolution. He jumped on a table in a Munich beer garden and proclaimed revolution against the Weimar government, for which he was arrested and tossed in to jail for treason. While incarcerated he wrote Mein Kampf, his manifesto that spoke of three themes: anti- Semitism, "lebensraum“ or living space, and a leader with unlimited power. 16.) • Upon his release from prison in 1924, he concentrated on building up his party. He had learned a lesson from the failed beer hall putsch-the way to defeat democracy was to use democracy. He started entering Nazi candidates in to elections all over the country, and into contests for seats in the Reichstag. • The Depression was a blessing for him. Unemployment shot up over 30%, inflation was out of control. The brief prosperity of the late 20's was over and again people started casting about for meaning. Hitler stepped in to provide answers. 17.) • Hitler had a great deal of appeal to various groups: • *He promised the middle class economic reform, and played on their fear of Jews and socialists. • *He promised Big Business that he would destroy organized labor. • *He promised the army that he'd overturn the Versailles Treaty and re-arm. • *Nazism was a young movement and Hitler himself was a young man. It promised recovery, change, an advancement, and appealed to young people. The "Hitler Youth" was the prime example. 18.) • Nazism continued to gain ground. In 1930 they were the second biggest party in Germany. By 1932 they were the largest. 19.) • Communists never took Hitler seriously. They regarded him not as a threat but as a "symptom" of a society that was ripe for communist revolution. By the time they realized his power it was too late. 20.) • Hitler was appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg in 1933 under the mistaken belief that Hitler's Nazi followers could be used to stabilize power in Germany. Instead, Hitler quickly moved to consolidate power. 21.) • In 1933 the Reichstag building burned. Hitler blamed the communists, though many thought the Nazis probably had the fire set. The Nazis smeared communist leaders until they were literally hounded out of Germany. 22.) • Hitler passed laws abolishing labor unions, as too socialist. He then moved to control all print and media. The Nazis staged huge book-burning rallies, and outlawed all "subversive“ material. They outlawed modern art and architecture. Said Joseph Gobbles, "When I hear the word culture I reach for my gun." • Gaining the respect of the army was his biggest challenge. They would never accept his party hacks that had helped him come up from the streets, and Hitler knew this. So he purged them, leaving the business of the army in the hands of the professional soldiers. This earned their trust, and they soon became loyal to him. A smaller group of soldiers, the SS, became Hitler's elite units. 23.) • Almost as soon as the Nazis took power they began persecution of the Jews. Many Jews, like Einstein, had foreseen the rise of Hitler and escaped Germany and Europe. But others became ensnared in the Nazi web. New laws were passed restricting movement and property rights. Businesses and bank accounts were stripped. The Nuremburg laws declared that Jews were to be stripped of citizenship rights. Later, open violence against the Jews occurred (Kristallnacht). But the worst was yet to come. 24.) • His popularity rested on the simple fact that he had revived German greatness, rearmed the military, ended unemployment, and was moving to undo the Versailles Treaty. Many Germans were uncomfortable with the actions of the Nazis but most were afraid to act. 25.) • Joseph Goebbels- Hitler's minister of propaganda who unashamedly bragged that Nazi power rested on the "big lie": that the bigger a lie was, and the louder it was repeated, that soon the majority of people would start to believe it. • Hitler Youth- paramilitary clubs for boys and girls that indoctrinated them and built future soldiers and mothers. • Paul Von Hindenburg- aging WWI hero, he was President of the Weimar Republic and appointed Hitler to the Chancellorship in 1933. • Brown shirts- Hitler's street thugs as the party grew; also called the SA • SS- Hitler's elite troops and bodyguards. • Heinrich Himmler- leader of the SS and the Gestapo • Gestapo- Nazi police who used terror to repress the people. Nazi Expansion and WWII 1.) • Hitler had made clear in Mein Kampf that the future of Nazism depended on expansion-"lebensraum“ as Hitler called it. Part of Germany's destiny according to him was the "drang nach osten"- the drive to the East. 2.) • Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations and laid bare his intentions to rearm Germany in clear violation of the Versailles Treaty 3.) • Appeasement simply meant backing down and giving in, on the hopes of maintaining peace. The British were guilty about Germany because they realized that the Versailles treaty had done much to create Hitler. Also, they viewed Hitler as a long term buffer against Bolshevik expansion into Europe. 4.) • In 1935 Hitler forced an agreement with Britain that enabled him to begin building up his navy. In 1936 he took another brazen step when he re-occupied the Rhineland. The French and British failed to act, reinforcing Hitler's view of their weakness. 5.) • Mussolini sought territorial conquest to enhance Italy's prestige. From Italian Somaliland in 1935 he launched an invasion of Ethiopia. Hitler supported this action, so that in the next year and agreement was signed between Rome and Berlin. The "Axis" had been born. 6.) • Hitler had long desired a permanent union of all Germans (the Anschluss). The Nazis had murdered the Austrian Chancellor in 1934; by 1938 Hitler bullied the Austrians to hand over control to the Nazis. Austria had been brought under Nazi control. 7.) • The Sudetenland was the western part of Czechoslovakia. It was a heavily German- speaking region, rich in industry. Hitler demanded loudly that it was only natural that it should be rejoined to Germany. 8.) • The Czechs were ready to defend their young country along with French help. The crisis was defused when British PM Neville Chamberlain, along with the French, ceded the Sudetenland to Hitler in 1938. The Czechs had been sold out, while Chamberlain proclaimed "Peace in our time." • Hitler now realized that the Western democracies had no will, and forcefully took the rest of the Czech republic. The backlash against Chamberlain would eventually drive him from office. My good friends, for the second time in our history, a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honour. I believe it is peace for our time. 9.) • Hitler next demanded that the Polish city of Danzig (formerly German) be ceded to the Reich. The West now realized their mistakes and threatened to fight, but Hitler believed they would continue to back down. 10.) • Hitler and Stalin, mutually suspicious, nevertheless signed a pact in August 1939 in which they promised not to attack one another. The British and French were stunned, for it was never suspected that the Nazis and Communists could ever be on the same side. 11.) • With the Soviets pacified, Hitler was now ready to commence his war. On Sept. 1, 1939, the Nazi blitzkrieg roared into Poland, while the red Army rolled in from the East. Britain and France declared war, and WWII had begun. Lightning War 12.) • Over the winter of 1939-40 there was little action. People dubbed it "Sitzkrieg" of the "Phony War". But in spring 1940 Hitler struck again: Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, and France in quick succession. Only a miraculous evacuation from Dunkirk saved the British Army from surrender. 13.) • The French surrendered that spring. The Nazis installed a puppet government under old Marshall Pertain in the southern city of Vichy. French overseas possessions became the property of the Nazis. In the North African city of Oran, the British steamed in and destroyed the French fleet. Casablanca became the gateway to the Free West. In Britain, Charles de Gaulle became the leader of the Free French government-in-exile. 14.) • Hitler's next logical step was to knock out Britain. Before he could risk a Channel crossing though he needed to eliminate their air cover. Beginning in summer 1940, wave after wave of attacks aimed at the British RAF commenced. In September of that year, Hitler changed his strategy and began bombing cities. Through it all the British were defiant. By October the Nazis had postponed their planned invasion of Britain. According to Churchill, never had "so many owed so much to so few". “History will be kind to me, for I intend to write it!” “their finest Hour” • the Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.' 15.) • By April 1941 Hitler had conquered Greece and Yugoslavia, while forcing Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria into alliance. The Nazis now threatened the oil fields of the Caucuses and the Suez Canal. 16.) • Hitler had decided that the time had come to take the "living space" he'd dreamed of in Mein Kampf. In June 1941 over a million German troops crashed into the Soviet Union, catching the Russians unprepared. This would eventually be Hitler's downfall, though, because it was unnecessary. By invading the East he'd locked himself in a two-front war when he could have kept striking at Britain. 17.) • After the Pearl Harbor raid, Hitler decided to honor his treaty with Japan and declare war on the United States. This was not really necessary but nevertheless it brought the U.S. into the European conflict. 18.) • From 1940-42 the Nazis set about killing as many undesirables as possible. • *The Nordic Peoples, or Aryans, received preferential treatment in all countries. The "Master Race" would govern the other groups. • *the French and other occupied" Latin" peoples were the next group. They were considered inferior but could be made to be allies. • *Last were the Jews, Slavs, and other "sub- human" groups. They were to be cleared out wherever possible to make way for the Aryan. They were also used as labor. The Holocaust 19.) • Early in the war, the Nazis used death squads (the SS or einsatzgruppen) to eliminate undesirables. As the war went on it became clear that they couldn't kill as many as needed. The Final Solution to the "Jewish Questions" was then proposed: industrial slaughter on a mass scale. The Holocaust began in earnest. Einsatzgruppen Ghettos The Final Solution • Aryans • “Mediterranean Peoples” • Slavs • Jews, colored people Concentration Camp Death Camp The Worst Camps • Auschwitz • Bergen-Belsen • Dachau • Sobibor • Treblinka • …and over 300 more Who was targeted? • Jews • Retarded People • Gypsies • Homosexuals • Soviet POW’s • Intellectuals • Communists 20.) • Hitler was considered the immediate threat. If either the British or Soviets were ever knocked out of the war (or both) the U.S. would never be able to win alone. Concentrating on Hitler also would serve to keep the paranoid Stalin satisfied. 21.) • *The U.S. mainly provided Industry, technology, and aid. • *The huge British Empire provided manpower, resources, and strategic locations from which to launch attacks against the Axis. Also the British Islands were a perfect location to launch an invasion against Hitler. • *The Soviets provided endless cannon fodder. Their troops were extremely motivated through harsh communist ideology. • *They undermined Nazi efforts everywhere, at great personal sacrifice. 22.) • Stalingrad was strategically important. Situated on the Volga, it was a railroad junction and the gateway to the oilfields of South Russia. Being Stalin's name sake it also was a point of pride. Hitler was determined to take it. • It was a months long battle, the worst kind of urban warfare imaginable. House to house and room to room, it was extremely costly to both sides. The Germans eventually lost 1,000,000 casualties and thousands of tanks, while the Soviets may have lost millions. It was this defeat that broke Hitler's back, and changed the momentum on the Eastern Front. The Red Army would be on the offensive from this point onward. 23.) • The attack at Pearl Harbor had crippled the U.S. Pacific Fleet. Luckily, the U.S. carriers were not at Pearl and escaped. The Japanese captured the Philippines and by May of 1942 were threatening Australia. They were stopped at the Coral Sea by a combined U.S.-Australian fleet. • The next month at Midway, the U.S. scored a huge victory by sinking 4 of the best Japanese carriers, losing only 1. With these two victories, the U.S. fleet regained the initiative in the Pacific and went on the offensive. • This led to the beginning of the "island hopping" campaign. • Guadalcanal was the first island to be invaded. Conditions were brutal. Tropical heat, poisonous plants and animals, malaria and dysentery, jungle rot, constant rain were just some of the problems. The Japanese were fanatical opponents who would rather die than surrender. The American public realized that the Pacific campaign would be brutal. The Solomon, Marshall, Caroline, and Marianas would all be taken in succession. Names of islands like Guam, Tarawa, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa became common to Americans as the navy and Marines inched closer to Japan. 24.) • In North Africa, the Afrika Korps under the command of Erwin Rommel sought to capture Egypt and the Suez Canal from the British. With the Suez, the way would be open to the oil of the Mid-east and an eventual link-up with the Japanese. • The war in Africa see-sawed back and forth until a British victory at El Alamein stopped the Nazi advance. By 1942 the U.S forces had landed in Morocco. The British and U.S. combined to force the Nazis out of Africa by 1943. 25.) • The Allies launched an invasion of Sicily almost immediately to keep the momentum. Patton and Montgomery led the way. By 1944 the advance had stalled out at a place called Monte Cassino. Eventually the Allies captured Rome, and Mussolini was deposed, later killed by his own people. Italy was never a factor again. 26.) • D-Day was an enormous gamble. From 1941-44, U.S. and British heavy bombers had carried on a massive air campaign against Germany. By 1944 millions of men and billions of tons of material had been massed in the British Isles in preparation of an attack against Hitler's Atlantic Wall. • The question was where. The Germans expected it near Calais, the traditional cross-channel invasion point, and the Allies made every attempt to make them believe it. Instead Normandy was chosen, in the hopes of getting enough men and tanks ashore before the Germans could react. It was a gamble that would pay off. Dwight D. Eisenhower Eisenhower’s Order of the Day • Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force! • You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world. • Your task will not be an easy one. Your enemy is well trained, well equipped and battle hardened. He will fight savagely. • But this is the year 1944 ! Much has happened since the Nazi triumphs of 1940-41. The United Nations have inflicted upon the Germans great defeats, in open battle, man-to-man. Our air offensive has seriously reduced their strength in the air and their capacity to wage war on the ground. • Our Home Fronts have given us an superiority in weapons and munitions of war, and placed at our disposal great reserves of trained fighting men. The tide has turned! The free men of the world marching together to Victory! • I have full confidence in your devotion to duty and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full Victory! • Good Luck! And let us all beseech blessing of Almighty God upon this great and noble undertaking. • Dwight D. Eisenhower 27.) • By December of 1944 the Americans and British had liberated Paris and had pushed the Germans back into the Ardennes in Belgium. It was believed that Hitler was finished. But in one last gamble, the Nazis launched a desperate counter-attack in Dec. 1944. Taking advantage of bad weather and surprise, they drove 50 miles into the Allied lines, cutting off Bastogne. Patton's Third Army would eventually push them back. By late January 1945 Hitler had lost his gamble. 28.) • In April 1945 the Soviet and U.S. forces made contact near the Elbe River in Central Germany, setting off massive celebrations. • By May 7 (V -E day), Hitler had killed himself and the Nazis commanders were surrendering. The Americans and Soviets now eyed each other with suspicion. 29.) • ln the Pacific the island hopping campaign had paid off. By 1945 the Philippines were back in U.S. hands. Attention was turned towards the Japanese home islands. After gaining bloody Iwo Jima and Okinawa, the way was cleared for a massive invasion that would dwarf D-Day. Instead, the decision was made by Harry Truman to use the atomic bomb. The Japanese surrendered on August 14. (V -J day) Hiroshima and Nagasaki • When the bomb left the airplane, the plane jumped because you released 10,000 lbs. Immediately Paul took the airplane to a 180Â° turn. We lost 2,000 ft. on the turn and ran away as fast as we could. Then it exploded. All we saw in the airplane was a bright flash. Shortly after that, the first shock wave hit us, and the plane snapped all over. We looked to see what happened to the target, and we could make absolutely no visual observation because the entire city of Hiroshima was covered in black smoke and dust, debris that had been kicked up by the bomb and the blast, and a large white cloud that you've seen pictures of.
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