A Brochure for Earthquake Disaster Prevention by kzk85286

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									          A Brochure for Earthquake Disaster
                      Prevention

                                         Prelude

   As the Chiayi Rueili earthquake occurred on July 17, 1998, I remember at that
time I was in my office, which is on the 19-th story. Even though the earthquake
intensity was not very large at Taipei, I still could explicitly feel the shaking of the
building and was shocked by the shaking both physically and mentally. Immediately
following the earthquake, damages to house, hotel, school building and bridge were
reported. In addition, 5 people were killed. In the next few days, the rescue was
continued and it is very concerned about whether it is an indication for a severe
earthquake after a lot of aftershocks.
   Similar to the typhoon or ocean wave, the earthquake is a part of the natural
activity. However, it is a pity that up to now no one around the world can reliably
predict the occurrence of an earthquake with the right time, right location and right
magnitude as those predicted for a typhoon. Consequently, the earthquake still gives a
great threat for the people resided in Taiwan, such as those resided in Tokyo and
Kobe, Japan, as well as in Los Angeles and San Francisco, U.S.A. since all these
areas are located on the collision boundary of the Eurasian plate.
   Although earthquake is unpredictable the damage to life and property can still be
minimized based on the technology developed in Taiwan if the earthquake prevention
is well prepared and the emergency response is appropriately taken. National Science
Council of the Republic of China continues its full support for the research on
seismology and earthquake engineering. In addition, the National Center for Research
on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) was founded a few years ago. A large structural
laboratory was constructed for the improvement of earthquake resistant design and
the development of new technology for seismic isolation.
   The content of this brochure is the research results regarding to the earthquake
itself and its damage prevention from the specialists in the Academia Sinica and in
the ministry of economic and transportation. Hopefully, this brochure can effectively
alleviate the earthquake damage to life and property after reading of it since one can
well prepared for earthquake disaster after recognizing the possible damages caused
by an earthquake.
   Knowledge and action are the best prevention when you face an earthquake. Best
wishes!
                                  Catalogue




1.   Prelude
2.   Organization and Strategy for Earthquake Disaster Prevention and Rescue
     l Organization for Catastrophic Disaster Prevention and Rescue
     l Community Organization for Disaster Prevention and Rescue
     l Guidelines to Reduce Earthquake Damage for Individuals
3.   Failure Modes of Buildings under Seismic Loading
Appendix 1.    Seismic Hazard in Taiwan Area
                                1. Introduction

   On July 17, 1998, an earthquake occurred at the Chiayi County with a magnitude
of 6.0 on the Richter scale. Since this earthquake is the only earthquake that caused a
severe damage and even the death of people for the recent 30 more years in the area
of Chiayi-Tainan in Taiwan it attracts much attention. In fact, the seismic activity in
this area is widely discussed after a long period of inactivity. Because this event is a
very shallow earthquake the ground shaking near the epicenter is tremendous and
thus the damage to buildings, bridges and roads is inevitable.
   Since the tectonic movement continues the seismic activity in Taiwan area will
never be stopped. In fact, an earthquake will occur after the energy is accumulated to
be large enough. Even though the capability to earthquake resistance of a structure is
significantly improved an earthquake with a magnitude over 7.0 might still lead to a
catastrophic disaster and the damage may be more severe than that caused by any of
the pass earthquake events.
   This brochure is proposed to provide the general public with the awareness of an
earthquake and the simple guidelines to respond with the earthquake disaster. Hence,
if one has the earthquake preparedness in advance, appropriately responds during the
earthquake and takes the right actions after the event the earthquake damage then can
be effectively minimized.
  2. Organization and Strategy for Earthquake Disaster
                 Prevention and Rescue

(a) Organization for Catastrophic Disaster Prevention and Rescue
    In order to mitigate the threat from an earthquake, all levels of the government in
the world will generally raises the importance of damage prevention before the quake,
emergency response and rescue during the quake and the recovery after the quake. As
a result, the organization for disaster prevention and rescue is founded. In Taiwan,
these organizations were set up from the central to local governments since 1994. In
addition, the meeting is regularly held by each level of government to propose the
plans for disaster prevention and rescue. These plans can be considered as the
guidelines for the disaster prevention before an earthquake, for the emergency
response and rescue in an earthquake and for the recovery after an earthquake.
    As a catastrophic disaster occurs, the procedure to damage prevention and rescue
will be preceded by the government as follows:


    (a-1) The government infrastructure for
           disaster prevention and rescue, such
           as the fire fighting department and
           the   police   department,    should
           collect the information about the
           emergency faced and go to the
           rescue immediately.
    (a-2) Report the damage to the authorized government agencies. Then, they will
        organize a team to respond with rescue and
        recovery operations according to the plan for
        emergency response.
                                     (a-3) The authorized government agency should
                                 report   to   the   responsibilities   of   the   district
                                 administrator to establish the “Emergency Response
                                 Center” for the emergency management and rescue.




    (a-4) If the government infrastructure cannot handle the disaster rescue or
        recovery it should make a request for assistance from the higher level of
        government. The level of government to assist the emergency response and
        rescue is dependent upon the actual need of
        emergency faced.




(b) Community Organization for Disaster Prevention and Rescue
    Disaster prevention and rescue involves every one, family and community. In
addition, community organizations for disaster prevention and rescue are the basis of
the national organization for disaster prevention and rescue. They can reduce the
causes to disasters in the usual time and in a disaster they will go to rescue first. In
fact, in case of disaster the elected district administrators, such as town supervisors or
village executives, should assemble their members to involve the immediate rescue.
This may include emergency medical services, fire fighting, shelter, food, water and
essential services. A well-coordinated emergency response to an earthquake is likely
to save many lives and prevent earthquake-induced hazards escalating the magnitude
of the disaster.
(b-1) Development of the Community Organizations:
   It is necessary to set up a community organization for disaster prevention and
   rescue based on the conditions and needs of the specific district region. The
   following skeleton is used to                                   Supervisor

   illustrate     a       possible
   community organization.




                                     food supply             Casualty Savage               information report
                                                   shelter guide                fire fighting




(b-2) Emergency Preparedness:
   Community     organizations    can    promote           participation              in        emergency
   preparedness activities and help organize practice drills and exercises to raise
   awareness and ensure that everyone knows what to do. In addition, a
   community disaster plan can also be drawn up, involving fire-fighting, search
   and rescue, first aid, making contact with
   authorities, supervision of food, water and
   power provisions.




(b-3) Emergency Response:
   Pre-earthquake emergency planning is one of the best ways to ensure that the
   earthquake disaster can be handled effectively. In fact, as a disaster occurs,
   using this plan with the usual
   practice drills and exercises for
   emergency response and rescue.
(b-4) Recovering from Earthquakes
   Fit in with the government to gather data on the extent of damage and its
   distribution in the community. In addition, help each other to recover from
   the disaster.




      If the earthquake causes people injured or a great loss, make a request for
      assistance from the local government or call 119 for help.
     3. Guidelines to Reduce Earthquake Damage for
                        Individuals

(a) Before the Earthquake
    (a-1) At Home
          (a-1-1) Reinforcing shelving, fixing tall
                  furniture to the wall and keeping
                  items low and safe will make your
                  living environment a safer place.




                                      (a-1-2) Recognizing the shelters and their
                            routes both at home and nearby.




          (a-1-3) Recognizing the place of switch for
             gas and electricity and how to turn off.




          (a-1-4) Preparing an emergency box
                  and fire extinguishers. Let all
                  the family members know
                  where they located and how to
                  use them.
      (a-1-5) In case of any problem in the
               building, ask licensed engineers
               or agencies to check and retrofit
               it.




      (a-1-6) Check the equipments for
         fire fighting and exercise the plan
         for disaster prevention and rescue
         regularly if you are living in a
         high-rise building.




(a-2) In the Public Place
      (a-2-1) Propose an emergency plan and
         assign the staffs or servers to take in charge
         of the disaster prevention and emergency
         response.




      (a-2-2) Check the equipments for
               fire fighting regularly.
      (a-2-3) Exercise         the     disaster
               prevention regularly.


      (a-2-4) Check the billboard and the
         shelter from the sun or any other
         potentially     dislodged        item
         constantly.
(b) During the Earthquake
   (b-1) indoors
          (b-1-1) Turn off gas, electricity and
                   water supplies.




          (b-1-2) Using an appropriate exit to
                   keep       away       from       any
                   congestion in a public place.




          (b-1-3) Open the door in order to avoid
             that the door is jammed by the large
             deformation in an earthquake.




                                            (b-1-4) Stay away from the glass window
                                and find a safe shelter.




                                            (b-1-5) Sit
                   or lie down beside or underneath a
                   table or bed to protect against
                   possible    objects    falling    from
                   above.


                                           (b-1-6) Keep calm and do not rush out in
                               panic.
      (b-1-7) In case                             of fire put it out right away.




      (b-1-8) Do not use the elevators but use
        the stairs.




(b-2) outdoors
      (b-2-1) If you are driving a car or
        riding a bike do not stop
        immediately. In stead, drive the
        car or ride the bike to the
        roadside and then find a shelter.


      (b-2-2) If you are walking
              in the street, run
              into an open space
              or the pedestrian
              corridor.




      (b-2-3) Keep away from the gas
        station, glass curtain wall, vending
        machine,      electric    pole      and
        construction site, etc.
(b-2-4) Look out for any possible
          objects        falling           from
          above and put your arms
          on your head.




(b-2-5) If you are on a bus or a train,
   do not panic and jump outside.
   Stay      in   the      bus        or     train
   temporarily and put your arms or
   a bag on your head.




(b-2-6) If you are in a suburb, stay
          away from the hill, riverside
          and seaside and find an open
          space for shelter.



(b-2-7) If you are on a
   viaduct          or           an
   underground           passage,
   walk away calmly and
   immediately.
(c) After the Earthquake
    (c-1)    Help each other for the disaster
       rescue. Have a look at the other buildings
       nearby. Their occupants may need your
       help.



    (c-2)    If electric power is recovered after the
       power shutdown, do not use any electric
       devices right away but check first whether
       there is a leak of gas to keep away from any
       explosion or fire.


    (c-3) Listening to the radio or watching TV
            any time and escaping from any rumor.




    (c-4)    Do       not       use        the
       telephone unless somebody
       has     been        injured    or    a
       building       is    damaged         or
       burning.       The      emergency
       services may need all lines
       for the rescue.


    (c-5)    Inspect the house for cracks. If
       beams or columns are damaged leave
       the house as soon as possible and ask a
       civil agency to inspect and restore.
(c-6)   If the gas pipeline is damaged or
   there is a smell of gas, do not use any
   gas or electric devices. Open the doors
   and leave the house immediately. In
   addition, report to the authority.
  3. Failure Modes of Buildings under Seismic Loading

     The habitation is always closely related to the human beings. Ancient people
resided in caves to shelter from the wind and rain. Following the progress in the
civilization of human beings, the construction materials for buildings are gradually
improved in the order of timber, rock, brick, reinforced concrete and steel. All the
buildings are located on the ground or even fixed into the ground. Therefore, when a
building is excited under an earthquake, its base tends to move with the ground where
it is supported. Taiwan area is in the time of high potential of the occurrences of
earthquakes. Furthermore, it can be expected that a lot of structures will be destroyed
to a different degree of damage if a strong earthquake occurs at the present time.
Some will be totally collapsed and some may be damaged and need to be retrofitted.
However, each structure must be well reevaluated by the engineers. The following
figures or photos are used to illustrate the general failure modes of buildings under
seismic loading.


Brittle Failure at the End of a Column
     Since a reinforced concrete column will in
general be subjected to a maximum moment at
its ends adequate stirrup reinforcement is
needed at the column ends. If the stirrup
reinforcement is too short or widely spaced
brittle failure may occur at the column end due
to the inadequate confinement in longitudinal
bar and concrete. If this occurs in several
columns of the same story this building may be
collapsed at any story.


Failure of the Short-Column Type
     In general, the design of a column is based
on its net height. However, the window above half-height in-filled shortens the
effective length of the column. This may cause the shear force to be greater than the
shear capacity possessed by the column and finally might result in a diagonal shear
crack in the column. This is the so-called “short-column” type damage.


Punching Shear Failure
    When two-way slabs are supported
directly by columns, such as in flat slabs and
flat plates, or when they carry concentrated
loads, such as in footings, punching shear near
the columns is of critical importance. For the
failure of punching shear, the potential
diagonal crack follows the surface of a
truncated cone or pyramid around the column.


Unfixed Heavy Objects in the Top Story
    During an earthquake, the top story
response is generally greater than the low story
response and then it will experience a larger
seismic force. As a result, if any heavy object in
the top story is not fixed tightly it may fails or
falls down in an earthquake.


Interaction of Axial Load and Side-Sway
    An axially loaded column accompanying with a
side-sway will cause the secondary moment for the
column. Thus, the increase of the axial loading may
result in the buckling or yielding of the column and
eventually the collapse of a whole story.
Pounding Failure
     Individual building need to be provided with
adequate separation, to prevent damage caused by
pounding when deform in earthquake, which has been a
serious cause of damage to multistory structures, even of
collapse, in recent earthquakes. The minimum separation
gap depends on the height of building and on the
flexibility of the building. The gap between buildings
should exceed the maximum drift of each story with an
extra allowance.
Failure of Accessory and Nonstructural Element
     Accessory of a building such as the water
tank, TV and elevator and the nonstructural
element such as the curtain wall, interior
partition and staircase may be destroyed by the
large deformation due to a severe earthquake.
Especially, the break of elevator and collapse of
the interior partition may damage to life.
Failure of the Pre-damaged Structural Element
     The capability to earthquake resistance of a
structural element may be reduced due to the
implementation of a nonstructural element. For instance,
a drainpipe is usually embedded in the column. Thus,
the effective area for the column to resist the axial force
is reduced. Furthermore, if there is a leak in the
drainpipe the concrete and steel will be corroded with
the time passing. Consequently, this structural element
will be damaged prior to the other structural elements
and may lead to collapse of the whole building.
Slope Failure
      Sloping ground or rock masses, which are
stable under normal loading, can lose their
stability during an earthquake causing effects
from a slow progressive creeping of the
ground to dramatic landslide or rock fall.
Whether sudden or slow, such slope failures
are liable to cause complete destruction of any
building founded on them or in the path of the
slide. Landslide and later spreads can also
cause extensive property damage.
Fault Rupture Failure
      Large permanent ground deformations often
occur at the surface associated with fault
ruptures in earthquake. Vertical and horizontal
displacements have occurred across fault breaks;
where this relative movement occurs under a
building, a bridge or any structure catastrophic
damage can result.
Foundation Failure due to Soil Liquefaction
      Earthquake-induced soil liquefaction has been the cause of catastrophic damage
in a number of earthquakes. Certain types of soils, when they are saturated with water
and    then   suddenly   shacked    by   an
earthquake, completely lose all shear
strength, and flow like a liquid. The
support to the foundations of buildings or
bridges built on such soils then disappears,
and they can plunge into the ground, or be
carried sideway bodily on unliquefied
masses of soil.
         Appendix: Seismic Hazard in Taiwan Area

                      1. Causes of Earthquakes

l Distribution of Earthquakes
   The distribution of earthquakes in the world is well recognized after the study of
   several decades. It is concluded that earthquake occurrences are not distributed
   uniformly over the surface of the earth; instead they tend to be concentrated
   along well-defined lines, which are known to be associated with the boundaries
   of plates of the earth’s crust. There are three principal world zones or belts of
   earthquake activity. They are the Circum-Pacific seismic zone, the Eurasian
   seismic zone and the Mid-oceanic ridge. It is worth noting that some large and
   highly destructive earthquakes do occur in continental zones but not in the three
   principal world zones mentioned above. In fact, there are the so-called intra-plate
   earthquakes, such as the 1812 New Madrid earthquake in Missouri, U.S.A. and
   the 1976 Tangshan earthquake in China.


  The island of Taiwan is located at the Circum-
  Pacific seismic zone and thus seismicity is
                                                                              Northern
  extremely active in this country. Based on the                              Earthquake Belt

  distribution of the recorded earthquakes,
                                                           Western
  Taiwan can be roughly divided into three                 Earthquake
                                                           Belt
  seismic zones. They are the northeastern
  seismic zone, the eastern seismic zone and the
  western seismic zone as shown in the figure.                                         Eastern
                                                         Legend                        Earthquake
  Most earthquakes occurred in the eastern and          Earthquake with                Belt
                                                        Surface fracture
  western seismic zones are shallow earthquakes
  while shallow-, medium- and deep-focus
  earthquakes are common in the northeastern
  seismic zone.                                       Earthquake with Surface Rupture in Taiwan
l Active Fault
   An earthquake may be induced by many causes, such as volcanic eruptions, the
   collapse of underground mine-workings, man-made explosions and the fault
   ruptures. However, the fault rupture causes the most earthquakes and thus is of
   importance. In fact, about 90% earthquakes are tectonic earthquakes in the world.
   An active fault implies its recurrent movement for a specific period of time.
   However, a given time period may not be satisfied for all the users of different
   purposes under different tectonic settings. Recently, Central Geological Survey
   has collected all the active fault data in Taiwan area and gives the definition for
   an active fault. In fact, it will be considered as an active fault if there is recurrent
   movement in the late Quaternary period. Furthermore, active faults are classified
   into two categories based on the identified period of last movement. The first
   category of active faults includes those (1) activated in the Holocene, (2) offset
   (creep) the man-made structures, (3) relate to recent large earthquakes, (4) offset
   the recent alluvium and (5) show the creeping phenomena as verified by the
   present geodetic method. On the other hand, the second category of active faults
   is those (1) activated within the last 100,000 years or (2) offset the terrace
   deposits or tableland deposits. In addition, some
   active faults are not classified into the two
   categories due to the lack of geologic evidences
   and are considered as suspect active faults. The
   distribution of active faults, whose fault trace is
   greater than 5 km in Taiwan area, is shown in
   figure with a scale of 1:500,000 geological map.
   There are 51 active faults in total, 9 are in the
   first category, 15 are in the second category and
                                                          Active Faults
   the rest 27 faults are the suspect active faults.       In Taiwan
                    2. Possible Earthquake Damages

    The movement of tectonic plates              Landslide           Surface Rupture

may lead to the fault rupture and then
results in an earthquake. When the
rupture occurs, the release of strain
adjacent to the crack surface will be
accompanied by a sudden relative
displacement of the two sides. Thus, a     Landslide                            Bridge Broken

displacement wave is initiated by this
rupture and will be propagated radially
from the source. Consequently, the
severe ground shaking introduced by
                                             Tsunamis                        Building Collapsed
the earthquake wave may cause
damage to the structure, life and
property.   In   general,    earthquake
damages can be simply classified into
two types, which are the direct and
indirect damages.
    A fault rupture may lead to tsunamis, landslide, large ground deformation, soil
liquefaction and then the damage to structures. All these can be considered as the
direct damage. On the other hand, the indirect damage implies secondary disasters
triggered by the earthquake or the earthquake-induced accidents. Flooding following
earthquakes may result from the failures of reservoirs or embankments. The failure of
pipeline may lead to a leak of gas or a fire arising from the short circuit. In addition,
the overturning of building contents and equipment may also impair life. It should be
mentioned that more fatalities are caused by the failure of nonstructural elements or
by earthquake-induced accidents than are caused by the collapse of buildings.
When the earthquake occurs, it might cause… .

Leak of poison gas in factory                     Catastrophic damage




fire
                                                The difficulty to resoue




                                                The difficulty for fire fighting
                  3. Earthquake Disasters in Taiwan

    The history of seismic activity in Taiwan can be dated back to the seventeenth
century. Prior to 1897, the historical records of earthquakes are made up of local
governmental documents and personal diaries and accounts. In 1897, seismographs
were first installed in Taiwan. After the use of seismographic instruments, there were
125 destructive earthquakes between 1898 and 1998. The greatest earthquake is the
one occurred on June 5, 1920 at Hualien. The magnitude of this earthquake is as large
as 8.0. According to the past earthquake data, the most active seismic zone in Taiwan
is near Hualien and Ilan region. Meanwhile, most destructive earthquakes occurred in
the western region of Taiwan are in the area of Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi and Tainan.
Among the 125 destructive earthquakes, 30 events occurred in the western region.
Even though the occurrence rate in the western region is lower than that of the eastern
region, the earthquake disasters caused in this region are more severe than those of
the eastern region. Hence, this needed to be greatly considered in construction.
    Observing the earthquake events
recorded     by     the    seismographic
instruments from 1898 to 1998, the
magnitude,    epicenter,   tectonics   and
building type of the most severe 10
events are different. Thus, each caused a
different degree of damage. In general, if
the epicenter is in mountainous terrain
such as the 1998 Ruilei earthquake,
landslide is the major geologic damage.
However, in plains the major geologic
damages are the fault rupture, surface
break, quick sand, and soil liquefaction.
What kind of geologic environment is apt
                                                The Epicenter Map of the most severe Earthquakes
to have above geologic damages? In                            in Taiwan,1898-1998
plains, the geologic damages such as the offset, surface break and quick sand mainly
caused by the fault rupture. Liquefaction is most likely to occur in loose cohesionless
soils, such as fine sand or silts; these are most commonly found in sea or river
deposited sediments. These geologic damages may lead to the collapse of structures
and the destruction of pipelines. Landslides may occur at the steep slopes in
mountainous terrain. Thus, it is very important to protect the building and road from
rockfalls and mudflows by using a retaining structure.

								
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