Licensed Professional Counselor s Progress Notes Form

					      Student Name               Dept.                          SMP Title



Abell, Kimberly Danielle;   Psychology   Romantic beliefs and abusive relationships : how
Riedel, Christina Leigh                  beliefs in destiny and beliefs in growth affect one's
                                         tolerance for abuse




Adamson, Amechi Nelson      Psychology   Comparing intercultural sensitivity between Japanese
                                         and American college students




Adetunji, Esther Adenike    Psychology   Predictors of the importance of physical attractiveness
                                         in dating preferences of college students




Ahrendt, Kenneth Carl       Psychology   Media influence and risk perception : the impact of the
                                         news media on risk perception




Alafriz, Courtney Erika     Psychology   Social aggression among adolescents : an analysis of
Murphy                                   ―teen‖ television




Allen, Elizabeth Jayne      Psychology   Animal assisted therapy (AAT) and animal assisted
                                         activities (AAA) : a literature review
Allen, Tiamo; Fisher,    Psychology   All eyes on me : the impact of racial anxiety on the
Barbara Selena                        experiences of black students on predominantly black
                                      and white campuses




Allport, Erin Naomi      Psychology   History of diagnosis




Anderson, Rebecca Claire Psychology   Qualitative study of adolescents and professional
                                      counseling




Anthony, Erin Patricia   Psychology   Psychotherapy integration




Arndt, Melissa Anne      Psychology   Evaluation of the effectiveness of an after school
                                      program for at-risk children




Arthur, Steven Anthony   Psychology   Music label, race, and the perception of violent
                                      behavior
Asher, Caroline Nimakoa   Psychology   Volunteerism among college students : perception
                                       discrepancies between homeless and non-homeless
                                       individuals




Asmann, Suzanne           Psychology   Behavioral investigation of an isolation-rearing model
Elizabeth                              of schizophrenia in rats




Atkinson, Lora Beth       Psychology   Correlates of help seeking behavior and attitudes
                                       among adolescents in college




Babalola, Oluwatosin      Psychology   Exploring the relationship between religiosity,
Elizabeth                              optimism, and relationship satisfaction




Baker, Allison Kathryn    Psychology   Effects of parental involvement on student academic
                                       achievement




Baker, Erin Laura         Psychology   Anger management for early elementary school
                                       children
Ballute, Amanda Jo        Psychology   Superstitious behavior in sports




Bancells, Andrea Maria    Psychology   Coping strategies exhibited by parents of children with
                                       autism : from diagnosis to present day




Banig, Aubrey Ann         Psychology   Nigral neurotensin receptor mRNA following chronic
                                       administration of haloperidol as a model for tardive
                                       dyskinesia




Barker, Nichole Lynne     Psychology   Adolescents‘ perceived body image in comparison to
Reynolds                               their self-esteem and their ideal body image




Barndt, Carolyn Marie     Psychology   Bibliotherapy : developing fiction for siblings of
                                       children with autism




Barnes, Eileen Patricia   Psychology   Relationship between birth order, achievement, and
                                       anxiety
Barnes, Katherine Hemsley Psychology    Closer look at Eye Movement Desensitization and
                                        Reprocessing (EMDR)




Barnett, Carolyn           Psychology   Siblings vs. friends : behavior patterns across
                                        relationships




Bauer, Colleen Debra       Psychology   Antidepressant effects of St. John‘s wort (Hypericum
                                        perforatum) and imipramine on rats and an
                                        investigation into the knowledge and use of St. John‘s
                                        wort and use of antidepressant drugs among students
                                        at St. Mary‘s College




Baxter, Shane Michael      Psychology   My child is different : a focus on the trials and
                                        tribulations of family adjustment to children with
                                        autism spectrum disorder




Beal, Georgene Marie       Psychology   Stress in law enforcement officers




Bederka, Julie Elizabeth   Psychology   Animal Assisted Therapy : a journey through research
                                        and personal experience
Berger, Samantha Leigh   Psychology    Relationship between attachment and expected vs.
                                       perceived intimacy




Bernatchez, Ashley Quinn- Psychology   Deadly secrets : the sociocultural causes and
Hannah                                 psychosocial effects of HIV nondisclosure




Bhanot, Rashmi           Psychology    Disordered eating in female athletes




Biddinger, Sue-Ellen     Psychology    Child sexual abuse survivors : victims of their past
Patricia




Bishop, Kyle Kimberly    Psychology    Evaluation of individual therapeutic models and their
                                       effectiveness on socialized individuals




Black, Colin Sime        Psychology    Alcohol : a self-medication for socially anxious
                                       individuals
Blackwell, Elliott Gill   Psychology   How political debate and directed faking studies
                                       support a method of cheating on a test of moral
                                       development




Blackwell, Robert Allen   Psychology   Cognitive deficits in beta-catenin knockout mice : an
                                       endophenotype approach to modeling bipolar disorder




Borsch, Emily Victoria    Psychology   Tactic is distraction : the news broadcaster‘s influence
                                       on content recall




Bowers, Stephanie Nichole Psychology   Role of testosterone in an animal model for tardive
                                       dyskinesia




Bowes, Loriann            Psychology   Relationship between client satisfaction and
                                       premature termination in a public mental health clinic




Branigan, Daniel Belleman Psychology   Profiling of serial murderers and their portrayal
                                       through media
Braxton, Jonathan M.       Psychology     Effect of violent video games on young adults




Breymaier, Matthew John;   Psychology     Internet survey research : an investigation of sample
Cramer, Tara Louise                       generalizability and an exploration of the effects of
                                          differing levels of perceived anonymity




Brezinski, Christen Victoria Psychology   Mind-body connection : meditation and yoga as
                                          alternative treatments for generalized anxiety disorder




Brittingham, Laura         Psychology     Reformation of health education in secondary schools
Elizabeth                                 to include sexual minority adolescents




Brooks, Cori Renee         Psychology     Effect of relationship status on female college
                                          students : happiness and loneliness regarding single
                                          women and women involved in a romantic relationship




Bryant, Erin Hart          Psychology     Multidimensional health locus of control and
                                          depression in a sample of rheumatoid arthritis patients
Bryant, Zakiya Iman     Psychology   African American mentee : mentoring minority youth




Buchanan, Kathryn       Psychology   Autism and theory of mind : do autistic children lack
Williams                             theory of mind?




Buechler, Kerry Lisa    Psychology   Theory of mind development in autistic and non-
                                     autistic children




Bulger, Deirdre Ann     Psychology   Nocturnal enuresis and its relation to attention deficit
                                     hyperactivity disorder and other variables




Burkman, Lisa Michele   Psychology   Stereotypes of psychotherapists in film : a content
                                     analysis




Burtis, Amy LeeAnn      Psychology   Applying the theories of aggression to adolescent
                                     aggression
Bushell, Thomas R.        Psychology   Role of occupational stress in various positions
                                       throughout the criminal justice system




Butler, Sylvia Claire     Psychology   Correlation between parental practices on gender role
                                       orientation, attachment style, self-esteem and
                                       satisfaction in later romantic relationships




Cain, Kathleen P.         Psychology   Exploration into the elements of writing therapy
                                       present in personal journals and weblogs




Calhoon, Gwendolyn        Psychology   Effects of cognitive intervention in adolescence on
Gabrielle                              behavioral abnormalities in a rat model of
                                       schizophrenia




Callahan, Lauren Jean     Psychology   Effects of isolation rearing in adolescence on
                                       behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine in
                                       adulthood




Caminiti, Jacqueline A.   Psychology   Modern racism and juror decision-making : the impact
                                       of racial saliency in a mock criminal trial
Campbell, Robert Charles; Psychology   Effects of action and view angle on the identification of
Edmonds, Jennifer Lea                  sex and activity of biological motion displays




Campbell, Vicki A.        Psychology   Family influences on the development of eating
                                       disorders




Carpenter, Rebecca L.     Psychology   Ego development and its relation to parental
                                       attachment




Carrico, Lea Rene         Psychology   Adult attachment and its correlations with parental
                                       marital status and conflict




Caspar, Laura Ann         Psychology   Sexuality education program for adults with
                                       developmental disabilities and their caregivers




Cawthorne, Kari Maureen   Psychology   Parental divorce : its effects on offspring‘s young adult
                                       relationship satisfaction
Celedonia, Karen Lynn     Psychology;   Craving the spotlight : the desire for fame in Buddhists
                          English       vs. non-Buddhists




Chess, Amy Carol          Psychology    Developing an animal model of schizophrenia : the
                                        role of the agranular insular cortex




Chiappelli, Joshua John   Psychology    Behavioral functions of 5-HT1A receptors in
                                        orbitofrontal cortex of rats




Childers, Christa Ann     Psychology    Dress for success : the effects of clothing on self-
                                        efficacy




Chun, Elaine Mum          Psychology    Dream content : comparison between athletes and
                                        non-athletes




Clark, Jessica Jean       Psychology    Transforming our youth : a behavior modification
                                        program created through a compilation of therapy
                                        techniques
Clark, Kathryn Elizabeth   Psychology   Effects of differing environments on the physiological
                                        and behavioral characteristics of the vervet monkey




Cleghorn, Tava C.          Psychology   Does pleasure override knowledge? : a study about
                                        condom use




Cochran, Christa A.        Psychology   Therapist personal history variables and their effect on
                                        the quantity and quality of self-disclosure in the
                                        therapeutic relationship




Coffey, Kristin Ann;    Psychology      Young adults‘ levels of caregiving for hypothetical
Wasson, Heather Hae-sun                 siblings




Collins, Amanda Michelle   Psychology   Young girls‘ body image, the media and parental
                                        influence




Collins, Loretta Mae       Psychology   Gender role identification and its effect on perception
                                        of rape victim responsibility : a cross-cultural study
Connolly, Jennifer Christine Psychology   Influence of sexual orientation and violence severity
                                          on perceptions of intimate partner abuse




Connolly, Kevin Michael     Psychology    Left-handedness : implications and consequences




Cordani, Diane Elizabeth    Psychology    Blame attributions of male and female victims of
                                          spouse abuse




Corrice, April M.           Psychology    Client experiences with touch in psychotherapy




Cosentino, Maya Elisabeth Psychology      Residential therapeutic community : a model for
                                          adolescents in Germany




Costantini, Cara Danielle   Psychology    Miracle manifested : a new vision of public education
Coster, Jenalee Nicole     Psychology   Effects of voluntary exercise on acquisition of an
                                        olfactory learning set in Long-Evans rats with lesions
                                        to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis




Cowan, Mary Ellen          Psychology   Effects of clothing on first impressions




Cramer, Christine Marie    Psychology   Relationship of relational aggression and depression




Czopp, Alexander Matthew Psychology     Effects of exposure to racist humor : do racist jokes
                                        influence racist attitudes?




Daly, Katherine Diane      Psychology   Obstacles to palliation and pain management for
                                        hospice patients receiving end of life care




Dansie, Katherine Fauver   Psychology   Treating eating disorders with bibliotherapy
Davies, Kimberly Ann     Psychology   Ideal balance of power in interpersonal relationships,
                                      self-esteem, and academic achievement




Davis, Benjamin C.       Psychology   Quality of life of the low-income, elderly : evaluation of
                                      determinants and the effects of an improvement in
                                      housing condition




Davis, Brendan Michael   Psychology   Strategies for coping with injury and rehabilitation
                                      program adherence




Davis, Lauren Fusting    Psychology   Types and levels of disobedience in popular children‘s
                                      television programs




Dawson, Amber Lynn       Psychology   Implementation of drug rehabilitation programs at a
                                      Maryland detention center : interviews with counselor
                                      and inmates




Day, Stephanie C.        Psychology   Racial/ethnic identity in Korean transracial adoptees
DeGregorio, Alicia Ann   Psychology   Therapist sexual attraction to clients in the therapeutic
                                      environment : an assessment of therapist graduate
                                      training




Dela Cuesta, June        Psychology   Attitudes and expectations of potential Big Brother Big
Christina                             Sister volunteers




Delanoy, Erika Lindsay   Psychology   Alternatives to traditional psychotherapeutic
                                      intervention techniques : a review of the literature and
                                      interviews with practitioners




DeMarr, Heather Maria    Psychology   School psychologist’s role in diagnosing and
                                      intervening with ADHD in the classroom




Derocher, Anne-Marie     Psychology   Importance of speech-language pathology : children
Junee                                 with speech-language impairments




Derullieux, Stephanie    Psychology   Advancement of fine motor skills through stimulation
Rachel                                from Montessori practical materials
Desmond, Angela Marie   Psychology   Drama therapy : a handbook




Deutchman, Jessica      Psychology   Effect of visual motor behavior rehearsal on lacrosse
                                     goal shooting accuracy




Deveney, Melissa Anne   Psychology   Effects meditation in adjunct to psychotherapy for the
                                     alleviation of anxious and depressive symptoms : a
                                     literature review




deWolfe, Julie Marie    Psychology   Parent-child communication about attention deficit
                                     hyperactivity disorder : implications for coping with
                                     ADHD




Dinh, Dian Phuong;      Psychology   Personality and character class selection in World of
Proimos, James Theodore              Warcraft : an exploratory study of massive multiplayer
                                     choices and behaviors




Dixon, Amber Lynn       Psychology   Breast obsessed : the importance of breast size in
                                     American society and its' influence on the approval of
                                     cosmetic breast surgery
Donlon, Michelle Marie   Psychology   Effects of an art therapy based curriculum on the
                                      mood and behavior of elementary school children




Doyen-Scott, Aegina L.   Psychology   Gender orientation as a moderating factor of
                                      perceived organizational support, job satisfaction,
                                      work-family conflict




Doyle, Susan Elizabeth   Psychology   Mindfulness-based stress reduction : the interface of
                                      meditation and psychotherapy




Draheim, Angela Rae      Psychology   Examining predictors of academic success
Trinidad




Dugan, Erin T.           Psychology   Autism and treatments in school aged children




Dula, Kimberly Ann       Psychology   Terror management theory in relation to risk-taking
                                      and self-esteem
Eberhardt, Madeline      Psychology   Infants, toddlers, and televised media




Eck, Kathleen Ann        Psychology   Stress and athletic competition : how do athletes
                                      cope?




Edwards, Margaret Anne   Psychology   Effects of ongoing adenosine antagonism at the A1
                                      and A2A receptors on long-term memory




Eid, Justin Bryant       Psychology   Human lie detectors? : psychopathy and deception
                                      detection




Emerson, Charles         Psychology   Pet ownership as a child and the development of self-
Christopher                           esteem and empathy




Enos, Jennifer Keryn     Psychology   Attempt to block the expression of CS-potentiated
                                      eating : antagonizing NPY Y1 receptors with BIBP3226
Farley, Megan Jean       Psychology   Making a comeback : collegiate athletes and the
                                      emotional response to athletic injury




Fegley, Hannah Louise    Psychology   Examining the relationship between sexually explicit
                                      images, race, and sexual consent




Flanagan, Emily H.       Psychology   Weathering the storm : a proposed intervention to
                                      increase peer social support among adolescents




Flanagan, Molly J.       Psychology   Gender stereotypic memory in fifth graders




Fleisher, Doria          Psychology   Inclusion in educational and recreational settings : a
                                      literature review focusing on the variables affecting the
                                      implementation of successful inclusive environments




Fletcher, Eleanor Ward   Psychology   Use of play therapy with children diagnosed with
                                      autism
Flores, Alexis Jeremias    Psychology   Attitudes toward interracial dating : effects of sex,
                                        race, self-esteem, and age




Francis, Kristin Theresa   Psychology   Knowing your athletes from the inside out




Freethey, Miranda Maeve    Psychology   Schadenfreude, social comparisons and competition




Freund, Valerie Anne       Psychology   Peer influence on disordered eating in college females




Galowin, Melissa Dawn      Psychology   Improving academic performance : the role of
                                        motivation and locus of control




Gardiner, Stephanie Joan   Psychology   Search for balance : the acculturation process of
                                        Asian American undergraduate students and the role
                                        of therapy in the reconciliation of related concerns
Garger, Jennifer Joan;   Psychology   Effect of anxiety and confidence as it relates to athletic
Humphrey, Devon Marie                 performance




Gayle, Diana Andrea      Psychology   Father absence and its effects on college women‘s
                                      interpersonal interactions




Genau, Jacqueline Lee    Psychology   School-wide approach to the bullying problem facing
                                      elementary schools




Gerald, Kaila Rae        Psychology   Are early and late bloomers really that different from
                                      everyone else : examining the effect of pubertal timing
                                      on personality




Gibson, Emily Claire     Psychology   Teaching it all : a new approach to a middle school
                                      sex education curriculum




Gibson, Joanna Louise    Psychology   Creating community and living intentionally : a study of
                                      secular intentional communities
Glynn, Joseph Andrew        Psychology   Lucid dreaming : a qualitative assessment




Goodman, Christopher        Psychology   Adolescent adjustment to newly formed stepfamilies
Michael                                  and possible therapeutic intervention




Goodwin, Dennit             Psychology   Effectiveness of the cognitive interview in event recall
Washington




Grabill, Kristen Michelle   Psychology   Role of instrumental support, emotional support, and
                                         health behaviors in the relationship between stress
                                         and athletic injury




Graham, Erin O'Brien        Psychology   Attachment and interpersonal connections in teacher-
                                         student relationships




Graham, Kerry Beth          Psychology   Coping with 9/11 : conquering the tragedy with or
                                         without God
Graham, Tashia Nicole     Psychology   Sexual double standard in college students




Graydon, Megan Elyse      Psychology   Examining anxiety and depression in a rat model of
                                       Alzheimer’s disease




Grisham, Carrie Bess      Psychology   Therapeutic horseback riding for autistic children : a
                                       review of the literature and a proposal for research




Grizzard, Mairi Brighid   Psychology   Thin or thick boundaried personality type as
                                       expressed in choice of major




Groth, Byron N.           Psychology   Crisis negotiation in law enforcement : history,
                                       mechanics, and the application of psychology




Gurski, Kimberly Lynn     Psychology   Examination of the sexual reproduction and courtship
                                       differences between Hippocampus ingens,
                                       Hippocampus erectus, and Hippocampus barbouri
Gutowski, Ellen Rachel   Psychology   Nerves syndrome in the Gambia, West Africa and its
                                      social and global context




Haley, Tracy Elizabeth   Psychology   Evaluation of the effectiveness of after-school
                                      programs for at-risk children




Hammamy, Ranwa Diaa      Psychology   Value of educational television : examining the
                                      contribution of Dora the Explorer




Hammond, Arianna Marie   Psychology   Appraisal of goal progress, motivation and life
                                      satisfaction in a mental health rehabilitation program




Hance, Rhyan Marshall    Psychology   Effects of individual differences in vividness upon the
                                      reality monitoring process




Hanner, Glenn P.         Psychology   Investigating the effects of mortality salience on
                                      religiosity
Hannon, Paige Lee        Psychology   Evolving responsibilities, issues, and methods of
                                      intervention effecting school-based speech-language
                                      pathologists




Harsh, Bridgett J.       Psychology   Individual differences and the effectiveness of
                                      warnings in the DRM false memory paradigm




Havens-McColgan, John    Psychology   Legal ramifications of juror perceptions of mental
Charles                               illness




Hawes, Rachel June       Psychology   Self-fulfilling prophecy in college athletics




Hawkins, Daniel Scott    Psychology   Effects of chronic nicotine administration on cognition




Heather, Marybeth Anne   Psychology   Cross-sectional study of college student morality in a
                                      liberal arts setting
Hege, Johnathon Robert    Psychology   Development of friendship over Instant Messenger




Heisler, Ellen Margaret   Psychology   Treatment matching in childhood Attention Deficit-
                                       Hyperactivity Disorder




Hess, Lauren Summer       Psychology   Psychosocial correlates of death anxiety in the elderly
                                       : what role does residence play?




Hickman, Megan Anne       Psychology   Beyond cutting classes : a guide for middle and high
                                       school educating professionals on adolescent self-
                                       mutilation




Hill, Sarah Katherine     Psychology   Cross-cultural comparison of motivation in developed
                                       and undeveloped countries




Hilliard, Makeyda         Psychology   Knowledge and attitudes of attention
Antoinette                             deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of practicing
                                       teachers
Hittle, Eric Thomas     Psychology   Biological motion : effects of color and orientation on
                                     grouping




Hjemvik, Leeann Marie   Psychology   New approach to adolescent drug use prevention




Hnath, Lillian Marie    Psychology   Reversed sex role conditioning : the effects of
                                     exposure to reversed gender stereotyped roles in
                                     media




Hoehn, Jessica Lynn     Psychology   Stigma and cancer : young adults' attitudes toward
                                     hypothetical peers




Hoewing, Justine Mary   Psychology   Writing a book for children with autism : its unique
                                     challenges and joys




Hoffman, Susannah       Psychology   Effects of victimization on social skills in women with
Margaret                             schizophrenia
Holmes, Lauren A.         Psychology   Gender stereotypes in Caldecott Medal-winning
                                       children’s books, 1938-2008




Hoof, Emily Joy           Psychology   Effects of serotonin on nucleus basalis
                                       magnocellularis lesions facilitated by alaproclate on
                                       learning set acquisition in male long-Evans rats




Horn, Jennifer Ann        Psychology   First impressions of body art




Hovatter, Jessica Lynne   Psychology   Sex and emotion detection in interactive point light
                                       displays




Howard, Erin Elisabeth    Psychology   Qualitative investigation of challenge management in
                                       young adulthood : exploring aspects of self-
                                       assessment and subjectivity




Howard, Letitia Tice;     Psychology   Basic vocal emotions : children‘s perception of
Sutton, Katie Lynn                     emotion through voice
Huggins, Elizabeth Anne    Psychology   Evaluation of the mental health services available to
                                        the deaf and hard-of-hearing




Hughes, Christopher        Psychology   Therapist or therapy : what is keeping men out of
Randolph                                therapy?




Hughes, Michele Nicole     Psychology   Effects of sports participation on at-risk youth : review
                                        of the literature and suggestions for program
                                        development




Humler, Michael Steven     Psychology   Ambivalence of rape : an assessment of biological
                                        and psychological gender differences associated with
                                        sexual assault




Hunt, Jennifer Jean        Psychology   Tobacco-use prevention : using persuasive
                                        techniques to prevent smoking




Hunting, William J.;       Psychology   Effects of family dynamics on aggression
Switzer, Jamie Christine
Ikizler, Ayse Selin        Psychology   Gender role representations in Turkish television
                                        programs




Ivy, David Patrick         Psychology   Oxidant stress and nicotine‘s role in diffuse vascular
                                        injury : vascular response to chronic nicotine




Jeanes, Mary Lyle          Psychology   Review of autism from diagnosis through etiology and
                                        into therapy for the documentary ‗Seeing eye to eye :
                                        autism, therapy and the family‘




Jeanmary, Guirlaine E.     Psychology   Investigation of the transitional experience of young
                                        children when introduced to new settings and how to
                                        incorporate play as therapy




Jensvold, Karin Patritia   Psychology   St. Mary's project




Jobe, Brian M.             Psychology   Client preferences and the effectiveness of client and
                                        therapist match on therapy outcome
Johnson, Chara Marielle     Psychology   Attachment style, sex, gender role orientation, and
                                         race : an examination of partner preferences




Johnson, Erin McKernan      Psychology   Environment and learning : investigation of learning-
                                         set formation and oddity concept-use in juvenile rats
                                         raised in an enriched environment




Johnson, Kaitlyn            Psychology   Hippocampal and cognitive changes in an animal
                                         model of Type 1 diabetes mellitus




Jones, Amanda Catherine     Psychology   Evaluation of the St. Mary‘s County family
                                         independence project




Jones, Victoria Mackenzie   Psychology   Developing a women's center in India




Joseph, Crystal Marie       Psychology   Obesity and the importance of body image on
                                         adolescents
Kallarackal, Angy Jose     Psychology   Effect of apamin, a small conductance calcium
                                        activated potassium (SK) channel blocker, on a
                                        mouse model of neurofibromatosis 1




Kaltreider, Sylvia         Psychology   Psychosocial factors that promote resiliency in at-risk
                                        youth




Kampmeyer, Hannah Marie Psychology      Effects of socialization on expression and acceptance
                                        of depression in men and women




Kauffman, Christopher      Psychology   Effect of incentives on questionnaire response rates
William                                 for college students




Kloster, Laurie Evelyn     Psychology   Personality and political orientation : the relation
                                        between conservatism and the five-factor model




Klotz, Kaitlin Elizabeth   Psychology   Evaluation of memory : do authority roles affect adults'
                                        memories of central and peripheral information?
Knicely, Jordan Lynn    Psychology   Investigation into spatial working memory and task-
                                     switching




Knight, Hannah Leah     Psychology   Effects of parenting styles




Kolody, Andrew Walter   Psychology   Role of the NMDA glutamate system in the
                                     development of cocaine sensitization




Krebeck, Aurore Lynn    Psychology   Cross-sex and cross-cultural interactions among
                                     Gambian and US men and women




Krohn, Daniel Thomas    Psychology   Comparing the medical model to the psychosocial
                                     model : the positive and negative consequences that
                                     arise from the way one approaches mental illness




Kummer, Shannon Marie   Psychology   Sympathy for the devil : the influence of a prior
                                     offense of future judgments of sympathy for the
                                     offender
Kurisch, Julia Grace      Psychology   Emperor has no clothes : the truth behind criminal
                                       profiling




Lamar, Catherine Leslie   Psychology   Effects of subconscious priming on judgment behavior




Lamont, Amanda Brooke     Psychology   Efficacy of art therapy as a diagnostic tool and
                                       therapeutic intervention for treating children
                                       traumatized by physical and/or sexual abuse




Landon, Jacquelyn R.      Psychology   Ostomy formation, self -esteem and sexual
                                       attractiveness




Lawrence, Emily Rae       Psychology   Comprehensive evaluation of counselors and their
                                       experiences at a summer camp for children and adults
                                       with disabilities




Leary, Scott Paul         Psychology   Fashionable and fun-loving : the portrayal of gay men
                                       on television and its effect on stereotypes
LeClerc, Jared Elliott    Psychology   Minimizing competitive behavior in collective traps




Lee, Benaiah James        Psychology   Philosophical challenges inherent in the nature versus
                                       nurture dichotomy : how is major depression affected
                                       by these complexities?




Lee, Jennifer Marie       Psychology   Effects of nicotine on learning set acquisition in
                                       nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) lesioned rats




Leech, Hillary Meredith   Psychology   Women‘s rights in the Gambia : an analysis of
                                       Gambian newspapers




Leonard, Jessica Marie    Psychology   Identity formation in emerging adulthood that links to
                                       delayed marriages




Lewis, Eastman Macek      Psychology   Assessment of decision-making ability in terminally ill
                                       patients requesting assisted suicide
Lichtenstein, Hannah        Psychology   Relationship between childhood imaginary
Rebekah                                  companions and adulthood creativity : a retrospective
                                         study




Lindblad, Matthew Paul      Psychology   Prenatal visual stimulation effects postnatal
                                         lateralization in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix
                                         japonica)




Lindsley, Angelena Yvette   Psychology   Effects of body art on hiring decisions




Linn, Crista Elizabeth      Psychology   Effects of personality on methods of coping with anger




Little, Sarah Christine     Psychology   Hookups : expectations versus outcomes among
                                         college students




Lobkowicz, Hope Sandra      Psychology   Aggression, affiliation, and vocalization patterns in the
                                         California sea lion, Zalophus californianus
Loeper, Elizabeth M.     Psychology   Stress, social support and the nontraditional student :
                                      a qualitative study of the nontraditional student at St.
                                      Mary‘s College of Maryland




Loftis, Stacey Rebecca   Psychology   Cross-cultural comparison of attractiveness in regards
                                      to the Golden Decagon Mask




Logan, Trevor Thomas     Psychology   Learning set acquisition in a rodent model of
                                      Alzheimer‘s disease : the effects of continuous
                                      intracerebroventricular b-amyloid infusions on learning
                                      set acquisition in rodents




Long, Tabitha Margaux    Psychology   Does being involved in the rescue squad effect one‘s
                                      perceived stress level and his/her personality?




Loving, Michelle Lynn    Psychology   History and knowledge : an investigation of the drug
                                      education history and the accuracy of the drug
                                      knowledge of St. Mary‘s College of Maryland students




Lubben, Jade Marie       Psychology   Exercise as a protective mechanism against chronic
                                      stress-induced memory impairments and hippocampal
                                      damage in rats
Lubben, Joshua Todd     Psychology   Religious socialization and religious behavior : a
                                     literature review




Lutterbie, Simon J.     Psychology   Interactive personality : theoretical foundations and
                                     measure development




MacFarland, Megan       Psychology   Sex differences in the effects of valium on neuronal
Elizabeth                            activation and elevated plus-maze behavior in the rat




MacHarris, Molly Ann    Psychology   Initiation rituals and hazing : a comparison within
                                     athletics and clubs




Mandell, Melissa Beth   Psychology   Feminist approach to combating relational aggression
                                     among middle school girls




Mansky, Brian Kenneth   Psychology   Conformity behavior and group attraction : the
                                     influence of gender, self-esteem, and severity of
                                     hazing on one‘s degree of conformity and affiliation
Marcantonio, Chad         Psychology   Homophobia, perhaps it‘s not what we originally
Schaefer                               thought




Mariast, Danielle Renee   Psychology   Effect of friends versus strangers on group memory of
                                       central and peripheral items




Mark, Ross Baxter         Psychology   Effect of misogynistic rap music videos compared to
                                       music alone on implicit and explicit attitudes of women




Maron, Leslie Nicole      Psychology   Sex education and adolescents : a comparative study




Marshall, Cassandra Kay   Psychology   Understanding and treating post traumatic stress
                                       disorder resulting from torture and mass violence in
                                       Cambodia, Uganda, and Guatemala




Marshall, Victoria H.     Psychology   Cross-sectional study of college students‘ moral
                                       development in a public liberal arts setting
Martin, Kelly Christine    Psychology   Effects of flumazenil on learning set formation in nBM
                                        lesioned Long-Evans rats : GABAergic influences




Maslyar, Constance Grace Psychology     Going beyond ―no‖ : behavior management strategies
                                        for children with autism




Mason, Michelle Alice      Psychology   Early childhood reading programs : parents' role in
                                        their children's reading success




Massaro, Luciana Rose      Psychology   Social anxiety and academic performance in college
Angelica




Mathews, Sarah Elizabeth   Psychology   Experience, knowledge, perceptions, and
                                        misperceptions of teachers and undergraduates about
                                        students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder




McBride, Megan A.          Psychology   Media effects on body image in elderly and college
                                        aged women
McCarron, Sarah Cook    Psychology   Correlates of dream recall frequency and lucidity




McGeachy, Keisha R.     Psychology   Differences in drinking behaviors among white and
                                     black college students




McGee, Jessica L.       Psychology   Psychology of domestic violence




McGill, Jacquelyn Ann   Psychology   Effects of diazepam on anxiety with repeated testing in
                                     rats




McGuirk, Laura Marie    Psychology   Parental and socioeconomic influence on school
                                     performance




McHale, Luke            Psychology   St. Mary's project
McIntyre, Kathryn Suzanne Psychology   Cross-cultural review of research on linguistic power




McLarney, Dana Colleen    Psychology   Analogical transfer in problem solving situations




McPherson, Candace        Psychology   Media, stereotypes, and adolescent fathers : does the
Towanda                                media effect how society views adolescent fathers?




McQuighan, Lisa Marie     Psychology   Nature of infidelity in romantic relationships




Medley, Vanessa Allyson   Psychology   Examining behavioral flexibility in Long-Evans rats
                                       following lesions to the prefrontal cortex




Meldrum, Tanis Annette    Psychology   Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in school age children
Menard, Jennifer A.       Psychology   Superstition and affective states




Mervis, Katherine Leah;   Psychology   Strategies for reducing physical conflict in upper
Treusdell, Elizabeth                   elementary school students
Dorothy




Messenheimer, Sharon      Psychology   False confessions : the problem and possible solutions
Lynn




Meyer, Kevin Patrick      Psychology   Child preference in custody disputes




Miller, Aaron Leigh       Psychology   Decision-making problems in trial verdicts : a study of
                                       primacy and recency effects in court cases




Miller, Jennifer Amy      Psychology   Investigation of parents‘ thoughts and attitudes about
                                       parenting and child behavior problems
Miller, Kathryn Anne       Psychology   Critical investigation of the relationships between
                                        eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and
                                        depression




Milleville, Shawn Curtis   Psychology   Brain activation areas in response to animate and
                                        inanimate stimuli




Mills, Brian Matthew       Psychology   Differences in time use efficiency and motivation in
                                        relation to athletic role identity and academic
                                        performance of NCAA Division III athletes and non-
                                        athletes




Milstein, Jean Adair       Psychology   Investigation of an animal model for Attention Deficit/
                                        Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)




Mitchell, James Robert     Psychology   Stigma of mental health therapy : sociocultural factors
                                        and recommendations for change




Mitchell, Michael          Psychology   Handbook on divorce : a resource for counselors and
                                        their clients
Moore, Caitlin Meredith   Psychology   Exploring the use of sex appeal in advertising : a
                                       cross-cultural analysis of sex appeal in magazine
                                       advertising




Moore, Elizabeth Anne     Psychology   Freedom of choice : blessing or burden? : the
                                       relationship between choice set size, maximization
                                       propensity, and post-decision regret




Muehl, Allison Nicole     Psychology   Vocal characteristics as a response to self-esteem
                                       manipulation : findings and implications




Mullins, Kaycee Lynn      Psychology   Job satisfaction in the nursing career : how factors of
                                       autonomy and job stress influence job satisfaction for
                                       nurses




Mundle, Erica Leigh       Psychology   Effects of viewing television news programs : an
                                       analysis of the United States and Australia




Murphy, Kiely Elizabeth   Psychology   Case study of a 23-year-old male with bipolar disorder
Naab, Pamela Jo           Psychology   Housewifery in the 21st century : distributions of
                                       domestic labor within marriage




Nacson, Alise B.          Psychology   Role of media imagery in the development of
                                       disordered eating : women speak about the media,
                                       culture, and eating disorders




Nagano, Hiroyuki          Psychology   Juvenile transfer : a response to serious violent
                                       juvenile crime




Nasatka, Mary Elizabeth   Psychology   Effects of special education labels on teachers‘
                                       attitudes




Natcher, Angela L.        Psychology   Black and blue : exploring racial advantage and
                                       disadvantage for white and black law enforcement
                                       officers




Nazari, Adam Dost         Psychology   Do college students with tattoos and piercings engage
                                       in risk taking behavior more often than students
                                       without tattoos and piercings?
Nealon, Julie Guthrie    Psychology   Role of individual differences in hypothalamic stress
                                      hormones in vulnerability to tardive dyskinesia




Nehez, Briana Katheryn   Psychology   Finding value in dissonant information : examining the
                                      limitation of relevance in evaluating information




Neidhart, Leigh Ann      Psychology   Technology and its impact on the closeness among us




Newell, Delia May        Psychology   Behavioral and developmental differences in wild- and
                                      captive-bred cetaceans




Newman, Rachel Alice     Psychology   Effects of prenatal visual stimulus on postnatal
                                      laterality in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)




Norton, Aaron Travis     Psychology   Effect of dietary fat and social conditions on the timing
                                      of puberty in female rats
Novak, Jennifer Nicole     Psychology   St. Mary's project




Nowicki, Bradley Burton    Psychology   Development and stability of feelings of trust in
                                        humans : can trust lead to deviance?




Nugent, Kevin Carson       Psychology   Poked and prodded : the role stigma plays in
                                        perception of people with body modifications, and
                                        personality differences between people with and
                                        without body modifications




Oben, Marie Elise          Psychology   Continuing exercise after brief cessation : the effects
                                        on BDNF regulation, depression, and anxiety




O'Brien, James Christian   Psychology   Effect of cocaine sensitization on habituation as tested
                                        by reactivity to a novel environment




O'Brien, Kelly Ann         Psychology   Qualitative study of the person of the therapist
O'Brien, Stephanie Marie   Psychology   Love? Handles! Thin-ideal media and women's body
                                        image : an examination of current research and social
                                        critique




Ogden, Emily B.            Psychology   Relationship between bereavement and dream
                                        content in children ages 6 – 10




Okidegbe, Oluchi           Psychology   African American achievement at St. Mary‘s College of
Nwalokomobi                             Maryland




Oliver, Mary Virginia      Psychology   Prevalence of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and
                                        subsyndromal-SAD in a college sample : an
                                        examination of changes in appetite, sleep and activity
                                        level




Olson, Kari Lynn           Psychology   Relationship of reasons women state for using
                                        sexually explicit materials and the types of sexually
                                        explicit materials they choose and their levels of
                                        sexual functioning




O'Neal, Amanda Lynn        Psychology   Effects of classical conditioning on behavioral
                                        sensitization to cocaine and tyrosine hydroxylase
                                        levels in rats
Opel, Katelyn             Psychology    Demand withdraw pattern in dating relationships :
                                        individual differences perspective vs. conflict structure
                                        perspective




Ortiz, Samantha Lynn      Psychology    Cyber world of identity expression




O'Sullivan, Elizabeth Anne Psychology   Someday my prince will come : gender stereotype
                                        evolution in film from 1980-2003




Pack, Halley Ann          Psychology    I think I can : integrating sports psychology into St.
                                        Mary‘s College athletics




Padukiewicz, Kristin      Psychology    Conceptual learning in match to sample odor tasks in
Elizabeth                               rats




Paradise, Kristin Jean    Psychology    Understanding and dealing with death : adults‘
                                        accounts of the loss of a childhood pet
Paribello, Ariana Marie    Psychology   Teacher portfolios




Patterson, Benjamin        Psychology   Coping with stress in college : styles of coping and
Tawney                                  their effects on academic achievement and motivation




Payne, Rachel Marie        Psychology   Adolescent females : creating the perfect body image




Pelczar, Tiffany Kathryn   Psychology   English Language Learners (ELL) : learning style and
                                        task motivation




Pennington, Nicholas       Psychology   Causes of self-defeating behavior
Morris




Pennington, Nicholas       Psychology   Analysis of negotiation theories, bargaining strategies,
Morris                                  and the psychological precepts which influence
                                        bargaining behavior
Perrizo, Jaie Michel     Psychology   Masculinity and depression : implications for help-
                                      seeking attitudes




Peters, Lauren Brooke    Psychology   Maintaining applicant status : recruitment issues within
                                      the Maryland State Police




Phelps, Lori Michelle    Psychology   Redefining feminism : a multi-cultural perspective on
                                      intellectualism




Pierce, Kimbrey Anne     Psychology   Learning social skills in summer camps : a student-
                                      designed camp model




Pillai, Dair Tamara      Psychology   Legal and psychological aspects of community
                                      notification and civil commitment for sex offenders




Pitts, Katrice Charita   Psychology   Thank heaven for little girls : high risk sexual behavior
                                      of African-American female adolescents with
                                      relationship, environmental, and media factors
Polisar, Evan N.            Psychology    Effects of romantic relationships on academic
                                          achievement, motivation and depression in college
                                          students




Polster, Devin B.; Ting,    Psychology;   Psycho-philosophical statuses : a multivariate analysis
Tina Ray-yee                Philosophy    between and within vegetarians and nonvegetarians




Pomeroy, Jeffrey            Psychology    Society's unwanted boys
Woodland




Powers, Jessica Lynn        Psychology    Do personality traits and demographic characeristics
                                          influence worried wellness?




Pugliese, Jennifer Nicole   Psychology    Influence of athletic participation and extraversion on
                                          the alcohol consumption behaviors of college students




Raley, Sarah Golden         Psychology    Reflection of color preference and personality : color
                                          and personality
Rathbone, Allan VanBuren Psychology     Self concept impacts of Mithral Quest




Raulin, Lee Mathiew        Psychology   In the pursuit of happiness : how Buddhism and
                                        psychotherapy can work together to create a fulfilling
                                        life




Ravitz, Nadine Kathleen    Psychology   Gender role formation in Latino preschoolers in
                                        Washington, D.C.




Redmond, Alexander         Psychology   I sleep to dream
Jerome




Reeder, Noelle Anastasia   Psychology   Gender differences in use of internal state terms in
                                        written and typed event narratives




Reid, Chelsea Maitland     Psychology   Periadolescents on methamphetamine : the impact of
                                        an escalating dose regimen of methamphetamine on
                                        non-spatial working memory and serotonin within the
                                        hippocampus
Reinckens, William Brown   Psychology   Evaluation of a peer mediated support group for
                                        AD/HD college students




Richards-Peelle, Kathryn   Psychology   Effects of yoga on body satisfaction in pre-adolescent
Canfie                                  females




Richman, Cynthia E.        Psychology   Issues that affect college women : an exploratory study




Roberts, Elizabeth Anne    Psychology   Bilingualism and its effect on learning




Robey, Lauren M.           Psychology   Stress in the dental chair : an investigation of the roles
                                        of parental stress and child preparation




Robinson, Kevin J.         Psychology   Presented gender and its effects on helping and
                                        aggressive behavior in children
Rogalski, Jerilyn Marie   Psychology   Using dolphins as therapy tools : possible effects on
                                       the animals and implications for future interaction
                                       programs




Rosano, Rebecca           Psychology   Autobiographical memories of a campus incident
Elizabeth                              involving police




Rotholz, Abigail Michal   Psychology   Gender role attitudes as function of sibling relationship
                                       context




Rowe, Christina Marie     Psychology   Gender differences in the perception of fear appeals :
                                       self-esteem and self-efficacy as moderators




Rubinstein, Sara Jean     Psychology   Dance time : implementation of an after-school dance
                                       program as a way to improve
                                       body image in school-aged children




Rudisill, Meghan Lynn     Psychology   Danger in becoming the eye of the beholder : the
                                       relationship between self-objectification and
                                       depression
Ruffin, Kristen P.        Psychology   Endorsement of stereotypes and its effects on
                                       openness and attitudes towards interracial dating




Ruiz, Casimira Teresa     Psychology   Cognitive deficits and individual differences resulting
                                       from behavioral sensitization to an escalating dose of
                                       methamphetamine




Ruiz, Kathleen Mary       Psychology   Higher cognitive functions : a test for transitive
                                       inference in rats




Ryan, Katie Marie         Psychology   Effectiveness of PBIS programs in elementary schools
                                       : a case study




Salama, Christina Helen   Psychology   Methods of psychotherapy in the treatment of bipolar
                                       disorder : integrating creative therapies, cognitive
                                       behavioral therapy, family therapy, and group therapy
                                       into a comprehensive approach to bipolar disorder




Saul, Ronald David        Psychology   Chronic activation of the substantia nigra
                                       nociceptin/orphanin receptor (NOP) induces motor
                                       deficits similar to Parkinson‘s disease : a behavioral
                                       and motor assessment following chronic UFP-112
                                       administration into the substantia nigra pars reticulata
Sawkiewicz, Julie        Psychology   Overcoming racism and prejudice in today‘s world
Catherine




Sawyer, Wesley Neal      Psychology   Differences between television news programs : an
                                      analysis of the United States and Australia




Scarr, Ashley E.         Psychology   Is media the menace? : investigating the effects of
                                      highly stimulating television programs on the
                                      symptoms of ADHD




Schlosnagle, Leo         Psychology   Sibling relationships as a protective factor following
                                      parental divorce




Schmitt, Christine Ann   Psychology   Symbolic speech : an intensive review of art therapy




Schubert, Marybeth       Psychology   Self-reported relationship between eating disordered
Rebecca                               behavior and attitudes towards dating, sexuality and
                                      adherence to traditional gender roles
Searle, Jessica Wheeler    Psychology   My mother‘s madness : a case-study of manic-
                                        depressive illness and artistry




Seneff, Alexis Mackenzie   Psychology   Lost generation : the effects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic
                                        on South African youth




Seymour, Angel Marie       Psychology   Teacher's handbook : strategies to use in the
                                        classroom to encourage and provide the most
                                        beneficial education to students with disabilities




Shaffer, Samantha Erin     Psychology   Effect of time of diagnosis of learning disabilities on
                                        self-esteem and delinquency




Sherman, Thomas Joseph Psychology       Fisticuffs and rumors : how gender affects the
                                        salience of aggression




Shores, Laura Nicole       Psychology   Gender differences in serial killers : how does one‘s
                                        gender role identity and occupation influence their
                                        method of murder?
Shutty, Meagan Lynne    Psychology   Effect of muscimol, a GABA agonist, on the
                                     acquisition of learning set in male Long-Evans rats




Sides, Ashley Mae       Psychology   Effect of enriched environments on the learning
                                     deficits of type 1 neurofibromatosis mice




Sidhom, Katreen Marie   Psychology   Academic stress and depressive symptoms in college
                                     students




Simpson, Laura Marie    Psychology   Peer AD/HD support system : evaluation of a peer
                                     support group for college undergraduates with
                                     Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder




Singer, Carrie Lynn     Psychology   Adoption and identity issues




Sitz, Lindsey Nichole   Psychology   Transforming our youth : changing behavior creatively
Sloane, Sarah Louise     Psychology   Effects of a Muslim culture and faith on
                                      psychopathology




Slomski, Jennifer Lynn   Psychology   Use of a touchscreen to assess categorization




Smeller, Heidi           Psychology   Alcohol use and abuse in hyper-masculine African
                                      American males




Smith, Randy L.          Psychology   Self-perception and propensity to engage in anti-social
                                      behavior : an application of self-verification theory




Smithson, Emily Anne     Psychology   Psychological distress and demographic variables
                                      related to help-seeking among students at St. Mary’s
                                      College of Maryland




Snavely, Carl Russel     Psychology   Intimate relationships : relationships correlates with
                                      depression and academic performance
Soleo, Katelin Corcoran   Psychology   Father impact on risk-taking : a study looking at
                                       college students’ father presence and risk-taking
                                       behavior




Solyst, James Andrew      Psychology   Loving-kindness meditation and altruism : does
                                       empathic perspective taking increase helping
                                       behavior?




Songrady, Judy Catarina   Psychology   Environmental enrichment vs. cognitive enrichment in
                                       aged rats : effects on cognition and hippocampal
                                       neurogenesis




Spealman, Brendan Dende Psychology     Fear persuasion and STD vaccine acceptance : a
                                       focus on the Human Papillomavirus vaccine




Stancavitch, Amy Lynn     Psychology   Importance of multicultural literature in the early
                                       elementary school classroom




Staples, Jessica Anne     Psychology   Long-term effects of attribution style in response to
                                       peer victimization in youth
Stephens, Teresa Michele   Psychology   Invisibility and fading in motion-induced blindness as
                                        static dot size increases




Stevens, Katherine         Psychology   Minor physical anomalies and neurological soft signs
McKenna                                 as a function of age of onset in first-episode
                                        schizophrenia patients : a proposed study and review
                                        of existing literature




Stone, Holly Theresa       Psychology   First and second generation female immigrants in the
                                        United States




Stout, Alexandra Larsen    Psychology   College counseling centers : challenges and
                                        recommendations




Stout, Robert W.           Psychology   Instrumental deviance as a masculine coping strategy




Strange, Sarah Hodgetts    Psychology   Look at discrimination towards the mentally ill : a local
                                        case
Straub, Jason Michael;     Psychology   Factors correlating with substance use in high school
Swarr, Nathaniel Beidler                and college




Strauss, Ethan Thomas      Psychology   Understanding college athletes readiness to quit
                                        competitive sport : a qualitative study




Stukes, Marian Lorraine    Psychology   Love between the sheets, behind the screen : online
                                        sexual activities and infidelity




Sukontarak, Sara Jess      Psychology   Serine racemase mRNA levels in the hippocampal
                                        formation in a rat model for tardive dyskinesia




Sumner, Jaclyn Michelle    Psychology   Qualitative study of children of Holocaust survivors




Sutton, Jeanne Peri        Psychology   Forms of trauma and their relationships with
                                        phenomena of dissociation, sleep, and dreaming
Sweigard, Peter N.        Psychology   Gender and the use of obscenity : analyzing the
                                       functions, motives and meanings of swear words




Swope, Sean M.            Psychology   Effect of visual motor behavior rehearsal on golf target
                                       accuracy




Tanzi, Alan Scott         Psychology   Maryland State Lifeguard Training Academy




Taylor, Kaitlin Marie     Psychology   Parents‘ perspective of their bipolar children




Tenaglia, Theresa Ann     Psychology   Honors and non-honors college students : academic
                                       self-concept as a predictor of program participation
                                       and educational experiences




Torres, Christina Marie   Psychology   Nerds, geeks, and bookworms : exploring identity
                                       through academic major
Toussaint, Michelle Leigh   Psychology   Case study of resilience in a young woman with
                                         cerebral palsy : hope, social support, and family
                                         support services




Traher, David Christopher   Psychology   Decision making and consumer behavior




Tranen, Naomi Shoshanah Psychology       Roommate expectations throughout college




Tress, Megan Elizabeth      Psychology   Attraction : yours, mine, or ours? The effects of social
                                         influence on perceived physical attraction




Tyler, Megan McLeod         Psychology   Media influences on female body esteem
Dodson




Ulino, Alison Jane Sarah    Psychology   Motivation factors that influence athlete's adherence to
                                         rehabilitation programs after suffering an injury
Vietri, Jeffrey Thomas      Psychology   Personality, coping, and delinquency




Vizcarrondo, Valerie Jane   Psychology   Persuasion of Olympic proportions : an applied
                                         literature review




Vogel, Molly Rose           Psychology   Faculty and student perspectives on academic
                                         advising at St. Mary‘s




Wade, Lorien Ronnelle       Psychology   Striatal choline acetyltransferase expression in a rat
                                         model for tardive dyskinesia




Wagner, Holly Ann           Psychology   Comparative analysis of children with and without
                                         Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and their
                                         families




Wagoner, Lori Catherine     Psychology   Child art therapy in the public school system : a
                                         qualitative study on the needs and components
Walls, Kerry Jean         Psychology   Use and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy
                                       in the treatment of schizophrenia




Walper, Daniel J.         Psychology   ADHD : peer identifiability and perspective on
                                       treatment




Ward, Caitlin Gore        Psychology   Conditioned place preference and the effect of
                                       dopamine antagonism on cocaine reward in
                                       adolescent and adult rats




Washington, Elizabeth     Psychology   Road rage and the fundamental attribution error
Margaret




Wathen, Rhonda            Psychology   Externalizing behavior among elementary school
                                       children




Webb, Lindsey Alexandra   Psychology   Gender roles, stereotypes and power in sexuality : a
                                       qualitative investigation
Weih, Carrie Marie       Psychology   Psychological causes of revolution in response to
                                      political oppression




Weiler, Elizabeth Ann    Psychology   Altruism, volunteerism, and personality




Wells, Heather Amanda    Psychology   Inclusion : a case study of a teacher‘s first inclusion
                                      setting




White, Gina Natalie      Psychology   Effect of perceived stigma of mental illness on help-
                                      seeking behavior in first-year college students




Whitehead, Vanessa       Psychology   Cross-cultural differences between television news
Alexandra                             programs : an analysis of negative news and the
                                      effect of fear and anxiety in the United States and
                                      Australia




Whitlow, Victoria Jane   Psychology   Effects of neonatal exposure to antipsychotic
                                      medication on neuronal expression of glucocorticoid
                                      receptor in the rat hippocampus and medial and
                                      orbital prefrontal cortices
Whitman, Cecelia Burch    Psychology   Attitudes toward students with hidden disabilities and
                                       resulting social and learning opportunities : an
                                       investigation and intervention




Whitt, Joshua Patrick     Psychology   St. Mary's project




Wickizer, Rebecca         Psychology   Yoga intervention program and its effects on
Christine                              compassion in adolescent females




Wiest, Matthew Kristoff   Psychology   Effects of acute exercise on a dominant-submissive
                                       relationship in rats




Wilbur, Brian             Psychology   Children of divorce and separation : relationships with
                                       academic behaviors




Wilder, Rachael Laura     Psychology   Thanatos : a correlational study of experience with
                                       death, anxiety, and personal habits in college students
Wilkie, Melodi Nicole     Psychology    Psychiatric adolescent inpatient units in Maryland : a
                                        review of the literature and analyses of interviews with
                                        practitioners




Williams, Melanie Katharyn Psychology   Examining developmental relationships among age,
                                        gender, and aggressive tendencies




Wilson, Brittanny Renae   Psychology    College students‘ attitudes toward division of
                                        household labor in marriage based on family of origin
                                        gender roles




Wilson, Laura Chin        Psychology    Measuring undergraduate students‘ life satisfaction
                                        and reactions to gnosticism




Wilson, Lauren Anne       Psychology    Somos Hijos del Lago : a preliminary descriptive case
                                        study on a special education and rehabilitation center
                                        in rural Guatemala




Winkler, Melinda Kay      Psychology    Scotopic sensitivity : what do we know in southern
                                        Maryland?
Wirtz, Ashley Brooke   Psychology   Chronic pediatric illnesses : impact and coping during
                                    the elementary school years




Wise, James Sherer     Psychology   Just world or just unlucky? : a study of public
                                    perceptions concerning the reasons for poverty and
                                    the methods of helping the poor help themselves
                                    using students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland




Wise, Lara Noelle      Psychology   Effectiveness of social skills intervention for special
                                    needs children




Wood, Amanda Jill      Psychology   Examining the straight edge subculture : why some
                                    adolescents rebel against drugs




Wood, Benjamin Alan    Psychology   REM sleep debt and its effects on interpersonal
                                    interactions




Wood, Jessica          Psychology   College students‘ help seeking behaviors
Wotthlie, Katherine A.      Psychology   Female sexual dysfunctions : a literature review and
                                         meta-analysis




Yates, Jennifer Kathleen    Psychology   Prenatal substance exposure : the incidence of
                                         learning disabilities, ADD/ADHD, and mental
                                         retardation




Young, Courtney McDevitt    Psychology   Effects of preference versus perception of coaching
                                         leadership behavior on athlete satisfaction and sport
                                         self-esteem




Young, Derek Morgan         Psychology   Self-evaluation processes : self-enhancement and self-
                                         verification in performance situations




Zakielarz, Brittney Diane   Psychology   Correlates of boundary structure and aspects of
                                         dream content




Zell, William Francis       Psychology   Personality factors and favor asking
Zimmermann, Tara E.     Psychology   Total physical response : a comprehension based
                                     approach to second language learning




Zweimiller, Paula Kay   Psychology   Effects of deployment on children in military families
                                                             Abstract



Implicit Theories of Relationships (ITRs) can predict behaviors pertinent to romantic relationships. Noting the alarming rates
of domestic abuse between intimate partners, this study explored the relationships between the ITRs of growth and destiny
and tolerance for psychological abuse. Male and female undergraduates (N = 129) completed measures of ITRs and self-
esteem, and the researcher-designed psychological abuse and mistreatment scale. Results suggested that neither beliefs in
destiny nor beliefs in growth were significantly correlated with experiencing abuse. Furthermore, no significant correlation
between destiny belief and the dissolution of abusive relationships, nor a correlation between self-esteem and the
termination of abusive relationships were found. An unexpected finding showed a positive correlation between self-esteem
and destiny beliefs. The results of this study will aid in identifying potential risk factors for continued victimization associated
with romantic beliefs.
Now, more than ever many institutions are aware of the need of multiculturalism or intercultural sensitivity. Educators and
companies, aware of this need, have begun implementing practices to help create and promote a diverse atmosphere. The
raise and invention of the internet, various forms of telecommunications, and travel has enabled a wider array and spread of
people to communicate and interact with one another; further, stressing the need in addressing issues involved with cultural
sensitivity …. Comparing St. Mary‘s College students (SMCM) to the Japanese students in Akita International University
students (AIU) intercultural sensitivity will be significantly greater among the Japanese sample. There are several reasons
which allude to why one might find this to be true. For one thing, each student is required to know a second language other
than Japanese, as they take college level course in English. The next reason deals with the curriculum as each student is
required to achieve a certain level of proficiency in English attaining a certain score on the TOFEL test thus going a abroad
The two theories tested in this study were the Terror Management Theory (TMT) and the matching hypothesis. The goal of
this study was to determine which theory better predicts the importance of physical attractiveness in developing a potential
long-term relationship. Some studies have revealed that relationships serve as a buffer against the anxiety of death, and
when placed in a mortality salient condition, people will compromise the ideal level of physical attractiveness they want in a
potential mate. Other researchers claim that a matching of physical attractiveness is what occurs between romantic partners
when considering each other as a potential mate. The results of this study did not support the TMT. However, matching was
found to occur in college students‘ considerations for a potential mate.


The interaction between the misrepresentative nature of news media and the risk perceptions of college students is an area
in need of further research. This study seeks to understand the role of the availability heuristic in shaping the world view of
college students as a product of their exposure to the news media. 40 students from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland
participated in a survey measuring their news media exposure, and general knowledge of current events. This was followed
by a manipulation of availability through varied exposure to different risks that cause death, and estimations of mortality
were made based on a hypothetical population of 100,000 people between the ages of 20-24. The study found that in
general college student are good at assessing risk, the notable exceptions being the overestimation of car accident
mortality, and the underestimation of homicide mortality. More in depth findings are covered, and suggestions for future
research and flaws in the design are discussed.
Social aggression is defined in this study as behavior aimed at hurting a person‘s feelings, relationships, reputation, or self-
esteem, and can be manifested directly (in the presence of a target) or indirectly (behind their back). The present study
used content analysis to evaluate the prevalence of aggressive acts that occurred in popularly viewed television shows by
adolescents, as determined by the annual Teen Choice Awards. Eighteen hours of television were coded for social versus
physical aggression, direct versus indirect aggression, and male versus female aggressors and targets of aggression, with
all categories overlapping. Group size and specific types of social aggression were analyzed, with verbal aggression being
the most commonly used form. Social aggression appeared in 100% of the data sample, whereas physical aggression only
appeared in 7% of the cases. Gender failed to be a significant factor in social aggression; group size, and number and type
of responses. Further studies investigating gendered aggression are proposed.
[abstract not available]
Following the era of desegregation of schools, there has been much research done comparing and contrasting the college
experience of Black and White students. The current study aimed to further investigate this arena by examining the
differences in experience of Black students on predominantly White Campuses (PWC) to those on predominantly Black
campuses (PBC). One factor that separates the experiences of these students is stereotype vulnerability, a disturbing
awareness among members of a negatively stereotyped group that anything one does, or anything about oneself that fits
the stereotype, may confirm it as a self- characterization. In the current study, researchers looked at the effects of racial
anxiety on the college experience of Black students at PWC‘s and PBC‘s. Students from a Maryland and D.C. campus
completed an eighty-five-item questionnaire to further examine the hypothesis that as a result of racial anxiety, Black
students on predominantly white campuses have a different college experience than students on predominantly Black
BE SAL U.TA-ma AMA-su I-zir. This phrase, meaning ―If a woman gives birth and the infant rejects his mother‖ was carved
into ancient Mesopotamian medical tablets (Gillberg & Coleman, p. 1). This simple phrase has led researchers to believe
that autistic behaviors have been observed disturbing people of every race, religion, and social class for many centuries.
However, even though the behaviors have been present for such a long period of time, it was not until 1943 that Leo Kanner
presented the official diagnosis: autism.




There is a good deal of quantitative research available on adolescent help-seeking behavior. This paper reviews the
literature, including research on gender, SES, race, and other factors that affect an adolescent‘s decision to seek help, as
well as adolescents‘ considerations when choosing a counselor. The present study uses the CQR methodology to explore
12 first-year college females‘ perceptions of and experiences with professional counseling. 5 participants had been to
professional counseling, and 7 had not. Reasons for seeking professional counseling included encouragement from others
to get help, as well as having a specific problem requiring help. Reasons for not seeking professional counseling included
lack of access and not having a need for counseling.


This paper is an exploration of the different types of psychotherapy and their relation to one another. It examines the
development of the different branches of psychology and their corresponding techniques of and approaches to therapy. It is
argued that, because the therapies are derived from a specific theoretical orientation, there will be certain techniques not
present in the examination of a different kind of therapy. Lack of knowledge and access to the therapeutic techniques of all
major therapies is a problem in the field of psychology, as it prohibits therapists from providing the best possible treatment of
the client based on his or her individual needs. The development of these fields is examined and the need for integration is
discussed. Three case studies are examined to offer examples of integrative therapy techniques.


At-risk students need additional help in their academics (specifically reading and math) which can be provided in the after
school hours. After school programs help students to improve their academic skills but also provide supervision during the
times when temptations for bad behavioral choices are the highest. In evaluating a local after school program, we are able
to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of a program of this type. Students and teachers involved in the program
discuss the program‘s general development and their feelings towards the program. Suggestions are made for
improvements to the program in future years.



The current study assessed individual perceptions of violent musical lyrics when purported as coming from different
sources. Participants read a lyrical passage with violent themes, and were told that they were written by (a) a black rap
artist, (b) a white rap artist, (c) a black country artist, or (d) a white country artist, and provided ratings of its violent and
antisocial content. Participants then read a fictional account of the artist engaging in violent behavior, and rated the severity
of the event and the degree to which the event was caused by dispositional vs. situational variables. Significant race, genre,
and race x genre effects were found. Lyrics written by a black artist were perceived as more violent than lyrics written by a
white artist, while lyrics and violent behavior committed by a white rap artist were perceived as being the most violent. Older
participants provided more negative ratings of the lyrical passage than did younger participants. Familiarity with the musical
genre in question was negatively correlated with negative attitudes towards the lyrical passage, as well as perceptions of the
In this study, I looked at the discrepancies between how college students and homeless individuals; conceptualization of
volunteerism. I examined two categories for volunteerism; egoistic helping (external volunteerism) and altruistic helping
(intrinsic helping). Results showed that participation in community service and the sex of participants had no effect on the
negative attitudes towards the homeless. In addition, the results showed that four groups—egoism, altruism, prosocial
behavior and prosocial behavior with no financial goal—differed in how they defined volunteerism. The research found that
the groups that expressed the most negative attitude towards the homeless were the egoism group. Further analysis
suggested that males were more likely to conceptualize volunteerism more with altruism than females, implying that men
have higher self-esteem than females.

Isolation-rearing of rats leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes including deficits in pre-pulse inhibition, locomotor
hyperactivity, and impairments in spatial learning. These behaviors are analogous to vulnerability to stress and cognitive
deficits in human schizophrenia. This experiment addresses the relationships between these three behaviors through the
use of acoustic startle, locomotor assessment in an activity chamber and a radial arm maze task. The hypothesis was that
animals raised in isolation would have greater PPI deficits, increased locomotor hyperactivity, and more difficulty completing
a radial arm maze task. These behaviors were hypothesized to be positively correlated with one another. The research
showed a significant increase in PPI deficit and difficulty in a radial arm maze task, but did not support the locomotor activity
hypothesis or correlational hypothesis.

This two-part study looked at adolescents‘ willingness to seek help for a general problem and also for more serious
problems. Many studies have been done to show that adolescents will seek help from different people depending on the
problem, gender, and race. This study measured willingness to seek help as the definition of help seeking behavior. In
addition to gender and race, social economic status was also examined. Results show a correlation between help seeking
behavior and attitude. They also show no difference among adolescents in college when race, gender, and SES were
examined. Finally, this study found that adolescents were more likely to seek help from friends than from any other group
for general problems.


The present study investigated the links between several variables and satisfaction in romantic relationships. Measures of
religiosity, optimism, relationship satisfaction, religious homogamy, religious orientation, perceived social support and
intimacy were administered. Results of this study showed no significant relationship between religiosity and relationship
satisfaction. However, optimism and relationship satisfaction were highly correlated; with evidence indicating that perceived
level of support was a mediating factor in this link. Significant correlations were also found in regards to intimacy, religious
homogamy, religious orientation and relationship length. Implications of these findings on relationship outcome are
discussed.


With the use of past literature, a questionnaire was constructed to measure parental involvement dimensions of school
involvement, social monitoring, support and communication over three schooling periods: elementary school, high school,
and college. The questionnaire was completed by 137 students attending a small liberal arts college. The results indicate
that the different types of parental involvement do change over years of schooling. In addition, females report higher levels
of parental involvement on all dimensions, over all of the schooling years, when compared to males. Parental involvement
and academic achievement were not significantly correlated at the elementary and college levels, but all parental
involvement dimensions were significantly negatively correlated with academic achievement at the high school level. The
implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Anger has become an increasingly prevalent issue for young children in today‘s society. Research conducted by Kenneth
Dodge (2002) and his colleagues suggests that in every social situation there is a cognitive process that every individual
unconsciously experiences, which Dodge labels the Social Information Processing Model. According to this model, social
information processing appears to occur in six steps, namely, encoding, interpretation, goal setting, strategy development,
strategy evaluation, and enactment of behavior. Dodge and his colleagues suggest that when a step in this process is
skipped or is misinterpreted, excessive anger or aggression may result. In order to help young children learn to properly
process social information to prevent anger and aggression, an anger management curriculum, which includes activities and
programs focused on reflection, meditation, physical activity, social skills training, physiological awareness, and positive
reinforcement was developed for use by teachers, counselors, and administrators, with first and second graders.
This project consist of three separate parts; a literature review, an informal interview with NBA Wizards guard, Caron Butler,
and a small empirical study of selected SMCM athletic teams. A literature review was completed on the history of
superstitions, approaches and issues regarding superstitions, superstitions in sport and the factors that influence
superstitious behaviors. An informal interview with a player from the Washington Wizards NBA Basketball team, Caron
Butler, was used to explore the elite level of sport competition and the role of superstitious behavior. Also, an empirical
investigation was conducted to examine superstitious behavior among St. Mary‘s College of Maryland Athletes. The study
examined the frequency and type of superstitious behavior among 93 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
Division III athletes. Questionnaires were administered to determine which types of superstitious behavior and how
frequently they occurred among six different sport teams; Women‘s Volleyball, Men‘s Basketball, Women‘s Basketball,
[abstract not available]




Rats treated chronically with neuroleptics develop vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), similar to tardive dyskinesia. The
purpose of this investigation was to expand on past research involving nigral neurotensin receptor (NTR) mRNA in rats
following the administration of chronic haloperidol (HAL). Relating our findings to past research will possibly provide a more
clear explanation to the role of neuroleptic administration in the development of TD. My goal was to determine if there would
be elevated NTR expression in rats treated chronically with the drug up until sacrifice. A previous study examined rats
chronically treated with HAL, which also experienced a 9-week withdrawal period before death. Short-term, but not long-
term chronic treatment caused elevated nigral NTR expression in rats. If rats treated chronically with the drug up until
sacrifice experience similar patterns in nigral NTR expression, this might suggest the development of a tolerance to HAL
after a specific duration of administration. We also want to determine if there is a significant correlation between nigral NTR
In this study three major themes were observed: adolescents‘ ideal body image for each sex, their own body image, and
their self-esteem. The participants were first-year college students and they represented a small portion of adolescents.
Each participant was given a series of drawings and the Rosenberg‘s Self-Esteem questionnaire. The new lineup of images
is a redrawing of the Stunkard, Sorensen, and Schulsinger (1983) Stunkard Body Image Scale. The new drawing had six
figures that ranged from very thin to obese, with the exception of the males bodies which were more muscular. The new
body scale labeled the male images 1 through 6 and the female images A through F. There was a uniform ideal body image
for males (Body Image 3 and 4) and females (Body Image C, with recoded both Body Image C and D). The females own
body image was larger than her desired ideal body image. The males own body image was not smaller than the ideal. Males
identified that medium images (Body Image C and D) to be the ideal, and the females chose Body Image 3 as ideal. There
Bibliotherapy is a useful therapeutic technique used in conjunction with traditional therapy that is applicable to a wide variety
of diagnoses and situations. The incorporation of fictional literature utilizing factual representations of psychological
disorders in therapy targeting children provides a creative and less threatening outlet for therapeutic progress to occur.
Literature addressing the effects of a diagnosis of autism within a sibling relationship serves as a source of educational
material for the public about the disorder as well as a therapeutic tool for children in similar circumstances.




The relationship between actual birth order, psychological birth order, academic achievement and anxiety was investigated.
Eighty college participants (aged 17-50) completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Speilberger, 1983), the Psychological
Birth Order Inventory (Campbell, White & Stewart, 1991) and a question assessing Grade Point Average. The results of the
study suggest that there was a negative relationship between anxiety and psychological birth order for the position of middle
females. There is no other evidence that actual birth order position as well as psychological birth order position have a
significant relationship to anxiety or academic achievement.
The following study explores the controversy found in the literature surrounding Eye Movement Desensitization and
Reprocessing (EMDR). This therapy, primarily used to treat anxiety-related disorders, has found support in some areas of
research and endures intense critiques in others. There is little agreement about what makes EMDR effective and what
differentiates it from a more traditional exposure technique (e.g. flooding). The researcher explores the relationship between
EMDR‘s reputation in the literature to local practitioners feelings toward the therapy. A survey was sent out to practitioners in
the Southern Maryland area to assess their feelings toward EMDR. The researcher found that the same mixed reviews that
EMDR receives in the literature were also found in the local practitioners‘ views in Southern Maryland.


Two studies were conducted to assess the consistency of behaviors across the settings of sibling relationships and
friendships. The first study examined aggressive and prosocial behavior in preschool children using doll play sessions.
Results indicated that when in a prosocial situation, a child is likely to act in a prosocial manner, in an aggressive situation, a
child is likely to act aggressively, and in a neutral situation a child is likely to act neither aggressively nor prosocially. The
second study examined conflict resolution strategies used by undergraduate students with siblings and friends. Two
questionnaires were completed twice each, once about the sibling and once about the best friend. Results indicated that
similar conflict resolution strategies are used in the context of both a sibling relationship and a best friendship. Results of
the second study are consistent with results of the first study and provide support for the carryover model which predicts that
types of interaction will be the same across sibling and peer relationships.
St. John‘s wort (SJW) is a popular herbal supplement commonly used as a self-prescribed treatment of minor depression. It
is possible that the general public using it may not know its intended use or may be using it for other purposes. 58 male and
99 female St. Mary‘s College students were surveyed. Most were familiar with SJW, 16% had used it, and 66% knew that
people frequently used it for depression. An empirical study of SJW created animal models of depression to examine the
efficacy of SJW against a control and compare it to the known antidepressant imipramine on a series of behavioral tests.
During a six-week testing period, each animal performed the open-field-hole-board, black and white box, tail suspension,
and forced swim tests. One group received a daily oral dose of SJW (250mg/kg body weight) mixed with food to mimic the
oral method of administration among humans. A second group received imipramine hydrochloride (30mg/kg body weight)
i.p. prior to each behavioral test once a week. A third group served as the control. SJW was significantly better than control
Parents and families of children with autism face years of decision making and adjustment when coping with the disorder.
The literature in the field of developmental disorders has expanded greatly in recent years; however, the research is still
young and in some cases inadequate. The purpose of this literature review is to reveal the effects that a child with autism
can have on their surroundings and the coinciding interactions and relationships that ensue. It is proposed that families
experience intense levels of stress and anxiety resulting from the developmental disorder, but eventually adaptation and
adjustment will occur resulting in family cohesion and positive outcomes. Focus on the families of children with
developmental disorders, specifically autism, presents a different perspective on finding a possible solution to this pervasive
disorder.

The focus of this analysis is the police officer and how stressful events that occur because of the law enforcement
profession can have detrimental effects on the officer‘s mental, emotional, and physical well-being. Discussed are two types
of stress seen in law enforcement officers, how poor coping strategies are sometimes employed, and how these impact the
officer‘s behaviors, family life, and potential to commit violence to self. Prevention and treatment programs for officers
experiencing difficulties are also covered.




Animal Assisted Therapy, an interdisciplinary treatment involving nursing, medicine, psychology, social work, and
occupational, physical and recreational therapy, is a therapeutic approach that brings together animals and persons with
special needs (Barba, 1995). Over the past 2 semesters, I have broadened my view on this therapy, and opened others to
the benefits resulting from it. Not only do I wish to inform others about this often overlooked topic, but also to try and
influence more institutes to initiate such a program. Overall, I had two main goals for my St. Mary‘s Project. First, I hoped to
present Animal Assisted Therapy, its history, and its benefits. Second, I wanted to describe how a therapy program may be
introduced and discuss issues such as program requirements and concerns. I believe that helping nursing home residents
should be an important goal in our society. By presenting the benefits of AAT in nursing homes, I hope that others can
extrapolate these findings to other areas. With the help of background research and my own experiences, I wish to relate
The relationship between adult attachment styles and expected vs. perceived intimacy was examined. It was hypothesized
that individuals with anxious or avoidant attachment would be more likely to have a large discrepancy between the current
intimacy in their relationship and the ideal intimacy levels they would like to have in a relationship. Participants were given
two surveys. One survey measured whether the individual was anxiously, or avoidantly attached. The second survey
measured the differences between current and ideal levels of intimacy of the individuals‘ relationship. Sets of Pearson
correlations were performed to determine if there was a relationship between attachment style and intimacy discrepancies.
The hypothesis was supported by the results. Possible explanations for the relationship are discussed.


The case history of one, now deceased, HIV+ male homosexual was detailed in order to unveil the effects of HIV on the
individual‘s psychological, social, and biological systems. Of particular interest was the individual‘s choice to conceal both
his homosexuality and HIV+ status from friends and family for the majority of his lifespan. The sociocultural development of
AIDS-related stigma was analyzed in order to reveal the mechanisms by which an individual may choose to conceal HIV+
status as well as homosexuality. It was found that the association of AIDS with homosexuality (along with sexual promiscuity
and intravenous drug use) has facilitated society‘s negative reactions toward HIV+ individuals, contributing to the
stigmatization of the disease. Nondisclosure of HIV+ status is thought to result from feelings of fear and shame that may
result from owning a stigmatized identity. HIV concealment was found to negatively impact the individual by reducing the
possibility for social and informational support, and contributing to depressive symptoms, social isolation, substance abuse,
The media places high expectations for females to maintain a slim figure. Women may engage in unhealthy diet and
exercise methods to obtain the skinny look. Females may feel the pressure to maintain the idealized figure from the media;
however, female athletes may be at greater risk for disordered eating because of the high pressures placed by coaches,
fans, and teammates. Currently, there is no program that targets disordered eating specific to female athletes at Saint
Mary‘s College of Maryland. The current paper proposes a Disordered Eating Response team that is specific to female
athletes. The goal of the Disordered Eating Response Team is to prevent and educate female athletes about disordered
eating, as well to increase self-esteem and decrease negative body image perceptions.


[abstract not available]




In this guide five different individual counseling techniques were researched, described, and reviewed. The five techniques
were behavioral-cognitive therapy, Adlerian therapy, person-centered therapy, interpersonal therapy, and existential therapy.
These five techniques were briefly compared to non-individualistic counseling techniques in order to show the differences in
methods. Also, a brief history of the foundations of counseling was provided. The researcher used the information that was
provided about each technique in order to generate a hypothesis about which technique or combination of techniques is the
most effective. In order to test this hypothesis in a future study the researcher developed and outlined a hypothetical study.



The self-medication hypothesis states that socially anxious individuals drink alcohol to alleviate anxiety symptoms and
facilitate social interaction. The purpose of the present study was to examine this self-medication hypothesis and determine
its effect on the drinking habits and social-avoidant behavior of socially anxious individuals. A total of 80 undergraduate
college students completed self-report measures of social anxiety, alcohol consumption, and alcohol expectancies. In
addition, participants responded to multiple hypothetical scenarios designed to measure anxiety relief from alcohol across
various degrees of anxiety-producing social situations. Socially anxious participants reported more frequent alcohol
consumption and greater anxiety relief from alcohol than did non-socially anxious participants. Socially anxious participants
were also more likely than non-socially anxious participants to report that they would avoid social situations when alcohol
was not available. The present results indicate that socially anxious individuals do in fact perceive alcohol as an effective
The Defining Issues Test is a measure of moral judgment. Studies have been conducted to determine if the DIT measures
political attitude, if the DIT can be faked in an upward direction, and what the effects of education about moral development
may be. In an effort to see if the DIT can be faked in an upward direction, education about the DIT, as well as instructions to
fake a higher score based on a stereotyped political attitude were used in this study as variables. There were a total of 60
participants drawn from a small liberal arts college who completed the entire study by taking the DIT-2 twice and undergoing
an educational intervention. Thirty-four participants were females and 11 were males. At the second administration of the
DIT-2, 9 participants were randomly selected as the control group and took the test a second time with no additional
instructions or education. Thirty-six of the participants were involved in an educational session that described the stages of
moral development and the test that measures the use of those stages, the DIT. After the session, 19 of those 36
Lithium is the only novel pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder; developing novel medications is inhibited by the
lack of a valid animal model. At therapeutic concentrations, lithium inhibits GSK-3, disinhibiting beta-catenin. Beta-catenin
overexpression decreases immobility in the forced swim test (correlated with depressive behavior) and amphetamine
induced hyperlocomotion (correlated with manic behavior), suggesting beta-catenin is involved in the pathophysiology of
bipolar disorder. A progressive beta-catenin knockout in male mice increased immobility time in the tail suspension test, but
had no effect in the forced swim test or hyperactivity. This study examined the validity of the knockout in female mice. The
knockout increased immobility time in the tail suspension test, but had no effect on the forced swim test, baseline activity, or
memory. While the current results do little to support the validity of this knockout as a model for bipolar disorder, further
study is required before dismissing it entirely.
Are we paying attention to what we watch on television? The present study examines the accuracy of content recalled from
ten different national news broadcasts, focusing on the retention of news content by 140 students at St. Mary‘s College.
Participants answered three questions from each broadcast. The most accurately remembered broadcast involved a report
on tax scam email (part of the participant‘s domain knowledge), and the least remembered broadcast involved a topic
outside of participant‘s domain knowledge, the Chief Executive Officer of Dubai Ports World. Results indicate a floor effect,
several explanations are given for the variance in content recalled concluded by a discussion of limitations and suggestions
for future research.


Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially disfiguring, debilitating and sometimes irreversible movement disorder, which is
associated with high incidence and a lack of effective treatment. Symptoms of the disease include involuntary orofacial
movements, such as lip smacking, tongue protrusions, and jaw movements. These movements are induced by chronic
treatment of schizophrenia with neuroleptic medications. Vacuous chewing movements in rats are among these symptoms.
Some of these rats also displayed some severe aggression during the haloperidol treatment. This experiment was done to
examine the role of testosterone in this rat model for TD. I wanted to explore the effect of neuroleptic exposure on
testosterone and to investigate the relationship between testosterone in rats and the VCMs of the rats. Group-housed male
Long-Evans rats (at beginning body weights of 90-165g) were monitored blindly for baseline VCMs for two minute intervals
weekly, for 7 weeks, and then for 24 weeks during chronic administration of haloperidol (28.5 mg/kg/ml, i.m., at 3 week
The following study evaluated the relationship between client growth and an increase in premature terminations. The study
was conducted through the implementation of the ―Client Satisfaction Questionnaire‖ (CSQ-8) ( Larson, Atkinson, Hargraves
& Nguyen, 1978), one open-ended question, and background data obtained from client files. The subjects in the study were
38 public health services clients who terminated treatment prematurely. Although the present study was unable to show a
main effect with regard to client terminations and level of satisfaction, the study did reveal that the majority of clients that
terminated therapy did so do to financial reasons.



This document examined the definitions of serial murder, profiling, and the typologies associated. The two typologies
organized/disorganized and the Holmes‘s System were analyzed and real life examples were given for each type listed. The
organized/disorganized typology is a simple dichotomy, where as the Holmes‘s system is very complex, classifying killers as
visionary, missionary, hedonistic, or power/control killers. For both of these typologies, advantages and disadvantages were
given. This paper also examined the history of serial murder in film and fiction, the development of these stories over time,
and compared the real life typologies with ―faces‖ of serial murderers in fiction. Finally, some film characters were analyzed
using these typologies. Many of the film characters have exaggerations, with very little association with reality. Overtime,
these films have moved from mythical creatures to more human forms of fear, but there is still a difference between these
killers and reality.
[abstract not available]




This investigation sought to reveal how people respond to computer based surveys on the Internet, as opposed to more
traditional paper‑based methods. Of particular interest were varying levels of perceived anonymity. This investigation
attempted to determine whether or not the Internet is a viable source of subjects for any research. Investigators explore the
differences in self-report, self-presentation, and general social deviance among three separate populations: the traditional
student population, the general population, and the Internet population. This was accomplished via various questionnaires
assessing self-monitoring, social desirability, deviant attitudes and behaviors, anti-social desirability, and reported
participation in criminal activities. Additionally, a questionnaire measuring the basic personality traits of introversion and
extraversion was administered to determine if there are any existing norms or patterns to be seen in the Internet population.
These surveys were pseudo-randomly administered to an Internet population, a student population, and a general
The purpose of this study was to further examine the benefits of alternative treatments on Generalized Anxiety Disorder,
focusing specifically on meditation and yoga. Existing literature concerning these concepts was reviewed to determine
evidence of reduced symptoms following treatment. Local professionals connected to these fields were also interviewed to
gain real-life perspectives concerning treatment implications and results. These sources revealed support for these
alternative treatments by presenting observed differences in chemical, physiological, and psychological characteristic
following practice and incorporation of techniques in daily life style. This information illustrates additional treatment options
available to those afflicted with anxious symptoms, focusing on a more natural and holistic approach.


Sexual minority adolescents have a set of problems that are unique to their age group and culture. In the past, researchers
and educators have neglected to address the needs of this subsection of children and their disregard has been shown to
have serious consequences for the mental and physical health of these youth. One way of fulfilling the obligation that
educators have toward ensuring the wellbeing of sexual minority youth is to reform health education classes by adding
sexual diversity studies into the high school curriculum. This paper seeks to identify the problems that nonheterosexual
adolescents face and then make suggestions as to how we can change health education curricula in the state of Maryland
to satisfy the current need for adolescents to learn about sexual diversity. The author hypothesizes that, if all students are
given more unbiased information about alternate sexual lifestyles, queer students will begin to show signs of improved
mental health and be less prone to victimization from heterosexual students.
Researchers conducted the present study in order to examine differences among female college students regarding their
levels of happiness and loneliness based on their relationship status. Measurements of loneliness, self-disclosure, life
satisfaction, and self-reported time spent with out a significant other are distributed to 100 undergraduates. Females
currently involved in an intimate relationship self-reported lower levels of loneliness and higher levels of happiness than
women who are not currently involved in an intimate, committed relationship. Generally these women spent more time with
their significant other, whereas disclosing more information to their significant other. These results suggest that loneliness
and happiness are correlated with a female‘s relationship status, and that being in a relationship significantly increases a
females happiness levels, and significantly lowers her loneliness levels. Women who are in a relationship have a sense of
emotional support which helps them to develop friendships more thoroughly.
One hundred twenty-eight participants diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) completed the condition-specific
Multidimensional Health Locus of Control assessment (MHLC form C) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression
inventory (CES-D). Subjects were courted via bulletin board message on arthritis support groups (www.arthritis.org;
www.rheumorweb.com) to participate in a study about health locus of control and rheumatoid arthritis. Additional
demographic data were collected: gender, sex, age, and age at onset of RA, as well as the patient‘s perceptions of the
overall severity of illness, current severity of joint pain, and efficacy of medication regimen in controlling disease on a 1-10
scale. Principal components analysis was conducted to verify the existence and consistency of the four previously identified
sub-categories of the condition-specific MHLC. A stepwise linear regression was run on the four locus components [Internal,
External, Doctor, and Other (Powerful) People] to test their value in predicting depression scores. The belief in control of
Mentoring is a highly important task to take on; it requires tremendous dedication and time. This paper looks at the
importance of mentoring and its personal meaning to the writer. In addition, a general overview of mentoring is given to help
provide a better understanding of this helping mechanism. Understand the general terms such as: mentor and mentoring,
effective communication and population are discussed in depth to give the reader a general view of what takes place in any
type of mentoring program. The overall purpose of this project was to demonstrate the importance of mentoring minority
youth and the detail the distinct difference between mentoring minority youth in comparison to other youth. To do this
African-American youth were used as a catalyst to express this view. Two mentoring programs dedicated to mentoring
minority youth were interviewed and surveyed so to analyze the individual programs. In conclusion, the two programs were
compared and used as tools to further stress the importance of mentoring African-American youth through incorporating a
The current literature review analyzes the hypothesis which states that the impairments observed in autistic individuals are
the result of a core deficit of theory of mind reasoning. The literature review first summarizes previous literature on autism; a
disorder characterized by severe impairments in social and language development. Second, it reviews theory of mind, the
ability of individuals to understand other‘s emotional states. Thirdly, the paper provides a summary of recent literature about
theory of mind deficits in autism. The paper concludes that although it is currently impossible to definitively attribute the
social and language impairments seen in autism to deficits in theory of mind, it is the most prevalent and supported theory
available.


The author of the study examined the development of Theory of Mind in typically developing children and children with
Autism. In Study 1, 15 typically developing children were interviewed with five questions, ranging from basic seeing is
knowing concepts to false belief tasks. In Study 2, which was a proposal, 15 children diagnosed with autism will be recruited
and asked the same five interview questions. The children are expected to perform better on the Theory of Mind tasks and
they increase in age. Typically developing children are expected to perform better than the autistic children. It is also
expected that the children‘s answers will reveal a pattern, which supports the theory that Theory of Mind development is a
slow and continual process. This was found, in addition to an increase in Theory of Mind abilities with age.


The purpose of this study was to discover whether attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, gender, familial prevalence, or
socioeconomic status (measured only by means of the level of education acquired) were associated with nocturnal enuresis.
 Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis within the respondents, the perceived experiences at home and in school, self-esteem
levels, and interventions used for participants who experienced primary nocturnal enuresis were also considered. Results
are indicated with some old information being confirmed and some new information being related. A descriptive analysis of
the data revealed that 38 (25.2%) of the 151 participants responded yes to having had or presently experiencing nocturnal
enuresis. Most nocturnally enuretic participants (63.2%) responded as receiving no treatment for their enuresis. Of the
remaining participants who did receive treatment, only four responded as the treatment received was beneficial in
decreasing their enuresis. A chi-square analysis showed that sex had a significant effect among those participants with
Although many groups are stereotyped and stigmatized, one group of people that is often stereotyped is the
psychotherapist. The purpose of the current study was to explore the prevalence of stereotypes of psychotherapists in
various films. An analysis instrument was designed to measure stereotypes in films. Frequencies of stereotypes were
calculated and are fully discussed and various t-tests were performed to determine gender differences in characterized
psychotherapists. If psychotherapists are being portrayed negative in the media, then it is possible that consumers (potential
clients) will develop negative views of therapy. The negative stereotypes present may cause many potential therapy clients
to never seek professional help.


Aggression and violence among the nation‘s youth is becoming an ever more significant issue, especially to young people
themselves. Recent identification and examination of social aggression among female adolescents has sparked a new
interest in aggression during the adolescent life period. This literature review examines definitions and typologies of
aggression as well as gender differences among its expression during adolescence. It briefly describes and evaluates three
more conventional theories of aggression, as well as a more recent theory of aggression proposed called Dominance
Theory. Suggestions for future studies with respect to adolescents and aggression are discussed as well as a specific
prevention program for schools.
Occupational stress was examined in the criminal justice system as a means of identifying the stressors experienced in the
field. Other factors such as the effects of stress and the resources provided to relieve stress were also examined. The
criminal justice system was chosen because it has various different types of jobs that can all be highly stressful. Correctional
officers, police officers, judges, and attorneys were studied to show how different positions in the criminal justice system
involve highly stressful situations that are not experienced in most other job fields. In order to study these positions a
literature review was conducted. In addition to this, interviews with individuals in the mentioned positions were also
completed to supplement the literature. Both revealed that although the positions have unique stressors, all are highly
stressful at times. The stress experienced at work is not addressed or dealt with in a healthy fashion, causing many negative
effects to the individuals and their employers. These results show that much needs to be done in the in the criminal justice
The researcher examined the relationship between parenting styles, romantic attachment styles, gender role orientation, self-
esteem, and relationship satisfaction in college students. Participants completed surveys measuring these variables. I
conducted a regression analysis with relationship satisfaction as the criterion and other measured variables conducted on
the variables. As hypothesized, I found that an authoritative parenting style was positively correlated with a secure
attachment style, self-esteem, and relationship satisfaction. Conversely, an authoritarian parenting style was found to be
associated with maladjustment in the dimensions of the other variables. Finally, a secure attachment style was found to be a
mediator for father authoritativeness and self-esteem, and these three variables were found to be the significant predictors
of relationship satisfaction.

The current study aimed to investigate the use of traditional writing therapy in personal journals and weblogs. Previous
research has indicated that writing about personal traumas in laboratory settings can relieve anxiety and symptoms of
depression (Pennebaker, 1997). This study utilized an original questionnaire to explore participant’s usage of journals
(handwritten or word processed) and weblogs, specifically in the areas of structure, disclosure, emotional regulation, and
depth of content. Weblogs are widely used in the United States and around the world as a place to record personal thoughts
and feelings. Demographic information about participants that used journals and weblogs was collected. Results between
journal users and weblog users were compared using paired-samples t-tests. URL addresses from 37 participants were
collected to explore the use of writing therapy techniques first hand.

Schizophrenic patients who achieve high levels of education prior to onset of psychotic symptoms have better prognoses
than patients who accomplished lower levels of education, suggesting that early cognitive stimulation may reduce symptoms
in adulthood. The present study assessed the effects of cognitive intervention in adolescence on disrupted adult behaviors
in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia in rats. Neonatal ventral hippocampus lesioned (NVHL) rats were trained in
an attentional set-shifting task during adolescence, which served as the cognitive intervention. In adulthood, rats were
assessed for behaviors known to be disrupted in the model, including prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response,
social interaction, novelty-induced locomotion, dopamimetic drug-induced locomotion, and working memory in the radial arm
maze. Lesioned rats performed worse in the working memory task than shams, as indicated by total errors. The
performance of lesioned rats that had received cognitive intervention, however, was markedly improved (p=.032). The
Environmental stress has been shown to play a significant role in addictive behavior in both animal models and in humans.
The present study investigates whether the stress of social isolation in adolescence increases measures of behavioral
sensitization to methamphetamine in adult rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared either in isolation (n=11) or housed
two to a cage (n=12) beginning in adolescence. At the onset of adulthood, rats were randomly assigned to receive either
methamphetamine (n=15) or saline (n=8), and locomotor activity was measured in activity chambers at baseline, over five
chronic days, and at a later test day. Results reveal that rats reared in isolation in adolescence do not exhibit higher levels of
sensitization to methamphetamine than non-isolated rats. In conclusion, the current study does not show that isolation
rearing increases sensitization to methamphetamine.

This study examined the role of race on the decisions of mock jurors. Participants read a case vignette describing the
physical assault of either an African American man by a Caucasian man, or vice versa. The racial saliency of the criminal
cases was also manipulated, thereby creating 4 experimental conditions. Participants were asked to return a verdict as well
as several other assessments of the guilt of the defendant. Participants also completed the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) in
order to factor individual levels of prejudice into the analysis. Results showed that African American defendants were rated
as guiltier and deserving of harsher punishments than Caucasian defendants regardless of racial saliency. Furthermore,
individual levels of prejudice as measured by MRS score were positively correlated with guilt ratings and harshness of
punishment ratings of the African American defendant. This study and others of its kind are useful in determining how large
a role racial issues play in legal proceedings and offer opportunities to learn how the effects of racial prejudices may be
The current study examined the human ability to recognize sex and activity in biological motion. Observers were nine female
and seven male undergraduate students. Point-light displays of four male and four female actors performing biking,
overhand throwing, underhand throwing, and walking were created. Observers viewed the point-light displays and made sex
and activity judgments regarding the displays. Using multiple mixed-factors ANOVAs, the results revealed effects of actor
sex, activity, and view on sex judgments and an interaction between the three variables. Factors that may have contributed
to this finding include differences in biological structure and lateral body sway between sexes and social constructs held by
the observers.


The influence of family interactions on the development of eating disorders was studied by questionnaire and interviews with
six college-age women with eating disorders. A comparison group of 34 women with no history of eating disorders also
completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire findings revealed no significant differences between the two groups of
women on the variables included in the questionnaire. The findings were not conclusive but suggested support for some of
the literature findings on family relationships.




A study was conducted to determine attachments relation to ego identity formation. Factor analysis revealed two factors for
attachment: Anxiety, Close. Factor analysis also revealed two factors for ego identity: Exploration and Commitment. A
correlation analysis was conducted where attachment‘s relationship to ego identity formation was determined. Anxiety as a
factor of attachment was shown to be related to ego identity formation. There was no significant difference seen between
men and women therefore they were not analyzed separately in the correlation matrix.




The purpose of the research presented here in is to see if there are correlations between attachment behaviors and conflict
for participants from both intact and divorced families. 96 participants completed questionnaires on perceived parental
marital conflict, parent-child attachment and adult attachment. The results indicated that perceived parental marital conflict
was negatively correlated with parent-child attachment, parental marital conflict was not correlated with adult attachment
and parent-child attachment was correlated with adult attachment.




A sexuality education program was provided to adults with developmental disabilities (DD) and their residential caregiving
staff to examine whether their sexual awareness and knowledge could be enhanced. A curriculum including a pretest
posttest design was developed, then modified for use with each of the two participant groups. Utilizing this curriculum, two
concurrent multisession programs were offered; one included twelve adults with (DD), the other targeted their caregiving
staff. A small N rendered statistical analysis of the staff program inappropriate. However, an ANOVA demonstrated that the
program did improve sexual knowledge of adults with DD, F [1,10] = 20.80. A T test showed that this groups‘ opinions and
values were also changed.


Divorce is a trend that has been steadily on the rise and is more accepted everyday. Present researchers investigated the
effects that divorce could have on the offspring‘s romantic relationship satisfaction level. Sixty eight participants from St.
Mary‘s College of Maryland completed an online survey assessing family situation, relationship characteristics, experience
with divorce, and romantic relationship satisfaction. The results also showed that the remarriage of the mother, the age at
which divorce took place, and the length of the relationship are not related to the romantic relationship satisfaction. One
interesting finding showed that if divorce took place during the critical age of the offspring, 11-17, then these offspring would
show more difficulty sharing with their partner. Implications for this study include a greater understanding for the impact of
divorce on intimacy levels if the divorce occurred during the ages of 11-17 as well as implications for further studies.
The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between desire for fame, narcissism, and spirituality. In order to do
this, two groups were administered surveys: a Buddhist and non-Buddhist sample, each sample of varying age and gender.
A scale measuring the desire for fame was administered along with a scale measuring the level of narcissism present in the
participants‘ personalities. The hypothesis, that the levels of desire for fame and narcissism would be less in the Buddhist
sample than in the non-Buddhist sample, was supported.




The present study investigated the role of the agranular insular cortex (AIC) in the expression of positive symptomatology
and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm of acoustic startle was used to assess
positive symptomatology, specifically involving deficiencies in sensorimotor gating. Cognitive impairments, including
working memory deficits and perseveration in particular, were assessed with an 8-arm radial maze task, requiring working
memory for spatial location at 3 delay conditions. Results indicate intact (PPI) in lesion animals, thus suggesting that the
AIC does not provide a modulatory role for the regulation of PPI. Additionally, the AIC does not appear to subserve working
memory function. Given both of these results, the role of the AIC in schizophrenia has not been substantiated. However,
limited evidence exists for the role of the AIC in planning and executing behavioral strategies.

Cannula were implanted in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a prefrontal region of the brain, of 17 rats. The behavior of these
animals was observed after intracerebral infusion or intraperitoneal injection of 8-OH-DPAT, a serotonin-1A agonist.
Behavior paradigms used were the open field, social interaction, forced swim and prepulse inhibition tests. Intracerebral
infusion of 8-OH-DPAT increased exploratory behavior, had a weak anxiety-reducing effect, and decreased social
interaction of the rats, but did not affect depression like behavior or sensorimotor gating. Systemic injection of 8-OH-DPAT
had an antidepressant-like effect. Results indicate a role of 5-HT1A receptors in the OFC in regulating social and emotional
behaviors, and may have implications for psychopathology.


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of formality of clothing on self-efficacy. The data collected from 76
college students, 26 males and 50 females, supported the belief that professional dress can raise one‘s self-efficacy. Two
instruments were used to measure the self-efficacy levels of the participants. The first instrument, The Problem–Solving
Self-Efficacy Assessment, contained two scenarios, which were each followed by six problem-solving questions. A
secondary measurement, The Perceived Self-Efficacy Survey, was used to investigate if the participants internalized a
change in their self-efficacy. A two-way ANOVA revealed that formality of clothing does have a significant effect on self-
efficacy; participants who were professionally dressed felt more confident about their dress style. There were no differences
found between males and females.

This study contained 24 participants who were categorized into two groups, athletes and non-athletes. There were 12
athletes and 12 non-athletes. Participants completed a demographics questionnaire and two dream report sheets collected
at different time periods. Dream report sheets were collected at a preseason and midseason time period. Data were
analyzed using the Whitman et al. (1961) Motility Scale and the Wood (1961) Activity Scale. The researcher hypothesized
that athletes would contain greater motility and activity in their dream contents than non-athletes. The researcher believed
athletes needed more mental preparation due to their sport. Results showed that there was no significant difference
between motility and activity between athletes and non-athletes.


Through past observations when working with young children, researchers wanted to develop a program to help modify the
behavior of disruptive students. Three main themes were selected, respect (for oneself, for peers and for staff),
responsibility (for one’s work, and actions), and coping with emotions (anger, sadness, worry). Research on therapy
techniques for young children was examined and compiled to create a unique behavior modification program. The program
used techniques such as sand tray therapy, expression through arts and crafts, group discussion, and reward systems.
Students felt successes of the program included learning to deal with bullies, anger, and worry, learning to enjoy competition
for the fun of it, and learning to be a better person. Researchers found similar successes.
There are approximately 20 different subspecies of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), all of which occupy different
environments. Vervet monkeys adapt very well to various environments. This paper investigated the different types of
environments that vervets occupy (natural, captive, and domesticated) in various parts of the world to see if physiological
and/or behavioral modifications existed in the species according to the environment in which they lived. It was shown that,
overall, vervets do present differences between the environments; however, these differences are not to a great extent, and
do not appear to pose any threat for the survival of the species.



Pleasure was examined by the author to qualitatively see whether the pleasure one derived from unprotected sex was the
predictor variable above and beyond the following variables: Substance use before sex, Sexual Communication skills, Total
AIDS knowledge, Risk reduction behavioral intention, Attitudes toward condoms, and personal vulnerability. Participants
were 60 students from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland who were paid to take the anonymous survey. Results indicated that
pleasure was not the main predictor variable. In fact, the only variable that was found to predict condom use was a person‘s
overall knowledge of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS.



The present study examined the relationship between the personal experiences of therapists and the amount and type of
therapist self-disclosures (TSD) used in the therapeutic environment. Two self-report questionnaires were completed by 196
counseling psychologists. The Counselor Disclosure Scale measured participants‘ level of disclosure related to personal,
interpersonal, and professional issues. The Salient Life Events Inventory measured the number and perceived stressfulness
of major events occurring in the past year of the participants‘ life. Correlational analyses yielded significant results, indicating
that participants who had experienced a greater number of major life events were more likely use TSD with clients. Results
are discussed in terms of previous research, and implications and suggestions for further research are explored.


Because siblings are known to provide assistance to their brothers and sisters with disabilities, discovering what affects the
levels of caregiving may help us understand why some people will partake in caretaking responsibilities of their siblings with
disabilities and others will not. Participants included 100 St. Mary‘s College of Maryland students with a mean age of 18.20
years of which 26% were male and 74% were female. They received a vignette describing a hypothetical sibling suddenly
stricken with severe disabilities who needs daily caretaking. They completed a battery of surveys that included the Level of
Involvement Scale, NEO-Five Factor Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Scale of Attitudes toward Disabled Persons,
and a list of adult roles. Our analyses revealed: a preference for distal tasks (i.e., non-personal) over proximal tasks (i.e.,
personal), greater caregiving levels among females, and higher caregiving levels for siblings who were not going to live for
more than two years. The findings of this study and future research may reveal important information for adults who become
With body image a hot topic among researchers, the question of how young girls are affected is now starting to get more
attention. This study was conducted to examine body image in girls age 10-16. This study examines the media influences on
body image as well as parental influences on body image. Data was collected from both mothers and their daughter using
questionnaires. Questionnaires gathered data on self esteem, body esteem, BMI, ideal body type and demographic
information. It was expected that the media will have a negative impact on body esteem. Also, that there will be a correlation
between the body esteem of the girls and the body esteem of their mothers. This study also found data suggesting a racial
difference between ideal body shape as well as body esteem.


The distribution of gender role identification, and the attribution of responsibility to a victim of rape, was compared across
U.S. (n=110) and Spanish (n=90) coed college samples. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich, &
Stapp, 1974) measured gender role identification, showing a cross-cultural gender difference among females, but not males.
 Androgyny was more prevalent within the U.S. Rape attribution was measured used a scale developed by the researchers,
and found no effect for traditional gender role identification on attribution of rape victim responsibility. The Spanish sample
attributed significantly more blame to the rape victim than that of the U.S., but the U.S sample attributed a higher desire for
sex to the rape victim. Limitations and implications were discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of sexual orientation and violence severity on perceptions of
intimate partner abuse, a form of domestic violence. The study also investigated how these perceptions were influenced by
anti-homosexual attitudes. Two self-report questionnaires were completed by undergraduate students (N=90) at St. Mary‘s
College of Maryland after reading a brief scenario of a domestic violence case. The scenarios depicted an incident of abuse
of high or low severity between a romantically involved heterosexual or homosexual couple. The results indicate significant
effects of sexual orientation and violence severity on several factors, including perceptions and certainty of defendant guilt,
perpetrator responsibility for the abuse, and recommended sentencing. Anti-homosexual attitudes were found to influence
these factors as well, along with perceptions of victim responsibility and sympathy for the victim of abuse. Implications for
future research, the criminal justice system, and public policies are discussed.
Left-handedness is a topic that has a wide variety of implications for psychological research. Through a review of the
literature, the current study attempts to synthesize the theories and findings that have accumulated over years of research.
Assessments, causes, and consequences of laterality are discussed, and suggestions for future research are made.
Consequences include implications for a person‘s health, cognitive capacities, sexuality, and belief systems, among other
things.




Victims of domestic abuse are often blamed for the situations they are in due to people‘s ignorance, attitudes, and
misconceptions about spouse abuse. The present study considers possible factors that influence how much a victim is
blamed. The effect of participant gender, sex-role attitudes, and victim sex on blame attributions and acceptance of abuse of
both male and female victims of spouse abuse was investigated. Because males are traditionally viewed as the stronger and
more masculine sex, they were predicted to attribute more blame for being victimized than the female victims. One hundred-
ten undergraduate students completed a questionnaire consisting of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, six spouse-abuse
scenarios, and a blame questionnaire. A statistical analysis revealed that participant gender and victim sex had a significant
effect on both blame attributions and acceptance of abuse. Contrary to predictions, traditional sex-role attitudes did not have
a significant effect on blame or acceptance.
College students once or currently engaged in psychotherapy were surveyed on their experiences with touch in
psychotherapy. The results indicated that a majority of clients (70%) had experienced touch in therapy. Most clients reported
neutral to positive general evaluations of the touch. Client evaluations of the touch were related to the form of the physical
contact, the reason for engaging in the contact, and client history with psychotherapy and other therapists. Touch in
psychotherapy may contribute to a stronger therapeutic alliance, as clients who experienced touch had a stronger
therapeutic alliance with their therapists than clients who had not experienced touch in therapy. Sexuality and ethicality
issues related to touch in psychotherapy were explored in depth.


The therapeutic community (TC) is a residential program that uses a self-help social learning approach to treat individuals
with substance abuse and co-existing disorders. Following an overview of the history, treatment approach, and research
conducted to evaluate traditional and adolescent TCs, a case study of an adolescent TC in Töpeln, Germany is presented.
Daily life in the community and the reasoning behind how the program is run is described and critically analyzed. The
program’s success is also demonstrated through personality inventory score changes and information gathered by the
author in informal interviews. Based on the reviewed literature and the presented case study, it is concluded that although
many of the therapeutic aspects of TC treatment are not understood, the social, caring environment and structured lifestyle
are fundamental to the positive influences adolescent TCs have. [Includes DVD recording of documentary film "Parceval :
an adolescent therapeutic community."]
[abstract not available]
The current study examines the effect of exercise on lesions to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) on acquisition of
olfactory discrimination learning set (ODLS). Exercise animals were given free access to a running wheel five days following
surgery. Animals did not differ on pre- to post-surgical measurements of activity level in an open field, nor did animals differ
in percentage of time spent on a novel object during a novel object recognition task to assess working memory. Therefore,
there were no deficits in activity or working memory among the animals that would impair acquisition of ODLS. Sedentary
and exercise sham animals and SAP exercise animals performed significantly above chance on trial 2 indicating learning set
acquisition. SAP sedentary animals did not perform above chance on trial 2 indicating that they were unable to acquire a
learning set; however, on trials 3-5 they were able to perform significantly above chance indicating olfactory abilities were
intact Furthermore on block 1, sham exercise and SAP exercise performed significantly above chance. Exercise enabled
My project looked at how clothing effects the first impression of a stranger. There were six different clothing conditions, suit,
skirt, sport, grunge, goth, and average. Each participant was given one photograph and a list of 27 adjective pairs to be
ranked on a 7 point Likert type scale. Significant results where found in eight of the 27 ANOVA‘s and one of four factors
found had significant data in it. The results showed interesting reactions to a modest tank top as well as three of the four
factors were very similar to factors found in the NEO.




Relational aggression is aggression used to inflict harm on others. It involves excluding a person from a group, gossip, or
making negative facial expressions (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; Grotpeter & Crick, 1996). The purpose of this study was to
determine the relationship between relational aggression and psychosocial functioning, especially depression. In the study
one qualitative data was collected using an original survey to examine college student‘s high school experiences school in
their own words. Themes found in this study are that social hierarchies are divided into a top, middle, and bottom tier. The
majority of people are in the middle and top tier. Most participants had prevalent gossip in their high schools, participated in
and were the objects of gossip and were rejected from groups. Most participants felt high school still had an impact on their
current psychosocial functioning with most good but some bad impacts. In the second study quantitative data was gathered
using the Revised Peer Experiences Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. No correlation was found between
Humor has always possessed enigmatic characteristics, and its pervasiveness yet complexity have long intrigued the minds
of social scientists. Ethnic and racial humor are particularly interesting because of the issues of intergroup relations inherent
within them. While most researchers thus far have offered theoretical interpretations of the various social dynamics
surrounding racist humor, very few have offered empirical support for their ideas. This study sought to investigate the
possible influence of exposure to racist humor on individuals' racial attitudes. Measurement of 40 students' racist attitudes
were compared before and after exposure to racist or non-racist jokes. Results found a significant relationship between
participants' appreciation of racist jokes and their racist attitudes as measured by the Modern Racism Scale. Implications of
these findings are discussed within the context of race relations in America.

Obstacles to palliation and pain management for Hospice patients receiving care in the facility and home setting were
examined. Thirty-one prospective participants enrolled in the hospice program of St. Mary‘s county were evaluated and
considered for participation. Due to ineligibility, rapid physical and mental decline, and death, the focus of the study
transitioned from empirical to exploratory. This review identifies areas of palliative care where improvements are necessary,
specifically the transition from curative to palliative interventions, psychological, spiritual, and pain management for the
patient and family prior to death, and the cooperative effort of Hospice in facility settings. Challenges associated with
conducting end of life research with vulnerable populations are delineated and suggestions for overcoming these obstacles
are provided.

Further research is needed for better eating disorder treatments. For example, there is some agreement in the literature that
the interplay of familial, societal, and psychological factors lead to the development and maintenance of the
psychopathology. Many treatments have been successful. Specifically, bibliotherapy, in which therapists assign their
patients reading, may help clients ―own‖ their treatment, thereby increasing motivation and decreasing defensiveness. This
paper will outline the current research on eating disorders and review the research done of the effectiveness of
bibliotherapy. It will subsequently argue that bibliotherapy may be an effective treatment for eating disorders. Lastly, it will
present a list of books that may be used for treating eating disorders with bibliotherapy.
This study investigated the relationship between real-ideal balance of power discrepancy in interpersonal relationships and
academic achievement. Real-ideal balance of power was measured using the ―Interpersonal Relationships Questionnaire‖,
which was created for this study. It was hypothesized that this relationship would be mediated by global self-esteem.
Participants were 60 college students attending a small northeastern liberal arts college. The main hypotheses were not
supported. Exploratory analyses revealed that for participants who had more decision-making power than they would like,
there was a negative relationship between decision-making discrepancy and grade point average. Also, for participants who
had less than ideal emotional involvement, emotional involvement discrepancy was negatively correlated with global self-
esteem.

Current preventative and remedial interventions in the lives of the frail elderly and poor increasingly rely upon social
psychological quality of life (QOL) measurements. Essential to the assessment of life quality is the accurate identification of
the major predictors or determinants within a given population. In an effort to support evidence-based interventions, this
study examined the potential elevation in subjective QOL associated with an improvement in objective housing condition.
Content analysis of qualitative research interviews was used to identify the relevant QOL determinants for a sample of low-
income, elderly homeowners. Specific life domains were selected, and their support in previous QOL literature is discussed.
Determinant and overall subjective QOL were measured quantitatively in a scale administered cross-sectionally to several
groups associated with a housing renovation organization. Principle components analysis (PCA) revealed several coherent
factors for comparison with the theoretical determinants. Previous recipients of home improvement reported greater
Different coping strategies were examined in the context of traumatic physical injuries. Strategies for adherence to
rehabilitation programs were also examined. These were studied through a literature review. Among the recurring findings
was that using internal attributions of control helps to reduce depression and leads to successful coping. Also, early
counseling and education regarding one‘s injury and possibly changed life situation should take place soon after the acute
phase of the injury to reduce stress and prevent distorted self-perceptions. The findings are further revisited in a section
which delivers advice to injured patients in many circumstances.



This study explored the variety and amount of disobedience exhibited by characters in children‘s television programs.
Previous research has demonstrated how exposure to such inappropriate behaviors influences children‘s development and
interpersonal skills. Researchers coded a selection of the most popular children‘s shows for varying types of disobedience
and a number of other descriptive variables. This study presents the general trends of disobedience displayed in children‘s
programming to create archival data for future studies, educators, and concerned parents.




The functioning of six factors known to affect the efficacy of substance abuse treatment programs within a correctional
setting were investigated within the Walden Jail Based Substance Abuse Programs at the St. Mary’s Detention Center. The
programs’ procedures in terms of theoretical approaches to treatment, gender, criminogenic needs, inmate motivation,
program characteristics, and aftercare were examined. Direct observations of the group sessions gave insight into the
functioning of these features within the program. The counselor and all inmates enrolled in the Walden Jail Based
Substance Abuse Programs were present during these observations. Interviews with inmates and the counselor were used
to determine the influences of the programs’ features. Six inmates currently enrolled in these programs participated in the
interviews. Most of the features of the programs that were examined met the standards for what current research defines as
effective for substance abuse treatment in correctional facilities. Suggestions include addressing more criminogenic needs,
This study was designed to explore the racial/ethnic and cultural identity development of Korean transracial adoptees. Given
the limited amount of information in this area, this study is not based on a specific hypothesis rather it explores possible
factors influencing identity development of Korean transracial adoptees. Data is presented from interviews with thirteen
Korean-born adoptees attending colleges or working in the mid-Atlantic region. Responses to the interview questions
focused on four major aspects of identity: (a) self-labeling, (b) belonging, (c) cultural knowledge, and (d) changes in identity.
Subthemes within each of these sections are discussed. Applications of existing racial/ethnic identity models and related
research is discussed. In addition, a tentative model of racial/ethnic identity for transracial adoptees is proposed based
upon the findings of this study.
This study attempted to determine if therapists‘ graduate training on sexual attraction prepared them to effectively manage
such feelings. Surveys were sent to 250 randomly sampled psychotherapists. One hundred and seven surveys were
completed and returned. The descriptive statistics show that therapists are feeling sexually attracted to clients but it is
seldom a problem in therapy. Furthermore, certain training techniques, such as lectures, ethics, large group, and small
group discussions, may be useful tools for preparing therapists to manage feelings of sexual attraction in therapy.




It has been said that the problem with today‘s youth is that there are not enough caring adults in their lives to provide the
guidance and support that is necessary for children to reach their full potential. Children are also faced with many other
stresses in today‘s society; homes where there is substance abuse or domestic violence, poverty, poor education, lack of
supervision, the negative influences of the media, etc. Big Brothers Big Sisters of Southern Maryland, Inc. (BBBS)
ameliorates those stresses on children by providing volunteer mentors who help to broaden children‘s resources and
confidence. Many of the children in the BBBS program come from single parent homes, where they have experienced
abandonment by the absent parent, who are not usually positive role models. [from introduction]


This paper analyzes alternatives to traditional psychotherapy. I first briefly describe some traditional approaches of
psychotherapy (including psychoanalytic therapy, Adlerian therapy, Rogerian therapy, behavior therapy, and cognitive
behavior therapy) and follow that with an in-depth description of complementary and alternative medicine as well as specific
approaches including yoga therapy, music therapy, pet therapy, qigong, aromatherapy, and acupuncture. Interviews were
conducted with professional yoga therapists, music therapists, a qigong master, and an aromatherapist. Important findings
from the interviews are reviewed. I continue with a discussion of some issues, concerns, and questions that are left
unanswered by the literature. Implications for future research and the future of psychotherapy are also discussed.


The behaviors associated with ADHD can cause many problems in the classroom. Detecting ADHD is integral to maintain
an environment conducive to learning. School psychologists assess children and plan interventions to eliminate negative
behaviors associated with ADHD. This study aimed to examine what behaviors are associated with ADHD and whether
those behaviors stand out in a classroom setting. It was hypothesized that children with possible ADHD would exhibit higher
levels of off-task behaviors and out of seat behavior and there would be grade level differences. Results show that children
with possible ADHD do demonstrate more behaviors as well as out of seat behavior but only out of seat produced a grade
level difference. Implications, limitations and future research are discussed.


Communication facilitates the creation, preservation, advancement, and utilization of knowledge. However, there are many
people in society who have difficulty communicating and require aid from speech-language pathologists (SLPs). SLPs
assess, treat, and help to prevent speech, language, cognitive communication, voice, swallowing, fluency, and other related
disorders. It is important for concerned parents to ask their child‘s healthcare provider for a full evaluation as well as a
hearing test. If a child has a speech-language delay, the child may have future academic and/or social difficulties. This
paper explains the importance of speech-language pathologists in the school system and intervention strategies used by
these therapists. As well, it includes possible precursors of speech delay, the diagnosis procedures used to identify children
with speech impairments, and helpful tips that parents can use to help their child speak clearly.

This study aims to detect change in fine motor activity among children who are exposed to new manipulative lessons
created by Maria Montessori. The study contained one experimental class (n=15) and two control classes of children (n=22)
who were pre-tested, and then post-tested after one month, on their fine motor ability through three tests of skill: tong test,
dressing test, and marble test. The experimental class received an intervention of new classroom materials stemming from
the Montessori Method in between testing sessions. The data was analyzed and showed a significant effect at time 2
through a repeated measures test. An ANOVA was run on each condition to determine that the effect was between the
experimental class and a control group. The results show a significant increase in fine motor ability among children in the
experimental condition after using these lessons, which was also found to be a significantly higher increase from the control
classrooms. This study is useful in detecting early intervention activities for preschoolers and young school-agers with a
The purpose of this handbook is to educate its readers on the developing psychotherapeutic discipline of drama therapy.
Briefly, drama therapy can be understood as the intentional application of the art of drama along with techniques from
theater to achieve therapeutic goals. The wide-ranging conceptual basis of drama therapy and its sister field, psychodrama
is examined. The history of drama therapy and its development from psychodrama among other sources is explored. The
often-misunderstood differences between drama therapy and psychodrama are discussed, as well as the relation of drama
therapy to other forms of psychotherapy. The techniques, theory, and current methods are described. Finally, the
weaknesses of the discipline are analyzed and suggestions for the further development of drama therapy are given.


Past research and theoretical background of mental practice are discussed and reviewed. Visual Motor Behavior Rehearsal
(VMBR), a form of mental practice, was used with a Division III women's lacrosse team to see if it would improve goal
shooting accuracy. A four week training session in relaxation and visualization was implemented at the beginning of the
regular season to train the subjects. Shooting trials occurred before, during and after the training sessions to determine if
VMBR would be effective. The results showed great variability and no significant difference was found between the
relaxation control group and the VMBR group. External variables that affected the data are discussed and implications are
made for future research with VMBR.


This literature review investigates the effectiveness of the use of meditation in conjunction with psychotherapy through the
examination of the measured or reported changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression. It was hypothesized that
participants receiving therapy and practicing meditation would have more positive outcomes, operationalized as the
alleviation of symptoms of anxiety and depression, than those participants receiving therapy alone. Information was
gathered by conducting a literature review on both qualitative and quantitative studies in which adult participants practiced
meditation at least three times per week. Previous studies used a wide range of therapies coupled with a wide range of
sitting meditation techniques. All were included in the current research because they fulfilled specific therapeutic and
meditative criteria. Results overwhelmingly supported the hypothesis that participants who practiced meditation as well as
received therapy were significantly less functionally impaired, than those receiving therapy alone, in the domains of
The purpose of this study was to learn about the common experiences that accompany the diagnosis of ADHD. There is
controversy over the disorder about whether or not it is over diagnosed, and about the dangers of the psychostimulant drugs
used to treat children. The currents study aimed to investigate the opinions of college students about these issues. Twelve
college students were interviewed about their experiences relating to ADHD, school, personal life, and treatment history.
The interviews were analyzes by content areas and common themes found within the responses. These included:
Symptoms, individual coping methods, teacher accommodations, parental support, parent-child relationships, social life,
attitudes about counseling, attitudes about ADHD, adjustment to college, and medication. Based on these themes, an
informational document was developed with suggestions for parents and children who are currently experiencing the
challenges of ADHD.
The relationship between scores on the five factor model of personality and class selection in a Massively Multiplayer online
(MMO) game were investigated. Participants included 1541 players of World of Warcraft (194 females and 1347 males,
aged 12-55 and older) that were made aware of the study via forum posts on the World of Warcraft forums. Participants
took a survey with a shortened version of the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (IPIP)‘s Big-Five Factor Markers
questionnaire. Questions relating to gaming behaviors and choices were included. Participants that played a priest were
higher in agreeableness than those that played a warrior. There were no other significant results for personality and class
selection, but a number of exploratory analyses of personality (as well as gender) and gaming behaviors and choices were
examined. This study discusses the directions that future exploration of MMOs is likely to take.

The present study sought to find differences in the way women are perceived based on the size of their breasts, and
whether or not the media influences society‘s approval of breast augmentation surgery. The hypotheses were that women
with large breasts would be rated more positively than women with small breasts, and that negative media would negatively
influence participants‘ attitudes towards breast surgery, whereas positive media would positively influence participant‘s
attitudes towards breast surgery. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment participants viewed the same
model with either large breasts, medium breasts or small breasts, and were asked to rate her based on character traits. In
the second experiment, participants viewed either a negative, neutral or positive video, and then reported their attitudes
about breast augmentation surgery. The findings show that the hypotheses were supported in part. The large-breasted
model was viewed as more popular than the small-breasted model, but also as more self-centered. For the second
With the considerable rise in violence and behavioral and emotional problems in today‘s elementary schools, more diverse
interventions are needed to help children express their concerns and emotions. An after-school art program was designed
with an emphasis on the individual, in attempts to develop a stronger sense of self-concept in participants. In a two group
pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research designed pilot study, effects were assessed to determine whether an art
therapy based curriculum could help to improve elementary school children‘s self-esteem, mood, and behavior. Despite
data collection problems, students responded extremely well to projects and positive changes in self-esteem related
attitudes were noted. If replicated over a longer period of time with a greater number of participants, this pilot study shows
support for improving a child‘s well being.

Perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, and work-family conflict are all issues of concern within the world of work.
The purpose of this study is to offer a more complex and inclusive design of the effects of gender orientation on levels of
perceived organizational support and job satisfaction. Furthermore it is examined whether gender orientation can be shown
to predict the direction of conflict between work and family. Self-report survey methods were employed to analyze 60 male
and female managers‘ responses on 5 measures. Results support no significant findings but limitations of the study and
issues regarding the need for further research are discussed.



This study explores the history of meditation and its relationship to psychotherapy, with a focus on Mindfulness-Based
Stress Reduction (MBSR), a relaxation technique that aims to increase awareness and enhance general well-being.
Researchers hypothesized that a brief MBSR intervention would improve mood and reduce anxiety. Participants completed
the Profile of Mood States Bipolar Version (POMS-Bi) to assess baseline mood on six different subscales and the State-Trait
Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to assess baseline anxiety. Experimental participants listened to a MBSR audio tape while the
control group laid in silence. All participants then completed the POMS-Bi and STAI to assess changes from baseline
measurements. Data was analyzed and results indicated significant increases on three positive POMS-Bi subscales and
significant decreases in anxiety for both experimental and control groups.

Fifty-eight students attending a small, liberal arts college participated in a study examining self-regulated academic goal
setting as a possible mediator in the relationship between personality variables (academic locus of control, optimism, and
neuroticism) and academic success (GPA and academic/institution satisfaction). Results showed classroom behavior skills
mediated the association between ALC and GPA while academic attention skills mediated the relationship between ALC
and academic/institution satisfaction. Also, ALC had a unique relationship with GPA that was mediated by classroom
behavior skills and a unique relationship with academic/institution satisfaction that was mediated by academic attention
skills. Limitations and suggestions for future research were discussed.


This literature review focuses on the behavioral treatment of children with autism. Reviewing the most known and used
behavioral treatments such as ABA, VBA, and TEACCH. Some interventions are coupled with supplemental treatments and
sensory and motor interventions. An in-depth look at the similarities and differences that each intervention has to each
other, as well as which intervention seems to work best for children with autism.




The aim of the current study was to determine the relationships of sex and self-esteem on risk-taking behavior from a terror
management perspective. Terror management theory states that when an individual is reminded of their inevitable death
they will be struck with terror and anxiety. To defend against the terror and anxiety and individual will use their worldview
defense and their self-esteem. The current study made participants aware of their inevitable death through mortality salience
or participants were in a control condition. The dependent variable of risk-taking behavior was measured through a self-
report. The results of the current study showed that participants who have a higher self-esteem will endorse risk-taking
behaviors on a sensation seeking scale because participants with higher self-esteem are more confident in their abilities.
However, further research should be done concerning terror management theory on risk-taking behavior; in order to, find
reasons to why people engage in risk-taking behaviors.
Television viewing and exposure to media are currently widespread phenomena regardless of age, but of particular interest
is the changing media consumption patterns found in children aged two years and younger. Over the last decade there has
been a rapid expansion of televised media products marketed to this age range, but this expansion has not been matched
by research into the effects this exposure has on children‘s cognitive, developmental, and health outcomes. The current
research examines the impact of media products on general language outcomes and target word learning, as well as
exploring the utility of televised media products as a means to present general information and inform children‘s
understanding of reality. In order to investigate caregivers‘ motives for exposing young children to television, consumer
reviews of children‘s media products were qualitatively analyzed. A number of conclusions and recommendations based on
this research are offered.
A survey was designed by the researcher to measure the stress levels and coping strategies of college athletes based on
ten different scenarios. The survey was distributed to 144 St. Mary‘s College varsity athletes, 58 females and 86 males, via
their respective coach. Results supported the hypothesis that there would be an effect of sex on stress levels. Data showed
that females reported higher stress levels than males. Data also showed support for the hypothesis that there were effects
of sex on coping choices, with males reporting more use of emotion focused and avoidance coping styles and females
utilizing problem focused and approach coping styles. Finally, data showed an effect of years of experience on stress levels
with fourth year students reporting less stress than second and third year students when dealing with academic problems.
There were also results which reported an effect of stress levels on the coping styles chosen to deal with the given
stressors. Thos athletes who reported higher stress levels were more likely to use problem focused coping while those who
The effects of chronic A1 and A2A antagonists on spatial memory were investigated. Low doses of drug were administered
daily (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) for 6 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed by performance during Morris Water Maze (MWM) training
and probe tests. The results indicated that subjects that received the A1 antagonist alone tended to acquired memory
slightly faster than animals that received only A2A antagonist. Animals that received A1 antagonist or a combination of the
two adenosine antagonists retained spatial memory preferences longer than animals that received only the A2A antagonist.
This suggest that if adenosine antagonism of the A1 receptor is minor memory is enhanced rather than impaired even when
antagonism occurs over a long period of time. These findings suggest that these low levels of antagonism are enough to
effect receptor activation but not enough to produce long-term changes in receptor binding.

The ability to detect deception is a very useful skill to possess if one is in the law enforcement industry. Criminals,
specifically those with psychopathy, tend to lie in order to avoid criminal charges. It has been shown that individuals who
possess a high level of psychopathy can be expert deceivers. But, does this mean that because these individuals are good
at deceiving, they are also good at detecting deception? This question was investigated by exploring the relationship
between psychopathy and the ability to detect deception. One hundred twenty four students, acting as naïve raters, were
measured on the trait of psychopathy with the Psychopathic Personality Interview (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) and asked to
detect deceptive presentations of 60 individuals who had been videotaped - either attempting to deceive or telling the truth.
The results indicated that as the level of psychopathy increases, the ability to detect deception decreased significantly (r = -
.216, p = .016). Thus, those individuals with high levels of psychopathy were worse at deception detection than those who
Previous literature has studied the immediate socio-emotional effects of owning a pet. Self-esteem and empathy are
generally considered to be important characteristics that are part of normal development. A person that has positive feelings
about themselves and is in touch with the feelings of those around him or her has the basis to be successful in life. The
current study sought to discover whether owning a pet as a child was related to individuals having higher self-esteem and
empathy later in life compared with those individuals who did not own a pet. Students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland were
surveyed using a pet-ownership questionnaire and measures of animal bonding, self-esteem, and empathy. It was predicted
that in general, students who had a pet as a child would score higher on both the self-esteem and empathy scales than the
non-pet-owners and furthermore that dog-owners would score higher on the two scales than cat owners. The results showed
that students who owned a pet as a child scored significantly higher on empathy than those students who did not own a pet.
[abstract not available]
The emotional response to athletic injury and the impact that athletic identity, social support, injury severity, pain, type of
sport, timing in season, and gender have on the emotional response were investigated. Participants were varsity athletes
from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland; 199 healthy athletes participated in phase 1 of the study and 27 of those athletes
participated in phase 2 of the study following an athletic injury. Phase 1 questionnaires were collected before athletes began
their sports season to measure athletic identity, social support, and current mood, in addition to other demographic
information. Phase 2 questionnaires were collected within 72 hours of an athletic injury, and again at one-week intervals
until the athletes returned to play; the questionnaire measured athletic identity, social support, current mood, injury severity,
type of injury, pain, and timing in season. Analyses did not reveal any significant findings between mood disturbance and
athletic identity, social support, injury severity, pain, timing in season, and gender; some significant findings not
The effects of pornographic images on individuals’ attitudes about date rape and sexual consent were examined. In addition
to examining sex differences, the study aimed to see if the race of the women in the pornographic images influenced
participants’ attitudes. Participants either viewed neutral images, pornographic images of White women or pornographic
images of Black women. Participants completed the Sexual Consent Attitudes Scale (Humphreys & Herold, 2007) and
answered questions about a date rape scenario (Katz, Moore & Tkachuk, 2007). A series of 2 x 3 ANOVAs were conducted.
Significant main effects for sex were found, but no significant main effects for image type were found. No significant
interactions were found, but non-significant trends were found. The conclusions of the study indicate that more research
needs to be done in this field.

Rates of depression are rising in adolescents. Adolescent depression is strongly linked to perceived social support. The
increase in the prevalence of adolescent depression presents several concerns because of the negative outcomes
associated with the disorder. Using existing research a program has been designed to use group activities and discussion
as a means to increase the participants‘ ability to receive and benefit from increased levels of peer social support. Based on
the assumption that improving an adolescent‘s perceptions of and actual peer social support will act as a protective and
preventative factor in regards to depressive symptoms it is possible that this program may help to prevent and decrease
depressive symptomatology in the participants.


Gender-schema theory predicts children will invoke gender schemata processing of information differently for males and
females. This indicates that they will be more attentive to gender-consistent than gender-inconsistent material and
subsequently recall the gender-consistent material more accurately. Forty-nine fifth grade students were presented with 15
pictures categorized as masculine, feminine, and neutral in content. They were asked to recall the pictures after viewing
them. A significant main effect was found for both pictures and for gender. A repeated measure ANOVA suggested
marginal significance in the interaction effect. The discussion will address reasons why marginal significance was produced.



Although inclusion has become a major focal point of the United States‘ educational system, there is relatively little research
available that clearly defines in what settings inclusion is most beneficial to all participants. This review of the literature
sought to determine how the success of an inclusive environment is measured, as well as the variables that influence that
success. Once the measures of success and possible benefits of inclusion in educational and recreational settings were
identified, factors necessary in the preparation, support, and instruction of an inclusive environment were used to suggest a
model for developing future inclusive environments. Overall, no common method of identifying success in inclusive
educational environments was found, nor was there plentiful methodologically sound empirical data regarding inclusion in
recreational settings.

This study examines the use of play therapy in working with children with Autism. Research shows that play can provide a
supportive environment for expression and emotional development. Play has been shown to improve social interaction,
communication, and behavior in children with Autism. In the present study, the researcher interviewed three play therapists
to gain a better understanding of the approach, process, and development of autistic children in play therapy. The
researcher found that emotional development appeared to be the most important aspect of change in these children.
Children also showed great improvements in social interaction and communication but did not seem to improve in behavior.
The researcher concludes that play might be best utilized in conjunction with other therapy approaches and that overall,
there should be a greater emphasis on the use of play with this population.
In today’s society, interracial relationships are still perceived and evaluated negatively. The current study focuses on sex,
race, self-esteem and age attitudes toward racial fear and racial equality on interracial dating preferences. Participants
numbered 420; 300 were Caucasians and 64 were other races including Latinos, African Americans, Asians, and Native
Americans. Males were 75 and females were 289, and their ages ranged from 7 to 47 years old. A regression analysis failed
to reveal that sex, race, self-esteem and age are predictors of racial fear and racial equality in interracial dating preferences.
Implications and future research are discussed.



In order to more carefully examine the effectiveness of different coaching techniques on athletes, an extensive literature
review was done on various research and studies associated with coaching technique. The conclusions drawn from this
literature review regarding coaching strategy and the psychological profiles of athletes are presented in this [project]. The
chapters are broken down into four main concepts that affect the psyche of an athlete: motivation, confidence, loss, and
success. The emphasis of the paper relates to the idea of a coach developing stronger relationships with his athletes and
examining the personality structure so that his coaching style can be most efficient by reflecting the individual differences
among athletes.


Schadenfreude, or feelings of pleasure at the misfortune of another, was investigated under a framework of gender, social
comparisons, and competition. Thirty-six participants (29 female, 6 male) acted as the judge of a competition between two
manipulation students that were made up (a superior comparison student and an average comparison student) via ―online
communication.‖ Participants rated Schadenfreude, and various other perceptions about the comparison students. In the
second part of the study, the students directly competed with the superior student. Interactions between gender and whether
the superior comparison student won or lost were investigated, but no significant results were found. Gender differences
were not found in relation to Schadenfreude, and the data do not conclusively suggest that Schadenfreude is experienced in
competitive situations. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.

The current study was designed to examine the roles of self-objectification and social comparison as they impact the
experience of social comparison, self-objectification, body shame, body anxiety, and self-restricted eating in college
females. The independent variables manipulated were the sex of the anticipated evaluative audience (either male or female)
and the presence of others while being evaluated (single, paired with thin-ideal peer or paired with average peer). None of
the results from a series of ANOVAs were found to be significant except for a significant interaction for body shame.
Variables that may protect against the experience of body shame, self-objectification and disordered eating behavior are
discussed.


This study was designed to test the hypothesis that extrinsic motivation would improve the academic performance of
elementary school children with an external locus of control. Twenty-four children completed the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of
Control Scale (N-SLCS), and were randomly assigned to either a reward or no reward condition. Children in the reward
condition were given a small toy following an academic-like math task. There was no evidence that providing a reward to
children with an external locus of control improved their performance. Limitations of the study will be discussed.




The purpose of this study was to explore the various acculturation and ethnic identity concerns that exist among Asian
American individuals and to then examine opinions regarding the use of multicultural and cross-cultural therapy for the
reconciliation of related issues. After gathering a sample of nine undergraduate Asian American students, phone interviews
pertaining to acculturation concerns and subsequent psychological help-seeking preferences were conducted and
transcribed. Following the transcription process, a technique known as Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) was utilized
in order to determine trends in the data. Ultimately, researchers determined that acculturation and ethnic identity
experiences were highly dependent upon individual factors such as feelings towards culture, parents‘ feelings towards the
role of culture in their children‘s lives, and the implementation of various coping mechanisms. Furthermore, opinions
regarding the use of therapy for the mitigation of these concerns were often contingent upon individual preferences and
Experimenters attempted to assess confidence and anxiety in athletes and non-athletes based on their performance. There
were 101 participants (47 men and 54 females) who volunteered to compete in a beanbag toss, golf-putt, and dart throw to
win one of four 50 dollar prizes. Conditions included alone, positive reinforcement (cheering), negative reinforcement
(booing), and simply the presence of people. Results showed a significant main effect in the performance of athletes to non-
athletes, however, there was no significant effect of condition. Future research should examine further the effects of anxiety
on athletes with more "sport specific" triggers.



This study aims to analyze the developmental impairments associated with women growing up in father absent homes. This
will entail gaining a greater understanding of the historical and societal factors that influence our views of marriage, the
family system and parent/child interactions. The analysis of parent behavior, child temperament, parent/child relationships
suggest that parents influence our social and cognitive development. A woman‘s relationship satisfaction, fear of intimacy
and her social competence through assertion and dating are assessed in this examination of father absence; in addition, to
an investigation of age on outcome. This study used a sample of 195 undergraduate women aged 18-25 to complete an
online survey. This survey includes Thelen‘s fear of Intimacy scale, The Hendrick Relationship Assessment Scale and the
Dating and Assertion Questionnaire. A Univariate Analysis of Variance was used to investigate significance on each of these
variables. Results revealed that the woman‘s age at the time of the initial father absence showed no significant differences
The systematic study of bullying began in the 1970s. Scandinavia was one of the first countries to investigate the behavior
patterns and reactions to this phenomenon. Norway later joined this force toward the early 1980s and the global
investigation catalyzed in the 1980s and early 1990s (Olweus, 1997; 2003). Bullying has existed in schools for centuries. In
the past people viewed it as a normal part of growing up, a toughening phase of childhood (Ma, Stewin, & Mah, 2001).
Inquiring minds and school officials were alerted to these incidents when children began committing suicide and leaving
notes about how they could not suffer the harassment of their classmates anymore. In Norway, three boys took their lives
partly as a result of severe bullying and in Tokyo a 13 year-old boy hanged himself, leaving a note that blamed his
classmates (Ma et al., 2001). The U.S. Secrete Service conducted a study to identify the psychological and familial factors
related to school-shooters. Through interviews they found that 71% of the shooters had been victims of bullying (Vossekuil,
Studies have shown that an adolescent’s pubertal timing influences certain factors, like the likelihood of developing
psychological problems, engaging in delinquency, sexual experience, and self-concept. This study seeks to determine
whether pubertal timing influences personality, using the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness,
conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness). Participants completed a questionnaire measuring their perceived pubertal
timing and personality. They were then placed in one of three groups (early, on-time, or late maturers) and their scores for
each personality trait were totaled. A series of 2x3 ANOVAs (sex x pubertal timing) was completed to analyze the data. The
only significant main effect was for sex for neuroticism, with females being more neurotic than males. These results suggest
that pubertal timing does not influence personality.

Different sex education programs and curriculums were examined. The effectiveness of abstinence-only and comprehensive
programs was compared. Abstinence-only programs were deemed ineffective by existing literature while comprehensive
programs were found to be most effective at lowering pregnancy and STD rates among teens. A number of components and
topics included in many sex education programs were examined in detail and the wishes of parents and students in sex
education programs were discussed. An existing middle school sex education curriculum was critiqued and changed to form
the author’s ideal which includes more parental involvement, a teacher with a health background, and topics including
communication skills, obtaining accurate health information, and homosexuality. Recommendations were made for future
research in those areas.

A study of members/residents of three secular intentional communities was conducted to determine the demographic and
personality traits of the individuals who choose to join intentional communities. 62 community members/residents completed
a survey with demographic and personality assessment items. The survey results from community members/residents were
compared with the results from a comparison group, and some significant differences were found. The survey results from
community members/residents were also tested for intercorrelation. Seven community members/residents participated in
interviews to provide information on the experience of individuals within communities. The themes of sustainability,
feminism, and active conflict resolution/prevention (ACRP) were isolated from the interviews. The implications of the
findings, both for future research and for mainstream society, are discussed.
The author interviewed seven lucid dreamers ages 18-21. All participants were asked a series of 24 open-ended questions
about their lucid dreams. Questions dealt with quantity of dreams, emotions, elements of control, effects in waking life, and
meaning. Transcripts of interview were then assessed according to Hill, Thompson, & Williams (1997). Researcher wanted
to do qualitative assessment of dream content to get full understanding of dream experience.




Chances are that there is more than one person that you know that has gone through some type of divorce or separation, or
has had to deal with single-parenting, remarriage, or the emergence of a new stepfamily unit (whether it be a stepfather,
stepmother, or stepsiblings). The fact of the matter is that divorce has skyrocketed in the last 20-30 years, has plateaued
recently, but is still on an upward trend. Nowadays 50% of all marriages are likely to end in divorce, and these percentages
are between 55%-60% for the United States (Amato, 1994). Amongst those currently divorced, 75% will involve children,
and 60% of these that involve children result in single-parent families (Hetherington, 1988). In addition, 1/3 of the children
that experience their parent‘s divorce will experience their remarriage as well, and even more alarming is that 62% of these
remarriages appear destined to end in divorce too (1988). Equally as distressing is that those remarriages that involve
children from previous marriages are at a 50% higher risk for dissolution than those remarriages that don‘t involve
[abstract not available]




Based on previous literature investigating the effects of stress, social support, and coping, it was hypothesized that athletes
having high stress, low social support, and less frequent use of coping behaviors would show the greatest injury severity. It
was also hypothesized that for this population, the use of instrumental support would be as effective as the use of emotional
support, and that athletes under greater stress would engage in more detrimental health practices, becoming injured more
severely. Athletes representing men‘s and women‘s basketball and lacrosse teams (N = 79) completed measures of stress,
social support, coping, and a health behavior inventory prior to the beginning of their season. Injury data were obtained from
the athletic trainers throughout the season. Instrumental support and emotional support singly predicted injury severity.
They also interacted with measures of stress and social support satisfaction to impact injury severity. Health behaviors
interacted with stress and coping, predicting greater injury severity. The hypothesis that high stress, low perceived social
This study was designed to compare first and fourth graders‘ relationships to their teachers in terms of attachment,
interpersonal connection, and dependence. Participants included 19 first graders (7 male, 12 female) and 16 fourth graders
(10 male, 6 female). It was hypothesized that first graders would be more attached than fourth graders, fourth graders
would be more connected than first graders, and girls of both ages would be more attached and connected than boys. A
factor analysis of the data revealed the created measure had three factors: lack of interpersonal connection, difficult child,
and dependence. No significant differences were found on any factor. The limitations of the study as well as the
possibilities for the future are discussed.


[abstract not available]
The sexual double standard is defined as an inconsistency in socially acceptable sexual activity for males and for females. A
sexual double standard was demonstrated solely in participants’ views of the target’s self-esteem and female participants’
views of the target’s responsibility. A reverse double standard was supported for ratings of target intelligence. For goal-
orientedness, respectability and responsibility a single sexual double standard was supported. The hypothesis that female
participants would rate the female target significantly more harshly than male participants was supported for both
responsibility and self-esteem. Male peers were trended to be more forgiving over all, supporting the hypothesis that
participants will perceive lower ratings from female peers.


Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the cognitive functioning of humans (Hollingwoth et
al., 2006). Damage to the nBM via human AD or an experimental lesion may alter processing in the amygdala leading to
changes in emotion and mood. AD has also been shown to affect mood, such as anxiety and depression in humans (Delano-
 Wood et al., 2007). The nBM is known to send cholinergic projections to the amygdala (Mesulam et al., 1983), which has
been previously shown to be involved in aspects of emotional learning and fear responding (LeDoux, 2000). The
researchers hypothesized that quisqualic acid lesions will disrupt the cholinergic pathways from the nBM to the amygdala,
which will cause an increase in time spent immobile in the forced swim test, decrease in preference for sucrose in the
sucrose preference test and decrease in entries and time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze. 192- IgG
saporin nBM lesions were hypothesized to effect projections to the cortex and will have fewer changes seen in depression
The first therapeutic horseback riding program centers were established in the 1950s and therapeutic riding has since
gained popularity. It is viewed by many as an acceptable for of therapy for children and adults with physical and mental
disabilities, as well as for those with other difficulties (such as children with behavioral problems). Despite the success of
these programs, there is limited research to support their claims of being therapeutic. Much of the literature in support of
therapeutic horseback riding is based more on speculation and limited case studies than empirical research. Therapeutic
horseback riding has the ability to help some individuals better their lives, and any activity that might provide this opportunity
is certainly worth examining further. This project provides the reader with a history of and background research on
therapeutic horseback riding and proposes a study to examine specific effects of therapeutic horseback riding on autistic
children.
[abstract not available]




Crisis and hostage negotiation, a discipline which has only become a reality in the last 30 years, has gained great popularity
in the law enforcement community in recent years. Negotiation teams are not only called upon to deal with hostage
situations but with suicide threats, crisis situations, and sieges.The history of such developments is explored in addition to
the current techniques of negotiation and their application.




[abstract not available]
Although it has been proposed that difficulties coping with acculturative stress may result in mental illness, little research
has directly focused on indigenous populations known to experience such stress as a result of globalization (Arnett, 2002;
Berry,1997). The current study examines the phenomenon of “Nerves” syndrome, a label used locally for a group of young
Gambian men who desperately want to travel. Because the population afflicted with the “Nerves” syndrome is composed of
youth who are involuntarily immobile, previous research indicates that this population may be particularly susceptible to
mental health problems (Berry, 1997; Carling; 2002). Through participant observation in local mental hospitals as well as
interviews with (n = 7) Gambian and Senegalese respondents, this study investigates whether those experiencing this
“syndrome” experience mental illness, as well as the local and global context influencing the experience of the “syndrome.”

After-school programs are slowly gaining popularity all across the country. New information about children‘s use of their
after-school time has prompted many school officials to take action and provide students with an after-school alternative.
Many children go home to empty houses or engage in dangerous activities once school is dismissed. Spending time in an
after-school program gives students the opportunity to be in a supervised environment and gives parents the peace of mind
that their children are safe. After-school programs come in various forms, but academically based programs have been
receiving a significant amount of attention due to the fact that they can provide additional help for the many at-risk children
who struggle with their schoolwork during the day. One school, Carver Elementary, implemented such a program, and for
the 2003-2004 school year observations were made and interviews were conducted to determine the progress and status of
the program. Initial results showed that Carver‘s after-school program is doing well. Like many other young programs,
The role of television in the daily lives of children has been explored for several decades, with investigations focusing on
various aspects of the medium. One area of children‘s programming that has received a great deal of attention is
educational television, and whether or not it serves as a valuable educational tool. Many of the investigations examining
educational television have studied not only the overall content, but also the contribution of specific shows, such as Sesame
Street or Blue‘s Clues. The current investigation consists of three distinct parts, the first of which is an extensive literature
review of the research conducted regarding educational television. The second is a content analysis of the children‘s
program Dora the Explorer, which will be utilized to create the study materials for the third and final portion of the
investigation. This third portion is a research proposal designed to examine the educational contribution of Dora the
Explorer, which has gained popularity throughout the past few years. This particular show is important to investigate due to
Goals are often implemented due to the recognition that a positive result is associated with having personalized goals. The
present study aimed to explore the extent to which goal-setting influences motivation and goal progress from 18 clients in a
clinical rehabilitation setting. Participants had the option of independently filling out surveys or being interviewed. A
significant positive correlation was found between client self-reports of goal progress and levels of motivation. Further
research should examine client perceptions of symptom interference and medication issues to eliminate motivation and goal
progress barriers.



Individual differences and their effects upon the reality monitoring model are examined within this study. Two separate
vividness scales were are utilized in measuring one‘s vividness. The first scale tested one‘s visual vividness and the other
examined an individual‘s ability to mentally recreate auditory stimuli. It was hypothesized that those who are rated as being
high imagers will experience greater reality monitoring errors while attempting to determine the origin of the event memory.
Participants were shown a video, which instructed them to either imagine something or prepare to experience something by
one of the real exposure conditions. In reviewing the results of the study, it was determined that no correlation existed
between the frequency of one‘s errors and their level of vividness. A reality monitoring error did occur within the imagine
hear and see condition. In addition, a finding that was not expected occurred in which the imagined hearing condition
demonstrated the best recall, when compared to the other imagined conditions. Thus, there is a need for the further
Religion has been, and continues to be, investigated by the greatest empirical and metaphysical thinkers of the ages. Even
so, there remains a lack of consensus on the precise nature of religion and the religious experience. According to Freud,
―Religion is comparable to a childhood neurosis‖ (Freud, 1928, p. 353) while, Rudolf Otto the well known theologian said that
―Religion is that which grows out of, and gives expression to, experience of the holy in its various aspects‖ (Otto, 1958, p.
68). The prominent philosopher Immanuel Kant said that ―Religion is the recognition of all our duties as divine commands‖
(Kant, 1800, p. 31). As one can see these varying interpretations of religion remain a source of individual interpretation.
Although interesting, these definitions fall short of unifying all religions under one classification system. An alternate
approach to creating a constraining, all-encompassing set of definitions is to link all religions by a common and seemingly
shared factor - the transcendence of death (Becker, 1973). The one over-arching fact of life is the inevitability of death and,
The roles, responsibilities, and methods of intervention of school-based speech-language pathologists have changed
substantially over the past decades. All facets of education in American public schools have been affected over time by
continuous change in legislature, regulations, societal demands, fiscal restraints, and professional factors.
The American Speech Language and Hearing Association refers to language as ―our most human characteristic,‖ as it is a
quintessential aspect of learning, working, and social interaction (2003). Within the United States, an estimated 6 million
students under the age of 18 suffer from a speech or language disorder. When the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act (IDEA) Amendments were passed in June of 1997 there was a 10.5% increase in the number of students treated by a
speech-language pathologist, indicating the accurate prevalence of speech and language disorders within the school
system (Owens, Metz & Haas, 2003). The 22nd Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of IDEA (1998) stated
The correlations between individual difference factors and the ability to reduce false memories created in the Deese-
Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm through the use of a warning were examined. This paradigm involves the
presentation of lists in which all words are related to a target word, which is not presented (known as the ―critical lure‖).
False memories of critical lure items created within this study were lower when a warning was given, however their recall
and recognition was not eliminated, showing the robust nature of this task. The warnings were found to be more effective
for individuals scoring high across several academic measures as well as several personality measures.



The study examines the effects of juror perceptions of mental illness on judgments in a criminal trial. One hundred
undergraduates (87 female, 13 male) read a scenario consisting of two parts, a general description of a crime (the same for
all participants) and one of five condition specific sections consisting of testimony about the defendant and his mental state
(the defendant having either no mental illness, or one of four disorders: Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Antisocial
Personality Disorder (APD), or Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED)). The effects of specific diagnosis, juror perceptions of
the responsibility of the defendant for the crime, and juror perception of the dangerousness of the defendant, on juror
judgments were examined. Also, the effect of general attitudes about mental illness and knowledge about the disorders
involved is investigated. The results showed that disorder and responsibility have significant effects on juror judgments but
perceptions of dangerousness are not good predictors of any judgments included in the questionnaire. Furthermore,
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the psychological cue of confidence on the second and fourth
stages of the self-fulfilling prophecy by demonstrating that a coach‘s impression of athlete confidence predicts coach
behavior and athlete performance. This hypothesis was tested with one coach and 13 Division III collegiate swim team
participants. Mid-season, the coach completed an overall expectancy rating and a trait sport confidence scale for each
participating athlete. At the end of the season, athletes completed a measure assessing the frequency of specific coaching
behaviors, and a trait sport confidence inventory. Performance information including percent of improvement over the
season and percentile rank among participating athletes at a conference championship were collected. Step-wise linear
regressions showed that the coach‘s perception of the athletes‘ confidence was the strongest predictor of athlete recall of
positive and negative coaching behaviors such that as the coach‘s confidence impression increased, the athletes‘ recall of
It was estimated that 72.9 million Americans aged 12 years or older were users of a tobacco product in 2006. Nicotine in
tobacco interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and activates reward centers in the central nervous
system (CNS), including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which leads to behavioral reinforcement and addiction.
Nicotinic receptor systems are involved in a wide variety of behavioral functions, including cognition. In both humans and
animals, nicotine administration has been shown to improve reaction time, working memory, and attentional processes.
Importantly, research indicates that measures of nicotine-induced improvement in cognitive processes, such as working
memory, are abolished when concurrently administered with nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC), suggesting that
nAChRs mediate the actions of nicotine‘s cognitive enhancement. In humans, self-administration of nicotine, i.e. smoking,
has been beneficial in alleviating cognitive dysfunction in disorders such as Alzheimer‘s Disease (AD) and schizophrenia.
Researchers have come to several different conclusions concerning the development of morality. The Defining Issues Test
(DIT) was used to determine the level of moral reasoning achieved by students at a public liberal arts college. Students were
studied cross sectionally through a sample of first year students and seniors only. Three predictions were made based on
pervious research using DIT scores. Seniors were predicted to score higher than first year students. Students who have
taken an ethics class were predicted to score higher than those who did not take an ethics class. The final prediction was
that males would display a higher level of moral development on the DIT than females. No significant results were found for
any of the predictions.
Instant messenger has become a popular tool for socializing, particularly on college campuses. However, there is
considerable controversy regarding whether friendships developed over this medium are of equal quality to those developed
face-to-face. This study had pairs of female participants engage in conversations over the course of three sessions, either
face-to-face or using instant messenger. They completed the Reysen Likeability Scale (2005) after each session, and their
conversation was coded for self-disclosing and affectionate statements using the Couple‘s Communication Coding System
(Hollinsworth, King, & Woolley, 1991). The results showed no difference in likeability ratings between the two
communication mediums, but revealed that those who spoke face-to-face used more self-disclosing statements than did
those who used instant messenger.

The current treatment trend for Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the use of medication, primarily stimulants.
Though this treatment option has proven to be very effective there are still questions of whether or not medication should be
the primary treatment. Though medication treats the core symptoms of ADHD, there are many psychological components of
the disorder that medication cannot treat fully. Each case of ADHD is different and thus it is very important to look at each
case individually. Treatment matching has become a topic of focus in the recent past. By treating each child diagnosed with
ADHD individually, using psychosocial interventions, medication, or both, future treatment will be much more efficacious.



Twelve participants from a nursing home and retirement community completed a survey that assessed the factors
influencing the fear of death in the elderly. Surveys that measured life satisfaction, health status, social support, locus of
control, and religiosity were administered to the facility residents. The data was analyzed using an independent t-test and
the Pearson correlation to find correlations between the psychosocial variables, death anxiety, and the participants'
residence. Only one correlation consistent with past research was found, no significant differences in psychosocial
variables and death anxiety were found between the two residences. The lack of significant results is discussed in light of a
small sample size. Suggestions for future research on the role residence plays in determining death anxiety in the elderly is
also discussed.

The study and awareness of self-mutilation by educators dealing with teens is important because of the increasing
incidences among adolescents and even if self-mutilation is without suicidal intent, it can still cause long-term damage to the
body (Zanarini et al., 2006). Education on the matter is the best defense for self-mutilation prevention (Izutsu et al., 2006;
Berne & Huberman, 2000). The purpose of this study was to provide extensive background research on self-mutilation as a
tool for middle and high school faculty and staff members, and to develop educational materials to aid schools in educating
themselves, their students, and the parents and guardians.



Motivation in the workforce has been found to predict job satisfaction. This study examines motivation on a cross-cultural
level, looking at the similarities and differences in motivation of employees in the developed countries of the United States
and Japan and of employees in the undeveloped countries of Honduras and Madagascar. While the effects of motivation on
job satisfaction have been studied cross-culturally, there is little research in this area when comparing developed countries
and undeveloped countries. It is hypothesized that workers in undeveloped nations will be more intrinsically motivated, and
therefore experience more job satisfaction, while developed nations will be more extrinsically motivated, and therefore be
less satisfied with their jobs.


This study analyzed the overall knowledge of ADHD of practicing teachers of St. Mary’s County Public schools in the state of
Maryland. Their knowledge of ADHD was compared to their attitudes towards students with ADHD and their self-efficacy of
teaching these students. The knowledge of ADHD was measured using a newly developed instrument while the attitudes
and self-efficacy were measured through a direct probe question. There was no correlation between the overall knowledge
of ADHD and attitudes or self-efficacy. However, there was a negative correlation (which was predicted) between attitudes
and self-efficacy. The results of this study were relatively similar to previous studies and showed the need for more
resources that have information regarding the treatment of this disorder. The discussion compares the results of this study
to previous literature and discusses the implications of these findings.
Biological motion displays were presented to 18 naïve participants in two experiments. The first experiment used between 1
and 11 different colors to attempt to disrupt the grouping of the dots of the biological walker. The second experiment used
lines, as opposed to dots, in between one and eight different orientations also in an attempt to disrupt walker grouping. No
significance was found between any conditions of either experiment when d‘ scores were analyzed. This would suggest the
ability to group biological motion dots into a human-like figure is stronger than anticipated and not easily disrupted.




Adolescent drug use is a common problem in today‘s society. Many programs have tried to combat the ever-growing
problem, some with very little success (Abbey, 2000; Donnermeyer, 2000; Ellickson, 2003). Factors such as family
influence, peer choice, as well as the media‘s role in shaping adolescent perceptions need to be taken into account for such
programs to be effective (Bauman, 1994, 1996; Dinges, 2003; Jenkins, 1996; Kandel, 1996; Stephenson, 1996; Tickle,
2001; Windle, 2000). The inclusion of parents in prevention programs also greatly influences the efficacy of such programs.
The program proposed in this study uses the aforementioned factors as a foundation in order to make the most effective
drug prevention program possible.


Americans, especially teens and young adults, have extensive exposure to various types of media such as television, music,
internet, and magazines. Because of this large exposure, many social scripts and stereotypes are learned though media,
including scripts and stereotypes about gender. The goal of this research was to examine whether repeated exposure to
men displaying stereotypical feminine traits and women displaying traditionally masculine traits could reduce sex
stereotypes that current and past media have aided in creating. To examine this influence, 29 undergraduate students were
randomly assigned to view either media depicting reverse stereotyped gender roles (e.g., men cooking) or gender absent
media. Each participant viewed media once a week for four weeks. Participants completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory
(BSRI) and a Sex Role Belief Survey both prior to the study and at the last session of the study. Results examined the
difference between gender identity and stereotyped beliefs between pre and post media exposure measures as well as
Prior research has shown that cancer diagnosis can have a significant effect on psychosocial functioning. Young adult
cancer survivors (especially survivors of childhood cancer) display unique psychosocial characteristics, coping styles, and
difficulties. Prior research has found that cancer patients experience some stigma, although this stigma is often more
positive than stigmatized views experienced by other groups. Research also suggests that people with chronic illness may
be more empathetic and open to others. Thus, this study was designed to test stigma and attitudes in young adult survivors
of childhood cancer compared to other young adults. The researcher compared young adults‘ social acceptance of
hypothetical peers with cancer or depression. The researcher also examined whether status as a cancer survivor or as a
friend/relative of a cancer survivor impacted social acceptance. Results showed that young adults are significantly more
accepting of hypothetical peers with cancer as opposed to peers with depression; participants who had been diagnosed with
The purpose of this literature review was to examine research about how children with autism view friendships, and to use
this information to create a book for children with autism. There are a few main areas of research this paper centers around.
These are: the problems children with autism face, how these problems could be related to cognitive behaviors, how
children with autism view themselves, how children with autism view friendships, reading comprehension of children with
autism, different interventions that are helpful for children with autism, and the effect of bibliotherapy on children with autism.
Bibliotherapy was found to correct negative social behaviors of children with autism, so the idea of bibliotherapy was used
for the completed children‘s book. The main theme in the book was that children with autism can have friends and that
friends should accept and celebrate each other‘s differences. The book, called ―My Friend David‖ is included in the appendix
of the paper.
The purpose of the current research is to examine the effect of victimization on social skills in women with schizophrenia.
This is a crucial question because social skills are prognostic of outcome in schizophrenia (Hyronemus, et al., 1998;
Bellack, et al., 1994). The sample consisted of women with schizophrenia who either currently meet criteria for substance
dependence or have a history of substance dependence. I hypothesized that a history of physical or sexual abuse would be
associated with poorer social skills. Moreover, it was predicted that those subjects who experienced abuse in childhood
would have greater social skills deficits than those who experienced adult abuse only, while both child and adult
victimization should result in the greatest deficits. Finally, I expected that a history of sexual abuse would be associated with
poorer social skills as compared to a history of physical abuse only, with the greatest degree of social impairment found in
those women with both sexual and physical abuse histories. Additionally, I expect that sexual abuse survivors will display
In the past, researchers have noted that a main focus in early childhood is on the development of gender roles and gender
identity. Although social interactions and exposure to popular media sources have been shown to provide a basis for this
gender role development, children’s books have been considered a powerful influence as well. In the present study, a
collection of 71 children’s picture books were analyzed for gender representation and emotion stereotypes. All examined
books were awarded either the Caldecott Medal or Caldecott Honor award, making them top-selling picture books. It was
anticipated that overall female presence and female main character presence would increase in the illustrations and text of
these books over the years. In addition, it was hypothesized that, with time, female characters would be associated with
fewer emotion words and male characters with more emotion words. All hypotheses were unsupported. In the case of these
award-winning books, male characters continuously outnumbered female characters in terms of visibility, or explicit
Rats with bilateral quisqualic acid lesions of the nucleus basalis magocelluaris (nBM), saline sham lesioned rats and non-
surgical control rats, were compared with odor unique learn set problems and open-field activity, under four treatment
conditions: initial 40, saline, alaproclate, and post-test. Pre-training data suggests that simple discrimination ability was still
intact after the nBM lesion was inflicted. Evidence of learning set formation was seen in both control/sham and nBM
lesioned rats with no significant difference between the groups. There was no group difference in open-field activity.
Alaproclate administered in a dose of 7.5 mg/Kg did not enhance learning set ability in either control/sham or nBM lesioned
rats.


First impressions are affected by many factors. The purpose of this experiment was to determine what effects a tattoo or
body piercing has on first impressions amongst college students. The gender of the viewer was investigated to see if there
would be differences in first impressions. Photographs were manipulated into three conditions of either having a tattoo,
having a body piercing, or no body art. Participants were to rate the likelihood of the individual portrayed in the photograph
to certain characteristics. Results indicated that there were gender differences between first impressions of individuals with
tattoos or body piercings. Future research is suggested for investigating different aspects of body art and how it influences
the formation of a first impression.


Point light displays sufficiently convey enough biological motion information for naïve observers to interpret motion cues as
human without any interference from structural cues. Even the more specific characteristics of sex and emotion of the
actors are accurately recognized from such displays. The aim of this study was to see if certain emotions were recognized
better than others, if actor sex influences emotion perceived or vice versa, and if the other emotion in the interactive point
light display influences either emotion or sex perception. Congruent emotions (such as happy and sad or angry and scared)
were perceived more accurately when performed in the same display. In addition, sex judgments were based on emotion;
males were identified with the emotions angry and happy, while females were identified with the emotions sad or scared.


This study took an exploratory approach to investigating young adults‘ experiences and management of challenges, with
particular emphasis on aspects of self-assessment. Sixteen college students (8 male, 8 female, ages 18-22) were
interviewed and data were analyzed using Consensual Qualitative Research. Analysis yielded nine broad domains,
described as recent or common challenges, feelings and reactions, approaches, self-assessment of management ability
and strategy effectiveness, helpful and hindering aspects of strategies/approaches, amendments, suggestions to others,
predictions about the future, and descriptions and thoughts about self. Results suggest that traditional investigations of
coping may not sufficiently recognize the subjective aspects of the stress and coping experience, and that further research
is necessary to better understand the implications of individuals‘ self-assessments relating to challenges and challenge
management.
Most research devoted to the development of emotion recognition in children has focused on facial expressions of emotion.
However, in recent years some attention has focused on vocal expression of emotions. The present study tested whether or
not age and gender differences exist in the accuracy of children‘s perceptions of five basic vocal emotions: anger, fear,
disgust, sadness, and happiness. Two actors, one male and one female encoded emotions using a fixed statement. One
hundred and ten children in grades kindergarten, third, and fifth heard each emotion twice and were asked to identify the
emotion that best fit in a forced choice format. Significant age differences with respect to accuracy were found, whereby
older children were more accurate than younger children. No gender differences were found. Accuracy in identifying
emotions increased the second time the participant heard the emotion. Happiness was the emotion most accurately
identified and disgust was the most difficult emotion to identify. Information learned from the present study and other such
Ever since the passage of the ADA in 1990, those providing services to the public were required to be cognizant of disabled
individuals or face possible legal action. Deaf mental health services have been an area of considerable need for decades
despite ADA regulations. An evaluation of resources and services shows the psychological community is doing a poor job
of addressing the needs of the deaf and hard-of-hearing. Specialists and interpreters are lacking nationwide, especially in
rural areas. Future suggestions are numerous, but must include community services with qualified individuals to be
efficacious. As the baby boomers age, they will increase the need for the number or deaf/hard-of-hearing services like
never before. The psychological community will soon be unable to ignore the needs of the deaf. Only time will tell what
direction mental health services for the deaf and hard-of-hearing will take.

Using a modest size sample (N = 106) of college age students from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland, the researcher for the
present study aimed to discover whether or not client fear of therapy was moderated by three independent variables: client
gender, therapist gender, and facial expressions displayed by the therapist. A series of statistical analyses were done,
including between subjects t-tests, partial correlations, and two 4 x 2 x 3 ANOVA‘s, to find support for the experimental
hypotheses. Regrettably, no significant results were found in support of the hypotheses. Implications for these results
include the potential efficacy of online-based therapy as an alternative for males as opposed to traditional therapy.
Limitations and future research are also discussed.


Youth sports participation has been a topic of great concern in terms of its benefits. The purpose of this paper is to take a
closer look at the research investigating the effects of sports participation on a youth population. The psychological,
emotional, social, and intellectual benefits of sports participation are all reviewed, revealing sport has the potential to offer
positive outcomes for participants. Following the literature review, the research focusing on sports participation is evaluated,
outlining issues with quasi-experimental designs and problems arising from not having a control group. An outline of a sport
program that has the potential for the most psychological benefit to participants is included as well as suggestions for
designing research that will provide a better indication of the actual affects of sports participation on a youth population.


In this work, I shall review the literature that assesses psychological and biological gender differences related to the
Feminist, Social Learning, and Sociobiological perspectives of rape, as well as Psychoanalysis. I also conducted a study
(which is contained in the contents of the Social Learning discussion) entitled, The Effects of Fraternity-like Membership and
Gender on Rape Myth Acceptance. Using the ―short-form‖ of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale (IRMA-SF) I compared
the degree of rape myth acceptance given by members of a fraternal-like organization to that given by a general St. Mary's
College population. I also assessed any gender differences between females and males within each condition (general
population and fraternal-like population) as well as between the total population of females and the total population of males.
From St. Mary‘s College of Maryland 120 students (57 male and 63 female) between the ages of 18 and 22 participated.
The findings from this study suggest that males are more accepting of rape myths than are females. However, the results
Previous areas of research involving youth tobacco use have addressed a few different approaches toward tobacco
programming: a) psychosocial factors, which includes combating peer pressure and understanding social norms; b)
information campaigns, which inform students of the negative health problems associated with tobacco use; c) logical
reasoning skills, which encourage students to understand what possible motivations encourage them to smoke. All of these
approaches incorporate persuasive mechanisms, but they often do not address persuasion directly. It is an implied process,
used in subtle ways as part of program configurations. The purpose of this proposal is to analyze the use of persuasive
mechanisms as an integral part of a tobacco prevention program. There are several reasons for this focus. One reason is
practical: A thorough review of all approaches to prevention programming would require years to complete. A second reason
is strategic: By providing a base knowledge and framework for this kind of approach, schools will be able to use the
Many researchers have studied aggression. The current study examines a small sample of students at St. Mary's College of
Maryland and two Charles County Community College campuses. Participants read two vignettes, one detailing a case of
provoked aggression and the other a case of unprovoked aggression. Researchers are looking at the effects that family
dynamics might have on the development of aggression. Results showed no evidence for a relationship between family
dynamics and the aggressiveness of the participant. While the results were insignificant, it may be due to problems with the
sample. Future research needs to examine factors that are associated with aggression across more diverse samples.
The current study focused on the representations of gender stereotypes that prevail in prime-time Turkish television dramas
and sit-coms. Specifically, a content analysis was conducted for prevalence, age, weight, hair color, setting, and gendered
activities of male and female characters. Findings suggested that there were significant differences between male and
female characters that characterized women as younger and decorative, whereas men were portrayed as older, more
overweight, and more likely to be seen outside of the home. An extensive literature review discussed television research in
general, cross-cultural media research, and a brief history of Turkish politics.



The present study investigated nicotine‘s role in oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the
cerebrovasculature of rats. Specifically, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and
nitrotyrosine levels were examined in endothelial cells (ECs) of the basilar artery to investigate the role of reactive oxygen
species (ROS) in oxidative stress while proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was examined in vascular smooth muscle
cells (VSMCs) to investigate nicotine-induced promotion of atherosclerosis. This report found that nitrotyrosine levels were
elevated in rats treated with nicotine and given a withdrawal period of 7 days while PCNA levels were elevated in rats
treated with nicotine for 28 days. Discussed are the implications of these findings and the compensatory mechanisms of the
vascular system involved in the cessation of smoking/nicotinic intake.

Autism is shrouded in the public eye as a mysterious disorder in which communicating with diagnosed individuals is near
impossible. The goal of this review is to take some of the mystery out of autism and present the dynamics and variability of
the spectrum of social symptoms, neurological correlates, and behavioral therapy that consumes both the individual and his
or her family. The information presented is the foundation of a supplementary [documentary film] entitled Seeing Eye to Eye:
Autism, Therapy and the Family and is an attempt to give a wider audience an appreciation for the intricacies, struggles, and
triumphs involved in living with autism.



In the life of an individual, he or she will be subject to new experiences and new environments repeatedly but, it is the first
major transitional experience into a new setting which can be the most troublesome to a child. When preparing a child to
endure a transitional experience into a new setting, caregivers should keep in mind the importance of the child‘s
temperament, the parent-child attachment relationship, parenting style, and the environment, which the child would enter.
Particularly, the day care (or preschool), school, and clinical settings are found to have criteria for what make a good
environment. Although the environment of the new setting is important to the transition, a child may have some underlying
conflicts with the situation. In order to communicate his or her feeling about the matter, children who do not have the
motivation or verbal competence to talk out the problem can act out the problem through play. Play can serve as therapy for
almost any child in almost any situation. Although play therapy may not be effective for immediate results, it does in fact
[abstract not available]




Study 1 examines the issue of therapist preference, with the hypothesis that match will be preferred by minority clients.
Questionnaires were administered to obtain preferences for and importance ratings of specific therapist characteristics,
including race, age, gender, sexual orientation, religion and political ideology. Participants reported therapists‘
demographics did not matter except for gender and sexual orientation and overall did not want to be matched. In Study 2,
archival data from a mental health facility showed the effect of matching client and therapist, using the number of sessions
to determine the affect that level of demographic match had on therapy. Age, gender and race match were considered and
all were found to lack any relationship with the number of sessions attended.
This article explores the effects of attachment style, sex, gender role orientation, and race on partner preferences. Few
investigations have examined the effects of multiple variables influencing partner preference, as partner preferences are
important in mate selection. A college sample of 80students (18-29 yrs old) completed Hazan and Shaver‘s three category
self reported system of attachment (AAS), a thirty-five item measure of characteristics desired in a partner/dating option, as
well as a shortened version of the Bem sex-role inventory (BSRI). The results indicated that attachment style varied on
partner preference, although this was only found for feminine partner preferences. Consistent with hypothesis gender role
orientation differences emerged for partner preferences, however along dimensions of race no differences emerged.
Interestingly and inconsistent with hypothesis sex differences emerged for partner preference.

The effect of environmental enrichment on learning-set formation, oddity concept use, body weight, fearfulness, activity
level, level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and level of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured in 11 male, juvenile
rats. There were no significant learning differences, in oddity concept use or learning-set formation, between the subjects
raised in an enriched environment and subjects raised in a standard, control environment. The control subjects did have a
more sporadic performance overall than the enriched subjects. Enriched subjects were found to weigh significantly more,
were significantly more fearful as measured in the open field and were significantly less active than controls in the open
field. There were no significant differences in terms of the levels of GABA between the two environmental groups. For most
areas of the brain examined, there were no significant group differences in AChE, but the control subjects did have
significantly higher levels in their hippocampus.
Cognitive impairments have been recognized as a complication of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). This study examined the effect of
DM on spatial cognition and neuronal activity in the hippocampus using Streptozotocin-treated animal models of DM. Water
maze testing was used to examine changes in spatial cognition. C-fos immunohistochemical staining techniques were used
to measure neuronal activity in the hippocampus. DM animals showed impairments in spatial recognition memory tests six
weeks after diabetes was induced. C-fos staining results were inconclusive regarding neuronal activity in the hippocampus.
The results support the hypothesis that DM animals will exhibit cognitive impairments after six weeks of induced DM.



This study evaluated the St. Mary‘s County Family Independence Project by analyzing the opinions, attitudes and responses
of the participants about the program. Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected. Responses indicated that the
financial mentors, financial workshops, and the retreat weekends were the most beneficial aspects of the programs. The
financial mentors and workshops helped families to gain an abundance of vital financial knowledge. The retreat weekends
allowed for families to relax, spend time together, and learn life skills. Limitations and directions for further research are
discussed.



Violence against women is a real problem in India. This paper looks at the societal, community, relational, and individual
factors which contribute to the abuse of Indian women. A plan for a women‘s center to help ameliorate this problem is then
developed, and limitations thereof are discussed.




This literature review presents an analysis and discussion of the current research in the field of body image, adolescents,
and obesity. A majority of research found relates to the affect body image has on adolescents views towards obesity and
overweight. The research mainly focused on adolescent females because male adolescents were not seen as being as
susceptible to body image and the negative consequences. In addition, factors were evaluated such as race and
socioeconomic status. Psychological affects were analyzed and included when considering eating disturbances as a result
of body image and obesity. Finally, a few prevention techniques were suggested to help reduce unhealthy behaviors and
habits.
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disorder known to cause a variety of physiological symptoms such as the
formation of both benign and malignant tumors, and is also known to cause visuospatial learning deficits. A large component
of the learning deficits in NF1 patients is difficulty in visuospatial tasks. The astrocytes of Nf1+/- mice exhibit an increased
outward K+ current which is apamin (a specific blocker of small conductance calcium activated potassium (SK) channels)
sensitive. SK channels appear to play a role in regulating long term potentiation (LTP), a mechanism of learning which has
been shown to be impaired Nf1+/- mice. We found a significant upregulation of SK1 channels in Nf1+/- mouse brains in
comparison to WT brains through western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that the upregulation is localized to
the hippocampus and olfactory tract. We tested 32 mice and administered a 0.4mg/kg dose of apamin either through i.p
injection or micro-osmotic pump to Nf1+/- mice and found that the apamin treated Nf1+/- mice significantly improved
Many studies concerning resiliency, risk, and poverty were reviewed. Many results were found and a few broad conclusions
can be made. One collective result found was that the presence of emotional support systems for the parents and the
children in impoverished families increased the child‘s chance for resiliency. In addition, children who had a pleasant
temperament as infants also had increased instances of resiliency. The main factor that seemed to contribute to a child‘s
resiliency was the quality and structure of his home environment. These results and results from specific studies can be
applied to some resiliency theories and to broad theories from social psychology.



The present study examined acceptance/rejection of individuals with various degrees of depression (clinical, situational, or
no depression). This study also investigated how the gender of the target, the gender of the participants, and participants‘
sex-role beliefs influenced participants‘ reactions. Participants (62 women and 47 men) completed a BEM Sex-Role
Inventory, read 6 passages reflecting levels of depression, and answered a 13-item questionnaire (measuring
acceptance/rejection) after each passage. The data, analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA),
indicated that participants rejected individuals with clinical depression more than those with situational or no depression.
Although there was a trend for men to be rejected more than women, there was not a significant effect. Nor was there a
significant effect for rejecting the same-sex more than the opposite-sex. The results did show a significant main effect for
sex-role beliefs.
This study investigated the effects of different incentives on the recruitment of participants for an online student
questionnaire. It also examined whether participants in the different incentive conditions differed in social self-esteem. Of the
potential participant pool of 300 individuals, 100 in each treatment condition, a total of 101 participants responded to the
recruitment e-mail and 91 of those participants fully completed the Social Self-Esteem Inventory (SSEI) and Texas Social
Behavior Inventory (TSBI). Findings supported the primary hypothesis that the mention of incentives in the recruitment email
was not independent of response rate. Specifically, it appears that extra credit was more effective in recruiting participants
than either entry into a lottery or no incentive. The secondary hypothesis was not supported, as participant social self-
esteem scores were not found to differ among treatment conditions. These results extend previous literature, as the majority
of previous research only uses monetary payments or lotteries as their forms of incentive. This study also suggests that
The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between conservatism and (1) each of the Big Five factors of
personality, (2) self-esteem, and (3) life satisfaction. Measures of personality, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and political
orientation were administered to 286 participants at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland. A Pearson product-moment correlation
revealed that conservatism correlated negatively with both Openness to Experience and Agreeableness, and that
conservatism correlated positively with self-esteem. These results lend support to the notion that conservative individuals
tend to be less open to new experiences and novel ideas than individuals who are less politically conservative, and that
conservative individuals tend to be less concerned with others and less able to sympathize with others‘ feelings than those
low in conservatism. The positive correlation between conservatism and self-esteem was an unexpected finding. However,
this finding reiterates the complexity of this relationship and encourages future research.
The current investigation evaluated whether or not adults are susceptible to false memories when misinformation of an
event is introduced. After reading a newspaper article describing an on-campus event, participants were assigned to a
condition; student condition or authority condition. Those in the student condition read a letter that was said to be written by
a student and those in the authority condition read a letter that was said to be written by the president of a college, when in
actuality they were identical letters. Particular items were chosen to test the participants’ recognition of true
central/peripheral information and false central/peripheral information. Memories were assessed through the use of a
recognition questionnaire. I discovered that the participants did report false memories of central and peripheral items and
were less accurate for peripheral items then central items. Both of these findings are congruent with previous research.
However, it was found that assigned condition had no effect on the participants’ recognition and was not a predictor of false
With a brief review of information on working memory and visuo-spatial memory, this study examines task-switching
between different difficulties of the same task, in this case a computerized Corsi block tapping task. Independent variables
examined were length, display—blocked versus random, and notification—whether the participant was told sequence length
or not. Dependent variables were accuracy and reaction time, RT. With n=5, there were main effects for accuracy based on
length and notification and a main effect for RT based on accuracy (F(2, 8) = 11.725, p = .014, F(1, 4) = 14.425, p = .019,
F(2, 8) = 17.541, p = .001, respectively).



[abstract not available]




Cocaine sensitization is the process whereby a sub-threshold dose of cocaine, given intermittently and chronically, becomes
more and more potent. The amygdala is crucial to the development of cocaine sensitization. Lesions to the amygdala
prevent cocaine sensitization. Through the amygdala run many NMDA glutamate connections. As well as lesions, AP5, an
NMDA antagonist, put into the amygdala prevents the development of cocaine sensitization. Following logically, the author
thought that it would be intriguing to ask, if these NMDA pathways in the amygdala were blocked, would cocaine
sensitization develop? As a pilot study, our laboratory studied the effect of cocaine sensitization interaction on another
behavior known to be modulated through the amygdala the acoustic startle response. It was found that startle amplitudes
increased with repeated administration of cocaine sensitization. The present study investigated whether or not blocking the
NMDA receptors would prevent cocaine sensitization of startle. Animals received either sterile water injections, the NMDA
The Gambia is a small developing nation with a population that is 90% Muslim and a culture that is struggling to find balance
between tradition and western influence. The focus of this study is interpretation of cultural influences on interactions
between men and women from the US and the Gambia in social and professional settings. Primary data collection method
consisted of several focus groups with college females, in both the Gambia and US. The purpose of the study is to provide a
way for exchange students from each country to understand their social interactions within the cultural context. Preliminary
results reveal that cultural differences in constructs of respect, persistence, class and reputations create cross-sex tension
between the cultures and that emotional experiences of women in each culture are similar.


In this paper, I highlighted the fundamental philosophies behind the medical model and psychosocial model of viewing
mental illness and discussed the benefits and costs of taking each view in relation to both the individual and society. I
based my conclusions on published literature and personal observations. From these sources, I came to the conclusion
that one should be wary of the current shift that is taking place in how mental illness is viewed that is directed toward an
increasingly predominantly medical view. The main support I provide for this conclusion comes from evidence supporting
the existence of strong cultural and societal influence on the conceptions of mental illness and the assumption that the
conception of illness must be universal in nature. Thus, in showing that the conception of mental illness derives from social
influence, I argue that there is no universal conception of mental illness. Because of this, I argue that mental illness cannot
be considered an actual illness and, in turn, cannot be appropriately dealt with from the medical model.
Sympathy is often understood as an emotion reserved for victims of a negative event or tragedy, yet it is rare for a victim to
occupy only one role. The victim-offender dynamic becomes especially complex when the victim is himself an unrepentant
offender. The current study investigates the extent to which committing a prior offense will influence judgments made of the
offender. Participants were asked to report how much sympathy they felt for both a target that had been established as an
―offender‖ and a neutral target for several negative events (moderate and severe) and how deserving the target was for
these events. The influences of trait empathy and target retaliation were also examined. As predicted, less sympathy and
more deservingness were reported for the offender compared to the neutral target, and this was qualified by a significant
severity by target interaction. The most sympathy was reported for neutral targets who experienced severe negative events,
while the least sympathy was reported for offenders who experienced moderately severe events. Interestingly, there was no
This paper addresses three main issues dealing with the topic of criminal investigative analysis. An overview of the subject
is presented, including the description of offenders, the process of profiling, and certain issues surrounding criminal profiling,
such as the organized/disorganized dichotomy and problems with validity. Next, the paper outlines my personal struggles in
trying to obtain criminal profiles and speculates possible reasons why they are not available to the public. Finally, I will
present a proposal for validity research, involving a comparison between aspects of a profile and aspects of an offender. A
critique of this hypothetical research follows, examining possible difficulties with the design.



For this St. Mary’s Project in the field of psychology, a study was designed to assess the effect of subconscious priming on
behavior. Past research shows that subconscious priming, or flashing words below the conscious awareness level, may
have an effect on subsequent actions. The present study seeks to further this research by observing the proposed effects of
subconscious emotion priming on judgment decisions. 102 college participants were subconsciously primed with angry,
happy, guilty, or neutral words. They were then asked to determine the punishment they would administer in three vignettes
depicting crimes of varying severity. There were no significant results of the study, which shows that there was no effect of
priming on judgment. There was also no effect of sex on judgment. Recommendations for research suggest modifying
details in the methodology, and extending the categories of subconscious priming.

This research aimed to understand the way that art therapy is conducted, better understand ways in which art therapy
facilitates both similar and dissimilar conditions when compared with traditional, talking-based therapy, and to gain a
clinician‘s perspective on previously published literature, with specific attention to the goals of art therapy. In order to meet
these goals, the researcher developed a series of questions to be posed in an interview format to Ms. Patti Prugh, a
practicing art therapist at Sheppard Pratt Psychiatric Hospital in Towson, Maryland. Additionally, the researcher observed
three art therapy sessions conducted by Ms. Prugh on the Trauma Disorders Unit at Sheppard Pratt. Data was gathered
based on a coding scheme developed by the researcher. The coding scheme consisted of 10 conditions that, based on
previous research, are likely to occur during an art therapy session. Observations were conducted and coded for content
based on a time-sampling method of one-minute increments. The two conditions met the most often were warmth and active
The present study looked at the impact of an ostomy on self esteem and assertion as it deals with dating and sexuality on
77 participants with ostomies. There are many major physiological and psychological difficulties that the presence of an
ostomy can create. The desire for dating and sexuality can be complicated by concerns about ones body image. A person‘s
self-image as it relates to relationships with others has been highly studied; however, in the population of ostomates, there
is significantly less information provided dealing with the sometimes difficult physical changes and their impact on self-
esteem and dating. The study was done through an internet questionnaire, including two measures, the Dating and
Assertion Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and two narrative questions relating to positive regard for
the ostomy and dating. The results demonstrated that there is no relationship between the number of years since ostomy
formation, age and self esteem, dating and assertion. It was also found that there was no relationship between ostomy type
Attitudes towards people with disabilities and personality characteristics were studied in relation to satisfaction with a camp
experience and likelihood of returning to camp work in 32 female and 22 male experienced and inexperienced counselors
working at a summer camp for children and adults with disabilities. Results demonstrated that experienced counselors had
more positive attitudes than inexperienced counselors and that attitudes of inexperienced counselors actually became more
negative after the camp experience. Counselors with higher levels of agreeableness and openness as measured by the
NEO-FFI also reported more positive attitudes. With regard to turnover rate, participants that stated they would be likely to
return, did in fact significantly return more than participants that said they would not be likely to return. Also, participants that
had high SWB camp scores at all three time periods were more likely to predict returning. Lastly, participants who predicted
they would volunteer after camp also predicted they would be more likely to return to camp. The findings demonstrate the
Although not portrayed often, when gay characters are on television they are presented in a stereotypical manner. The
purpose of this study is to determine whether the manner in which gay men are portrayed on television affects individuals‘
beliefs about the stereotypes of gay men. Furthermore, the effect on homophobia was also of interest. Participants in this
study either viewed a television program with a gay character (―Will & Grace‖) or one without a gay character (―Friends‖).
They then completed measures that assessed both implicit and explicit adherence to stereotypes. Results indicated that
individuals who watched ―Will & Grace‖ reported less adherence to stereotypes of gay men and lesbians, for both the
implicit and explicit measure. No differences were found among conditions regarding homophobia. The significance of
these results, implications, and need for future research are discussed.
Abundant research has focused on the collective trap, a situation of social interdependence in which individuals are faced
with a dilemma of choosing to pursue self-interest and maximize personal gains or cooperate with other group members to
benefit the group as a whole. Various research paradigms have been used and a wide array of variables affecting choice
behavior in collective traps has been identified. The present study uses a resource dilemma game and isolates the effects
of knowledge and accountability variables to determine if cognition or motivation is more influential in decision-making.
Participants who received more detailed game instructions that highlighted the nature of the dilemma exhibited more
cooperative, group-interested behavior than participants who read basic instructions. Public accountability did not affect
choice behavior, except for participants who received detailed instructions. The implications of these findings are discussed
in terms of the role of cognition in decision-making.
Without being able to separate the effects of ―nature‖ from ―nurture‖, it is impossible to clearly define depression properly.
The ability of both perspectives to explain a reasonable amount of cases and details of the disorder prove them as
worthwhile and valid. However, neither the biological or environmental camps can truly claim to have full precedence in
determining the onset of a depression. It is through the interactions of these two rivaled ideas that we can come to catch
even a distant glimpse of the disorder in all of its complex design. Without taking beneficial aspects of each major theory,
there is little hope to the discovery of the true mechanism of depression. An interaction seems very certain, and until
researchers can find a way to properly incorporate the two together, there will not be a clear understanding of the cause of
depression. [from conclusion]

Nine Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to either a NBM quisqualic lesion group (n=6), a sham lesion group (n=2), or
unoperated control group (n=1). The NBM lesioned animals showed a significant impairment in learning set formation
across 40 odor-unique discrimination problems. Nicotine administration (5mg/kg, i.p.) improved performance on Trial 2
across 20 additional discrimination problems in the NBM lesioned animals as compared to control animals. Thus,
suggesting the importance of the acetylcholine system in higher cognitive processes. However, contrary to the hypothesis
the improvements were neither significant nor did the animals perform above chance levels. Reasons why this effect was
found are explored.


The Gambia is a small developing country in West Africa that has a long standing patriarchal social structure. This study
investigates the women‘s rights movement in the Gambia through a linguistic and content analysis of articles from two of the
country‘s prominent newspapers: The Point Newspaper and Daily Observer. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count,
dimensions of the articles such as pronoun use and psychological processes were calculated. Results revealed that women
were more likely than men to express certainty in their writing and women also used a higher ratio of positive to negative
words. Emotional language varied significantly between topics. Additionally, there were several differences between the
language characteristics of Gambian journalists and language characteristics that have been found in previous research
using American populations.

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, developmental psychologists have observed an increasing number of
developmental stages in a person‘s life in societies where that has been considerably affected by industrialization. A
significant new stage that became apparent is emerging adulthood. This period last between the ages of 18-25 and is a
common time for those in a broad socializations to explore many different aspects of life including love and work and to
finish creating their unique identity. This new developmental stage has been a cause of an increasing trend to delay
marriage. Postponement of marriage until a person completes the emerging adult stage and forming his/her identity may
lead to more successful and long lasting marriages for future generations. However, the changing trends of emerging and
young adults in attitudes towards marriage need to be continually researched and addressed as a society.

In 1997 the Oregon Death with Dignity Act was implemented, legalizing physician-assisted suicide. The law stipulated that in
order to receive an assisted suicide, a patient must be terminally ill with a life-expectancy of fewer than 6 months. The law
also requires that patients who are to receive an assisted suicide have the requisite decision-making ability to do so. If a
physician is unsure of a patient‘s decision-making ability he or she is required to refer the patient to a licensed psychologist
or psychiatrist for a mental health evaluation. Throughout the law‘s existence the referral rate has been low and in 2006 only
4% of patients were referred for an evaluation. This paper presents an analysis of decision-making ability as it pertains to
patients who have requested assisted suicide as well as a new tool designed to help physicians determine what patients
should be referred for a mental health evaluation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between childhood imaginary companions and adulthood
creativity styles. Imaginary companions included both invisible friends and personified objects. The sample consisted of 182
students from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland, 33 male and 149 female. Seventy-six had childhood imaginary companions
and 106 did not, 12 were personified objects and 64 were invisible friends. Participants completed a demographic survey,
the Creativity Styles Questionnaire-Revised (Kumar & Holman, 1997), and an imaginary companion questionnaire. The
subscales from the Creativity Styles Questionnaire-Revised included: overall creativity, belief in uncontrolled processes, use
of techniques, use of other people, superstition, and use of the senses. The imaginary companion questionnaire
investigated characteristics of the imaginary companion(s) as well as the child and his or her environment. Adults who had
childhood imaginary companions were more likely to use multiple techniques in the creative process. Participants that had
Hemispheric specialization of behavior has been demonstrated in many species, including humans, primates, rodents, fish,
reptiles, amphibians and avians. Previous research indicates that this is a developmental process influenced by sensory and
motor experiences during sensitive prenatal periods. Among the major sensory systems, the visual system is suspected to
play a role in the lateralization of organisms. In some avian species, postnatal laterality has been shown to be influenced by
prenatal visual experience. During incubation, the embryo‘s position in the egg exposes the right eye to more visual
stimulation than the left. The authors hypothesized that this orientation results in a difference between the chicks‘
developing hemispheres, producing a population right-side bias. This study exposed Japanese Quail eggs (N=85) to visual
stimulation during the latter stages of incubation. Tests of laterality were conducted in a Y-maze. A Chi-square analysis
showed a statistically significant right-side population bias in the group that received enhanced visual stimulus later in
The current study looked at the effects of tattoos and piercings on interviewers' decisions to hire applicants. Sixty-six
undergraduate students evaluated an applicant on two different occasions: once after reading his resume and a second time
after reviewing an interview with an attached photograph. In the photograph, the applicant had a tattoo, a piercing, or
neither. I expected that ratings of the applicant with a tattoo or piercing would decrease after participants viewed his
photograph. The applicant was given lower ratings after the interview across all conditions, which suggests that body art
had no effect on the decision to hire this applicant.



The present study added to previous studies that examined the relationship between personality (introversion and
extraversion, specifically) and coping with negative emotions such as anger. It was hypothesized that there would be a
positive relationship between extraversion and the use and effectiveness of social coping methods and a negative
relationship between extraversion and the use and effectiveness of creative coping strategies. It was also hypothesized
that extraverts would find social coping methods as more effective, while introverts would find creative coping methods as
more effective. Participants completed surveys to determine their personality type and their preference for coping methods.
 Significant findings included the frequency of social coping was positively related to the effectiveness of social coping and
also to the extraversion score. The findings of the study support the descriptions of extraverts and introverts and the
hypothesis that there are differences in the coping methods of individuals with different personality types.
The emergence of a new phenomenon on college campuses called hooking up was investigated. A hook up was defined as
a sexual encounter occurring between two people who are strangers or brief acquaintances, that usually takes place on only
one occasion, but may occur at several different times. The current study aimed to investigate expectations of post-hook up
relationships as compared to actual outcomes of relationships. It was hypothesized that females‘ expectations would not be
congruent with outcomes, that males‘ expectations would be congruent with outcomes, and that females would have overall
more positive expectations for post-hook up relationships than males. Hypotheses about homosexual students were also
made but not enough data was collected to analyze these participants. The participants were 64 undergraduate college
students, 62.5% women and 37.5% men, mean age = 20.06 years, 87.5% of participants reported being exclusively
heterosexual. Participants were asked to complete 3 questionnaires outlining demographic information, expectations of post-
The California sea lion is a species which lives in large colonies, resulting in a complex social structure which can be
characterized by the animal‘s social affiliation as well as stereotypical and hierarchical aggression. The purpose of the
present study was to identify and examine several behaviors within the two behavioral categories of affiliation and
aggression while additionally examining when vocalizations occur across these categories. Data was collected over a
period of 13 days through behavior sampling and instantaneous scans of a sample in their natural environment. Results
showed that the sea lions vocalized significantly more during a social interaction than during non-social behavior. When
social interactions were categorized, results showed that vocalizations occurred significantly more often during aggressive
behavior than affiliative behavior and significantly more often during neutral behaviors than affiliative behavior, but there was
no significant difference between vocalizations during affiliative and neutral behaviors. Lastly, it was found that the sea lions
There is a dramatic rise in the number of nontraditional students, over 24 years of age, entering colleges and universities.
The nontraditional student is often married, with children and/or a job. Many of these more mature students confront stress
and strain related to multiple roles, student demands, financial obligations, and nonconformist peer status. Research has
demonstrated that social support may buffer the stress encountered by the nontraditional student. In this qualitative study,
10 nontraditional students attending a small public honors college were interviewed about their college experiences.
Results indicated experiences varied among the participants by age and gender. Married females with children reported the
most stress related to multiple roles, and the least amount of family support. Students closer to the traditional age reported
stress related to their student status, but not multiple roles. They also indicated the greatest amount of social support.
Males reported more family support than females, and the least amount of stress related to the number of roles. A social
Facial attractiveness is normally a subjective matter which varies across cultures. An objective means of measuring facial
attractiveness was developed by Marquardt (1997) using a geometrical relationship to form the features and structure of the
face. However, this Golden Decagon Mask has only been tested in predicting attractiveness for Caucasian females. This
study compared the mask to the African-American and Asian faces. Comparison among the cultures revealed that indeed,
the mask was best at depicting the Caucasian faces, which shows a difference in facial structure between different
ethnicities. A negative correlation was found between the total mask deviation score and facial attractiveness for all
ethnicities. Unfortunately, there was not a strong enough correlation to show that total mask deviation scores can predict
attractiveness. Certain nodal points on the face were also predictive of attractiveness in the Asian and Caucasian cultures.

Endogenous b-amyloid proteins are found postmortem in the senile plaques of individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's
disease (AD). Continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of the protein into rodent produces behavioral and
anatomical changes that are associated with AD, including a degeneration of the nucleus basalis magnocelluaris (nBM) and
drop in cortical cholinergic innervation. The nBM plays a critical role in the process of learning set (LS) acquisition in
rodents, an ability which is associated with problem solving and higher cognitive processing. This study observed the effects
of continuous ICV b-amyloid infusion on rodent LS acquisition in hopes of elucidating the connection between increased
central nervous system abeta load and the changes in higher cognition. Two control tasks (open field activity and novel
object recognition) were conducted to help clarify behavioral results, and brains sections were stained with Congo Red dye.
The behavioral results found that neither the protein nor the vehicle group ever successfully performed above chance on
The researcher of the present study set out to determine if there was a difference between the personality, gender, and
stress. Specifically, the researcher hypothesized that individuals displaying Type A behavior traits will have a higher level of
stress. It was hypothesized that emergency service personnel, would display more type A behavior and will have a higher
perceived stress level; however, they will be more capable of dealing with that stress better. Two scales of measurement
were utilized in this study, the Jenkins Activity Survey and the Perceived Stress Scale. Four sub-scales were extracted from
the Jenkins Activity Survey (Speed and impatience, hard-driving and competitiveness, type A behavior, and job
involvement). Both scales of measurement proved to have good reliability. T-tests and ANOVAs were run and found that
non-rescue squad personnel were more likely to have a higher perceived stress level. Females, in general were more likely
to have an increased level of ―speed and impatience‖ compared to men. No other significant findings were noted.
The purpose of this study was to examine the sources through which individuals attain their knowledge of drugs. The
accuracy of this knowledge was then tested using a short quiz. Two groups were then formed from the participants, a DARE
and a NoDARE group. These groups were then compared. Findings show that the DARE group reported more lifetime use
and relied more on their peers for knowledge, as compared to the NoDARE group. Performance on the quiz was not
significantly different between the groups suggesting 1.) problems with the quiz itself; or 2.) DARE was not successful in
providing accurate information above and beyond other possible sources of knowledge. The perceptions of drug use were
exaggerated for all drugs, with the exception of alcohol.


Chronic stress and release of the stress hormones glucocorticoids (GC‘s) can cause learning and memory impairments.
Chronic binding of GC‘s is toxic to neurons of the hippocampus, the area of the brain involved in learning and memory. The
expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also suppressed in times of chronic stress. The decrease in
BDNF, a protein that supports the functional integrity of neurons, may be the key factor underlying stress-induced memory
impairments. Voluntary exercise by humans and rodents appears to enhance memory and increase the expression of
hippocampal BDNF. The current study investigated whether 2 weeks of voluntary exercise by rats would protect against
memory impairments caused by co-occurring restraint stress (1 hour per day). After 2 weeks of the stress condition,
exercise condition, stress and exercise condition, or control condition, the animals‘ non-spatial hippocampus-dependent
memory was tested using the novel object recognition task.Results showed only a positive main effect of exercise on
The current review examines three agents of religious socialization in childhood and adolescence: family, peers, and
religious institutions. Parents act as the primary religious socialization agent, with peers and religious institutions being
secondary. Factors affecting the socialization process related to each of these agents are also examined. The quality of the
relationship with the parents can affect the socialization process as well as the number and strength of relationships with
peers and members of religious institutions. The review continues by examining the literature regarding factors that affect
religious behavior, such as the motivation for being religious. The review concludes by examining theories on reasons for
going religious institutions and a personal account of a religious upbringing.


Interactive Personality is a new theory of the self that focuses on our interpersonal interactions as the defining component of
who we are. This paper outlines the foundation, structure, and function of Interactive Personality, the first official outline of
this theory. A discussion of Interactive Personality‘s connection to existing theories and constructs in psychology includes
classic theories of personality, Higgin‘s Theory of Self-Discrepancy, and Festinger‘s theory of cognitive dissonance. A
progress report on a study designed to test the reliability and validity of a basic measure of Interactive Personality is also
included, followed by a discussion of general conclusions of the theory and possible avenues of further research. Overall,
this paper is designed to serve as a foundational paper upon which research testing and expanding of Interactive
Personality may be conducted.

Females are diagnosed with anxiety disorders more frequently than males; however, the majority of animal and preclinical
drug research is done with only male subjects. This study aimed to replicate and extend previous research, which has found
evidence for sex differences, by examining sex differences and the effects of chronic diazepam (DZ) treatment on behavior
in the elevated plus-maze and neuronal activation as assessed by Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)
and the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA). Behavioral results supported the anxiolytic properties of DZ; however, did
not illustrate sex differences. Maze-evoked Fos results found evidence for laterality, as well a DZ influenced decrease in
activation, in both regions. Sex was found to interact with laterality in the MeA. Increased Fos expression was seen in the
MeA in females when compared to males. It is possible that the activation is due to the anxiety-inducing event more than the
animal‘s response to that event since no significant sex differences were seen in the behavior in the elevated plus-maze.
Initiation rites have been prevalent is society for thousands of years. Research has also shown an increase in the mount of
athletic hazing as well as fraternity hazing. We would like to see whether or not there is a relationship of athletics hazing on
a small liberal arts campus. We hypothesized two main things: firstly those athletic participants will acknowledge a more
common scenario of hazing than not athletic participants. And secondly that in respect to gender men will acknowledge
hazing more than females. The results showed no significant interactions for either hypothesis, however there was an
extremely small sample size obtained that could have been responsible for the lack of significant results.



The social conflicts of preadolescent and adolescent girls, a topic that has recently gained media and researcher attention,
often involve the use of relational aggression, defined as the ―harming [of] others through purposeful manipulation and
damage of peer relationships‖ (Crick and Grotpeter; 1995, p. 711). Programs created to combat aggression have rarely
focused specifically on the use of relational aggression or the unique social experiences of young females (Committee for
Children, 1997; Frey et al., 2005; Nixon, 2005). Using some of the principles of feminism and feminist therapy practice
(Enns, 1992; 1997; Worell, 1992), the author has designed a program for middle school girls to raise their awareness about
and combat relational aggression while actively discussing what it means to be a girl in today‘s society.


One‘s rationale for conforming to and affiliating with the members of a group depends on a variety of factors and
circumstances. Previous studies have examined the extent to which the ―severity of initiation‖ and hazing as a whole effects
one‘s desire to affiliate, one‘s degree of conformity, and one‘s attraction to the group. Furthermore, it has been suggested
that one‘s gender, one‘s age, and the size of the group all have different influences on one‘s desire to conform and affiliate
with the members of the group and the group as a whole. The current study examined additional influences on conformity
such as the influence of gender, self-esteem, and the effects of the severity of initiation/hazing on group cohesiveness and
group attractiveness, as the degree as these factors have only briefly been discussed in the previous literature that exists.
[from introduction]
This study challenges our traditional understanding of homophobia and suggests that homophobia is a response to gender-
role violation, and homosexuality incites homophobia because engaging in intimate same sex relationships is a gender-role
violation. The homophobia scale and a likeability scale were used to assess the reactions of 40 male college students to a
videotape consisting of one of the following: a stereotypically masculine heterosexual male, a stereotypically masculine
homosexual male, a stereotypically feminine heterosexual male, and a stereotypically feminine homosexual male. The study
found a significant difference in the rated likeability of the target based on presented gender. The stereotypically masculine
target (M = 3.63), regardless of sexual orientation, was liked better that the feminine target (M = 3.331), t(38) = 2.05, p < .05.
One possible implication is that both the word homophobia, and our understanding of it, should be changed.

The phenomenon of group memory refers to the individual memory of those in a group. Individuals who discuss a series of
events after witnessing them are often found to have memories that they had not had initially, but have come to believe to
be truths after hearing them from other members of the group. This study investigated the effects memories of a partner,
either being a friend or stranger, have on the memories of an individual. Forty eight males and females participated in the
experiment in pairs. First, participants were given a questionnaire assessing how well they knew their partner in the
experiment. Each participant then watched a slide show depicting a theft. However one central item and one peripheral item
were different for each slide show. Participants then answered a questionnaire asking them to recall information from the
slide show. They were also asked to rate their confidence for each question. They were then instructed to discuss with each-
other what they had seen, and to describe it to the experimenter as if telling a police officer. They then completed the same
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of misogynistic rap music on implicit and explicit attitudes toward
women. The difference between the effects of music alone and music videos was also examined. The results show that
although there was no specific effect of the misogynistic content on attitudes, there were several findings that showed males
in all conditions had higher implicit attitudes of women, with the most positive attitudes being in the misogynistic music video
condition. Males also showed more knowledge of the misogynistic content than females. Males also showed higher
adversarial sexual beliefs than women. Discussion focuses on the lack of expected results despite strong previous findings,
the role of the rap music exposure in the experimental study and the possible implications of the significant results and
some of the non-significant trends.

The statistics between the United Sates and Europe in terms of teen pregnancy, STD and HIV/AIDS rates for youth differs
dramatically. This literature review explores possible reasons of why the United States holds the highest rates for these
issues over any other industrialized country, namely, through the difference in sexuality education of Adolescents. Pervious
research found that while all sex education programs are affective in decreasing teen pregnancy, STDs and HIV/AIDS, the
United States lacks in providing comprehensive sexuality education programs for youth, when compared to Europe.




Survivors of mass violence and torture in Cambodia, Uganda, and Guatemala developed post traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD) as a result of trauma they faced during periods of national conflict. During 1975-1979, Cambodia faced mass
genocide, torture, and forced labor under the Khmer Rouge regime. The Mayan population in Guatemala was targeted by
the government and faced torture, disappearances, and murder during their 36-year civil war, and Uganda continues to face
torture and other mass human rights violations long after their most notorious ruler, Idi Amin Dada, lost power. To treat for
mental illness, including PTSD, native practitioners and foreign volunteer groups tend to use community based therapies
and incorporate indigenous healers into therapy sessions. Western treatment methods administered in the United States to
patients who have achieved or are seeking refugee status include drug therapy, but typically do not include indigenous
healers and community therapies. Further research should be conducted on the most beneficial and cost-effective
The moral development of college students at a liberal arts college was explored using the Defining Issues Test-2. Based on
previous research in the field three hypotheses were tested. It was predicted that males would exhibit higher levels of
principled reasoning than females and that seniors would exhibit higher levels of principled reasoning than first year
students. In addition, it was hypothesized that students who had participated in an ethics based class would score higher on
principled reasoning than students who had not taken an ethics class. No significant differences in the use of principled
reasoning were found between males and females, first year students and seniors, or students who had taken an ethics
class and students who had not taken an ethics class.
Eight Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: nBM lesion (n=5), sham-operated (n=2), non-
operated control group (n=1). Initial testing indicated learning set formation in control animals but a significant impairment in
learning set formation in the nBM lesioned group. Treatments of flumazenil (3mg/kg; i.p.), a benzodiazepine inverse agonist,
did not improve learning set performance in the nBM lesioned animals in a series of novel odor-unique discrimination
problems.




Children with autism display unique behavioral and social characteristics that must be addressed before they are able to
acquire and develop essential knowledge, skills, and independent functioning abilities. Because of the complicated nature of
autism, parents and educators should do all they can to maximize autistic children‘s potential to learn. Intervention should
be continued throughout the day regardless of being in the school setting or at home so that these children are constantly
working towards their goal of displaying appropriate behavior. Several behavioral therapies including functional
communication training, various reinforcement procedures, self-management, and circle of friends have shown promising
results in terms of decreasing disruptive behavior and also increasing positive behavior.


[abstract not available]




Social anxiety was studied with regard to academic performance of 100 students at a small college in Maryland. Previous
work suggested a potential link between the two aspects. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale was used to assess social
anxiety among participants. A background questionnaire requested information on GPA, likes and dislikes of the school
atmosphere, and classes with majors, along with level of extra-curricular participation and amount of pressure felt to
succeed academically. Differences between those with and without social anxiety were apparent for pressure felt to
succeed, disliking participation requirements, and rating lack of social options as a drawback of the school. Correlations
existed between social anxiety and pressure felt to succeed, amount of extra-curricular participation, and ratings of disliking
participation requirements, small class sizes, and lack of social options at the college, along with ratings of enjoying
engaging discussions, and knowing people who currently attend the college or did in the past. Implications for this study
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that is becoming increasingly prevalent in the media and in
diagnosis. People have very strong opinions about this disorder, and many of these opinions are developed from false
information. The present study examines knowledge, perceptions, and misperceptions of ADHD within three levels of
experience: undergraduate students, regular educators, and special educators. 39 undergraduate students, 161 regular
educators, and 35 special educators from the state of Maryland completed the Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorders
Scale (KADDS) that measured knowledge in three areas: symptoms/diagnosis, treatment, and general information.
Participants also rated themselves on their perceived knowledge of ADHD, and completed a biographical and attitudes
questionnaire. Participants scored were significantly higher on the symptoms/diagnosis subscale than they did on the
treatment and general subscales. Special educators scored significantly higher on both perceived and actual knowledge
Internal factors such as perfectionism and external factors such as media were looked at as predictors of body image in
elderly and college aged women. Participants were given surveys to assess body esteem, perfectionism levels, and media
exposure. An experimental group was also given a packet containing photographs of thin models. Results suggest that
perfectionism is negatively correlated with body esteem in both age groups. The media manipulation (exposure to a booklet
containing images of thin models) also had a negative effect on body esteem in both age groups, lending support to media
cultivation theory. Older women were found to have higher body esteem than young women. This result is discussed in term
of social comparison theory.
This study examined various correlates of lucid dreaming ability and dream recall frequency. 55 people (45 females, 10
males) from the St. Mary‘s College of Maryland psychology subject pool completed a questionnaire that sought to examine
the most enigmatic qualities and determinants of lucid dreaming and dream recall frequency. A one-way ANOVA confirmed
the hypothesis correlating DRF and dream salience. The hypotheses that DRF would be correlated to imaginative life and
interest in dreams was not supported. A bi-variate correlation revealed a significant correlation between imaginal life and a
sense of connectedness, interest in dreams, social boldness, and the ability to dream lucidly. A sense of connectedness
was significantly related to social boldness and interest in dreams was significantly correlated with the ability to dream
lucidly. No significant interaction was found between gender and dream recall frequency. Findings suggest new
correlations between various DRF and lucidity variables and reinforce previous findings correlating salience and DRF.
In an empirical study, researcher administered five surveys which tested religiosity, peer influences, parenting
styles/influence, and self-esteem. A total of 121 participants between ages 18-26 were recruited through convenience
sampling from St. Mary‘s College, Catholic University, Bowie State University, and Howard University. The purpose of this
study was to investigate racial differences in drinking behaviors among college-aged students in particular Black and White
students based on the above factors. The results indicated that Whites drink significantly more than Blacks and have more
problems associated with alcohol. Also, there were significant differences found between Blacks and Whites on religiosity,
self-esteem, and the social and conformity subscales. From these differences Blacks expressed high religiosity but overall
people were more likely to be influenced by their peer group than religious orientation or parents.

Provided within is an overview of domestic violence. A brief history is discussed, beginning in the mid 18th century, which
includes the major legal successes, such as the Domestic Violence Prevention and Services Act, and the Violence Against
Women Act. This paper attempts to provide readers with an understanding of various literature regarding the reasons why
men beat women, why women stay in abusive relationships, and what help there is for women seeking to leave an abusive
relationship. Also included are two interviews with people work with domestic violence cases on a regular basis, which gives
further insight into the issue.



The locus coeruleus (LC) and the amygdala are two areas of the brain involved in anxiety. Benzodiazepines, such as
diazepam, decrease anxiety behaviorally. Histological data using cFos also supports diazepam‘s role in reducing anxiety,
through possible regulation by the LC and amygdala. It was hypothesized that a dose-dependent decrease in anxiety after
administration of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg of diazepam would be seen both on the elevated plus maze and open field after
repeated testing and on anxiety-induced cFos expression in both the LC and amygdala. No significant effects of dose were
seen behaviorally or in the number of activated cells, suggesting either these areas do not influence anxiety or that different
experiments are needed to see their effects.


The socioeconomic status of a child‘s family has been linked to his or her academic ability (Brodnick & Ree, 1995). Several
studies in recent years have examined this trend and expanded it to include more access to print at an earlier age (Smith &
Dixon, 1995) and parental involvement in the child‘s school (Brody et al., 1990). In the current study, it was hypothesized
that parental involvement in a child‘s academic career may be the determining link between socioeconomic status and
academic success. Parents of third graders in Southern Maryland were asked about their family in a series of two
questionnaires measuring socioeconomic variables and parental interaction. The child‘s academic success was also
considered. Results indicated that the parents‘ socioeconomic status was a predictor of the child‘s academic achievement.
However, the parental involvement factor was not found to be significant.

[abstract not available]
I have chosen to explore the complex relationship between social power and linguistic expression through a review of a
variety of languages that employ honorific registers to express respect, intimacy, and a multitude of personal and cultural
beliefs about interpersonal relationships as well as abstract concepts such as anger or honesty (Kulick, 1998). These
honorific registers may be expressed through simple isosemantic lexical substitutions (replacing one word with another that
has the same denotative meaning but a different connotative one), phonological variations, stylistic cues, or a combination
of any of these factors. By exploring the contexts in which such registers are employed, the conditions under which
speakers switch registers, and listeners‘ responses to being addressed within a particular register, we may be able to gain
some insight into the dynamics of power in human relationships. This study is by no means attempting to make the claim
that power relations in one culture will be identical to another, or that the use of honorifics is generalizable across vast
Analogical transfer in problem solving occurs by means of mapping a transfer problem onto the elements of a base
analogue. Transfer often fails to occur at any significant rate in experimental designs unless the subject is explicitly directed
to use the base analogue to solve the transfer problem. Herein is a literature review of articles focused on various domains
in the realm of analogical problem-solving. Various explanations for the cause of transfer failure are offered, as well as
solutions for improving transfer. The theoretical basis for these potential solutions and the means by which they were tested
are delineated. Limitations and implications of these solutions are discussed.



The study dealt with the media and the stereotypes they promote against adolescent fathers. Participants viewed tapes that
depict African American and European American adolescent fathers in a negative or positive way. The participants filled out
surveys correspondent to nine categories (emotional stability, financial stability, quality time spent with child, quality time
spent with mother and child, and the Five Myths) that voiced their opinions on the adolescent fathers after viewing the tapes.
 The participant‘s responses supported the theory that the media has influence over society when depicting adolescent
fathers in a couple of the categories. In this study, one gained insight demonstrating that the media has a positive effect on
society and makes people believe that the images they provide are always true in nature.


The present study assesses the different reasons why an individual may cheat on their partner and any gender differences
in these reasons by combining Rusbult‘s Investment Model and evolutionary theory. Possible explanations for cheating
were measured by three variables from the Investment Model: relationships satisfaction, investment size, and alternative
quality. Sixty-eight participants were obtained, 23 male and 44 female, and 16 cheaters and 47 non-cheaters. Participants
completed a survey that assessed their reasons or hypothesized reasons for cheating based on the three Investment Model
variables. It was hypothesized that for both cheaters and non-cheaters, females would be more likely than males to report
relationship satisfaction and investment size as explanations for cheating, and males would be more likely than females to
report alternative quality as an explanation for cheating. Although the data did not support this hypothesis, it indicated that
responses from cheaters were very different from the responses of non-cheaters.
The current study evaluated the effects of lesions to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) on learning set acquisition and formation in
a visually-cued water maze (MWM) task and olfactory discrimination reversal (ODR) task. The subjects were also tested in
an open field apparatus and in novel object recognition (NOR) to ensure that surgical procedures did not affect their general
functioning or working memory, respectively. We hypothesized that learning set formation would be inhibited or blocked by
the PFC lesion but general functioning and working memory would remain intact. The results indicated that the control
subject were able to form a learning set in the ODR task and perform significantly above chance. The PFC lesioned rats did
not form a learning set in the ODR task and performed below chance. There were no group differences in the MWM task
suggesting that visual cues are not sufficient in learning set formation or methods should be altered. All of the animals
exhibited no change in activity levels or working memory.
This research reflects an attempt to find parallels by review of the studies for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation that have
been conducted and the present findings of motivational strategies or elements applied in the elementary, middle and high
schools of today. Supporting evidence for increased motivation as a result of parental support, perceived autonomy, choice,
and working with peers emerged. Elements of negative influences are discussed as well.
The association between valence of superstition and mood was examined in 57 adults. Superstition was divided into
positive superstitions, those that foretell of good luck, and negative superstitions, those that predict bad luck. Previous
research has not looked at superstition in this way. It was predicted that positive superstitions would be associated with
higher levels of positive mood. While negative superstitions would be associated with higher levels of negative mood. The
predictions were not confirmed.




[abstract not available]




This project focuses on the factors contributing to police-induced false confessions and provides suggestions to prevent
their future occurrence. Part I offers a review of the relevant literature on this topic, and Part II contains information gathered
from interviews with police officers. There are three categories of causes of police-induced false confessions: suspect
characteristics, interrogation characteristics and interrogator characteristics. Furthermore, there are many legal issues
surrounding permissible interrogation techniques and the admissibility of confessions evidence. In order to prevent future
false confessions, there are reforms that can take place within law enforcement, inside the courtroom and within the criminal
justice system. Finally, Part II includes information gathered concerning: training, determinations of guilt and innocence,
false confessions, Miranda issues, interrogation techniques, and recording interrogations.

The concept of child custody preference following divorce was investigated using a method of self-report survey analysis.
The generated survey consisted of three distinct parts, with ‗Part I‘ inquiring about sex, age, and parental marital status.
The 25-item ‗Part II‘ was completed if the participant had come from an intact family, whereas the 27-item ‗Part III‘ was
completed if one‘s parents had divorced. It was hypothesized that preferred living arrangement would differ according to
parental marital status while actual living arrangement experienced in childhood was expected to be associated with
preferred living arrangement in retrospect for those from divorced families. It was further assumed that those from divorced
families who preferred sole custody as the best living arrangement in retrospect would report a better relationship with their
mother than those who selected joint physical custody. The results indicated that those from divorced families did prefer a
sole custody living arrangement significantly more than those from intact families and that their actual living arrangement
In the environment surrounding murder cases it is hard to know whether a defendant in the case receives a fair trial when
people are already forming opinions about the case based on media reports before the trial even starts. In this study the
researcher manipulated the order of information and the tone of the information presented to the participants. In each of the
eight conditions, participants read defendant background and trial information. Background information was manipulated by
using either positive or negative descriptions of the defendant. Trial information was manipulated by using either common
language or legal terms. Order of information was manipulated by presenting either background or trial information first
followed by the other factor. The researcher predicted a background main effect whereby only background information
would affect the verdict and sentencing. The study showed that there were no significant background and trial effects, or in
the order of presentation in reaching a verdict for the simulated murder trial.
Given that child behavior problems are becoming more prevalent and are often influenced by a number of parental factors,
the aim of this study was to determine the degree to which parents understand how they may impact children‘s behavior
problems and assess parents‘ attitudes toward their participation in parent based interventions. Thirty-two parents
completed surveys inquiring about their attitudes toward parenting, child behavior problems, and ways of intervening in such
problems. Results suggest that many parents have an understanding of the role parents play in child behavior problems
and express a willingness to participate in parent based interventions. Although some did not share these same
perceptions, the results provide an understanding of who those parents are likely to be and ways of improving their outlook
on parenting. Future research would be well spent aiming to determine whether the attitudes reported by parents in this
study correspond to actual behaviors.
There is an abundance of research that exists in respect to eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major
depression. Etiological reasons for the presence of these disorders, time course, lifetime prevalence, several
psychotherapeutic approaches, and a recently advanced field of information on antidepressant medications for treatment
has been studied. Sifting through the depths of the material that is present in the academic world is a long and arduous task,
but upon examination it appears that eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depression have many
features in common. For instance, there is a strong overlap between the criteria the American Psychological Association
has established for these disorders. The goal of this paper is to briefly examine three facets of each disorder in order to
shed light on the distinct, comorbid relationship that appears to be present between them. [from introduction]

How does a person interpret a simple geometric shape such a circle as an animate or inanimate object? The current study
tries to answer this question by looking at cerebral cortex activity while subjects watched 12 different simple motion cartoons
under functional magnetic resonance imaging conditions. Each motion cartoon was portrayed with two different
backgrounds—one to suggest the motion was animate and one to suggest the motion was inanimate. Interpretation of
animate motion, compared to inanimate motion, elicited greater activity in superior temporal sulcus, ventromedial prefrontal
cortex, and amygdala. Compared to animate motion, inanimate motion interpretation resulted in greater activity in middle
temporal gyrus. These systems of activation suggest that motion interpretation can occur in a top-down process in those
areas implicated in bottom-up processing in previous research.

Because many college student athletes are often branded with the stigma of a ‗dumb jock‘, the current research investigates
the actual differences between academic performance of NCAA Division III college athletes and non-athletes. Previous
research has suggested that better students have a tendency to participate in athletics. Researchers measured college
GPA, the Time Use Efficiency (TUE), Athletic Identity (AI), including subscales of Academic Motivation (AM), Student
Athletic Motivation (SAM), and Career Athletic Motivation (CAM), along with a number of other variables related to academic
performance and academic behavior in college. The data showed no difference in academic performance between college
student athletes and non-athletes. Researchers also found that student-athletes show better Time Use Efficiency than their
non-athlete counterparts. It may be concluded that athletic participation does not predict better or poorer academic
performance.
People with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show specific difficulties on tests of vigilance and sustained
attention, but most animal models of ADHD emphasize impulsivity rather than sustained attention. One exception is the
work of Puumala et al. (1996) using the 5-choice serial reaction-time vigilance task. They proposed that poor performers
are a valid model of ADHD. These animals performed most poorly toward the end of lengthy sessions. Methylphenidate
(MP), a psychostimulant frequently prescribed for ADHD, increased performance of poor performers, but was not
administered during the longest sessions. The current study investigated Puumala et al.‘s model, looking especially at the
effects of vehicle (normal saline), 0.5 mg/kg MP, and 3 mg/kg MP. Without MP, discriminative accuracy was negatively
correlated with premature responses. Methylphenidate caused a dose-dependent decrement in performance. Animals that
performed well showed the greatest performance decrement, whereas poorer performers showed either no decrement or
[abstract not available]




The handbook is a resource of counselors and their clients focusing on the positive and negative characteristic of individual
and group therapies. The goal of the handbook is to provide readers with need information to help facilitate the therapeutic
process as well as provide a possible program to counsel children of divorce. The extensive literature review is followed by
the proposed program and multiple handouts and activities to benefit the therapeutic interaction.
Sex appeal is frequently used in advertising to entice consumers to buy a product. Past studies examined the level and the
effects of sex appeal in advertising, but few studies have looked at sex appeal in advertising from a cross-cultural
perspective. This study conducted a cross-cultural examination of sex appeal in advertising. The first part of the study
involved a content analysis of sex appeal in advertisements from eight different countries in the transnational magazine
Vogue. The second part of the study was a cross-cultural examination of opinions about sex appeal in advertising in general
and in twelve specific advertisements. This study found that there were cross-cultural differences in sex appeal in magazine
advertising. In addition, people from different countries had different perceptions of sex appeal in advertising and found
advertisements from their own countries to be more effective than advertisements from other countries. The results from this
study suggested that advertisements should not be completely globalized, because people from different countries are used
The current study examined three cognitive factors influencing consumer behavior in the context of excessive product
choice, also known as ―consumer hyperchoice.‖ Past research demonstrates that as the number of choices facing a
consumer (choice set size) increases, consumer well being suffers. In addition, research has demonstrated that individuals,
called ―maximizers,‖ who feel the strong need to find the absolute best products, are more likely to experience post-decision
regret. In the present study, 63 participants (13 males and 50 females) were asked to make judgments about hypothetical
decision making situations, as well as to report their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior regarding every day consumer
decision making. Consistent with past literature, results revealed a significant positive correlation between the propensity to
maximize and post-decision regret.

Self-esteem has long been an indicator of performance as well as perceptions made by others. Additionally, peripheral vocal
characteristics, such as rate of speech, pitch, and volume, have illustrated perceptions of such character traits as
competence, credibility, and trust. The current study aimed to study the relationship between self-esteem and vocal
characteristics, to determine if positive and/or negative feedback had an effect on vocal performance in high and low trait
self-esteem individuals. Bogus feedback was given to participants over a computer following a task that was said to be
measuring ―reaction ability.‖ Additionally, participants were asked to complete two measures of self-esteem (one prior to
feedback, one following feedback) and record a vocal passage twice (once prior to feedback, once following feedback).
Results indicated no effects of the feedback manipulation on pre- to post-recording changes in any of the peripheral vocal
characteristics: rate of speech, pitch, or volume.
There is an increasing shortage of nurses. Factors of job stress and autonomy affect the job satisfaction of the nursing
career. Decreasing levels of job satisfaction affect the turnover intent which contributes to the nursing shortage. The nursing
shortage ultimately results in lower quality of patient care and lower job satisfaction of nurses. This study examines the
findings in previous literature. A literature review of job satisfaction in the nursing career was completed and three nurses
were interviewed. The interviews reflected on their job satisfaction as a nurse. Comparisons were drawn between the
findings in previous literature and the nurses‘ responses to job satisfaction. It was hypothesized that the previous findings of
job satisfaction in nursing and the job satisfaction of the nurses would be parallel. The responses of the nurses further
support the findings in previous literature.

Negative news encompasses news that is violent in nature and evokes feelings that are detrimental to the viewer‘s well-
being. Research has shown that the United States has a high amount of negative news on television. The present study
examined the amount of negative news on US television compared to a similar country, Australia. Fear and anxiety of
participants in the United States (n= 103) and Australia (n=33) were self-assessed and then related to the amount of
negative news participants‘ were exposed to. There was no significant difference between the amounts of negative news in
the United States and Australia; however Australia did have significantly higher reporting of positive news compared to the
US. There was no difference in fear of participants from the two countries, but the United States had more reported anxiety
than Australia. Negative news exposure was not a predictor of fear or anxiety in either country. Possible differences between
the two countries and implications for future research are discussed.
This research provides more information about a specific case of bipolar disorder. It features a 23-year-old primary
participant whose onset occurred during high school and is currently living a relatively stable life. The study included 5
respondents that are integral parts of the primary participant’s life. 4 of the respondents witnessed the initial acute phase of
his disorder. It is an in depth look at the current literature on pharmacological treatment, psychotherapy, treatment
adherence, and other aspects of life that are affected by bipolar disorder. Each aspect was applied to the primary
participant’s lifestyle before, during, and after diagnosis. It identifies where he can be compared to available literature and
where he differs from what was been reported for patients who are diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
Though women in the workplace are achieving equality, much still remains unequal within the home. On average, women
perform over 2/3 of all household labor and a large majority of the traditionally feminine tasks, tasks which are more time-
intensive and are performed more regularly. One of the explanations for this is the gender ideology perspective. It was
hypothesized that those who are more traditional will be part of a household where women perform a majority of the
housework, while those who are more egalitarian will distribute housework between spouses more equally. Researchers
surveyed seventy-four college students in regards to egalitarian and traditional beliefs and future predictions of time spent in
domestic labor for themselves and their spouses. A gender divide was found to exist between individual and spousal
estimates in terms of feminine and masculine type tasks: women predict to perform more of the feminine tasks while men
predict to spend more time on the masculine type tasks. However, this distribution of labor appears unaffected by gender
The way in which girls and women experience their bodies has changed dramatically over the past four decades, reflected
by changes in the representations of women presented by the media. The increase in dieting and disordered eating
behaviors among women has accompanied the glamorization and popularization of eating disorders in the media, a trend
which has raised the pursuit of thinness to what Gordon (1992) calls a "mass cultural obsession." The goal of this project is
to examine the role of the media in the development and maintenance of disordered eating behaviors, and to investigate
how the imagery of the popular media has come to shape and monitor the values and eating habits of a generation of
women. Embedded in this goal is the need to evaluate these phenomena in a way that takes into account the individual,
social, political, and cultural contexts within which these attitudes and behaviors take place. A qualitative study, designed to
integrate the voices and experiences of women into a review of the psychological discourse which has described,
Due to the reformation in juvenile transfer policies in the early 1990s, the purpose of the U.S. juvenile transfer system
changed from rehabilitative to punitive. As a result, more and more juveniles are transferred to criminal court and tried as
adults each year. Yet, many juveniles, especially the young, are incompetent to stand trial as adults due to their mental
immaturities, vulnerabilities, and reduced culpability. Such factors question their participation in the legal procedure and
fairness in the court. This paper examines data regarding serious violent crimes by juveniles, juveniles who commit serious
violent crimes, structure and criteria of juvenile transfer mechanisms, adjudicative competence and criminal culpability of
juveniles, and differences between the U.S. juvenile justice system and that of the Japanese juvenile justice system. Based
on the research, it is suggested that many juvenile offenders, especially the young, need rehabilitation rather than
punishment due to their impaired mental maturity and vulnerability. In order to rehabilitate them, assistance from legal
Research suggests that teachers tend to hold negative attitudes toward students with special needs. This study investigates
the effect that special education labels have on the formation of these attitudes. A total of 147 3 rd, 4th, and 5th grade
teachers from throughout Maryland participated by reading a brief vignette about a student who is labeled either learning
disabled or mildly mentally retarded, who receives special education services but is not assigned a label, or who is normal.
After reading the vignette, teachers responded to 22 attitude statements regarding their feelings about the student.
Participants also supplied demographic information, including the amounts of training and experience they have had in
dealing with special education issues. Teachers‘ attitudes toward the normal student were significantly positive than their
attitudes toward the 3 types of students in the disability groups, none of which were significantly different from each other.
The amounts of training and experience the teachers reported had no effect on their attitudes. The results of this study
Researchers of the present study examined performance and personality evaluations of black and white law enforcement
officers for possible racial disadvantage. Participants (n = 101) read a racially manipulated vignette concerning a domestic
disturbance call and then rated the described officer on a number of personality traits and the likelihood of early and regular
promotion recommendations. Participants were designated into high and low prejudice groups by their score on the Modern
Racism Scale (MRS). Analyses of variance resulted in a majority of nonsignificant results. Overall, black and white officers
appeared to be rated similarly on positive character traits, as well as aggressive and dominant character traits. Both officers
were rated similarly for likelihood of being recommended for early and regular promotions. However, participant scores on
the MRS did have influence on the ratings to some degree. Results are discussed in terms of previous research.
Implications from the current data and suggestions for future research are explored.
This study investigated if college students with tattoos and body piercings engaged in risk taking behaviors more often than
students without tattoos and piercings. 154 (134 female, 20 male) students participated in this study and of these
participants 24 had tattoos and 39 had body piercings other than earlobes. The hypothesis that people with body art would
engage in risk taking behavior more often was not supported. A significant correlation did not exist between tattoos and the
sensation seeking score from the Zuckerman-Kulhman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). Nor did a correlation exist
between body piercings and the sensation seeking score. The results did not support previous literature and the gender
limitations of this study may be a reason why the results did not correlate. The majority of participants were female and there
were only two males with tattoos and no males in this study had body piercings. The results from this study show that
college females with body art are not risk takers.
Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder induced by chronic exposure to neuroleptics, typically used to treat
schizophrenia. Often developing after years and persisting indefinitely after cessation of treatment, tardive dyskinesia lacks
an effective treatment due to its unknown etiology and contributing factors. Rats respond to chronic neuroleptic with
behavior analogous to TD referred to as vacuous chewing movements (VCMs). Incidental observations made during the
treatment of a cohort of rats with chronic haloperidol suggested that the severity of TD might be influenced by the stress
axis. Thus I measured mRNA for hypothalamic CRF, an important hormone in the stress response, to assess the
relationship between stress and VCMs in rats. Group housed Long-Evans rats, with starting body weights of 90-165g, were
monitored blindly for baseline VCMs for two minute intervals for 7 weeks, and then for 24 weeks during haloperidol
(28.5mg/kg/ml, i.m., at 3 week intervals: n=43) or vehicle (sesame oil: n=21) injections occurring every third week. At the
The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the relevance of information affects the preference for
information consistent with personal views. Participants were given a proposal of a new required college course involving
teaching library and technological skills. The proposal pertained to either the student’s present institution or a different
college. Participants gave their initial decision and then were given more information about the proposal (either two or ten
pieces of information) then had to choose which piece of information was most useful and make their final decision. Results
indicate a preference for consistent information regardless of information quantity.



Research was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the perceived closeness of family and the
presence of technology. Surveys were administered to participants that included questions about perceived cohesion and
interactions. Results showed a relationship between perceived parental closeness and amount of total interaction and also
showed a relationship of amount of interaction and cohesion among neighbors. Face to face communication was perceived
as the most intimate form of communication with traditional mail being the least. Participants who had a computer and
participants who had e-mail perceived greater familial closeness than those with out. Those who did not have e-mail
reported a greater level of neighbor intimacy. Generational differences were also discovered: younger participants were
more likely to own a computer. Older participants perceived greater familial closeness and were more likely to use face-to-
face communication.
The current literature review seeks to explore the physiological and psychological differences between killer whales and
dolphins that were raised both in the wild and in captivity. Categories for comparison include feeding behaviors, territoriality,
communication, reproductive habits, parental care, and pod structure. Though differences do exist, so little is known about
each species that it is difficult to draw conclusions as to whether or not these differences could be detrimental to the animal.




Previous research using avian species has revealed the significance of prenatal sensory experiences on the development of
postnatal behavioral asymmetries. This study examined the effects of prenatal visual stimulus on postnatal behavioral
asymmetry in a turning task by Japanese quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The prenatal visual stimulus was
provided by placing a pulsating strobe above the incubating eggs during varied days of their final developmental stage. The
data analysis using a Chi-square analysis revealed a significant difference between the control and various experimental
groups. The findings support the hypothesis that prenatal visual stimulus can in fact effect the development of a lateralized
nervous system. The findings also suggest that there is a temporal and/or intensity factor effecting the likelihood of
producing a right-side population bias. Further research is needed to determine if both or one specific factor is more
involved in the process of hemispheric specialization.
Current research into the timing of pubertal onset suggests that American girls are attaining puberty at an earlier age than
was the case thirty years ago. The potential physiological and psychological effects of early puberty cause concern within
the medical and psychological communities. Studies have shown that precocious puberty may be related to an increase in
the risk of breast cancer as well as ovarian cysts later in life and is correlated to lower self-esteem. Various explanations
have been proposed to explain the occurrence of early maturation. Past research focused on the ways in which nutritional
factors and environmental conditions individually affect the timing of pubertal onset in rats. The present experiment
combined these factors to determine if there is an interaction between diet and environmental conditions on the onset of
puberty. Thirty Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly assigned to four conditions combining high-fat and low-fat diet
with ―environmental stimulation‖ (i.e. group-housing and handling) and ―environmental isolation.‖ The researchers measured
[abstract not available]




The purpose of this paper is to propose the theory that the first stage of Erikson‘s Psychosocial stages of life, trust versus
mistrust, is predictive to an individual‘s later life behavior. The developmental theories of Erikson (Psychosocial stages of
life), Bowlby (bonds), and Ainsworth (attachment styles) are all used to show that the initial trust an individual formed with
their caregiver is influential for the rest of their life. This trust formed will lead to the behavior, actions, and beliefs of the
individual. The paper also discusses the difference between a secure or strong trust versus a poor trust in an individual‘s
life. If a person has secure trust, then there are many positive social outcomes for them. For example, they are more
popular, have more stability in life, have better problem solving techniques, and are better in social situations in general. On
the other hand, poor trust leads to poor social skills, poor problem solving, and more importantly for this argument; deviance
or criminal behavior.
The purpose of this study is to explore whether or not there are differences in personality traits between people with body
modifications and people without body modifications on the IPIP; to see if a clear predictor variable for whether or not a body
modification will be obtained will emerge; and to see if people without body modifications perceive the description of the
person with body modifications significantly differently than the other descriptions, as well as to see how stigma affects their
perception, on the Perception Scale. It was hypothesized that there would be no personality differences for neuroticism
between people with and without body modifications; a clear predictor variable would emerge; and the description of the
person with body modifications would, as a result of being more stigmatized, be perceived significantly differently than the
other descriptions. Results indicated that there were no significant personality differences between people with and without
body modifications on the IPIP. As a result of this, no significant predictor variables emerged. Finally, the description of the
There is evidence to support the up-regulation of BDNF and improvement of depressive and anxiety symptoms as a result of
exercise in both human and animal models. However, some animals models do not support these results. There is also a
lack of research on the effects of cessation and reoccurrence of exercise. The current study investigated the effects of
exercise, exercise cessation, and reoccurrence of exercise on BDNF levels in the hippocampus and behavioral measures of
depression and anxiety (forced swim test, sucrose preference test, elevated plus maze) in four groups of adult rats. Results
do not support the hypotheses that voluntary access to running wheels would cause an up-regulation of BDNF and a
decrease in depressive and anxiety symptoms (as compared to controls), nor were there noticeable trends regarding BDNF
and behavior in the groups that experienced cessation or reoccurrence of exercise. While some past research conflicts with
these results, there is also some research to support them. Explanations, limitations of the current study, and the need for
The ability of cocaine sensitization to induce a failure to habituate was explored. Subjects were male albino rats. A chamber
with two distinct and separated halves was used in conditioning. Conditioning consisted of cocaine (10 mg i.p.) being
exclusively paired with an environment in one group (n= 14). Vehicle was exclusively paired with an environment in another
group (n= 6). A final, cpp like group of animals received cocaine pairings in one environment and vehicle pairings in the
other environment (n= 8). After 7 20- minute long pairings, all animals were presented with both chambers. The chambers
were adjoined and separated by an open doorway. For all groups, but the cpp group, one chamber was novel. Cocaine did
not produce robust cpp. Vehicle animals avoided the novel chamber. Animals with a cocaine history did not distinguish
novel from cocaine paired environments. Animals receiving cocaine exhibited more robust sensitization in the drug paired
environment. Data suggest environmental distinctions in sensitized animals were due perseveration, not conditioning.
A qualitative study was conducted to examine the contribution of the individual therapist to therapy, the individual
psychotherapist being a neglected variable in psychotherapy research. Thirteen child and adolescent psychologists were
interviewed about the resources found from the ―person‖ of the therapist in their practice of therapy. The person of the
therapist was explored in relation to the use and impact of the individual therapist‘s life experiences, traits and interests, and
values and beliefs. Individual therapists acknowledged the use of their personal characteristics and experiences in their
work with clients. The resources of using the life experiences of childhood problems and being a parent were typically
discussed. The impact of the therapists‘ use of the person of the therapist included that they experience increased
understanding of the client from their own life experiences, they share personal stories with the client in therapy, that their
beliefs lead them to be nonjudgmental of the client, and they experience their use of their sense of humor as helpful.
Over the last sixty years in western cultures there has been an increase in women's body dissatisfaction levels. This shift in
body image has happened concurrently with a shift in the ideal of physical attractiveness towards a thinner physique.
Research suggests that the downward shift in body satisfaction has been caused, at least in part, by social comparison with
the thin-ideal of feminine beauty presented in the media. The body dissatisfaction felt by women has further reaching
negative effects on women's lives than development of an eating disorder including selective attention to negative body
feedback, relationships, work performance, and career advancement. While endorsement of feminist ideals does not seem
to provide a large level of protection against body dissatisfaction it does seem to prevent the use of some of the more
extreme weight control methods. Looking to the future, emphasis should be placed on teaching acceptance of many body
shapes in order to encourage positive body esteem.
Children‘s experience of bereavement is different than adults‘ due to differences in cognitive abilities, support systems, and
understanding of death itself. Bereaved children typically experience physical, emotional, and behavioral problems, although
active participation in the experience through self-reflection and emotional awareness can help prevent these problems from
becoming clinical or chronic. The present study investigates how dream themes (anxiety) and characteristics (distortion and
goodness of recall) differ in bereaved children (loss group) versus non-bereaved children (non-loss group). The researcher
met with each participant twice. The researcher distributed dream journals in order to aid dream recall at the first meeting,
and then conducted a recorded interview. Loss group interviews were conducted in their homes, non-loss group interviews
were conducted in their school counselor‘s office. Interviews were transcribed and coded. The results indicate that bereaved
children experience more anxiety, particularly more mutilation anxiety, than their non-bereaved peers. There were no
In this current study, the researcher examined psychosocial factors that hinder achievement for college students, particularly
for African American students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland. The researcher was conducting an analysis in verifying
which psychosocial variables correlate with underachievement for college students by posting a survey on St. Mary‘s
College psychology pool website. All participants were current St. Mary‘s college students and ages ranged from 18-25. The
results were none of the psychosocial variables examined had a significant effect, except for academic self-esteem and
racial anxiety. In this study African American students scored lower on academic self-esteem and experienced higher racial
anxiety compared to White students.


This study focused on determining the prevalence of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and subsyndromal-SAD in a college
sample. High levels of SAD and S-SAD may warrant preventive or therapeutic measures to be put in place to treat students
who suffer from winter depression. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was administered to 48
participants in two psychology classes at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland to determine the prevalence of SAD and
subsyndromal-SAD in a college sample. A second survey was administered to look at specific vegetative symptoms,
changes in appetite, sleep and activity levels typical of SAD and subsyndromal-SAD. The prevalence of SAD was 6.25% (n
= 3), and 29.2% (n=14) met the two criteria for subsyndromal-SAD. This study suggests that subsyndromal-SAD may have a
higher rate of occurrence in college students than an adult population, so measures should be taken to detect individuals
with subsyndromal-SAD and offer them treatment.
Sexually explicit materials (SEM) used amongst women has not been researched as thoroughly as the topic warrants. Fifty-
four female participants were given surveys to assess the types of SEM they have used, the reasons they used SEM, and
their levels of sexual functioning. The women were found to have repeated exposure to most types of SEM examined in the
study. Curiosity was the most common reason given for use of every type of SEM. The women used SEM independent of
the presence of a partner or sexual activity. These findings suggest there could be a female population of SEM consumers
that will use specific types for certain reasons and will use them independent of sexual activity.



Behavioral sensitization is thought to be augmented by classical conditioning to a test environment. This idea was explored
by creating two groups of rats that were given the same acquisition schedule for cocaine sensitization, however, one group
received their dose of cocaine (10mg/kg) paired with the test environment, and one group received their cocaine in their
home cages. Each group was then split and challenged after a 3-day drug washout with either vehicle or cocaine in the test
chamber. Paired vehicle control animals demonstrated higher levels of locomotion and rearing over controls. Head bobbing
was only significant in paired group. Thus all behavioral measures were influenced by classical conditioning. Levels of
tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme were studied in the paired and unpaired group as a measure of DA activity in the ventral
tegmental area, caudate, nucleus accumbens and cortex. Levels of TH found in the caudate of vehicle challenged animals
was similar to those found in the cocaine challenged animals, indicating that perhaps DA levels do increase in response to
This study investigated whether the cause of the demand/withdraw pattern in dating relationships is based on the individual
differences perspective or the conflict structure perspective. The researcher gathered 31 couples. 16 of the 31 were male
couples, where the male was required to attend St. Mary‘s College, and 15 were female couples, where the female was
required to attend St. Mary‘s College. Males in the male couples and females in the female couples determined what the
most difficult issue is in their relationship and both partners filled out the Communication Patterns Questionnaire twice: once
to assess their general perceptions or their communication patterns during conflict and once to assess their patterns during
a specific conflict. A paired samples t-test was completed to determine whether female demand was overall greater than
male demand and results indicated that women reported demanding at a much greater rate then males. Another paired
samples t-test was completed to determine if there was a shift in male demand from discussion over conflict in general to
Internet use has reworked the way individuals interact and communicate with one another. Some of the most widely used
sites online would be online social networks such as MySpace and Facebook, in which individuals, specifically adolescents
and young adults, provide personal information about themselves as a way to meet new people. With a site such as
MySpace, users have the ability to explore possible interests, crowds and communities of people, and their own identities.
The purpose of the current study was to examine MySpace users’ profiles and analyze the type of identity-related
information that was provided by males and females who were 18-, 19-, and 20-year-olds. Based on Erikson and Marcia’s
theories of identity development, it was hypothesized that individuals ages 18 and 19 would be more inclined to be going
through moratorium than 20-year-old subjects. As for sex, it was hypothesized that females would be more likely to be
emotionally expressive, more willing to disclose information about their identity relative to males. The results indicated that
This study examined changes in female gender role stereotypes in film over a period of 23 years. Sixteen movies were
chosen based on box office success and presence of two lead female characters. Movies were grouped in six year spans,
and within these groups, one movie was selected for each MPAA rating. These movies were then coded for
stereotypical/non-stereotypical behavior of the lead females. A survey was constructed to assess how influential these
movies were on women when they were viewed. Sex roles of the viewers were evaluated as well as their desire to be like
movie characters. These results were then compared to the content analysis data on those characters. The prevalence of
feminine characteristics in movies did not change over time. Masculinity of the characters increased over the time period of
the study. Participant identification with sex role characteristics of movie characters did not predict participant‘s own sex
role characteristics.
This review of the literature examines several different mental strategies that can be used to enhance an athlete‘s
performance in sports, including imagery, goal setting, management of stress and anxiety, pre-game rituals and
superstitions, and team building. Several studies are referenced to indicate the effectiveness of the strategies, and to help
understand the appropriateness of the techniques in various situations. Using the information concerning the mental
strategies, I will be creating a publicly accessible sports psychology website for St. Mary‘s College of Maryland athletics.




In this study 10 male rats were trained for 30 days on a match-to-sample odor task with either the same odor discriminanda
(control, N=5) or a trials-unique procedure (experimental, N=5), in an effort to compare learning transfer to a unique
problem. Experimental animals had significantly higher percentage correct on the unique odor presentation day than the
control animals, suggesting their application of a general rule to the problem. Control animals are thought to have formed a
specific rule due to their training procedure, and therefore performed no better than chance with the unique problem.
Experimental animals did not perform significantly better than the controls on number of first trials correct on the unique
problem, as has been found in similar previous studies, but this is believed to be a result of the small sample size.


A child‘s understanding of the concepts of death is based on the age at which he or she experiences death as well as the
explanation that may be provided to the child about death itself. The death of a family pet is generally the first experience
that a child has with death. Twenty-two Introductory to Psychology students were surveyed about their experiences with the
death of a pet in childhood. A pilot study involving the interview of a family who had recently lost several pets provided
additional insight into this topic. The effectiveness of parents‘ discussions and coping techniques are discussed.
Within the past several years, education has moved from a very pencil and paper oriented ideology, to a more practical life
philosophy. In the education of students elementary through high school age, assessment is now more often performance
based rather than the traditional standardized written exams. Among the myriad of performance based assessments
available to educators, are portfolios. These showcases of student work, allow individuals to express themselves through
their achievements and long-term growth. Whether following the student from kindergarten through graduation or used as a
culminating senior project, portfolios are unique. This outlet for school performance provides for a different, more
personalized view of the individual and the meeting of predetermined goals. A logical extension of this type of assessment of
students is a similar assessment of educators. Although assessment tools, such as the National Teacher Examination, give
a background check on individuals entering the field of education, they do not assess beyond that point. Until recently, there
A brief review of the recent developments in the study of stress research is offered in the present paper with a specific focus
on the development of the concept of coping. Following a review of the literature on stress and its effects on college
students and academic achievement, the present study hypothesized that avoidant-oriented coping would correlate with
higher levels of stress and also lower levels of academic achievement. It was also predicted that there would be a variety of
correlation between specific personality characteristics and different stress coping styles. However, there was found to be
no correlation whatsoever between avoidant-oriented coping and either stress or academic achievement. The predictions
made involving personality characteristics and their relationship to coping styles was proven to be partially correct, marking
the first step in validating the scale created for the purpose of this research project. Interesting data was gathered that
related the academic ambition of students to what style of stress coping they utilized and also how high their GPA was.
The purpose of this study was to examine and evaluate the content patterns of seven commercial magazines directed
towards the female adolescent consumer. Eleven categories were used to code the articles of each magazine. These
magazines had a high content percentage of articles about improving a female adolescent‘s fashion sense, physical
appearance, and advice on how to look like various featured celebrities. The magazines in this study had a low content
percentage of articles about education and careers, family, health, and friendship. This research was done to add to the
previous knowledge that media targets adolescent females by influencing them to create the perfect body image.



To compare preferred learning style and task motivation of English Language Learners (ELL), ten Spanish-English bilingual
Costa Rican students observed on levels of individual learning, working and temperament style, as well as task motivation
using tangrams. The Kaleidoscope Profile was used to measure learning style preferences and a task forming tangrams into
a square was developed on three measures: silence, music, and reading. Collected data reports gender differences on all
accounts except motivation. The majority of females were visual learners while males were kinesthetic. Overall females
worked best abstract globally while males worked best concrete sequentially. Females resulted as sensing perceivers while
males were sensing judgers. Male participants were highly motivated under the reading measure but there was no dominant
motivational measure for females. Cultural differences between genders were also observed.

[abstract not available]




In the first section of this paper, I describe the most popular theories concerning bargaining and the decision-making
process and the corresponding bargaining personalities. This will be followed by an examination of the factors, which can
alter and be used to manipulate a person‘s bargaining behavior. The third section of the paper will analyze if the social
constructs of personality, gender, age, and culture have any influence over bargaining behavior. The various empirical
studies discussed will provide a scientific framework and will support or contest the validity of the various negotiation
theories. I will also relate the current empirical research to the three current leading texts on the subject; Robert Mnookin's
Beyond Winning: Negotiating to Create Value in Deals and Disputes (2000); Roger Fisher and William Ury's Getting to Yes
(1983); and Herb Cohen's Negotiate This! (2003), in order to formulate a conclusion on the most effective bargaining
strategy.
The relationship between masculine gender role conflict (GRC) and reluctance toward seeking help is well-established.
However, despite empirical and theoretical support, depression has not been explored as a moderating factor between GRC
and help-seeking attitudes. In attempt to fill this gap in the research, the present study examined a sample of 120 college-
age males (44 depressed and 76 nondepressed) who completed a measure of GRC along with a help-seeking
questionnaire. As hypothesized, GRC was negatively related to help-seeking attitudes. However, the interaction between
GRC and depression in regard to help-seeking attitudes was nonsignificant, and thus depression does not appear to
moderate the relationship between GRC and help-seeking attitudes. Implications and suggestions for future research and
psychotherapy with men are discussed.

This paper seeks to outline a theoretical and empirical background for recruitment and retention issues in order to determine
the cause of the Maryland State Police Recruitment Unit‘s downward follow-up applicant trend. Many recruitment and
retention variables that may affect an applicant‘s decision to maintain their applicant status are examined and assessed in a
survey. Possible solutions to maintaining applicant status are discussed. Finally, the author suggests methods of
expanding future recruitment as well as other aspects of law enforcement research.




This research project will investigate feminism and intellectualism conceptually across cultures and will focus on cultural
issues for community. The purpose of this research study is to explore the prevalence of intellectualism within African-
American culture while comparing life skills intellectualism with academia intellectualism from a feminist perspective. Life
skills intellectualism is defined as a historical wisdom that is passed on to each new generation from the generation
preceding them. This type of intellectualism focuses on an ethic of care, a form of feminism that teaches and nurtures each
member of the community. These intellectuals teach the community spirituality, healing, economics related to poverty
issues, pride in heritage, and wisdom enabling members to function on a daily basis. [p. 1]


The purpose of my SMP was to research and design an inclusive summer camp designed to specifically teach social skills.
The literature review of psychology articles includes the positive effects of summer camp attendance and inclusive
environments, and the unique needs of a special needs child in a summer camp. The project culminated with a proposed
summer camp model which specifically lays out how to foster an inclusive environment that promotes positive social skills,
and more broadly, how the camp will operate.




Community notification and civil commitment for sex offenders are both important and controversial issues in our country.
There have been many cases dealing with the legality of both of these issues. Also, there are many different psychological
aspects for both laws including a possible hindrance on rehabilitation and kinds of treatment for offenders. There is varying
evidence for the effectiveness of treatment, which can be utilized for civil commitment purposes or programs attended after
release from prison. There are several states that have either or both community notification and civil commitment laws,
which are listed in this paper. There have been many pros and cons outlined for both kinds of laws and there have been
many suggestions for changes in current policies.


The purpose of the current literature review was to investigate predictive factors of high risk sexual behaviors in African-
American female adolescents. The reasoning for investigating high risk behaviors in black female youth was the
disproportionate numbers of contractions of HIV/AIDS, and how this is hurting the African-American community. Therefore,
the author investigated three main variants that were correlated with high risk behavior, which included the factors of
interpersonal relationships, environment, and media influence. The author also reviewed historical factors that influence high
risk sexual behaviors, implications sexual deviant behaviors have on HIV/AIDS rates in the black community, and prevention
programs to reduce high risk behaviors.
The current research examined the effects of the presence of college romantic relationships on students in terms of
academic achievement, levels of depression, and academic motivation. Multiple factors of relationship health were
investigated; hypothesizing that healthy college relationships would buffer the generally accepted negative effects of dating
in an academic setting, while unhealthy relationships would increase these effects. Relationship presence was significantly
correlated with lower academic performance, however results indicated contradictions to many hypothesized effects, and an
overall lack of finding for others, including findings of previous research. Results suggest the possibility that in rigorous
academic institutions, the negative effects of romantic involvement on academic performance are not as concrete as
previously thought. Similarly, GPAs of participants were higher than the average student and not particularly variable, and
history of relationship involvement was not associated with GPA. These results suggest a less dramatic impact of
The current researchers endeavored to ascertain the psychological and philosophical statuses of those individuals who
adhere to either a vegetarian or nonvegetarian diet. A sample of 141 participants was secured from various four-year
institutions across the Eastern United States. Participants were administered a battery of (predominantly) personality-based
inventories intending to assess variables such as Gender/Sex-Role, Philosophies of Human Nature (i.e., Trustworthiness,
Independence, Altruism), Neuroticism/Extraversion/Openness/ Agreeableness/Conscientousness, Self-Efficacy, Aggression,
Empathy, and Liberalism/Conservatism. Results indicate that Vegetarians are more Open, Agreeable, are better able to take
on the perspective of others, are more Empathic, and are globally more Liberal. The results tentatively suggest that
Vegetarians do not view others as Altruistic, and may possess higher levels of Hostility. The Results additionally indicate
that Nonvegetarians have higher levels of stereotypical Masculinity, are more Angry, and Physically, Verbally, and Globally
[abstract not available]




The worried well are patients who are worried about their health, but have no medical illness. This population contributes to
the burden the healthcare system currently experiences by excessively visiting the physician and overusing available
resources. To reduce this burden, I proposed a worried wellness scale to identify this population comprised of four
components, including doctor-patient relationship, psychological illness, perceptions of self, and family medical history. In
addition, I was interested in identifying demographic characteristics and personality traits of this population. The factors that
emerged from the four factor solution factor analysis were similar to the proposed components of the worried wellness scale.
One component of the worried wellness scale did not correlate with the global worried wellness score, signifying that
participants’ self report of patient-doctor relationships does not help to identify the worried well population. Participants who
scored higher on the worried wellness scale were more likely to exhibit neurotic personality characteristics. The results
This study set out to examine the relationship between level of athletic participation, alcohol consumption, and extraversion.
This study included 80 participants that completed a specially designed questionnaire made specifically for this study. The
hypotheses included that the higher level of athletic participation a person was involved in the more alcohol they would
consume, the higher level of athletic participation a person was involved in the more extraverted they would be, the more
alcohol a person consumed the more extraverted they would be, and males would consume more alcohol than females.
Results indicated that athletics and alcohol consumption, athletics and extraversion, and alcohol consumption and
extraversion were all positively correlated. Further analysis revealed the specific differences between the groups. The
mediational analysis model revealed that extraversion played a role in mediating the relationship between athletic
participation and alcohol consumption indicating that those who participate in higher levels athletics consume more alcohol
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality and color preference in a laboratory setting
and in real world applications. Experiment 1 consisted of 25 college students (age range=18-24) that were given the
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Eysenck & Eysenck, 2001) and a color preference test. The results of this
experiment revealed a significant correlation between color preference and personality. Experiment 2 consisted of 25
participants in the community (age range=14-60) who had a room painted for them in the color of their choice prior to
testing. The color was given a value using the Munsell Book of Color (Munsell, 1929) and participants were also given the
personality and color preference test as in Experiment 1. Results from Experiment 2 indicated no significant correlation
between color and personality in real world applications. Conclusions from the two experiments reveal there was a
significant correlation between color preference and personality in a laboratory setting and there was not a significant
Researchers studied 10 players of the developmental role-playing game Mithral Quest, aged 6-13, 9 males and 1 female.
Participants were administered the Piers-Harris Self-Concept survey twice. The pretest was held at a gathering of Mithral
Quest participants. The posttest was held 1 week later following roughly 3 hours of Mithral Quest participation. Differences in
the pre and post game versions of the Piers-Harris were not significant. A licensed psychologist observed Mithral Quest and
provided her notes on the session.




Buddhism and psychotherapy both attempt to reduce or eliminate suffer to allow one to live a satisfying life. I advance the
thesis that the maximally fulfilling life can be achieved with the help of both Buddhism and psychotherapy, by both working
to improve one‘s life and by accepting the results, whatever they may be. I explain the nature of Buddhism and how it aims
to achieve its goal. I then discuss several approaches to therapy, highlighting their interactions with Buddhism. I then
propose that Buddhism may can easily be misinterpreted to suggest a passive approach to live. Finally, I explain that
mindfully accepting whatever we experience, as Buddhism suggests, should be done in the context of our attempts to
change our lives as we see fit and to fulfill our desires. Psychotherapy is one way of changing our lives in an advantageous
way.

Cultural psychologists believe that the process of development is inherently social and cultural. Thus culture cannot be
seen as separate from the individual, but rather as a shaping force that guides individuals in their early development and
throughout their adult lives. Children born into traditional Latino families in which male and female roles are strictly defined
are likely to be socialized to assume their respective gender roles, and are likely to form strong gender stereotypes. The
present study investigates processes of gender stereotype development among Latino preschoolers. Using the Gender
Stereotyped Attitude Scale for Children (GSAC) and behavioral observations the researcher studied a classroom of Latino
preschoolers at the Spanish Educational Development Center in Washington, D.C. Findings reflect patterns in gender role
formation among these Latino preschoolers, including a positive relationship between amounts of television watched daily
and rigidity of gender role perceptions. Future research should concentrate on reworking the present study and conducting
The following pages will take you through a journey of how and why we dream and its personal relationship with each
individual. We start with the functions of sleep because sleep is where we dream, and will continue through dream theorists
and their theories. With a broad swath of information regarding these multifaceted theories and theorists we will conclude
with the concept of dreams as a tool for interpretation. [from introduction]




Past research indicates that adult men and women differ in their use of emotion terms when describing past events. The
present study investigated whether gender differences were present in adults‘ recollections of events from four time points:
age 3-7, 10-14, recent, and future. A methodological comparison of written and typed event memory narratives was also
included so as to explore the impact of response mode on narrative length. Women provided more emotion and other
internal state terms than did men across all life phases, reflecting gender-based socialization. Further, both women and men
indicated typing as their preferred response mode, and narrative length was greater for those individuals who typed their
responses; this suggests that researchers should utilize computer word processing programs in the collection of
autobiographical memory narratives.

The use of methamphetamine (METH) worldwide, in adults and adolescents, has led to increased research on the
neurotoxicity to brain regions and the cognitive deficits caused by METH. The current experiment focused on the effects of
METH on hippocampus dependent non-spatial and spatial working memory and hippocampal serotonin levels with an
escalating dose model of METH use in periadolescent rats. Using 18 male Spraque-Dawley rats, the novel object
recognition task and the discrete paired-trials delayed alternation task measured working memory and optical density
quantified serotonin found in the hippocampus. The effects on working memory and hippocampal serotonin were found to be
non-significant. Further research should utilize the escalating dose model to determine the developmental issues caused by
periadolescent METH use.
Undergraduate researchers worked with Academic Services at a small liberal arts college to create a peer support group,
named Peer AD/HD Support System (P.A.S.S.) for fellow students who are diagnosed with Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity
Disorder. The student lead group addressed pertinent topics for AD/HD students. Academic self-concept and other self
constructs were measured at an early P.A.S.S. meeting to determine differences between participating and nonparticipating
students. It appears from a preliminary survey of the data, in this very small pilot study, as though there might be some
different characteristics between individuals who decided to participate in P.A.S.S. and those who decided not to participate.
Feedback questionnaires were also distributed at the end of the semester to both P.A.S.S. and non-P.A.S.S. group
members. This allowed members of both groups to explain why the came to P.A.S.S. group meetings, why they didn‘t come,
and what the suggestion they have to making P.A.S.S. successful in the future.
Past research suggests that yoga may be related to increased body-satisfaction. This relationship is particularly noteworthy
for the population of adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to examine yoga as a possible method for
increasing body-satisfaction among sixth grade girls. This age group was targeted with the aim of counteracting developing
low levels of self-esteem and body satisfaction that increase throughout adolescence. For this study, a six week yoga
intervention program was implemented as an after school program activity option at a local Boys and Girls Club. The scale
used to measure body satisfaction, the Body-Esteem Scale was deemed inappropriate because participants based ratings
of body satisfaction on functionality of their bodies rather than appearance. The functionality based nature of participants‘
responses may indicate that greater cognitive, physical and situational differences exist between pre-adolescents and
adolescents than was previously expected.
It is widely acknowledged that there are social factors that influence women differently than men. How these differences are
manifested in a specific college environment is the focus of this exploratory study. Three main issues are under
investigation: sexual scripts and the double standard; body image and attractiveness; and achievement related issues.
Interviews were conducted with 8 college women and 2 college men to pinpoint issues perceived as critical in college
women's lives. A questionnaire based on the information yielded from the interviews was developed and administered, in
conjunction with the Stunkard Body Image Scale and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, to 183 college students. Exploratory
analyses revealed significant sex differences for a variety of variables, including, but not limited to, the sexual double
standard, sexual scripts, and body image discrepancies.

The United States is one of the few countries where bilingualism is not a common practice. With increasing rates of
immigrants from all over the world, it is essential to understand how being bilingual affects learning in the classroom. This
paper analyzes recent research pertaining to second language acquisition, the critical period hypothesis, two-language
systems, bilingual literacy skills, and current suggestions for handling bilingualism in the classroom. I believe that it would be
beneficial for all students to have early exposure to a second language, and propose methods of doing so.




In the current study, relations between parental dental fear and dental anxiety, the level of preparation of the child for a
biannual dental exam, and the observable stress experienced by the child during the visit were investigated. Child and
parent participants were patients at a local pediatric dental practice. Parents completed paper-pencil questionnaires,
consisting of items regarding demographic information, a parental dental fear measure, a parental dental anxiety measure,
and a questionnaire with items relating to the preparation of the child prior to the dental visit through parental disclosure.
Dental assistants completed a measure of observed child stress during the visit. The results supported the hypothesis that
higher scores of parental dental fear and parental dental anxiety would be correlated with higher ratings of observed child
stress. Also, as hypothesized, parental reports of some preparation prior to the dental visit were correlated with higher
ratings of child stress. The results of this study support the findings of prior research, emphasizing the importance of
The effect of the presented gender of children on their behavior was studied in an observational design. The behavior types
examined were helping and aggression, which were subdivided into masculine and feminine types. Clothing types were
used to code presented gender. The hypothesis was that children who self-present a masculine image would use more
masculine behaviors and less feminine behaviors and vice versa. Chi-square analysis revealed partial significance for the
presented gender of children on behavior. Further chi square analysis revealed that biological sex was related to the gender
type of behavior, but not related to the types of behavior irrespective of gender.
There is little research examining dolphin interaction programs. A few studies have measured stress levels of dolphins in
various interaction programs (Brensing et al., 2005; Trone et al., 2005) and one study that measured the effectiveness of
treating depression with dolphin therapy (Antonioli and Reveley, 2005). The purpose of these three proposed experiments is
to expand on the research of dolphin interaction programs. The first study will measure the effects different human
interaction situations have on the stress and aggression levels of dolphins. The second study will examine the effects of
dolphin therapy, dog therapy, swimming therapy, and medication only on children with autism. The third study will examine
the effects of dolphin therapy versus swimming therapy on the positive emotions of cancer patients. Following the three
proposals is a literature review discussing the cognitive capabilities that dolphins possess. All three proposed studies are
novel research ideas and the results could revolutionize the prevalence of animal therapy, specifically dolphin therapy.
Thirty-six students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland were surveyed for their memories of a campus party that was dispersed
by campus authorities and law enforcement officers. Eighteen students were arrested, and a number of students reported
being chased by police dogs and sprayed with pepper spray. Student memories of the event remained consistent during the
six month retention interval. Witness confidence was not correlated with memory consistency. Individual difference
measures did not predict consistency, but higher self-monitors had confidence that was predictive of consistency.
Participants that reported being under the influence of alcohol or other drugs in the fall showed a significantly lower
correlation between confidence and consistency. Suggestive questions and a photograph lineup of foils did not significantly
produce false memories.

Research on the mechanisms of attitude formation has demonstrated that exposure to valuated messages about gender will
influence one‘s conception of gender, gender roles, and gender differences. Older siblings may be particularly influential
mediums of attitude transmission by serving as model of gendered behaviors and appropriate gender attitudes. In the
present study, gender role attitudes were evaluated as a function of sibling relationship context to examine whether growing
up with older siblings of the opposite sex facilitates formation of egalitarian gender role attitudes. Ninety-eight college-aged
(18-24) participants were self-selected into three groups: those with older siblings within 4 years of their age, those with any
other opposite-sex sibling, and those with no opposite-sex siblings. Gender role attitudes were measured by comparing
participant responses to King and King‘s (1993) Sex Role Egalitarianism Scale, Form KK. Results indicate that, for the
respondents surveyed, gender role attitudes do not differ significantly based on sibling relationships. Consistent with similar
The present study investigated the relationship between fear appeals, gender, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Two
questionnaires were distributed to measure attitudes and behavioral intentions in response to manipulated print
advertisements intended to arouse different levels of social fear. A statistical analysis of participants‘ responses found that
fear level significantly affected the amount of fear reported by participants, though not entirely in a positive direction as
predicted. A near significant positive effect of fear level on advertisement attitudes was also found. Gender moderated the
effect of fear level on advertisement attitudes, while self-esteem significantly predicted average reported fear. Self-efficacy
significantly affected advertisement attitudes and fear levels for the low fear condition only, while self-efficacy was positively
related with many product and advertisement attitudes and purchase intention outcomes overall. The implications of this
research and ethical concerns about the use of fear appeals are discussed.
The objective of this study was to implement an after-school dance program aimed at improving body image in elementary
school children. Previous research has shown that dance movement therapy has been successful in treating many
disorders in children and adults, including eating disorders and body image distortions. Six elementary school children
participated in five 30 minute sessions of themed dance activities. Body image was measured through participants‘ journal
activities, coded video-taped sessions, and interviews. Results suggested that the dance program was successful in
improving body image in the participants. This conclusion was indicated by participants experiencing decreases in shyness,
increases in confidence, increases in or maintenance of positive body feelings, and changes from restricted movements to
open and natural movements. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of programs designed to prevent
eating disorders in children by correcting body image distortions at an early age.
The prospective association between self-objectification and mood was investigated in undergraduate women. It was found
that women who viewed themselves from an observer‘s perspective reported higher levels of negative affect and depressive
sympatomatology as well as lower levels of positive affect. Self-objectification was also found to relate to a ruminative
coping style, and this style mediated the association between objectification and depressed affect. Finally, a subset of
participants viewed a video intending to lessen the pernicious effects of self-objectification. There was no evidence that this
video was effective.
The effects of stereotype endorsement and attitudes towards interracial dating were investigated in this study. 81 subjects
volunteered to fill out a questionnaire. The samples were taken from two different college campuses. The subjects
indicated their personal attitudes about interracial dating, their first impressions of a Black/White interracial couple, and their
agreement or disagreement of stereotypes about interracial dating and interracial daters. The first impressions portion of
the study was done by randomly assigning subjects to two different descriptions of the couple. The results showed that
Blacks agreed with more stereotypes and also showed slightly more negative personal attitudes about interracial dating.
The results of the first impressions portion of the study showed that people looked at the couple more favorably when they
had been described as being together for 4 years, had dated mostly inside their own race previously, and had lived in areas
predominated by the other race.
Sixteen rats were administered saline or an escalating dose of methamphetamine (meth) (3 days a week for 5 weeks,
increasing 1 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg at 1 mg/kg a week). Locomotor activity of meth-treated animals resulted in sensitized (activity
increased by 50% or more) and non-sensitized (activity did not increase by 50%) rats. Following a 4 week withdrawal period,
rats were tested for conditioned place preference to determine the rewarding properties of the drug when compared to food.
Additionally, rats were tested in a set-shifting task to assess cognitive impairment due to repeated meth use. Meth had no
effect on either test for any of the three drug groups (sensitized, non-sensitized and saline).



The concept of transitive inference (TI) is the relation between two pieces of knowledge used to infer a third piece of
knowledge. For example, if told that dogs (A) are nicer than rats (B) and rats are nicer than cats (C), the TI made from this
would be that dogs (A) are nicer than cats (C). TI was tested on rats by the use of five tactile stimuli (A-E) divided into four
premise pairs (AB, BC, CD, and DE) in which choice A is always rewarded and E is never rewarded. The test for TI included
a novel test pair (BD). All rats showed discrimination of the four premise pairs. However, trial 1 performance on BD
indicated that no TI was found.



The present study combined a literature review with a case study of an elementary school to determine the effectiveness of
school-wide PBIS [Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support] programs in elementary schools. The school-wide PBIS
program of a Maryland public elementary school was observed in order to determine how effective this program was. It was
found that the school adequately implemented the program and was able to decrease problem behaviors as well as
increase academic achievement. However, this particular school does show a need for some minor adjustments in order to
maintain the success of the program. An extensive literature review also revealed that there is much evidence in support of
the effectiveness of school-wide PBIS programs within elementary schools.


Bipolar disorder stands as one of the fastest growing diagnosed psychiatric disorders in the United States. As one of the
more severe mood disorders, pharmacotherapy is usually the first response to treatment. However, psychosocial issues
such as interpersonal relationships, medication noncompliance, and vocational goals are not adequately addressed by
pharmacotherapy. Subsequently, psychotherapy complements pharmacotherapy, effectively treating the psychosocial
aspects of bipolar disorder. This assessment evaluates creative therapies, cognitive behavioral therapy, family therapy, and
group therapy in their approaches to bipolar disorder. Finally, a proposed method of therapy integrating these treatments is
suggested to comprehensively treat bipolar disorder‘s psychosocial needs.


In an attempt to create a working model of Parkinson‘s disease that portrays the motor and non-motor features of the
disorder, the nociceptin/ orphanin receptor (NOP) potent agonist UFP-112 was chronically administered into the substantia
nigra pars reticulata (SNR). Previous studies have shown stimulation of the SNR NOP receptor decreases dopamine
transmission along the nigrostriatal pathway and induces parkinsonian-like motor impairments (Marti et al., 2004b).
Following placement of cannulas into the SNR attached to an osmotic pump containing UFP-112 or vehicle alone, both
motor behaviors and non-motor behaviors were assessed. Chronic stimulation of the SNr NOP receptor system regulated
the nigrostriatal pathway and induced motor performance impairments, but did not disrupt the cognitive and emotional
behaviors involved with Parkinson‘s disease.
Racism, prejudice, and discrimination are still major problems within our society. Blacks are greatly disadvantaged in our
country. Whites control most of the power and money. This paper is designed to open up communication between the
races, break down the walls of fear and silence that have built up since the end of the Civil Rights Movement, and educate
the reader about the black perspective. To do this a discussion of vocabulary, research and black history are provided. It is
desired that the reader, at the end of the paper, feels educated enough to discuss race and racial issues as well as
empowered to join the fight for a true egalitarian society.



The comparison of negative television news content from the United States and Australia was examined to see if the content
affected the viewer‘s fear and anxiety levels. One hundred three U.S. participants and thirty three Australian participants
completed a general questionnaire and fear and anxiety subscales. The general questionnaire reported demographic,
statistical, and opinion information about the participant‘s viewing habits while the subscales recorded each participant‘s fear
and anxiety level. Television news media content samples from both countries were coded with a focus on specific negative
news variables. There was no statistically significant difference between the two countries for the amount of negative news
content. Killings and shootings was found to be significantly higher in the United States content when compared to
Australian content. U.S. participants were more anxious than Australian participants and had a more negative state of mind
after viewing the news and negative perceptions of the news. Negative news did not predict fear and anxiety levels. Positive
The effect of television viewing habits on children's ability to attend was examined with the aim of determining whether there
is a relationship between a child's viewing of private television programs, usually perceived as being highly stimulating and
of little educational value, and decreased attention levels. Two hundred seven students from a private school in Maryland
were surveyed using a measure of television viewing habits and the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment
(ASEBA)-Youth Self-Report (YSR; Achenbach, 2001). A similar media survey and the ASEBA-Child Behavior Checklist
(CBCL; Achenbach, 2001) were also administered and matched to the parents of the students. Results found no
relationships among television access, parental supervision, mimicking behavior, or types of programming and children‘s
attention levels. Minimal differences were discovered between the educative value and stimulating programming on
increased attention problems in children. Limitations considered concerned a non-representative sample and a low
A wide social support network is highly valuable to children and adolescents who are attempting to overcome the many risk
factors associated with parental divorce. Due to the fact that they have an intimate knowledge of the child, and the familial
structure as a whole, siblings can be especially valuable in serving as a source of support and care following parental
divorce. The present study was designed to examine whether the presence of a sibling can act as a protective factor,
serving to buffer feelings of loneliness and strengthen global life satisfaction following parental divorce. The present study
compared an experimental group of participants with divorced parents to a control group of participants whose parents are
not divorced to assess whether parental divorce correlated with higher levels of loneliness and lower levels of overall life
satisfaction. Additionally, sibling presence was taken into account in order to assess whether the presence of a sibling
correlated with lower levels of measures of loneliness and higher levels of overall life satisfaction.
This review aims to define art therapy and explore its history and current uses. Techniques and processes of art therapy will
be discussed. In addition, art therapy will be discussed in regards to its basis in a dominant orientation, and further, its
widening influence in other theoretical orientations. Moreover, dominant client demographics and prevailing neuroses in the
field of art therapy will be addressed. Finally, this review will offer a critique of the research in art therapy examining
research methods, outcome, and limitations. [from p. 4]




College students (N = 308) completed a battery of self-report measures assessing eating disordered attitudes, gender role
orientation, and attitudes towards dating and sexuality. A new measure, the Dating Attitudes Inventory, was created in order
to assess the relationship between eating disordered attitudes and traditional and active dating roles. Results indicated
significant positive relationships between eating disordered attitudes, sexual permissiveness, and adherence to non-
traditional and active dating roles. Despite a significant overall relationship, post hoc analyses revealed that no particular
gender role orientation was consistently associated with eating disordered attitudes. Future research should investigate the
relationship between eating disordered attitudes and the possibility of an internal conflict between synchronous traditional
and non-traditional attitudes on additional social variables.
Portions of the unpublished works of the mother of the author, who was diagnosed with Bipolar I disorder, are analyzed for
characteristic manifestations of manic-depressive illness. A literature and symptom review catalogue the typical
manifestations of the illness in writers, and the connections between manic-depressive illness and creativity are discussed.




Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is rapidly becoming the biggest epidemic in history. At the end of 2002, there
were 28 million deaths from HIV/AIDS, a statistic that will soon amount to over 100 million (Hunter, 2003). Unfortunately, this
rampant spreading of AIDS is affecting all aspects of life in Africa, particularly the children. The children are being raised in
an environment stricken by poverty and death, stunting their growth and jeopardizing their futures. Slowly, the epidemic is
tearing apart families, leaving children to support themselves or live on the streets, where they face abuse and exploitation
daily (AVERT, 2005). Unless something is done to help the African continent, exhausted and hopeless because of
deprivation and disease, their youngest generation, and therefore their economy, will eventually collapse.


[abstract not available]




This study intended to observe the differences between students‘ self-esteem and delinquency levels. A sample of 12
learning disabled (LD) and 10 non-learning disabled (NLD) students were compared using the Rosenberg Self-esteem
Scale, the Delinquency Checklist, and a demographic questionnaire. The LD students received a questionnaire about their
disability and the NLD students were given a questionnaire about favorites. It was hypothesized that the LD students
diagnosed within the first two years of schooling would scored higher on levels of self-esteem and lower on levels of
delinquency that those LD students diagnosed recently, and that when compared to the LD students the NLD students
would do the same. The results showed no significant differences between the groups; however, differences in delinquency
did occur in the hypothesized direction.

The purpose of the current study is to determine if there is a relationship between an individual‘s gender role orientation and
how salient aggressive acts are to the individual on the basis of their gender. Aggressive acts were defined as physical or
social. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to identify individuals‘ gender and the Social Behaviors Questionnaire
Revised (SBQ-R) was used to determine the salience of certain aggressive acts. The results support a significant link
between femininity and the salience of aggressive acts in general, instead of for specific aggressive acts. There were no
effects found for androgyny; masculinity and undifferentiated genders were merged into androgyny and femininity,
respectively, due to the low number of participants identifying with those genders. Implications and limitations of the
findings are discussed.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences between male and female serial killers. In particular, this
literature review examined how male and female serial killers differ in their method of murder. I hypothesized that those
female serial killers who adopt more feminine gender roles will use a covert method of murder when killing, while male serial
killers who identify with more masculine gender roles will use an overt method of murder. Additionally, I hypothesized that
the male serial killers who employed covert methods to kill were at the times of their murders in female dominated
occupations. These hypotheses suggest that an individual‘s gender role identity and occupation are associated with a serial
killer‘s choice of murder weapon. The results of the studies support these predictions.
Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: saline (n = 7) or muscimol (n = 7). The rats
received 0.5 mg/kg of muscimol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) or saline (i.p.) during the initial 40 odor-unique discrimination problems
to test effects of muscimol on the acquisition of learning set. Muscimol did not impair the acquisition of a learning set, as
evidenced by the significantly higher than expected by chance Trial 2 performance. Muscimol also did not result in
performance or motor deficits, or changes in emotionality.




Twenty-eight C57B16 mice were used in this study. The Nf1 mice (n=13) and wild type mice (n=15) were randomly assigned
to one of two groups: enriched environment (n= 12) and non-enriched environment (n= 16). The mice were tested in the
Morris water maze and the open field. Results from the water maze indicated no significant differences in acquisition or
probe trials between the four groups. No differences were found between the Nf1 mice and the wild type mice in the water
maze acquisition or probe trials. No differences were found between the enriched environment mice and the non-enriched
environment mice in the water maze acquisition or probe trials. No differences were found in the open field indicating no
differences in emotionality between the groups of mice.


The following study is an investigation of the differing ways in which college students perceive academic-related stress over
the course of one semester. Depressive symptoms in students were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies
Depression Scale (CES-D), and academic stress levels in students were assessed using Gadzella‘s Student Life Stress
Inventory (SSI). These measures were administered three times throughout one semester. It was hypothesized that stress
levels and depressive symptoms would rise in conjunction with the increase of work associated with the progression of a
semester, culminating in final exams and projects. Data analysis revealed main effects for gender and session on the CES-
D but no interactions, and main effects of session for two of the SSI subscales. Data analysis also indicated that when an
effect of gender for the SSI was present, females always scored higher than males. The implications for these results are
addressed.
Undergraduates worked with Academic Services at a small liberal arts college to create a peer support group for fellow
AD/HD students. The student lead group addressed pertinent topics for AD/HD students such as time management, goal
setting, organization, self-advocacy, study skills and environments, and medication. Academic self-efficacy and other self
constructs were measured to examine differences between students who did and did not attend. Feedback questionnaires
were used to elicit criticisms that could be used for future planning and remodeling of the group.




[abstract not available]




Transforming Our Youth (T.O.Y.) is a behavior modification program that utilized creative therapeutic techniques to reduce
the frequency of problem behaviors in a group setting of fourth and fifth graders. Prior to sessions, two volunteer coders
observed children (in both control and experimental groups) for three minutes each, marking down misbehaviors (as
dictated by a researcher designed coding sheet). T.O.Y. consisted of four females and one male, and lasted approximately
five weeks. There was an average of three sessions per week that aimed to address issues of respect, responsibility, and
coping with emotion in new and innovative ways. Group members enjoyed sandplay and progressive relaxation, made worry
dolls, grew lavender plants, watched caterpillars transform into beautiful butterflies, and partook in meaningful discussions
about anger and communication. After the sessions were complete, volunteers repeated the coding process for post-
intervention measurements. Unfortunately, due to a lack of observed behaviors, as well as a small sample size, quantitative
The first portion of the research was gathered in The Gambia, West Africa, during a seven week field study program in the
summer of 2004. Seeking to find the perceptions and conceptualizations that The Gambians had of mental illness and
treatment, I set up multiple interviews with traditional healers, health professionals and everyday citizens. The research
continued at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland. Since The Gambia is 95% Muslim, questionnaires were given to Muslim college
students. They were asked questions about their perceptions on the Muslim religion and how it may relate to
psychopathology. It was found that most Gambians and Muslim students categorize the manifestation of mental illness into
three areas: spirits, psychological and drugs. The findings also suggest that the Muslim religion may have some aspects,
such as prayer, that are protective against mental illnesses, especially in the realm of anxiety.

Categorization is a cognitive task requiring objects to be generalized into and discriminated out of a category. Touchscreens
are touch-sensitive computer monitors shown to be useful in assisting with cognitive tasks in research. This study sought to
use a touchscreen to have rats categorize stimuli based on membership in the oval, rectangle, triangle or star category.
While none of the rats in the study successfully completed the shaping process to enter the next phases, the results from
the study do not contradict the likelihood that rats are capable of using a touchscreen for this purpose. With more time, the
rats in this study should have completed the shaping process and continued on to the proposed training and testing
methods.


The interaction between the variables masculinity, alcohol consumption and problems associated with alcohol were
investigated in African American males. The relationship was investigated through a review of psychological literature,
English literature and an empirical psychological study. Fifteen works from the authors Kenneth Carroll, LeRoi Jones,
Malcolm X, Langston Hughes and James Baldwin were reviewed. Both literature reviews investigated the various socio-
cultural factors which influence the three variables. The themes of culture, discouragement, economic class, alcoholism,
problem behaviors and bearing witness are explored throughout the works, as well as psychological literature. The empirical
study revealed significant positive relationships between the variables alcohol and masculinity and alcohol and alcohol
related problems. Sixty-five subjects from Morgan State University and Tennessee State University were tested using three
scales of measurement: the Quantity Frequency Variable (QFV) (Cahalan et al, 1969), the Hyper-masculinity Index (Mosher
The current study examines the relations between self-perception and participants‘ propensity to engage in anti-social
behaviors in a self-verification framework. Several dimensions of self-concept and global self-worth were examined as well
as the participants‘ perception of the importance of each of these dimensions of the self. Self-verification theory suggests
that those individuals with low self-perceptions in certain domains of their self-concepts and high ratings of importance with
regard to these domains will attempt to reduce the resulting dissonance through motivated actions. One suggested avenue
for doing so is by engaging in behaviors that verify the existing self-perceptions of such individuals. Sixty-five college
students were examined to determine if propensity to engage in antisocial behavior correlated with self-reported self-
perceptions as well as importance ratings for various domains of the self-concept. Self-verification theory would suggest
that those individuals reporting low self-concepts and high importance ratings for global self-worth would also demonstrate a
Characteristics related to reported psychological distress and help-seeking were examined among 314 students to establish
trends for counseling center users and non-users. Consistent with past research, the majority of participants were non-
users, with users reporting higher distress than non-users. However, contradictory to past findings, no significant differences
were found between genders for counseling center usage; however, females did report significantly higher levels of distress.
More generally, reports of depression, academic issues, and social anxiety were significantly lower than the sample groups.
Furthermore, reports of substance use, general anxiety, family issues, and spirituality were significantly higher. Through the
synthesis of psychological distress rates and trends in counseling center usage, prototypical characteristics were
established for students at St. Mary’s College of Maryland.

[abstract not available]
America has been called the fatherless nation by many researchers (Debell, 2008). Today, father absence is more of a
problem than ever in the history of the United States. The current divorce rate is at nearly fifty percent (Jones, 2007). Half of
American children will spend part of their childhood in a single-parent home; with most of the homes not headed by their
biological fathers (Jones, 2007). Previous research was done to operationally define father absence and accurately define
risk-taking and correlate it to father presence. This study consisted of 323 participants from the St. Mary’s College of
Maryland, 79 were males and 240 were females. This study was designed to examine how father presence impacts risk-
taking behaviors in young adults. Risk-taking was divided into six sub categories and father impact was measured through a
number of questions regarding marital status, father closeness, frequency of father visitation and age at which father
separation happened. Results indicated inverse trends for numerous hypotheses about risk-taking and father absence. The
Meditation has been widely documented for its ability to reduce anxiety, stress, pain and its clinical applications in the
medical field. However, the effects of meditation on behavior have not yet been investigated. One form of Buddhist
meditation called loving-kindness meditation (LKM) aims to cultivate feelings of unconditional empathy towards all beings.
Indeed, LKM practice has been shown to increase feelings of compassion for self and others (Weibel, 2007), social
connectedness (Hutcherson et al., 2008), empathy and perspective-taking (Lutz et al., 2008), and reduce chronic lower back
pain, emotional distress and trait anger (Carson et al., 2005). The empathy-altruism hypothesis posits that pro-social helping
behavior is motivated by an emotional state of empathic concern for a distressed other (Batson et al., 1988; Batson, Fultz &
Schoenrade, 1987). It was predicted that LKM would increase empathy, perspective taking, helping behavior and reduce
personal distress compared to a progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) technique. This experiment compared the effects of
Age related deficits in spatial memory have been demonstrated in both humans and other animals. Research shows a
negative correlation between the increase in age related deficits and a decline in the number of newly generated neurons in
the hippocampus as animals age. However aged rodents following enrichment show fewer deficits in spatial tasks, and
increased reference memory function (cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) and cognitive enrichment (CE) have been
found to enhance behavioral performance in future cognitive based tasks, such as the Morris Water Maze (MWM), and
increase neurogenesis in hippocampus. Previous work had not yet directly compared animals that have undergone different
forms of enrichment and examined possible differences in plasticity or cognition. The current study examines neurogenesis
and performance on novel cognitive tasks, MWM and Novel Object Recognition, in aged rats after receiving either cognitive
(set-shifting task) or environmental enrichment. It was hypothesized that the enriched groups would show an increase of
The current study investigated whether a fear appeal could influence an individual‘s intentions to get the Human
Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Participants (N = 135) were randomly selected to receive either Pro-vaccination or Anti-
vaccination information on HPV and the HPV vaccine. The Pro-vaccination information included examples of a few of the
severe symptoms of HPV and on the high efficacy of the vaccine. The Anti-vaccination information presented samples of the
negative aspects of HPV and the HPV vaccine including side effects and its high cost. All of the information was derived
from publicly available sources and peer reviewed empirical studies. Results indicated that female participants in the Pro-
vaccination condition who had not yet received the HPV vaccine (n = 60) had a significantly higher intention to get the
vaccine in the next year as compared to the Anti-vaccination condition t (1, 58) = 2.073, p = .022. Additionally, participants
were equally aroused in each condition indicating that the Pro and Anti conditions had an equal emotional impact. The
The cultural diversification occurring within the United States in the last twenty years also mirrors the changes that are
occurring within the school systems. In order for students to function effectively within the 21st century, education must be
changed in substantial ways to successfully address the various learning needs of such a diverse student population and
the subsequent pluralistic society for which children will be responsible of. One way to accomplish this idea is through
multicultural education. This paper addresses the importance of preparing children early on in their developmental years
and encourages successful strategies for achieving multiculturalism within the classroom. More significantly, multicultural
literature can be used as powerful vehicle for children to explore others different from themselves.


Peer victimization is a severe problem in schools today, creating extreme maladjustment in those children targeted.
However, not much is known about the long-term effects of peer victimization in youth. In the current study, the researcher
examined the long-term effects of victimization with attribution type as a mediator in 133 participants, aged 18 to 30. It was
hypothesized that higher levels of characterological attribution and recalled teasing would predict a lower GPA, higher levels
of negative affect, and lower levels of positive affect. Data were collected online through three different surveys and
demographic questions. Findings suggested that attribution type and teasing history did not predict GPA, positive affect, or
negative affect. This study has implications for future research and the understanding of the long-term effects of peer
victimization in youth.
Motion-induced blindness (MIB) is the apparent invisibility of a static stimulus when viewed with a moving pattern. In some
cases, the static stimulus is not entirely invisible, but instead appears faded. I hypothesized that total faded time would
increase as invisibility decreased. Static dot size was used in Experiment 1 to manipulate invisibility time. Experiment 2
involved the critical comparison of one large static dot and four medium sized dots plotted in the same area as the large dot
to determine whether suppression was based on object or area. Experiment 1 provided evidence that static dot size does
significantly influence invisibility time but not fading time. Results from Experiment 2 suggest that suppression may be
influenced by objectness, not area.


Minor physical anomalies (MPAs), small aberrations in the development of one’s hands, feet, mouth, ears, head or eyes,
and neurological soft signs (NSS), impairments in motor coordination, sensory integration, sequencing of complex motor
acts and the presence of primitive reflexes, have been found to occur more frequently in those with schizophrenia compared
to those without a psychotic mental illness. This phenomenon provides support to the notion that schizophrenia is
neurodevelopmental in origin. A variety of factors, which may potentially dictate NSS and MPAs, have been examined in
conjunction with schizophrenia. Due to extensive methodological flaws and variations, findings pertaining to such factors
are, for the most part, inconclusive. The current proposal relays the results and shortcomings of previous literature, and
suggests an experimental design to eliminate possible confounds of antipsychotics and symptom severity in past studies
assessing MPAs and NSS in those with schizophrenia based on age of onset.
This research explored the perceptions of first and second generation immigrant females. Eight college participants from
diverse countries were interviewed individually regarding issues such as their families, gender roles, their futures and ethnic
identity. The researcher hypothesized that the participants would integrate aspects of Western culture and their parents‘
country of origin into their identity, engaging in selective assimilation. It was found that most participants considered their
ethnic identity important and hoped to learn more about their countries of origin. Commonalities between the experiences of
participants were restrictive parents while growing up and interest in further education and career before having a family.
The findings of this study can add to the limited research regarding immigrant females and help to understand the needs of
females when coming to a new country.

This study evaluated the counseling services available at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland by comparing staff perceptions and
student opinions. Interviews were conducted with the Director and Assistant Director of counseling services, and 387
students completed an online survey. The results indicated that most students who have been to counseling services would
recommend them to fellow students, but almost one third of students who have not been said they considered it and did not
go. Students believe the services would be improved if there were more staff members and greater access to a psychiatrist.
Increased communication between students and counselors may help increase student awareness of counseling services
and comfort with seeking help there.


The study of criminology has traditionally been a cross-disciplinary study of social behavior. Although there is a wealth of
theoretical work devoted to the explanation of criminal behavior there have been few definitive empirical validations for any
of these causal theories. This study used a questionnaire to assess the suitability of Merton‘s social strain theories for
explaining masculine patterns of aggression and deviance. Researchers hypothesized that crime could be explained by
individuals using deviant behavior to establish a masculine identity. Methodological flaws in sampling, however, prohibited
researchers from drawing any firm conclusion. A lengthy description of future research is offered to suggest ways in which
the questionnaire developed here could be used in subsequent studies.


The following is an in-depth look at the discrimination lawsuit involving The Town of Leonardtown and a local clinic for the
mentally ill, Pathways Psychosocial Support Center. The District Court of Maryland found that Leonardtown, by denying
Pathways an occupancy permit, violated the American‘s with Disabilities Act, and the fourteenth amendment. The two
parties settled the case out of court, and the settlement involved monetary as well as non-monetary damages. The non-
monetary damages included sensitivity training for local government officials in hopes of preventing further discrimination.
However, some of the stipulations of the settlement were not carried out in the time frame outlined by the settlement.
Although United States Federal laws protect the mentally disabled from discrimination, cases such as this occur often and
little is done to assure changes within local governments.
High school and college students face a variety of new cognitive, social, and emotional experiences. Some relieve the stress
of these experiences through the use of substances. Utilizing social norms theory we see that students often gauge their
own substance use in relation to their peers. This study used a survey in order to assess correlates with substance use in
high school and college. The participants were 101 students from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland; 87 females and 14 males.
Hypotheses centered on the factors of sex, academic achievement, peer influence, and drug education and how these
factors would mediate substance use. The researchers found no significant findings due to an unrepresentative sample.



To understand how Division 3 athletes conceive of their inevitable retirement from sport this study employed open-ended
interviews. The Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) was used to analyze participant responses. Findings consisted of
all participants agreeing that their upcoming transition out of competitive sports would come with substantial difficulties.
Participants also largely agreed that they would miss the benefits that come with being part of a team. St. Mary‘s College of
Maryland coaches emphasized academics before athletics and that this was a philosophy present in all of Division 3
athletics. Findings were congruent with most previous research that suggests retiring athletes experience difficulties with
quitting sporting competition.


The Internet is a multifaceted realm in which users engage in several gratifying activities. Some people use the Internet as
forum to seek both romantic and sexual endeavors. Secretly engaging in online sexual activities can prove detrimental to
monogamous relationships. This study investigates whether participants who engage online sexual activities are also more
prone to commit offline infidelity. Results showed that those who participated in online sexual activities significantly had
more offline sexual partners. Significant main effects were found for gender where non-online sexual activity female
participants reported feeling high levels of betrayal, opinions on whether online sexual activities are acts of infidelity, and the
likelihood of believing that their partner would commit infidelity due to their engagement in online sexual activities.


D-serine has recently been observed to be a more potent ligand for the "glycine site" on NMDA receptor complex than
glycine (Mothet 2000). To explore the role of this possible new neurotransmitter in tardive dyskinesia (TD), a cohort of rats
was treated with chronic haloperidol (28.5 mg/ml/kg, i.m., at 3 week intervals; n=43) or vehicle (sesame oil; n=21) for 24
weeks to create a rat model for TD. In situ hybridization with a riboprobe for serine racemase mRNA was used to assess
the serine racemase mRNA levels in areas of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, in slide-mounted sections from these
rats, because of their high NMDA receptor contents and the suggested relationship (Naidu et al. 2001) between NMDA
receptors and vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) an animal model for TD. Analysis of the data showed an interesting
correlation between VCMs and serine racemase mRNA levels in areas cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and entorhinal cortex (ERC)
ii, iii, and vi. The results suggest that there may be a role played by the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in the propensity
The present study combined a literature review with a qualitative study to examine the extent to which the psychological
scars of Holocaust survivors affect the adjustment of their children. Data were collected from fourteen adult children of
survivors who either completed a questionnaire or took part in an interview. Contrary to much of the literature reviewed, it
was found that some degree of psychopathology is not inevitable in children of Holocaust survivors. The one conclusion that
can be drawn from this study is that the children of survivors who participated seem to be very well adjusted in their adult
lives. The implications for future research on this topic are extensive.



The current study explored the relationships between trauma type with forms of dissociation and specific sleep
phenomenon. We utilized a sample of 140 undergraduate students and using the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Iowa
Sleep Experiences Survey, and Trauma History Questionnaire ran a correlational analysis. As previously found, overall
traumatization was associated with dissociation and general sleep experiences. Counter to our hypothesis, we found that
crime-related experiences, not physical and sexual traumas, were related to dissociation, and most strongly associated with
derealization. Lucid dreaming was unrelated to all forms of trauma. Furthermore, nightmares were associated only with
physical and sexual traumas. Additional research should replicate this study with a trauma measure that collects severity
data and is intended for questionnaire use.
Ninety-nine college students completed a variety of rating scale and open-ended questions assessing appropriateness of
obscenity use with implied motivations in different dyads, personal levels of use, perceptions of male and female obscenity
use in society, and obscene insults for men and women. Results supported the lasting permanence of a masculine
conception of obscenity. Marginally significant differences were found in levels of appropriateness between parallel
vignettes describing obscenity use in same-sex and mixed-sex dyads, depending on the sex of the speaker. Males reported
significantly higher obscenity use than females based upon one measure, but no significant differences were found when
using another measure. Participants rated males and females significantly different on a variety of statements describing
obscenity use. Additionally, significant sex and race differences were found in the production of obscene female insults.
Results are discussed in terms of the functions of obscenity, a masculine style of speech that serves as an agent of social
This study examined the effect of VMBR on golf target accuracy performance. The participants N= 6, engaged in a target
accuracy pre-test, physical practice procedure, and VMBR procedure. A pre-test post-test design was used to evaluate
target accuracy over three trials. The relationship between imagery vividness, controllability, and target accuracy increases
was explored. Accuracy increased over the three target accuracy trials, but it could not be attributed to the use of VMBR. A
correlation between imagery ability and increase in target accuracy scores revealed a relationship that was not significant.




[abstract not available]




The researcher investigated the relationships of parents‘ perspective of their bipolar children‘s disorder, family cohesion,
family conflict, and parenting style. Parents completed three surveys assessing the level of family cohesion, family conflict,
and type of parenting style as seen from the parents‘ perspective. Results supported multiple hypotheses: (1) Parents of
bipolar children are more likely to experience higher levels of family conflict than those without; (2) Parents of bipolar
children are more likely to have higher ratings of over-reactivity than those without; and (3) levels of family cohesion, parent
style, and family conflict interact.



The current study sought to explore differences between honors program participants and non-participants in academic self-
concept and exposure to good practices of learning outcomes at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland, a small liberal arts college.
Currently enrolled students completed the SDQ III which is comprised of 13 subscales of self-concept (including an
academic subscale). Using the college‘s Office of Institutional Research data, differences in educational experiences
between honors and non-honors senior students and alumni were explored. It appears that honors program participants
have more positive academic-self concept than their non-honors peers. Participants tended to be exposed to some aspects
of good practices of learning outcomes more frequently than their non-honors peers. Possible effects of program
participation and other explanations and implications are discussed.

This research investigated factors that influence student decisions to choose a major, use of academic major stereotypes as
a social categorization tool in a college setting, and the impact of majors on student identity formation at St. Mary’s College.
Open-ended questions were answered in individual interviews with 15 students ranging in age from 18 to 21 years (M =
20.4, SD = 1.08). The Consensual Qualitative Research method (Hill et al., 1997) was used for data analysis. This sample
showed a combination of career goals and personal interests, workload, and faculty support contributed to major
persistence. Majors were also used as a social categorization tool in college settings and influenced the way students were
perceived by themselves and others.
Predictors of resilience in a young woman with Cerebral Palsy were examined in the following case study. Factors of family
support, including caregivers‘ level of hope, perceived social support, and family support services were hypothesized to
predict resiliency. Qualitative and quantitative analysis has found high levels of hope, perceived social support, family
support services, and separating oneself from the disability to predict resilience in a young woman with Cerebral Palsy.
Information gained from the present study is important for health care providers, teachers, insurance companies, parents,
and health departments to know in order to foster the development of resilient characteristics in terminally ill children.



Studies have shown that consumers find discounts given in percents more favorable on low priced items and discounts
given in dollar amounts more favorable on high priced items. In addition studies have also shown that the type of promotion
can affect an individual’s perceived price for the item on promotion. The current study aims to investigates these findings
and determine if consumers preferences for the discount display is a function of price or durability. A survey was
administered to 102 college students to test the hypothesis. Findings have showed that for the very high priced items
participants were influenced by the discount display.



The purpose of this paper is to explore how roommate expectations change from the first year through the fourth year of
college. Undergraduates, with roommates, at a small liberal arts college participated in the current study. Questionnaires
were completed in person and on the Internet, asking students to describe their ideal roommate and to rate the importance
of different possible roommate traits and characteristics. Collected data reports that current roommate matching systems
may not be asking the right questions and that they can be improved by asking students to describe their ideal roommate. It
was also determined that roommate matches may be more successful if schools have different matching systems for 1st
and 2nd year, and then 3rd and 4th year students because students seem to have different roommate expectations as they
progress through college. Based on the collected data this study includes a proposal for a new roommate matching system,
which may result in more successful roommate experiences.
This study analyzed the effect social influence has on perceived physical attractiveness of the opposite sex. It was
hypothesized that social influence would have an effect on the perceived facial attractiveness of the opposite sex. Women
would be more influenced by negative opinions of other women when judging attractiveness, while men would be more
influenced by positive opinions of other men. It was also believed that individuals who were high self-monitors would be
more influenced by confederates, regardless of gender. 118 St. Mary‘s College of Maryland undergraduate psychology
students, 84 females and 34 males, participated in this study. A self-monitoring scale was used to measure an individual‘s
level of self-monitoring. The participants were asked to rate a series of 25 pictures of the opposite sex. There were two
conditions, control and experimental. In the experiment groups the participants were presented with verbal comments
intended to influence their ratings of the photographs. It was found that social influence does affect an individual‘s
The current study investigates popular media among female college students and its influence on body image. The contents
of popular magazines and TV shows (and their advertisements) were analyzed in terms of their portrayal of the ―thin ideal.‖
Participants were asked their height and weight (from which a BMI was calculated). They were surveyed to discern which
magazines they read, which TV shows they watched, and how often. Participants were then administered the Body Esteem
Scale to determine their attitudes about their body. Based on previous research, it was expected that a high BMI would
predict lower scores on the Body Esteem Scale. Further, participants who consumed media (both TV and magazines) that
portrayed more examples of the ―thin ideal‖ would have lower body esteem; this effect would be more pronounced when
media was consumed more frequently. In addition, lower body esteem would be seen more in women that read magazines
frequently than in women that watched TV frequently. It was expected that women that described their favorite celebrity
The present research involves motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic) and the impact that pre-established motivation,
social support, and athletic identity have on adherence measures post-injury. Participants were varsity athletes at St. Mary‘s
College of Maryland (Division III school); 121 participants participated in Phase 1, and 32 sustained injury during data
collection and thus participated in Phases 2 and 3. Data collection was done by survey questionnaires that measured
perceived social support (Smith et al., 1990), athletic identity (Brewer & Cornelius 2001), and sport motivation (Pelletier et
al., 1995), and adherence (Brewer et al., 2000). Correlation analysis did not find significant results regarding adherence and
motivational factors. Athletic identity was significantly correlated with intrinsic motivation and subgroups of social support
were significantly different from one another pre-injury to post-injury, suggesting a shift in the amount of perceived support of
athletic trainers from pre-injury (5th place) to post-injury (2nd place). Research is important for coach and athletic trainers
The aim of the present study was to study self-reported delinquency and its relationships to personality and coping in a
college sample using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the COPE, and a modified version of the self-report
delinquency questionnaire from the National Youth Survey. Since both the Big Three personality traits and certain coping
styles are known to correlate with delinquency, an attempt was made to integrate the two literatures and test whether use of
these coping strategies mediates the relationship between the trait psychoticism and delinquency. The Big Three
personality traits showed associations with several types of coping. Psychoticism, but not extraversion or neuroticism, was
positively associated with delinquency. Coping styles, especially mental disengagement and substance use, were also
positively related to delinquency, and were also shown to mediate the relationship between psychoticism and delinquency.
Results are discussed in light of findings linking cognitive avoidance to negative affect and substance use to impaired
[abstract not available]




Our advising system utilizes solely faculty advisors and we are of the minority of public institutions who do so; however,
when you consider the size of St. Mary‘s we are not alone. Most smaller schools have not introduced professional advisors
into their academic advising systems. All faculty are required to advise, therefore we do not select specially qualified
advisors. Advisees are asked to provide evaluations of their advisor when their advisor is being considered for tenure;
however, advising is not routinely evaluated like teaching is. As of yet there have been no comprehensive evaluations of the
academic advising program at St. Mary‘s. We also do not formally reward good advising, even though it is expected of all
faculty. NACADA also has both a National and Regional Awards program for academic advising that individual universities
may participate in (NACADA, 2006). However, St. Mary‘s does have annual training programs for advisors. This assessment
will provide us with both student and faculty perspectives on how advising is being handled at St. Mary‘s. By dividing the
One concern with findings of abnormal striatal choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in postmortem studies of schizophrenia is
that this could be secondary to medication history. A previous study has found no change in striatal ChAT expression in rats
treated with chronic haloperidol, which experienced 9 weeks of withdrawal. In order to rule out the withdrawal period as the
reason for the lack of ChAT expression change, a new study was conducted. In this new study, the rats were treated with
drug until the point of sacrifice. Group-housed male Long-Evans rats (at beginning body weights of 90-165g) were
monitored blindly for baseline vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), a rat model for tardive dyskinesia, for two minute
intervals weekly, for 7 weeks, and then for 24 weeks during chronic administration of haloperidol (28.5 mg/kg/ml, i.m., at 3
week intervals: n=43) or vehicle (sesame oil: n=21). At the end of the haloperidol treatment, the brains were sectioned onto
slides. A probe, labelled with 35S for ChAT mRNA was applied to striatal sections which were then assayed with in situ
The confusion surrounding ADHD's definition, diagnostic criteria, etiology, assessment, and treatment can only be solved
through subsequent research. The definition of ADHD generally assumes three symptom areas, inattention, impulsivity, and
hyperactivity. ADHD's diagnostic criteria varies depending on which a person believes in. Etiology is generally looked at
across genetic and environmental causal factors. All of this impacts assessment, which generally involves observations
and/or behavior rating scales. Impact is still further witnessed in treatment. The current research set out to uncover the
usefulness of two behavior measures, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scale (BASC-PRS) and
the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. Parenting styles, permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative, were also assessed through the
Parental Personality Questionnaire. It was discovered that children with and without ADHD did differ across some behaviors
measured on the BASC-PRS and on all scores obtained from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. It was also discovered that
Eight practicing art therapists were interviewed over the phone on various aspects of child art therapy, particularly pertaining
to its place in the public school system. The data was analyzed using a modified Consensual Qualitative Research method
(Hill, Thompson & Williams, 1997) by one judge and one auditor. Results showed that the participants did agree that child
art therapy programs in the public schools would be beneficial and that a wide variety of methods and theories should be
employed by the attending therapist who should have at least a Masters in art therapy. Data also indicated that most, if not
all, children would benefit from a child art therapy program. Limitations and implications were discussed.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is more effective than medication alone and supportive therapies in reducing psychotic
symptomatolgy, preventing relapse, and increasing psychosocial functioning in people with schizophrenia. This literature
review discusses studies concerning the applications of CBT in treating positive and negative symptoms both during and
after an acute episode, teaching coping skills, consumer education, relapse prevention, and in groups and day treatment
programs. Next, an original 10-week CBT treatment program with individual and group sessions was developed using
techniques shown to be effective in previous studies. The program was presented to a group of mental health therapists,
who then completed a survey about the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed program. The program was generally
supported and viewed as effective, with a few possible areas for improvement.

[abstract not available]




Drug addiction is regulated by dopamine pathways in the human brain. Based on developmental differences between the
adult and adolescent brain, it was hypothesized that adolescent and adult rats would respond differentially to treatment with
drugs intended for cocaine anti-abuse. It was hypothesized that flupenthixol would block place preference in rats, and would
be less effective in adolescent rats. Results show that rats demonstrated place preference, but found no differences
between adolescents and adults, or groups receiving saline or flupenthixol prior to testing. Flupenthixol suppressed activity
and movement, and had a greater affect on the suppression of movement in adult rats. These results suggest that
behavioral responses to dopamine antagonism are different in adult and adolescent subjects.


Past research has established a relationship between risky driving and the positive-self bias. The current study expands on
this theory to include the Fundamental Attribution Error as a factor in risky driving, otherwise known as road rage. The
results show that an attributional bias did occur; however no correlation existed between road rage-like actions and use of
the Fundamental Attribution Error. There were also no significant differences between road rage scores for males and
females as other research suggested. These findings and others based on differing aspects of the questionnaire may be
related to the sample population used. The limitations and implications of the research are discussed in great detail. Further
research is suggested, as well as some ways for the state Motor Vehicle Administration to incorporate these findings into
future safety campaigns and driving courses.

The purpose of this study is to examine the observable reactions elementary age children with problem behaviors have
toward their school environment, peers and teachers. The investigation will also examine how peers interact with classmates
who exhibit difficulty controlling their behavior and how teachers and other school staff deal with students who display
troubling actions. One of the most significant analyses in the research that was undertaken for this study is the behaviors
that peer and teacher response elicit in children who have a problem controlling their conduct within a large, public school
setting. It is also necessary to look at the curriculum, classroom and school atmosphere in general and the effects these
scenarios have on the external behavior of children who exhibit less control over their impulses and have low abilities in
social and academic competence. Recent trends in behavior management and prevention have been examined to gain a
better understanding of what schools and teachers can do to intervene in and prevent the worsening of problem behaviors in
The literature shows that gender differences exist in sexual behavior and attitudes. Several theoretical explanations were
explored and used as a basis to investigate these differences. The purpose of the present study was to explore the
prevalence of gender roles, stereotypes and issues of power in sexuality. A qualitative approach was used to avoid biases
found in previous studies. Results indicated that gender roles and stereotypes do exist, as well as specific types of power
associated with gender, enmeshed with gender roles and stereotypes. Implications for future research were discussed.
Throughout history revolutions have brought about drastic changes. Many different fields of study, including but not limited
to history, political science, and social psychology, have examined the specific conditions surrounding revolution. No one
perspective can hypothesize an accurate and comprehensive theory using information from its field alone. ―The difficulty
with naïve interpretations of culture in terms of individual behaviour [sig.] is not that these interpretations are those of
psychology, but that they ignore history‖ (Benedict, 1934, p. 214-215). The purpose of the current paper is to review and
integrate various psychological theories in order to explain revolutions that occur in an oppressive environment. The
theories will then be placed in a social and political context and applied to Tibet in order to create a comprehensive theory of
revolution.

A brief philosophical review of the notion of altruism is offered in the present paper, as well as an extensive psychological
literature review of altruism, volunteerism, and particular personality correlates. Upon reviewing literature on altruism and
volunteerism, the present study hypothesized that extraversion, openness, and preference for loosely structured volunteer
experiences would positively correlate with measures of altruism amongst college student participants who were currently or
recently had been involved in some type of volunteer endeavor. Three modes of measuring altruistic motivation (both
explicitly and implicitly) in a questionnaire series were designed. All three altruistic motive measures correlated positively
with one another. As predicted, there was a significant positive correlation between altruistic motivation and openness, as
well as a significant positive correlation between altruistic motivation and a preference for loosely structured volunteer
experiences. There was no significant correlation between extraversion and altruistic motivation. Unexpectedly, there were
This study intended on discovering, through a review of the literature, the factors contributing to success in inclusive
classrooms. Results of the review showed teacher-related variables, student-related variables, and environmental variables.
Interviews were also conducted with a fifth grade general education teacher and her special education co-teacher to
examine their thoughts about inclusion. In order to examine the interactions in an inclusive classroom, students with special
education needs were observed regarding their interactions with IEP students, non-IEP students, and teachers. Results of
interactions with non-IEP students showed an increase in positive interactions and a decrease in negative and neutral
interactions over time.


Research indicates that adolescents are less likely to seek professional help in the event of a psychological problem than
adults. This study examines first year college students’ attitudes toward seeking help, based on problem severity and
attitudes toward the stigmatization of mental illness. Using a series of scales, attitudes toward help-seeking and mental
illness were assessed, as well as what types of behavior participants exhibited in relation to low-grade affective disorders,
which are prevalent during this developmental time. There was no significant effect indicating that stigma against mental
illness acts as a mediator between willingness to seek professional help and problem severity. However, results indicated
that first year college students tended to have high levels of stigma of mental illness. Other factors may contribute to
whether or not an individual seeks professional psychological help.

Television news in the United States seems to be saturated with violence and negativity. Although many American T.V.
news producers claim that this negativity in the news is representative of the events that are being reported, research has
shown that news overemphasizes the amount of negativity that is actually occurring in real life. The intent of this study was
to investigate the possible harmful effects of negative news media on it viewers, specifically looking at the relationship
between watching negative news and the amount of fear and anxiety in its viewers. In addition to examining the effect of
negative news in America, this study was also interested in determining if the U.S. differed from other countries regarding its
negative news reports. This study also compared the amount of negativity in Australian and American news, and compared
the amount of fear and anxiety between the viewers of each country.

Antipsychotic medication is capable of crossing the placental barrier and is also secreted in breast milk (Miyazaki et al.,
1986). Pregnant women and new mothers with schizophrenia using antipsychotic medication must therefore make the
decision whether to continue treating their illness or risk abnormal neuronal development of their child. Perinatal exposure to
antipsychotic medication could disrupt neuronal development and the proper organization of neuronal pathways, such as
the connections of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis and associated brain structures. The HPA axis is involved
in the adaptive stress response. Activation of the HPA axis ultimately results in synthesis and secretion of glucocorticoid
hormone by the adrenal cortex. Circulating glucocorticoids bind with glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the brain and induce
changes that inhibit HPA axis activity and allow for the reestablishment of homeostasis. However, abnormal neural
organization of the HPA axis and associated structures could result in manifestation of neuropathology later in life. In this
The current study serves to inform educators of the current condition of the inclusive classroom environment and the
possible dangers the general classroom poses for included students with mild or hidden disabilities. The study examines
teachers and peers typically negative attitudes toward students with hidden disabilities through the lens of differentiated
expectations and the tolerance theory. Teacher and peer attitude are of particular concern, as classroom characterized by
negative attitudes toward included students jeopardizes their learning and social opportunities. Concurrently, a classroom
that does not accommodate all of its students inherently violates the principal of inclusion. The current study addresses such
concerns in a review of the literature and makes recommendations in an accessible website geared to improving teachers’
attitudes by providing resources to improve teachers’ skills in instructing in the inclusive classroom.

[abstract not available]




A Yoga Intervention Program was conducted with students from a local Boys and Girls Club to determine whether it
increased their levels of self-compassion. Based on my knowledge of the Buddhist notion of compassion and the practice of
Yoga and meditation, I expected that the yoga program would increase the amount of compassion the girls felt towards
themselves. Yoga and meditation entail a directing of consciousness to oneself and one‘s body and mental processes. With
this turning inward of attention comes an attitude of acceptance - acceptance of one‘s feelings, emotions, thoughts, and
behaviors. Such acceptance can lead to increased compassion towards oneself, and if practiced for long enough, towards
others. Although the program did not seem to directly influence the amount of self-compassion the girls felt towards
themselves, it certainly moved their thinking in the right direction. More importantly, the girls learned important aspects of
Yoga and breathing techniques that they could use on their own. This study examines the connection between mind and
A dominant submissive relationship (DSR) was established by pairing animals in the straight runway tube task (SRTT) and
measuring their behavior for two weeks. Animals were exercised over a ten day testing period, during which DSR behavior
was measured. After the treatment period, behavior was measured during social interaction and compared to before the
animals were exercised. We were able to successfully establish a DSR by using the SRTT. Non-exercised pairs were
measured for c-Fos and the DSR established in the SRTT was determined to differentially activate the prefrontal cortex
(PFC) and not the amygdala between dominant and submissive animals. Even though some of the behaviors measured
during social interaction were influenced by exercise, dominance behavior was not significantly altered by exercise during
the SRTT or social interaction.

The relationship between divorce/separation status of parents and children‘s academic behaviors was studied. Using a
population of kindergarten, first, and second grade children, ages 5 through 8, the Behavior Checklist (Teacher‘s Report
Form) was given to teachers to fill out on children randomly selected from their classrooms. After all checklists were
completed, the divorce/separation status of parents was placed on the checklist. T-tests were performed on divorce status of
parents and gender, along with ANOVAs on all sub-scales of checklist. Divorce/separation status of parents was found not
to be significantly related to any academic behaviors except social problems. Divorce status by grade interactions were
found with anxious/depressed behaviors and social problems. Males were found to have higher mean scores for attention
problems, aggressive behaviors, and other problems.

Templer‘s Death Anxiety Scale has proven internally valid and reliable in measuring death anxiety. Previous research has
shown a wide range of disagreement as to how death anxiety should be measured and what thoughts and behaviors are
related to death anxiety. The current research addresses this controversy by investigating factors likely to be related to
death anxiety to determine what factors are of interest.One hundred and forty-seven students at St. Mary‘s College of
Maryland completed a 49 question survey designed to measure experience with death, anxiety, personal habits, and
pseudoscientific/supernatural beliefs. Factor analysis showed seven factors accounted for over 58 percent of the variance.
There were seven significant correlations, including correlations between experience with death and anxiety, anxiety and
personal habits: life-threatening, and sex and anxiety. The results showed that the more experience with death a person
has, the more anxiety they will exhibit and that the more experience with death a person has, the less likely a person will be
The first half of this study consists of a literature review investigating treatment plans and therapeutic techniques that should
be used on adolescents requiring psychiatric inpatient hospitalization. Factors affecting readmission, the length of stay, and
measuring outcome are discussed. Treatment approaches suggested by peer-reviewed literature including family
involvement, treatment of suicidal adolescents, those with anorexia nervosa, and those with drug use are examined. A
compilation of these suggestions is provided. The second portion of this study consists of interviews with two practitioners
from different psychiatric hospitals in Maryland that provide inpatient treatment to adolescents. They were asked questions
about background information of the hospital, admissions, readmission, treatment, activities, family involvement, discharge,
and quality. Themes were identified from the interview responses. Themes included an average length of stay of three to
seven days, readmission being a problem, treatment focusing on short-term crisis stabilization, and emphasis on group
Twenty children between the ages of 2 and 19 were observed in an informal, community arena to examine cross-age and
cross-sex interactions and aggressive tendencies. Due to the setting and nature of the community and the fact that the
children had grown up together, it was predicted that their interactions would differ from those typically found in the
literature. Results indicated significant relationships among age, sex, and mixed-sex interactions as well as among age and
leadership and sex and leadership. Future research points to exploration of parental monitoring and sibling presence in
informal settings among children involved in close communities.



The current study measures the relationship between parental gender role attitudes and college student gender role beliefs
about household division of labor in future relationships. A sample of 169 college students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland
participated in a short online survey. It was hypothesized that there would be a positive correlation between students‘
perceptions of their parent‘s gender role adherence and students‘ personal gender roles beliefs about household division of
labor. Gender role beliefs about household division of labor were defined as traditional and non-traditional. College students‘
beliefs were found to be positively correlated with perceived parental gender role beliefs. It was also found that men were
more traditional in their ideals about household division of labor but expected to take on more non-traditional household
tasks in future marriage or cohabitating relationships.

The present study examined whether controversial information that conflicted with an undergraduate student‘s previously
held religious beliefs would alter or change those beliefs in any way. The study also investigated whether an emerging
adult‘s life satisfaction was related to their change (or reluctance to change) their religious beliefs. To test a participant‘s
religious beliefs information about an early form of Christianity known as Gnosticism was presented. Participants consisted
of 59 St. Mary‘s College of Maryland students who were asked to read the information and report their religious beliefs
before and after its presentation by using the Short Version Christian Orthodoxy Scale (Hunsberger, 1989). Participants
were also asked to report their life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Griffen & Larsen,
1985). The findings showed that the presentation of information about Gnosticism did not effect religious beliefs and that life
satisfaction scores were correlated with a change in religious beliefs at a near significant level. Since religion plays such an
A preliminary exploratory investigation of the issues and perceptions surrounding SHL, a rehabilitation and special
education center in rural Guatemala. The center offers free services to children and other members of the local communities
in the town of San Pedro and its vicinity; most of the affiliated people identify to belonging to the Tzutujil Mayan culture.
Many of the issues investigated are a response to observations made as a foreign volunteer. A written inquiry was sent to
three women working at the center: the special education teacher, the secretary/director, and the physical therapist. The
inquiry consisted of three major sections: Professional and Educational History, Experiences at the Center, and Opinions.
Questions were open ended and a number of themes and issues were extracted from the responses. Directions for further
study are discussed.

[abstract not available]
Cancer and type 1 diabetes are two chronic pediatric illnesses that complicate lives of children, families, and friends. Sick
children experience physical changes to daily activities and health routines at home and school. These changes, combined
with limited social exposure, cause behavioral and emotional problems, especially at school. To avoid maladjustment,
children and families must adjust and cope with changes in positive ways. This review and analysis of published literature
and methodologies examines characteristics of cancer and type 1 diabetes, explains implications of these illnesses on sick
children‘s lives, explores coping strategies for such changes, and discusses effective ways to conduct research in the field.
Limitations of this project include oversimplification of similarities between illnesses and lack of empirical support.


Poverty pervades every country in the world. Research has identified Belief in a Just World as an important factor
influencing a person‘s perceptions of poverty. This study investigated the relationships between Belief in a Just World,
perceptions of the poor, perceived reasons of why poverty occurs, and assessments of aid institutions meant to help the
poor. Participants were asked, among other items, to characterize the poor, middle, and upper classes so that correlations
between the evaluations could be analyzed. The results indicated that significant relations and effects were indeed present
between many of these factors, and that many individuals do have positive evaluations of the upper and middle classes
while having negative evaluations of the poor. The reasons for these correlations and interactions are discussed.


There are several therapeutic approaches to helping children with special needs, such as physical, occupational, speech,
and play therapy. A new technique has been introduced into schools to help special needs children: social skills
intervention. A qualitative and observational design was used to determine whether social skills interventions effectively
help to improve children‘s behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social skills. Interviews were conducted with parents of
special needs children enrolled in a segregated special education school in the mid-Atlantic region. Observations of the
children were also conducted in the natural school setting. Results indicate that the children are functioning well, and the
school has been a great asset to their growth, although it can not be determined that the school directly caused this growth.
Parental involvement was found to be a large factor contributing to this growth as well.

Straight Edge is an adolescent subculture that formed in reaction against pressures to use drugs and partake in
promiscuous sex. There is very little research on this group, but evidence suggests that they are very different from
normative abstainers from deviant behavior. The current study examined the risk and protective factors of 23 members of
the Baltimore area Straight Edge population and compared them to 43 members of a comparison of students at St. Mary‘s
College of Maryland. The propose of the study was to determine whether Straight Edge participants differ significantly from
normative drug abstainers, or if they more closely resemble drug users, but are protected by a desire to maintain their
personal freedoms and rebel against drugs. Results suggest that Straight Edge youth are high in psychological reactivity
and other risk factors for drug use, and mush less conformant that non-Straight Edge abstainers.

[abstract not available]




Young adulthood is the time when depression is most prevalent among young adults. Because of this reason, it is no
surprise that college students are at high risk from depression and psychological distress. College students suffer at
increasing numbers compared to their peers that are not undergraduates. It is disputed whether these levels have been
increasing over time, but regardless it is important to consider the role of college counseling centers in supporting their
students mental health. College students often suffer from psychological health and do not seek treatment for it. This
literature outlines the potential reasons for the lack of students that seek psychological treatment. These include fear of
treatment and stigma, ethnicity, gender, emotional openness and competence as well as self-disclosure and self-
concealment. Because of the findings of this literature review, two projects were completed. These are an informational
website on the topic of various therapies as well as an informational brochure.
Literature was reviewed on three sexual disorders: vaginismus, dyspareunia, and orgasmic dysfunction. Vaginismus is the
involuntary contraction of the vaginal walls. There is a debate in the minimal research done as to whether vaginismus has a
psychological or organic base. Dyspareunia was also underreported in the literature and refers to sexual pain. The
literature on orgasmic dysfunction is the most prevalent female sexual disorder, and is seen more often in the literature than
the other two disorders. Group therapy is believed to be the most effective form of treatment. A meta-analysis was
performed on the effectiveness of psychological treatment on orgasmic disorder. Twelve studies were evaluated, and a
significant effect was found (r=.43638, p>.01). The researcher proposes several arguments that suggest that the results
may not be as strong as they appear. Minimal amount of research, lack of operational definitions, and poor methodology
are suggested as criticisms of sex therapy research.
Prenatal cocaine exposure has become more prevalent in the United States as the availability of the drug has increased.
Researchers have attempted to characterize a set of symptoms associated with fetal cocaine exposure. However, the
research has yielded no conclusive evidence indicating whether there is a set of symptoms specific to fetal cocaine
exposure. In this study, we evaluated fifty-four children exposed prenatally to cocaine, cocaine and other drugs, or non-
cocaine drugs. The children had been seen by a clinical neuropsychologist, Dr. Jim Lewis, and had been evaluated using
several test batteries. The children were identified retrospectively based on exposure status and referral by the department
of social services, as documented in the charts maintained by Dr. Lewis. We identified seven disabilities, including three
types of ADHD, four learning disabilities, and mild and moderate mental retardation. These disabilities were diagnosed
based on the clinical test batteries. Children in the polydrug and cocaine/polydrug groups were distributed across most of
This study was undertaken to better understand the relationship between athletes‘ preference for and perception of their
coaches‘ leadership behavior, athlete satisfaction, and athlete sport self-esteem. Chelladurai and Saleh‘s Leadership Scale
for Sport (LSS) was used to examine five dimensions of a coach‘s leadership behavior: training and instruction, democratic
behavior, autocratic behavior, social support, and positive feedback. Using the LSS, athletes‘ satisfaction with coaches‘
leadership behaviors was determined by comparing athletes‘ perception of their coaches‘ behavior to their preference for
coaching leadership behavior. Athletes‘ satisfaction with coaching leadership behavior was then compared to athletes‘
sports self-esteem, using a sports adapted version of Rosenberg‘s Self-Esteem Scale. Significant differences were found
between athlete preference and perception of coaches‘ leadership behavior.

[abstract not available]




This study, examining the relationship between boundary structure in the mind as a measure of personality and several
aspects of dream content, involved the administration of Hartmann‘s Boundary Questionnaire and a Dream Report prompt
to 130 college students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland. Dream content was analyzed using a modified version of Hall and
Van de Castle‘s system of classification for the content analysis of dreams. Results of several one-way ANOVA‘s indicated a
significant relationship between the number of familiar characters in a dream report and the dreamer‘s Boundary Category
identification. Further significance was found in the relationship between the incidences of threat made by the dreamer and
the Boundary Category that the dreamer identified with. Other variables examined were friendly interactions, setting, number
of unfamiliar characters, primary emotion, and various demographic variables; none of these yielded significant results.

This study investigates the similarity of favor asking and help seeking. Help seeking has been researched in depth and has
found that seeking help poses a threat to the self-esteem. This threat is greater for individuals with higher self-esteem
because they have more to risk, therefore higher self-esteem individuals tend to ask for less favors. Another personality
factor that significantly reduces willingness to engage in help seeking is gender. Males are brought up to be strong
independent and secure through the gender role socialization theory. Seeking help poses a threat to each aspect of the
male persona. It is because of this increased threat that males engage in less help seeking. A third factor which influences
help seeking is birth order. Oldest children are conditioned to helping younger ones, and seeking help themselves. In the
same manner younger children are accustomed to being helped and asking for help. Consequently, oldest children tend to
ask for less help than younger bourns. In this study these three personality factors were examined in the domain of favor
The current study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of Asher's (1969) Total Physical Response (TPR) method in
second language acquisition (SLA) in young students. The study took place in two first grade classrooms in a bilingual
school in Heredia, Costa Rica. The hypothesis stated that TPR, a comprehension based approach to second language
acquisition, will be more effective with an instructional approach to second language acquisition when used with young
children than the traditional grammar based instructional approach. In the current study first grade students in the
experimental group will improve their scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) significantly more from pretest
to posttest than the first grade students in the control group who have been taught using the traditional grammar based
approach. The study was based on a quasi-experimental pretest/ posttest design. The results indicated that the increased
scores from the pretest to the posttest for the experimental group was significantly greater than the improvement in the
[abstract not available]
          Mentor         Date Completed
                             yyyy-mm

Lasane, Terell P.        2007-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2007-12




Koenig, Cynthia S.       2008-05




Platt, Richard D.        2006-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2005-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2006-12
Lasane, Terell P.        2000-05




Harle, Ardith Z.         2002-12




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2002-05




Finkelman, David G.      2005-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2004-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2001-05
Lasane, Terell P.        2002-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2006-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2003-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2007-12




Glidden, Laraine M.      2006-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.       2004-05
Finkelman, David G.      2007-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2007-05




Bachus, Susan E.         2002-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2007-12




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2005-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2006-05
Williams, Elizabeth N.   2006-12




Glidden, Laraine M.      2004-05




Jordan, Wesley           2000-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2005-12




Finkelman, David G.      2005-05




Billings, Douglas W.     2002-05
Van Abbema, Dana L.      2006-05




Finkelman, David G.      2004-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2006-12




Billings, Douglas W.     2002-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2004-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2006-12
Hopkins, J. Roy          2005-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2008-12




Hopkins, J. Roy          2006-05




Bachus, Susan E.         2002-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2003-12




Billings, Douglas W.     2003-05
Tickle, Jennifer J.     2007-12




Lasane, Terell P.       1999-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2008-12




Lasane, Terell P.       2003-05




Lasane, Terell P.       2005-12




Hopkins, J. Roy         2005-05
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2004-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2008-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2007-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2004-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2006-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2006-05
Finkelman, David G.    2006-05




Lasane, Terell P.      2006-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.    2009-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.   2006-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.   2006-05




Finkelman, David G.    2009-05
Hiris, Eric J.        2004-05




Giesen, Carol         1998-05




Hopkins, J. Roy       2004-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.   2006-05




Glidden, Laraine M.   1998-12




Lasane, Terell P.     2005-05
Williams, Elizabeth N.   2005-05




Jordan, Wesley           2000-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2004-05




Munro, Geoffrey D.       2002-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2003-12




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2009-05
Bailey, Aileen M.        2004-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2003-12




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2006-05




Glidden, Laraine M.      2004-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2008-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2000-12
Finkelman, David G.      2007-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2007-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2007-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2008-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2009-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2003-05
Bailey, Aileen M.        2008-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2001-12




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2005-05




Lasane, Terell P.        1998-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.       2004-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2005-05
Lasane, Terell P.      2005-05




Hopkins, J. Roy        1998-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.   2006-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.    2005-05




Finkelman, David G.    2008-12




Suyemoto, Karen L.     1998-05
Williams, Elizabeth N.   2001-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2001-05




Finkelman, David G.      2009-05




Glidden, Laraine M.      2009-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2005-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2008-12
Van Abbema, Dana L.     2005-05




Platt, Richard D.       1998-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2004-05




Finkelman, David G.     2009-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.     2006-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.     2006-05
Williams, Elizabeth N.   2000-05




Lasane, Terell P.        1999-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2005-05




Billings, Douglas W.     2003-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2005-12




Koenig, Cynthia S.       2008-05
Van Abbema, Dana L.      2008-05




Finkelman, David G.      2005-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2008-05




Billings, Frederick J.   2009-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2007-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2008-05
Koenig, Cynthia S.      2007-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.     2009-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.      2005-05




Munro, Geoffrey D.      2002-05




Glidden, Laraine M.     2005-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2005-05
Hopkins, J. Roy          2008-12




Lasane, Terell P.        2004-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2006-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2009-05




Billings, Douglas W.     2002-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2005-12
Platt, Richard D.       2004-05




Hopkins, J. Roy         2006-08




Van Abbema, Dana L.     2005-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.    2009-05




Glidden, Laraine M.     2009-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2009-05
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2005-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2004-05




Platt, Richard D.        2003-05




Billings, Douglas W.     2003-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2002-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2005-05
Hopkins, J. Roy          2009-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2009-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2005-08




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2000-05




Finkelman, David G.      2005-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2002-05
O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2009-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2004-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2006-12




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2006-12




Platt, Richard D.        2001-05




Billings, Frederick J.   2007-12
Van Abbema, Dana L.   2005-05




Platt, Richard D.     2001-05




Finkelman, David G.   2007-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.    2005-05




Bailey, Aileen M.     2007-12




Van Abbema, Dana L.   2008-05
Tickle, Jennifer J.     2006-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2004-05




Lasane, Terell P.       2001-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.      2007-05




Lasane, Terell P.       2003-05




Glidden, Laraine M.     2009-05
Hiris, Eric J.           2003-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.       2005-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2004-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2007-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2008-05




Billings, Douglas W.     2003-05
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2009-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2003-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2002-05




Hiris, Eric J.           2005-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2002-05




Munro, Geoffrey D.       2001-05
Hopkins, J. Roy             2005-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.      2008-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.      2009-05




Finkelman, David G.         2002-05




Platt, Richard D.           2005-05




Lasane, Terell P.; Munro,   2000-05
Geoffrey D.
Williams, Elizabeth N.   2007-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2007-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2008-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   1999-12




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2007-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2003-05
Lasane, Terell P.        2003-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2002-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2009-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2007-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2006-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2005-08
Bailey, Aileen M.        2005-12




Lasane, Terell P.        2000-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2007-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2007-12




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2006-05




Stanton, Roger D.        2009-05
Platt, Richard D.       2004-12




Lasane, Terell P.       2003-05




Jordan, Wesley          1998-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2005-05




Finkelman, David G.     2005-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.     2008-05
Billings, Douglas W.     2003-05




Platt, Richard D.        2009-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2005-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2004-05




Glidden, Laraine M.      2003-05




Munro, Geoffrey D.       2001-05
Munro, Geoffrey D.      2002-05




Lasane, Terell P.       2004-05




Bailey, Aileen M.       2003-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2007-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.      2005-05




Finkelman, David G.     2008-05
Van Abbema, Dana L.      2006-12




Casey, Michael B.        1999-05




Munro, Geoffrey D.       2002-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2001-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2004-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2005-05
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2003-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2007-08




Bailey, Aileen M.        2008-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2005-05




Jordan, Wesley           2001-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2006-05
Lasane, Terell P.        2007-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2006-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2006-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2005-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2006-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2008-05
Williams, Elizabeth N.   2003-05




Platt, Richard D.        2003-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2008-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2003-05




Finkelman, David G.      2008-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2008-05
Bailey, Aileen M.     2003-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.   2006-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.   2006-12




Koenig, Cynthia S.    2004-05




Glidden, Laraine M.   2006-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.    2006-05
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2002-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2003-12




Finkelman, David G.      2004-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2007-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2002-05




Jordan, Wesley           1999-05
Lasane, Terell P.        2004-05




Platt, Richard D.        2003-05




Munro, Geoffrey D.       2002-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2005-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2008-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2000-05
Billings, Douglas W.    2001-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.     2003-05




Finkelman, David G.     2006-05




Finkelman, David G.     2005-05




Munro, Geoffrey D.      2001-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2005-05
Bailey, Aileen M.     2005-05




Platt, Richard D.     2003-05




Lasane, Terell P.     2006-05




Jordan, Wesley        2001-05




Lasane, Terell P.     2006-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.   2005-05
Tickle, Jennifer J.      2008-05




Platt, Richard D.        2005-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2007-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2008-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2006-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2009-05
Lasane, Terell P.        2005-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   1999-05




Finkelman, David G.      2004-05




Glidden, Laraine M.      2002-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2008-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2008-05
Bachus, Susan E.    2002-05




Stanton, Roger D.   2009-05




Lasane, Terell P.   2004-12




Bailey, Aileen M.   2005-05




Casey, Michael B.   1999-05




Bailey, Aileen M.   2001-05
Glidden, Laraine M.      2009-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2002-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.       2006-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2009-05




Jordan, Wesley           1999-12




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2002-05
Lasane, Terell P.        2008-05




Hiris, Eric J.           2003-12




Lasane, Terell P.        2006-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2004-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2000-05




Jordan, Wesley; Coughlin, 2000-05
Linda G.
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2006-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2009-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2005-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2008-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2003-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2003-05
Keen, Phyllis A.         1998-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2008-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2003-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2004-05




Glidden, Laraine M.      2005-12




Koenig, Cynthia S.       2005-05
Williams, Elizabeth N.   2008-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2003-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2002-12




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2008-05




Finkelman, David G.      2001-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2007-05
Tickle, Jennifer J.    2009-05




Finkelman, David G.;   2000-05
Taber, Michael S.




Lasane, Terell P.      2000-05




Finkelman, David G.    2009-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.    2005-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.     2004-05
Hopkins, J. Roy          2004-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2004-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2005-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2004-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2003-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2007-05
Van Abbema, Dana L.     2004-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2006-05




Hopkins, J. Roy         1998-05




Glidden, Laraine M.     2006-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.     2006-05




Lasane, Terell P.       2003-05
Bailey, Aileen M.       2009-05




Platt, Richard D.       1999-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2005-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.     2005-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2008-05




Billings, Douglas W.    2001-05
Lasane, Terell P.        2002-12




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2007-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2001-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2006-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2004-12




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2008-05
Finkelman, David G.      2004-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2006-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2006-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2006-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2002-12




Williams, Elizabeth N.   1999-12
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2004-12




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2006-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2003-05




Finkelman, David G.      2002-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2003-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2004-05
Bailey, Aileen M.       2005-05




Bailey, Aileen M.       2005-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.     2004-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.     2004-05




Lasane, Terell P.       2004-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   2009-05
O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2005-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2009-05




Suyemoto, Karen L.       1998-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2000-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2009-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2006-08
Platt, Richard D.        2009-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2009-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2009-05




Billings, Frederick J.   2008-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2005-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2008-05
Hiris, Eric J.           2006-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2009-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2006-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2005-05




Lasane, Terell P.        1999-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2004-05
Platt, Richard D.        2004-12




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2006-12




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2009-05




Bachus, Susan E.         2002-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2007-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2007-05
Lasane, Terell P.        1999-05




Finkelman, David G.      2001-05




Harle, Ardith Z.         2002-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2008-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.       2008-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2009-05
O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2004-05




Platt, Richard D.        2009-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2007-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2006-12




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2005-05




Platt, Richard D.        2006-05
Billings, Douglas W.     2001-12




Braman, Amie C.          2003-05




Van Abbema, Dana L.      2007-12




Bachus, Susan E.         2001-12




Finkelman, David G.      2000-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2003-05
Williams, Elizabeth N.   2002-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2006-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2007-05




Munro, Geoffrey D.       1999-12




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2004-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2003-05
Williams, Elizabeth N.   2001-05




Platt, Richard D.        2003-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2007-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2009-05




Tickle, Jennifer J.      2006-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2009-05
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2009-05




Bailey, Aileen M.        2009-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2006-05




Brady, Anne Marie H.     2007-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          1998-05




Hiris, Eric J.           2004-05
Finkelman, David G.      2009-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2001-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2008-05




Hopkins, J. Roy          2005-05




O'Donnell, Deborah A.    2007-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2006-05
Glidden, Laraine M.      2006-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2005-05




Williams, Elizabeth N.   2000-05




Koenig, Cynthia S.       2004-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2000-12




Koenig, Cynthia S.       2007-05
Williams, Elizabeth N.   1999-05




Coughlin, Linda G.       1999-12




Lasane, Terell P.        2002-05




Billings, Douglas W.     2002-05




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   2007-05




Lasane, Terell P.        2004-05
Keen, Phyllis A.;   1999-05
Dudderar, Dian




Hopkins, J. Roy     2008-05
          Mentor          Student Name             Dept.



Bachus, Susan E.    Banig, Aubrey Ann         Psychology




Bachus, Susan E.    Bowers, Stephanie Nichole Psychology




Bachus, Susan E.    Nealon, Julie Guthrie     Psychology




Bachus, Susan E.    Sukontarak, Sara Jess     Psychology




Bachus, Susan E.    Wade, Lorien Ronnelle     Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Chiappelli, Joshua John   Psychology
Bailey, Aileen M.   Clark, Kathryn Elizabeth   Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Coster, Jenalee Nicole     Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Graydon, Megan Elyse       Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Gurski, Kimberly Lynn      Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Hawkins, Daniel Scott      Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Hoof, Emily Joy            Psychology
Bailey, Aileen M.   Johnson, Erin McKernan   Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Johnson, Kaitlyn         Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Kallarackal, Angy Jose   Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Lee, Jennifer Marie      Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Lobkowicz, Hope Sandra   Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Logan, Trevor Thomas     Psychology
Bailey, Aileen M.   Martin, Kelly Christine   Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Medley, Vanessa Allyson   Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Miller, Kathryn Anne      Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Newell, Delia May         Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Norton, Aaron Travis      Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Oben, Marie Elise         Psychology
Bailey, Aileen M.   Padukiewicz, Kristin      Psychology
                    Elizabeth




Bailey, Aileen M.   Rogalski, Jerilyn Marie   Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Ruiz, Kathleen Mary       Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Shutty, Meagan Lynne      Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Sides, Ashley Mae         Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.   Songrady, Judy Catarina   Psychology
Bailey, Aileen M.      Whitlow, Victoria Jane     Psychology




Bailey, Aileen M.      Whitt, Joshua Patrick      Psychology




Billings, Douglas W.   Bederka, Julie Elizabeth   Psychology




Billings, Douglas W.   Biddinger, Sue-Ellen       Psychology
                       Patricia




Billings, Douglas W.   Branigan, Daniel Belleman Psychology




Billings, Douglas W.   Draheim, Angela Rae        Psychology
                       Trinidad
Billings, Douglas W.   Galowin, Melissa Dawn       Psychology




Billings, Douglas W.   Grabill, Kristen Michelle   Psychology




Billings, Douglas W.   Hoffman, Susannah           Psychology
                       Margaret




Billings, Douglas W.   Kurisch, Julia Grace        Psychology




Billings, Douglas W.   Menard, Jennifer A.         Psychology




Billings, Douglas W.   Rudisill, Meghan Lynn       Psychology
Billings, Douglas W.     Vietri, Jeffrey Thomas   Psychology




Billings, Douglas W.     Young, Derek Morgan      Psychology




Billings, Frederick J.   Eid, Justin Bryant       Psychology




Billings, Frederick J.   Hanner, Glenn P.         Psychology




Billings, Frederick J.   Spealman, Brendan Dende Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.     Asmann, Suzanne          Psychology
                         Elizabeth
Brady, Anne Marie H.   Blackwell, Robert Allen   Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Calhoon, Gwendolyn        Psychology
                       Gabrielle




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Callahan, Lauren Jean     Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Davis, Brendan Michael    Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Edwards, Margaret Anne    Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Enos, Jennifer Keryn      Psychology
Brady, Anne Marie H.   Gerald, Kaila Rae        Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Ivy, David Patrick       Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Lubben, Jade Marie       Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   MacFarland, Megan        Psychology
                       Elizabeth




Brady, Anne Marie H.   McGill, Jacquelyn Ann    Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Reid, Chelsea Maitland   Psychology
Brady, Anne Marie H.   Ruiz, Casimira Teresa     Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Saul, Ronald David        Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Slomski, Jennifer Lynn    Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Stevens, Katherine        Psychology
                       McKenna




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Ward, Caitlin Gore        Psychology




Brady, Anne Marie H.   Wiest, Matthew Kristoff   Psychology
Braman, Amie C.       Vizcarrondo, Valerie Jane   Psychology




Casey, Michael B.     Lindblad, Matthew Paul      Psychology




Casey, Michael B.     Newman, Rachel Alice        Psychology




Coughlin, Linda G.    Yates, Jennifer Kathleen    Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Anthony, Erin Patricia      Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Ballute, Amanda Jo          Psychology
Finkelman, David G.   Beal, Georgene Marie       Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Bernatchez, Ashley Quinn- Psychology
                      Hannah




Finkelman, David G.   Bushell, Thomas R.         Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Caminiti, Jacqueline A.    Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Connolly, Jennifer Christine Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Dawson, Amber Lynn         Psychology
Finkelman, David G.   Delanoy, Erika Lindsay   Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   deWolfe, Julie Marie     Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Eck, Kathleen Ann        Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Groth, Byron N.          Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Havens-McColgan, John    Psychology
                      Charles




Finkelman, David G.   Humler, Michael Steven   Psychology
Finkelman, David G.   Krohn, Daniel Thomas      Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Lewis, Eastman Macek      Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Marshall, Cassandra Kay   Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   McGee, Jessica L.         Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Messenheimer, Sharon      Psychology
                      Lynn




Finkelman, David G.   Meyer, Kevin Patrick      Psychology
Finkelman, David G.   Nagano, Hiroyuki         Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Pillai, Dair Tamara      Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Powers, Jessica Lynn     Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Sawkiewicz, Julie        Psychology
                      Catherine




Finkelman, David G.   Shaffer, Samantha Erin   Psychology




Finkelman, David G.   Swope, Sean M.           Psychology
Finkelman, David G.    Wagner, Holly Ann          Psychology




Finkelman, David G.    Wilkie, Melodi Nicole      Psychology




Finkelman, David G.;   Polster, Devin B.; Ting,   Psychology;
Taber, Michael S.      Tina Ray-yee               Philosophy




Giesen, Carol          Campbell, Vicki A.         Psychology




Glidden, Laraine M.    Baker, Allison Kathryn     Psychology




Glidden, Laraine M.    Barnett, Carolyn           Psychology
Glidden, Laraine M.   Caspar, Laura Ann       Psychology




Glidden, Laraine M.   Coffey, Kristin Ann;    Psychology
                      Wasson, Heather Hae-sun




Glidden, Laraine M.   DeMarr, Heather Maria   Psychology




Glidden, Laraine M.   Fleisher, Doria         Psychology




Glidden, Laraine M.   Gibson, Emily Claire    Psychology




Glidden, Laraine M.   Hilliard, Makeyda       Psychology
                      Antoinette
Glidden, Laraine M.   Lawrence, Emily Rae        Psychology




Glidden, Laraine M.   Mathews, Sarah Elizabeth   Psychology




Glidden, Laraine M.   Nasatka, Mary Elizabeth    Psychology




Glidden, Laraine M.   Novak, Jennifer Nicole     Psychology




Glidden, Laraine M.   Pennington, Nicholas       Psychology
                      Morris




Glidden, Laraine M.   Roberts, Elizabeth Anne    Psychology
Glidden, Laraine M.   Wirtz, Ashley Brooke      Psychology




Harle, Ardith Z.      Allport, Erin Naomi       Psychology




Harle, Ardith Z.      Tanzi, Alan Scott         Psychology




Hiris, Eric J.        Campbell, Robert Charles; Psychology
                      Edmonds, Jennifer Lea




Hiris, Eric J.        Hittle, Eric Thomas       Psychology




Hiris, Eric J.        Hovatter, Jessica Lynne   Psychology
Hiris, Eric J.    Ogden, Emily B.            Psychology




Hiris, Eric J.    Stephens, Teresa Michele   Psychology




Hiris, Eric J.    Wilder, Rachael Laura      Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Barker, Nichole Lynne      Psychology
                  Reynolds




Hopkins, J. Roy   Black, Colin Sime          Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Blackwell, Elliott Gill    Psychology
Hopkins, J. Roy   Borsch, Emily Victoria     Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Bryant, Erin Hart          Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Bulger, Deirdre Ann        Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Carpenter, Rebecca L.      Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Cordani, Diane Elizabeth   Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Cosentino, Maya Elisabeth Psychology
Hopkins, J. Roy   Davis, Benjamin C.        Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Flores, Alexis Jeremias   Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Gayle, Diana Andrea       Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Graham, Erin O'Brien      Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Graham, Tashia Nicole     Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Hoehn, Jessica Lynn       Psychology
Hopkins, J. Roy   Huggins, Elizabeth Anne   Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Kampmeyer, Hannah Marie Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Rathbone, Allan VanBuren Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Richman, Cynthia E.       Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Staples, Jessica Anne     Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Taylor, Kaitlin Marie     Psychology
Hopkins, J. Roy   Walper, Daniel J.       Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Wilbur, Brian           Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Wilson, Laura Chin      Psychology




Hopkins, J. Roy   Zweimiller, Paula Kay   Psychology




Jordan, Wesley    Bauer, Colleen Debra    Psychology




Jordan, Wesley    Chess, Amy Carol        Psychology
Jordan, Wesley           Kolody, Andrew Walter      Psychology




Jordan, Wesley           Loving, Michelle Lynn      Psychology




Jordan, Wesley           McHale, Luke               Psychology




Jordan, Wesley           Milstein, Jean Adair       Psychology




Jordan, Wesley           O'Brien, James Christian   Psychology




Jordan, Wesley; Coughlin, O'Neal, Amanda Lynn       Psychology
Linda G.
Keen, Phyllis A.     Paribello, Ariana Marie    Psychology




Keen, Phyllis A.;    Zimmermann, Tara E.        Psychology
Dudderar, Dian




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Adetunji, Esther Adenike   Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Baker, Erin Laura          Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Daly, Katherine Diane      Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Dula, Kimberly Ann         Psychology
Koenig, Cynthia S.   Farley, Megan Jean       Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Flanagan, Emily H.       Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Hawes, Rachel June       Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Hickman, Megan Anne      Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Hjemvik, Leeann Marie    Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Leonard, Jessica Marie   Psychology
Koenig, Cynthia S.   Massaro, Luciana Rose   Psychology
                     Angelica




Koenig, Cynthia S.   McBride, Megan A.       Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Nugent, Kevin Carson    Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Pennington, Nicholas    Psychology
                     Morris




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Raley, Sarah Golden     Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.   Tenaglia, Theresa Ann   Psychology
Koenig, Cynthia S.       Wood, Amanda Jill         Psychology




Koenig, Cynthia S.       Wood, Jessica             Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Alafriz, Courtney Erika   Psychology
                         Murphy




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Bancells, Andrea Maria    Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Barndt, Carolyn Marie     Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Bowes, Loriann            Psychology
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Bryant, Zakiya Iman       Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Burtis, Amy LeeAnn        Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Chun, Elaine Mum          Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Connolly, Kevin Michael   Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Cowan, Mary Ellen         Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Dela Cuesta, June         Psychology
                         Christina
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Derocher, Anne-Marie    Psychology
                         Junee




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Dugan, Erin T.          Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Glynn, Joseph Andrew    Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Goodman, Christopher    Psychology
                         Michael




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Hoewing, Justine Mary   Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Holmes, Lauren A.       Psychology
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Hughes, Michele Nicole      Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Jeanes, Mary Lyle           Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Jeanmary, Guirlaine E.      Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Jones, Victoria Mackenzie   Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Kauffman, Christopher       Psychology
                         William




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Landon, Jacquelyn R.        Psychology
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Loeper, Elizabeth M.     Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Lutterbie, Simon J.      Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   MacHarris, Molly Ann     Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Maron, Leslie Nicole     Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   McCarron, Sarah Cook     Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Meldrum, Tanis Annette   Psychology
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Murphy, Kiely Elizabeth   Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Nacson, Alise B.          Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Opel, Katelyn             Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Pack, Halley Ann          Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Payne, Rachel Marie       Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Pierce, Kimbrey Anne      Psychology
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Raulin, Lee Mathiew       Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Redmond, Alexander        Psychology
                         Jerome




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Ryan, Katie Marie         Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Salama, Christina Helen   Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Searle, Jessica Wheeler   Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Strange, Sarah Hodgetts   Psychology
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Strauss, Ethan Thomas     Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Sumner, Jaclyn Michelle   Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Wells, Heather Amanda     Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   White, Gina Natalie       Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Whitman, Cecelia Burch    Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Williams, Melanie Katharyn Psychology
Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Winkler, Melinda Kay        Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Wood, Benjamin Alan         Psychology




Kosarych-Coy, Janet M.   Zakielarz, Brittney Diane   Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.        Abell, Kimberly Danielle;   Psychology
                         Riedel, Christina Leigh




Lasane, Terell P.        Allen, Tiamo; Fisher,       Psychology
                         Barbara Selena




Lasane, Terell P.        Arthur, Steven Anthony      Psychology
Lasane, Terell P.   Asher, Caroline Nimakoa    Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Baxter, Shane Michael      Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Bishop, Kyle Kimberly      Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Breymaier, Matthew John;   Psychology
                    Cramer, Tara Louise




Lasane, Terell P.   Brittingham, Laura         Psychology
                    Elizabeth




Lasane, Terell P.   Brooks, Cori Renee         Psychology
Lasane, Terell P.   Butler, Sylvia Claire     Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Cawthorne, Kari Maureen   Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Cleghorn, Tava C.         Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Collins, Loretta Mae      Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Czopp, Alexander Matthew Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Davies, Kimberly Ann      Psychology
Lasane, Terell P.   Doyen-Scott, Aegina L.     Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Emerson, Charles           Psychology
                    Christopher




Lasane, Terell P.   Francis, Kristin Theresa   Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Hess, Lauren Summer        Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Hill, Sarah Katherine      Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Horn, Jennifer Ann         Psychology
Lasane, Terell P.   Johnson, Chara Marielle   Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Joseph, Crystal Marie     Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Kaltreider, Sylvia        Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Knight, Hannah Leah       Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Lee, Benaiah James        Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Little, Sarah Christine   Psychology
Lasane, Terell P.   Long, Tabitha Margaux    Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Lubben, Joshua Todd      Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   McGeachy, Keisha R.      Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   McIntyre, Kathryn Suzanne Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Mills, Brian Matthew     Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Mitchell, James Robert   Psychology
Lasane, Terell P.   Naab, Pamela Jo            Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Natcher, Angela L.         Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Nazari, Adam Dost          Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Neidhart, Leigh Ann        Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Nowicki, Bradley Burton    Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   O'Brien, Stephanie Marie   Psychology
Lasane, Terell P.   Okidegbe, Oluchi         Psychology
                    Nwalokomobi




Lasane, Terell P.   Patterson, Benjamin      Psychology
                    Tawney




Lasane, Terell P.   Peters, Lauren Brooke    Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Phelps, Lori Michelle    Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Pitts, Katrice Charita   Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Pomeroy, Jeffrey         Psychology
                    Woodland
Lasane, Terell P.   Robinson, Kevin J.     Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Ruffin, Kristen P.     Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Seymour, Angel Marie   Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Sherman, Thomas Joseph Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Singer, Carrie Lynn    Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Smith, Randy L.        Psychology
Lasane, Terell P.   Snavely, Carl Russel       Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Stout, Robert W.           Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Sweigard, Peter N.         Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Wilson, Brittanny Renae    Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Wise, James Sherer         Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.   Young, Courtney McDevitt   Psychology
Lasane, Terell P.           Zell, William Francis      Psychology




Lasane, Terell P.; Munro,   Hunting, William J.;       Psychology
Geoffrey D.                 Switzer, Jamie Christine




Munro, Geoffrey D.          Childers, Christa Ann      Psychology




Munro, Geoffrey D.          Flanagan, Molly J.         Psychology




Munro, Geoffrey D.          Howard, Letitia Tice;      Psychology
                            Sutton, Katie Lynn




Munro, Geoffrey D.          Leary, Scott Paul          Psychology
Munro, Geoffrey D.      LeClerc, Jared Elliott      Psychology




Munro, Geoffrey D.      Lindsley, Angelena Yvette   Psychology




Munro, Geoffrey D.      McPherson, Candace          Psychology
                        Towanda




Munro, Geoffrey D.      Miller, Aaron Leigh         Psychology




Munro, Geoffrey D.      Washington, Elizabeth       Psychology
                        Margaret




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Adamson, Amechi Nelson      Psychology
O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Brezinski, Christen Victoria Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Clark, Jessica Jean        Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Derullieux, Stephanie      Psychology
                        Rachel




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Deveney, Melissa Anne      Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Fletcher, Eleanor Ward     Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Gibson, Joanna Louise      Psychology
O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Gutowski, Ellen Rachel     Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Hammond, Arianna Marie     Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Heisler, Ellen Margaret    Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Jensvold, Karin Patritia   Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Jones, Amanda Catherine    Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Krebeck, Aurore Lynn       Psychology
O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Lamont, Amanda Brooke     Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Leech, Hillary Meredith   Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Miller, Jennifer Amy      Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Mullins, Kaycee Lynn      Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Oliver, Mary Virginia     Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Ravitz, Nadine Kathleen   Psychology
O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Richards-Peelle, Kathryn   Psychology
                        Canfie




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Rotholz, Abigail Michal    Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Rubinstein, Sara Jean      Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Scarr, Ashley E.           Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Seneff, Alexis Mackenzie   Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Shores, Laura Nicole       Psychology
O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Sitz, Lindsey Nichole       Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Sloane, Sarah Louise        Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Stone, Holly Theresa        Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Toussaint, Michelle Leigh   Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Wathen, Rhonda              Psychology




O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Wickizer, Rebecca           Psychology
                        Christine
O'Donnell, Deborah A.   Wilson, Lauren Anne      Psychology




Platt, Richard D.       Ahrendt, Kenneth Carl    Psychology




Platt, Richard D.       Deutchman, Jessica       Psychology




Platt, Richard D.       Garger, Jennifer Joan;   Psychology
                        Humphrey, Devon Marie




Platt, Richard D.       Goodwin, Dennit          Psychology
                        Washington




Platt, Richard D.       Hance, Rhyan Marshall    Psychology
Platt, Richard D.   Harsh, Bridgett J.        Psychology




Platt, Richard D.   Hunt, Jennifer Jean       Psychology




Platt, Richard D.   Knicely, Jordan Lynn      Psychology




Platt, Richard D.   Lamar, Catherine Leslie   Psychology




Platt, Richard D.   Mariast, Danielle Renee   Psychology




Platt, Richard D.   McLarney, Dana Colleen    Psychology
Platt, Richard D.   Milleville, Shawn Curtis    Psychology




Platt, Richard D.   Moore, Elizabeth Anne       Psychology




Platt, Richard D.   Rosano, Rebecca             Psychology
                    Elizabeth




Platt, Richard D.   Soleo, Katelin Corcoran     Psychology




Platt, Richard D.   Straub, Jason Michael;      Psychology
                    Swarr, Nathaniel Beidler




Platt, Richard D.   Traher, David Christopher   Psychology
Platt, Richard D.    Ulino, Alison Jane Sarah   Psychology




Platt, Richard D.    Weiler, Elizabeth Ann      Psychology




Stanton, Roger D.    Klotz, Kaitlin Elizabeth   Psychology




Stanton, Roger D.    Nehez, Briana Katheryn     Psychology




Suyemoto, Karen L.   Day, Stephanie C.          Psychology




Suyemoto, Karen L.   Smeller, Heidi             Psychology
Tickle, Jennifer J.   Babalola, Oluwatosin       Psychology
                      Elizabeth




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Braxton, Jonathan M.       Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Burkman, Lisa Michele      Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Collins, Amanda Michelle   Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Davis, Lauren Fusting      Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Dinh, Dian Phuong;      Psychology
                      Proimos, James Theodore
Tickle, Jennifer J.   Dixon, Amber Lynn        Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Fegley, Hannah Louise    Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Freund, Valerie Anne     Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Hammamy, Ranwa Diaa      Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Hege, Johnathon Robert   Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Hnath, Lillian Marie     Psychology
Tickle, Jennifer J.   Kloster, Laurie Evelyn   Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Kummer, Shannon Marie    Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Loftis, Stacey Rebecca   Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Mansky, Brian Kenneth    Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Mark, Ross Baxter        Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   McQuighan, Lisa Marie    Psychology
Tickle, Jennifer J.   Moore, Caitlin Meredith   Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Muehl, Allison Nicole     Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Mundle, Erica Leigh       Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Ortiz, Samantha Lynn      Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   O'Sullivan, Elizabeth Anne Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Polisar, Evan N.          Psychology
Tickle, Jennifer J.   Pugliese, Jennifer Nicole   Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Rowe, Christina Marie       Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Sawyer, Wesley Neal         Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Solyst, James Andrew        Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Stukes, Marian Lorraine     Psychology




Tickle, Jennifer J.   Tress, Megan Elizabeth      Psychology
Tickle, Jennifer J.   Whitehead, Vanessa       Psychology
                      Alexandra




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Allen, Elizabeth Jayne   Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Arndt, Melissa Anne      Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Berger, Samantha Leigh   Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Buchanan, Kathryn        Psychology
                      Williams




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Buechler, Kerry Lisa     Psychology
Van Abbema, Dana L.   Cain, Kathleen P.           Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Carrico, Lea Rene           Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Costantini, Cara Danielle   Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Desmond, Angela Marie       Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Doyle, Susan Elizabeth      Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Eberhardt, Madeline         Psychology
Van Abbema, Dana L.   Genau, Jacqueline Lee    Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Graham, Kerry Beth       Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Grisham, Carrie Bess     Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Haley, Tracy Elizabeth   Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Hannon, Paige Lee        Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Heather, Marybeth Anne   Psychology
Van Abbema, Dana L.   Lichtenstein, Hannah      Psychology
                      Rebekah




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Marshall, Victoria H.     Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Maslyar, Constance Grace Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Mason, Michelle Alice     Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Mervis, Katherine Leah;   Psychology
                      Treusdell, Elizabeth
                      Dorothy




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Mitchell, Michael         Psychology
Van Abbema, Dana L.   Paradise, Kristin Jean     Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Pelczar, Tiffany Kathryn   Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Reeder, Noelle Anastasia   Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Reinckens, William Brown   Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Robey, Lauren M.           Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.   Sidhom, Katreen Marie      Psychology
Van Abbema, Dana L.      Simpson, Laura Marie    Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.      Stancavitch, Amy Lynn   Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.      Tranen, Naomi Shoshanah Psychology




Van Abbema, Dana L.      Vogel, Molly Rose       Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Anderson, Rebecca Claire Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Atkinson, Lora Beth     Psychology
Williams, Elizabeth N.   Barnes, Eileen Patricia   Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Barnes, Katherine Hemsley Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Bhanot, Rashmi            Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Celedonia, Karen Lynn     Psychology;
                                                   English




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Cochran, Christa A.       Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Corrice, April M.         Psychology
Williams, Elizabeth N.   Cramer, Christine Marie    Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Dansie, Katherine Fauver   Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   DeGregorio, Alicia Ann     Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Donlon, Michelle Marie     Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Freethey, Miranda Maeve    Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Gardiner, Stephanie Joan   Psychology
Williams, Elizabeth N.   Grizzard, Mairi Brighid   Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Howard, Erin Elisabeth    Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Hughes, Christopher       Psychology
                         Randolph




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Ikizler, Ayse Selin       Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Jobe, Brian M.            Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Linn, Crista Elizabeth    Psychology
Williams, Elizabeth N.   Mandell, Melissa Beth   Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Marcantonio, Chad       Psychology
                         Schaefer




Williams, Elizabeth N.   McGuirk, Laura Marie    Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   O'Brien, Kelly Ann      Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Olson, Kari Lynn        Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Perrizo, Jaie Michel    Psychology
Williams, Elizabeth N.   Schlosnagle, Leo          Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Schmitt, Christine Ann    Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Schubert, Marybeth        Psychology
                         Rebecca




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Smithson, Emily Anne      Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Stout, Alexandra Larsen   Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Sutton, Jeanne Peri       Psychology
Williams, Elizabeth N.   Torres, Christina Marie   Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Tyler, Megan McLeod       Psychology
                         Dodson




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Wagoner, Lori Catherine   Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Walls, Kerry Jean         Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Webb, Lindsey Alexandra   Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Weih, Carrie Marie        Psychology
Williams, Elizabeth N.   Wise, Lara Noelle        Psychology




Williams, Elizabeth N.   Wotthlie, Katherine A.   Psychology
                       SMP Title



Nigral neurotensin receptor mRNA following chronic
administration of haloperidol as a model for tardive
dyskinesia




Role of testosterone in an animal model for tardive
dyskinesia




Role of individual differences in hypothalamic stress
hormones in vulnerability to tardive dyskinesia




Serine racemase mRNA levels in the hippocampal
formation in a rat model for tardive dyskinesia




Striatal choline acetyltransferase expression in a rat
model for tardive dyskinesia




Behavioral functions of 5-HT1A receptors in
orbitofrontal cortex of rats
Effects of differing environments on the physiological
and behavioral characteristics of the vervet monkey




Effects of voluntary exercise on acquisition of an
olfactory learning set in Long-Evans rats with lesions
to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis




Examining anxiety and depression in a rat model of
Alzheimer’s disease




Examination of the sexual reproduction and courtship
differences between Hippocampus ingens,
Hippocampus erectus, and Hippocampus barbouri




Effects of chronic nicotine administration on cognition




Effects of serotonin on nucleus basalis
magnocellularis lesions facilitated by alaproclate on
learning set acquisition in male long-Evans rats
Environment and learning : investigation of learning-
set formation and oddity concept-use in juvenile rats
raised in an enriched environment




Hippocampal and cognitive changes in an animal
model of Type 1 diabetes mellitus




Effect of apamin, a small conductance calcium
activated potassium (SK) channel blocker, on a
mouse model of neurofibromatosis 1




Effects of nicotine on learning set acquisition in
nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) lesioned rats




Aggression, affiliation, and vocalization patterns in the
California sea lion, Zalophus californianus




Learning set acquisition in a rodent model of
Alzheimer‘s disease : the effects of continuous
intracerebroventricular b-amyloid infusions on learning
set acquisition in rodents
Effects of flumazenil on learning set formation in nBM
lesioned Long-Evans rats : GABAergic influences




Examining behavioral flexibility in Long-Evans rats
following lesions to the prefrontal cortex




Critical investigation of the relationships between
eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and
depression




Behavioral and developmental differences in wild- and
captive-bred cetaceans




Effect of dietary fat and social conditions on the timing
of puberty in female rats




Continuing exercise after brief cessation : the effects
on BDNF regulation, depression, and anxiety
Conceptual learning in match to sample odor tasks in
rats




Using dolphins as therapy tools : possible effects on
the animals and implications for future interaction
programs




Higher cognitive functions : a test for transitive
inference in rats




Effect of muscimol, a GABA agonist, on the
acquisition of learning set in male Long-Evans rats




Effect of enriched environments on the learning
deficits of type 1 neurofibromatosis mice




Environmental enrichment vs. cognitive enrichment in
aged rats : effects on cognition and hippocampal
neurogenesis
Effects of neonatal exposure to antipsychotic
medication on neuronal expression of glucocorticoid
receptor in the rat hippocampus and medial and
orbital prefrontal cortices




St. Mary's project




Animal Assisted Therapy : a journey through research
and personal experience




Child sexual abuse survivors : victims of their past




Profiling of serial murderers and their portrayal
through media




Examining predictors of academic success
Improving academic performance : the role of
motivation and locus of control




Role of instrumental support, emotional support, and
health behaviors in the relationship between stress
and athletic injury




Effects of victimization on social skills in women with
schizophrenia




Emperor has no clothes : the truth behind criminal
profiling




Superstition and affective states




Danger in becoming the eye of the beholder : the
relationship between self-objectification and
depression
Personality, coping, and delinquency




Self-evaluation processes : self-enhancement and self-
verification in performance situations




Human lie detectors? : psychopathy and deception
detection




Investigating the effects of mortality salience on
religiosity




Fear persuasion and STD vaccine acceptance : a
focus on the Human Papillomavirus vaccine




Behavioral investigation of an isolation-rearing model
of schizophrenia in rats
Cognitive deficits in beta-catenin knockout mice : an
endophenotype approach to modeling bipolar disorder




Effects of cognitive intervention in adolescence on
behavioral abnormalities in a rat model of
schizophrenia




Effects of isolation rearing in adolescence on
behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine in
adulthood




Strategies for coping with injury and rehabilitation
program adherence




Effects of ongoing adenosine antagonism at the A1
and A2A receptors on long-term memory




Attempt to block the expression of CS-potentiated
eating : antagonizing NPY Y1 receptors with BIBP3226
Are early and late bloomers really that different from
everyone else : examining the effect of pubertal timing
on personality




Oxidant stress and nicotine‘s role in diffuse vascular
injury : vascular response to chronic nicotine




Exercise as a protective mechanism against chronic
stress-induced memory impairments and hippocampal
damage in rats




Sex differences in the effects of valium on neuronal
activation and elevated plus-maze behavior in the rat




Effects of diazepam on anxiety with repeated testing in
rats




Periadolescents on methamphetamine : the impact of
an escalating dose regimen of methamphetamine on
non-spatial working memory and serotonin within the
hippocampus
Cognitive deficits and individual differences resulting
from behavioral sensitization to an escalating dose of
methamphetamine




Chronic activation of the substantia nigra
nociceptin/orphanin receptor (NOP) induces motor
deficits similar to Parkinson‘s disease : a behavioral
and motor assessment following chronic UFP-112
administration into the substantia nigra pars reticulata




Use of a touchscreen to assess categorization




Minor physical anomalies and neurological soft signs
as a function of age of onset in first-episode
schizophrenia patients : a proposed study and review
of existing literature




Conditioned place preference and the effect of
dopamine antagonism on cocaine reward in
adolescent and adult rats




Effects of acute exercise on a dominant-submissive
relationship in rats
Persuasion of Olympic proportions : an applied
literature review




Prenatal visual stimulation effects postnatal
lateralization in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix
japonica)




Effects of prenatal visual stimulus on postnatal
laterality in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)




Prenatal substance exposure : the incidence of
learning disabilities, ADD/ADHD, and mental
retardation




Psychotherapy integration




Superstitious behavior in sports
Stress in law enforcement officers




Deadly secrets : the sociocultural causes and
psychosocial effects of HIV nondisclosure




Role of occupational stress in various positions
throughout the criminal justice system




Modern racism and juror decision-making : the impact
of racial saliency in a mock criminal trial




Influence of sexual orientation and violence severity
on perceptions of intimate partner abuse




Implementation of drug rehabilitation programs at a
Maryland detention center : interviews with counselor
and inmates
Alternatives to traditional psychotherapeutic
intervention techniques : a review of the literature and
interviews with practitioners




Parent-child communication about attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder : implications for coping with
ADHD




Stress and athletic competition : how do athletes
cope?




Crisis negotiation in law enforcement : history,
mechanics, and the application of psychology




Legal ramifications of juror perceptions of mental
illness




Ambivalence of rape : an assessment of biological
and psychological gender differences associated with
sexual assault
Comparing the medical model to the psychosocial
model : the positive and negative consequences that
arise from the way one approaches mental illness




Assessment of decision-making ability in terminally ill
patients requesting assisted suicide




Understanding and treating post traumatic stress
disorder resulting from torture and mass violence in
Cambodia, Uganda, and Guatemala




Psychology of domestic violence




False confessions : the problem and possible solutions




Child preference in custody disputes
Juvenile transfer : a response to serious violent
juvenile crime




Legal and psychological aspects of community
notification and civil commitment for sex offenders




Do personality traits and demographic characeristics
influence worried wellness?




Overcoming racism and prejudice in today‘s world




Effect of time of diagnosis of learning disabilities on
self-esteem and delinquency




Effect of visual motor behavior rehearsal on golf target
accuracy
Comparative analysis of children with and without
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and their
families




Psychiatric adolescent inpatient units in Maryland : a
review of the literature and analyses of interviews with
practitioners




Psycho-philosophical statuses : a multivariate analysis
between and within vegetarians and nonvegetarians




Family influences on the development of eating
disorders




Effects of parental involvement on student academic
achievement




Siblings vs. friends : behavior patterns across
relationships
Sexuality education program for adults with
developmental disabilities and their caregivers




Young adults‘ levels of caregiving for hypothetical
siblings




School psychologist’s role in diagnosing and
intervening with ADHD in the classroom




Inclusion in educational and recreational settings : a
literature review focusing on the variables affecting the
implementation of successful inclusive environments




Teaching it all : a new approach to a middle school
sex education curriculum




Knowledge and attitudes of attention
deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of practicing
teachers
Comprehensive evaluation of counselors and their
experiences at a summer camp for children and adults
with disabilities




Experience, knowledge, perceptions, and
misperceptions of teachers and undergraduates about
students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder




Effects of special education labels on teachers‘
attitudes




St. Mary's project




Causes of self-defeating behavior




Bilingualism and its effect on learning
Chronic pediatric illnesses : impact and coping during
the elementary school years




History of diagnosis




Maryland State Lifeguard Training Academy




Effects of action and view angle on the identification of
sex and activity of biological motion displays




Biological motion : effects of color and orientation on
grouping




Sex and emotion detection in interactive point light
displays
Relationship between bereavement and dream
content in children ages 6 – 10




Invisibility and fading in motion-induced blindness as
static dot size increases




Thanatos : a correlational study of experience with
death, anxiety, and personal habits in college students




Adolescents‘ perceived body image in comparison to
their self-esteem and their ideal body image




Alcohol : a self-medication for socially anxious
individuals




How political debate and directed faking studies
support a method of cheating on a test of moral
development
Tactic is distraction : the news broadcaster‘s influence
on content recall




Multidimensional health locus of control and
depression in a sample of rheumatoid arthritis patients




Nocturnal enuresis and its relation to attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder and other variables




Ego development and its relation to parental
attachment




Blame attributions of male and female victims of
spouse abuse




Residential therapeutic community : a model for
adolescents in Germany
Quality of life of the low-income, elderly : evaluation of
determinants and the effects of an improvement in
housing condition




Attitudes toward interracial dating : effects of sex,
race, self-esteem, and age




Father absence and its effects on college women‘s
interpersonal interactions




Attachment and interpersonal connections in teacher-
student relationships




Sexual double standard in college students




Stigma and cancer : young adults' attitudes toward
hypothetical peers
Evaluation of the mental health services available to
the deaf and hard-of-hearing




Effects of socialization on expression and acceptance
of depression in men and women




Self concept impacts of Mithral Quest




Issues that affect college women : an exploratory study




Long-term effects of attribution style in response to
peer victimization in youth




Parents‘ perspective of their bipolar children
ADHD : peer identifiability and perspective on
treatment




Children of divorce and separation : relationships with
academic behaviors




Measuring undergraduate students‘ life satisfaction
and reactions to gnosticism




Effects of deployment on children in military families




Antidepressant effects of St. John‘s wort (Hypericum
perforatum) and imipramine on rats and an
investigation into the knowledge and use of St. John‘s
wort and use of antidepressant drugs among students
at St. Mary‘s College




Developing an animal model of schizophrenia : the
role of the agranular insular cortex
Role of the NMDA glutamate system in the
development of cocaine sensitization




History and knowledge : an investigation of the drug
education history and the accuracy of the drug
knowledge of St. Mary‘s College of Maryland students




St. Mary's project




Investigation of an animal model for Attention Deficit/
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)




Effect of cocaine sensitization on habituation as tested
by reactivity to a novel environment




Effects of classical conditioning on behavioral
sensitization to cocaine and tyrosine hydroxylase
levels in rats
Teacher portfolios




Total physical response : a comprehension based
approach to second language learning




Predictors of the importance of physical attractiveness
in dating preferences of college students




Anger management for early elementary school
children




Obstacles to palliation and pain management for
hospice patients receiving end of life care




Terror management theory in relation to risk-taking
and self-esteem
Making a comeback : collegiate athletes and the
emotional response to athletic injury




Weathering the storm : a proposed intervention to
increase peer social support among adolescents




Self-fulfilling prophecy in college athletics




Beyond cutting classes : a guide for middle and high
school educating professionals on adolescent self-
mutilation




New approach to adolescent drug use prevention




Identity formation in emerging adulthood that links to
delayed marriages
Social anxiety and academic performance in college




Media effects on body image in elderly and college
aged women




Poked and prodded : the role stigma plays in
perception of people with body modifications, and
personality differences between people with and
without body modifications




Analysis of negotiation theories, bargaining strategies,
and the psychological precepts which influence
bargaining behavior




Reflection of color preference and personality : color
and personality




Honors and non-honors college students : academic
self-concept as a predictor of program participation
and educational experiences
Examining the straight edge subculture : why some
adolescents rebel against drugs




College students‘ help seeking behaviors




Social aggression among adolescents : an analysis of
―teen‖ television




Coping strategies exhibited by parents of children with
autism : from diagnosis to present day




Bibliotherapy : developing fiction for siblings of
children with autism




Relationship between client satisfaction and
premature termination in a public mental health clinic
African American mentee : mentoring minority youth




Applying the theories of aggression to adolescent
aggression




Dream content : comparison between athletes and
non-athletes




Left-handedness : implications and consequences




Effects of clothing on first impressions




Attitudes and expectations of potential Big Brother Big
Sister volunteers
Importance of speech-language pathology : children
with speech-language impairments




Autism and treatments in school aged children




Lucid dreaming : a qualitative assessment




Adolescent adjustment to newly formed stepfamilies
and possible therapeutic intervention




Writing a book for children with autism : its unique
challenges and joys




Gender stereotypes in Caldecott Medal-winning
children’s books, 1938-2008
Effects of sports participation on at-risk youth : review
of the literature and suggestions for program
development




Review of autism from diagnosis through etiology and
into therapy for the documentary ‗Seeing eye to eye :
autism, therapy and the family‘




Investigation of the transitional experience of young
children when introduced to new settings and how to
incorporate play as therapy




Developing a women's center in India




Effect of incentives on questionnaire response rates
for college students




Ostomy formation, self -esteem and sexual
attractiveness
Stress, social support and the nontraditional student :
a qualitative study of the nontraditional student at St.
Mary‘s College of Maryland




Interactive personality : theoretical foundations and
measure development




Initiation rituals and hazing : a comparison within
athletics and clubs




Sex education and adolescents : a comparative study




Correlates of dream recall frequency and lucidity




Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in school age children
Case study of a 23-year-old male with bipolar disorder




Role of media imagery in the development of
disordered eating : women speak about the media,
culture, and eating disorders




Demand withdraw pattern in dating relationships :
individual differences perspective vs. conflict structure
perspective




I think I can : integrating sports psychology into St.
Mary‘s College athletics




Adolescent females : creating the perfect body image




Learning social skills in summer camps : a student-
designed camp model
In the pursuit of happiness : how Buddhism and
psychotherapy can work together to create a fulfilling
life




I sleep to dream




Effectiveness of PBIS programs in elementary schools
: a case study




Methods of psychotherapy in the treatment of bipolar
disorder : integrating creative therapies, cognitive
behavioral therapy, family therapy, and group therapy
into a comprehensive approach to bipolar disorder




My mother‘s madness : a case-study of manic-
depressive illness and artistry




Look at discrimination towards the mentally ill : a local
case
Understanding college athletes readiness to quit
competitive sport : a qualitative study




Qualitative study of children of Holocaust survivors




Inclusion : a case study of a teacher‘s first inclusion
setting




Effect of perceived stigma of mental illness on help-
seeking behavior in first-year college students




Attitudes toward students with hidden disabilities and
resulting social and learning opportunities : an
investigation and intervention




Examining developmental relationships among age,
gender, and aggressive tendencies
Scotopic sensitivity : what do we know in southern
Maryland?




REM sleep debt and its effects on interpersonal
interactions




Correlates of boundary structure and aspects of
dream content




Romantic beliefs and abusive relationships : how
beliefs in destiny and beliefs in growth affect one's
tolerance for abuse




All eyes on me : the impact of racial anxiety on the
experiences of black students on predominantly black
and white campuses




Music label, race, and the perception of violent
behavior
Volunteerism among college students : perception
discrepancies between homeless and non-homeless
individuals




My child is different : a focus on the trials and
tribulations of family adjustment to children with
autism spectrum disorder




Evaluation of individual therapeutic models and their
effectiveness on socialized individuals




Internet survey research : an investigation of sample
generalizability and an exploration of the effects of
differing levels of perceived anonymity




Reformation of health education in secondary schools
to include sexual minority adolescents




Effect of relationship status on female college
students : happiness and loneliness regarding single
women and women involved in a romantic relationship
Correlation between parental practices on gender role
orientation, attachment style, self-esteem and
satisfaction in later romantic relationships




Parental divorce : its effects on offspring‘s young adult
relationship satisfaction




Does pleasure override knowledge? : a study about
condom use




Gender role identification and its effect on perception
of rape victim responsibility : a cross-cultural study




Effects of exposure to racist humor : do racist jokes
influence racist attitudes?




Ideal balance of power in interpersonal relationships,
self-esteem, and academic achievement
Gender orientation as a moderating factor of
perceived organizational support, job satisfaction,
work-family conflict




Pet ownership as a child and the development of self-
esteem and empathy




Knowing your athletes from the inside out




Psychosocial correlates of death anxiety in the elderly
: what role does residence play?




Cross-cultural comparison of motivation in developed
and undeveloped countries




First impressions of body art
Attachment style, sex, gender role orientation, and
race : an examination of partner preferences




Obesity and the importance of body image on
adolescents




Psychosocial factors that promote resiliency in at-risk
youth




Effects of parenting styles




Philosophical challenges inherent in the nature versus
nurture dichotomy : how is major depression affected
by these complexities?




Hookups : expectations versus outcomes among
college students
Does being involved in the rescue squad effect one‘s
perceived stress level and his/her personality?




Religious socialization and religious behavior : a
literature review




Differences in drinking behaviors among white and
black college students




Cross-cultural review of research on linguistic power




Differences in time use efficiency and motivation in
relation to athletic role identity and academic
performance of NCAA Division III athletes and non-
athletes




Stigma of mental health therapy : sociocultural factors
and recommendations for change
Housewifery in the 21st century : distributions of
domestic labor within marriage




Black and blue : exploring racial advantage and
disadvantage for white and black law enforcement
officers




Do college students with tattoos and piercings engage
in risk taking behavior more often than students
without tattoos and piercings?




Technology and its impact on the closeness among us




Development and stability of feelings of trust in
humans : can trust lead to deviance?




Love? Handles! Thin-ideal media and women's body
image : an examination of current research and social
critique
African American achievement at St. Mary‘s College of
Maryland




Coping with stress in college : styles of coping and
their effects on academic achievement and motivation




Maintaining applicant status : recruitment issues within
the Maryland State Police




Redefining feminism : a multi-cultural perspective on
intellectualism




Thank heaven for little girls : high risk sexual behavior
of African-American female adolescents with
relationship, environmental, and media factors




Society's unwanted boys
Presented gender and its effects on helping and
aggressive behavior in children




Endorsement of stereotypes and its effects on
openness and attitudes towards interracial dating




Teacher's handbook : strategies to use in the
classroom to encourage and provide the most
beneficial education to students with disabilities




Fisticuffs and rumors : how gender affects the
salience of aggression




Adoption and identity issues




Self-perception and propensity to engage in anti-social
behavior : an application of self-verification theory
Intimate relationships : relationships correlates with
depression and academic performance




Instrumental deviance as a masculine coping strategy




Gender and the use of obscenity : analyzing the
functions, motives and meanings of swear words




College students‘ attitudes toward division of
household labor in marriage based on family of origin
gender roles




Just world or just unlucky? : a study of public
perceptions concerning the reasons for poverty and
the methods of helping the poor help themselves
using students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland




Effects of preference versus perception of coaching
leadership behavior on athlete satisfaction and sport
self-esteem
Personality factors and favor asking




Effects of family dynamics on aggression




Dress for success : the effects of clothing on self-
efficacy




Gender stereotypic memory in fifth graders




Basic vocal emotions : children‘s perception of
emotion through voice




Fashionable and fun-loving : the portrayal of gay men
on television and its effect on stereotypes
Minimizing competitive behavior in collective traps




Effects of body art on hiring decisions




Media, stereotypes, and adolescent fathers : does the
media effect how society views adolescent fathers?




Decision-making problems in trial verdicts : a study of
primacy and recency effects in court cases




Road rage and the fundamental attribution error




Comparing intercultural sensitivity between Japanese
and American college students
Mind-body connection : meditation and yoga as
alternative treatments for generalized anxiety disorder




Transforming our youth : a behavior modification
program created through a compilation of therapy
techniques




Advancement of fine motor skills through stimulation
from Montessori practical materials




Effects meditation in adjunct to psychotherapy for the
alleviation of anxious and depressive symptoms : a
literature review




Use of play therapy with children diagnosed with
autism




Creating community and living intentionally : a study of
secular intentional communities
Nerves syndrome in the Gambia, West Africa and its
social and global context




Appraisal of goal progress, motivation and life
satisfaction in a mental health rehabilitation program




Treatment matching in childhood Attention Deficit-
Hyperactivity Disorder




St. Mary's project




Evaluation of the St. Mary‘s County family
independence project




Cross-sex and cross-cultural interactions among
Gambian and US men and women
Efficacy of art therapy as a diagnostic tool and
therapeutic intervention for treating children
traumatized by physical and/or sexual abuse




Women‘s rights in the Gambia : an analysis of
Gambian newspapers




Investigation of parents‘ thoughts and attitudes about
parenting and child behavior problems




Job satisfaction in the nursing career : how factors of
autonomy and job stress influence job satisfaction for
nurses




Prevalence of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and
subsyndromal-SAD in a college sample : an
examination of changes in appetite, sleep and activity
level




Gender role formation in Latino preschoolers in
Washington, D.C.
Effects of yoga on body satisfaction in pre-adolescent
females




Gender role attitudes as function of sibling relationship
context




Dance time : implementation of an after-school dance
program as a way to improve
body image in school-aged children




Is media the menace? : investigating the effects of
highly stimulating television programs on the
symptoms of ADHD




Lost generation : the effects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic
on South African youth




Gender differences in serial killers : how does one‘s
gender role identity and occupation influence their
method of murder?
Transforming our youth : changing behavior creatively




Effects of a Muslim culture and faith on
psychopathology




First and second generation female immigrants in the
United States




Case study of resilience in a young woman with
cerebral palsy : hope, social support, and family
support services




Externalizing behavior among elementary school
children




Yoga intervention program and its effects on
compassion in adolescent females
Somos Hijos del Lago : a preliminary descriptive case
study on a special education and rehabilitation center
in rural Guatemala




Media influence and risk perception : the impact of the
news media on risk perception




Effect of visual motor behavior rehearsal on lacrosse
goal shooting accuracy




Effect of anxiety and confidence as it relates to athletic
performance




Effectiveness of the cognitive interview in event recall




Effects of individual differences in vividness upon the
reality monitoring process
Individual differences and the effectiveness of
warnings in the DRM false memory paradigm




Tobacco-use prevention : using persuasive
techniques to prevent smoking




Investigation into spatial working memory and task-
switching




Effects of subconscious priming on judgment behavior




Effect of friends versus strangers on group memory of
central and peripheral items




Analogical transfer in problem solving situations
Brain activation areas in response to animate and
inanimate stimuli




Freedom of choice : blessing or burden? : the
relationship between choice set size, maximization
propensity, and post-decision regret




Autobiographical memories of a campus incident
involving police




Father impact on risk-taking : a study looking at
college students’ father presence and risk-taking
behavior




Factors correlating with substance use in high school
and college




Decision making and consumer behavior
Motivation factors that influence athlete's adherence to
rehabilitation programs after suffering an injury




Altruism, volunteerism, and personality




Evaluation of memory : do authority roles affect adults'
memories of central and peripheral information?




Finding value in dissonant information : examining the
limitation of relevance in evaluating information




Racial/ethnic identity in Korean transracial adoptees




Alcohol use and abuse in hyper-masculine African
American males
Exploring the relationship between religiosity,
optimism, and relationship satisfaction




Effect of violent video games on young adults




Stereotypes of psychotherapists in film : a content
analysis




Young girls‘ body image, the media and parental
influence




Types and levels of disobedience in popular children‘s
television programs




Personality and character class selection in World of
Warcraft : an exploratory study of massive multiplayer
choices and behaviors
Breast obsessed : the importance of breast size in
American society and its' influence on the approval of
cosmetic breast surgery




Examining the relationship between sexually explicit
images, race, and sexual consent




Peer influence on disordered eating in college females




Value of educational television : examining the
contribution of Dora the Explorer




Development of friendship over Instant Messenger




Reversed sex role conditioning : the effects of
exposure to reversed gender stereotyped roles in
media
Personality and political orientation : the relation
between conservatism and the five-factor model




Sympathy for the devil : the influence of a prior
offense of future judgments of sympathy for the
offender




Cross-cultural comparison of attractiveness in regards
to the Golden Decagon Mask




Conformity behavior and group attraction : the
influence of gender, self-esteem, and severity of
hazing on one‘s degree of conformity and affiliation




Effect of misogynistic rap music videos compared to
music alone on implicit and explicit attitudes of women




Nature of infidelity in romantic relationships
Exploring the use of sex appeal in advertising : a
cross-cultural analysis of sex appeal in magazine
advertising




Vocal characteristics as a response to self-esteem
manipulation : findings and implications




Effects of viewing television news programs : an
analysis of the United States and Australia




Cyber world of identity expression




Someday my prince will come : gender stereotype
evolution in film from 1980-2003




Effects of romantic relationships on academic
achievement, motivation and depression in college
students
Influence of athletic participation and extraversion on
the alcohol consumption behaviors of college students




Gender differences in the perception of fear appeals :
self-esteem and self-efficacy as moderators




Differences between television news programs : an
analysis of the United States and Australia




Loving-kindness meditation and altruism : does
empathic perspective taking increase helping
behavior?




Love between the sheets, behind the screen : online
sexual activities and infidelity




Attraction : yours, mine, or ours? The effects of social
influence on perceived physical attraction
Cross-cultural differences between television news
programs : an analysis of negative news and the
effect of fear and anxiety in the United States and
Australia




Animal assisted therapy (AAT) and animal assisted
activities (AAA) : a literature review




Evaluation of the effectiveness of an after school
program for at-risk children




Relationship between attachment and expected vs.
perceived intimacy




Autism and theory of mind : do autistic children lack
theory of mind?




Theory of mind development in autistic and non-
autistic children
Exploration into the elements of writing therapy
present in personal journals and weblogs




Adult attachment and its correlations with parental
marital status and conflict




Miracle manifested : a new vision of public education




Drama therapy : a handbook




Mindfulness-based stress reduction : the interface of
meditation and psychotherapy




Infants, toddlers, and televised media
School-wide approach to the bullying problem facing
elementary schools




Coping with 9/11 : conquering the tragedy with or
without God




Therapeutic horseback riding for autistic children : a
review of the literature and a proposal for research




Evaluation of the effectiveness of after-school
programs for at-risk children




Evolving responsibilities, issues, and methods of
intervention effecting school-based speech-language
pathologists




Cross-sectional study of college student morality in a
liberal arts setting
Relationship between childhood imaginary
companions and adulthood creativity : a retrospective
study




Cross-sectional study of college students‘ moral
development in a public liberal arts setting




Going beyond ―no‖ : behavior management strategies
for children with autism




Early childhood reading programs : parents' role in
their children's reading success




Strategies for reducing physical conflict in upper
elementary school students




Handbook on divorce : a resource for counselors and
their clients
Understanding and dealing with death : adults‘
accounts of the loss of a childhood pet




English Language Learners (ELL) : learning style and
task motivation




Gender differences in use of internal state terms in
written and typed event narratives




Evaluation of a peer mediated support group for
AD/HD college students




Stress in the dental chair : an investigation of the roles
of parental stress and child preparation




Academic stress and depressive symptoms in college
students
Peer AD/HD support system : evaluation of a peer
support group for college undergraduates with
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder




Importance of multicultural literature in the early
elementary school classroom




Roommate expectations throughout college




Faculty and student perspectives on academic
advising at St. Mary‘s




Qualitative study of adolescents and professional
counseling




Correlates of help seeking behavior and attitudes
among adolescents in college
Relationship between birth order, achievement, and
anxiety




Closer look at Eye Movement Desensitization and
Reprocessing (EMDR)




Disordered eating in female athletes




Craving the spotlight : the desire for fame in Buddhists
vs. non-Buddhists




Therapist personal history variables and their effect on
the quantity and quality of self-disclosure in the
therapeutic relationship




Client experiences with touch in psychotherapy
Relationship of relational aggression and depression




Treating eating disorders with bibliotherapy




Therapist sexual attraction to clients in the therapeutic
environment : an assessment of therapist graduate
training




Effects of an art therapy based curriculum on the
mood and behavior of elementary school children




Schadenfreude, social comparisons and competition




Search for balance : the acculturation process of
Asian American undergraduate students and the role
of therapy in the reconciliation of related concerns
Thin or thick boundaried personality type as
expressed in choice of major




Qualitative investigation of challenge management in
young adulthood : exploring aspects of self-
assessment and subjectivity




Therapist or therapy : what is keeping men out of
therapy?




Gender role representations in Turkish television
programs




Client preferences and the effectiveness of client and
therapist match on therapy outcome




Effects of personality on methods of coping with anger
Feminist approach to combating relational aggression
among middle school girls




Homophobia, perhaps it‘s not what we originally
thought




Parental and socioeconomic influence on school
performance




Qualitative study of the person of the therapist




Relationship of reasons women state for using
sexually explicit materials and the types of sexually
explicit materials they choose and their levels of
sexual functioning




Masculinity and depression : implications for help-
seeking attitudes
Sibling relationships as a protective factor following
parental divorce




Symbolic speech : an intensive review of art therapy




Self-reported relationship between eating disordered
behavior and attitudes towards dating, sexuality and
adherence to traditional gender roles




Psychological distress and demographic variables
related to help-seeking among students at St. Mary’s
College of Maryland




College counseling centers : challenges and
recommendations




Forms of trauma and their relationships with
phenomena of dissociation, sleep, and dreaming
Nerds, geeks, and bookworms : exploring identity
through academic major




Media influences on female body esteem




Child art therapy in the public school system : a
qualitative study on the needs and components




Use and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy
in the treatment of schizophrenia




Gender roles, stereotypes and power in sexuality : a
qualitative investigation




Psychological causes of revolution in response to
political oppression
Effectiveness of social skills intervention for special
needs children




Female sexual dysfunctions : a literature review and
meta-analysis
                                                           Abstract



Rats treated chronically with neuroleptics develop vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), similar to tardive dyskinesia. The
purpose of this investigation was to expand on past research involving nigral neurotensin receptor (NTR) mRNA in rats
following the administration of chronic haloperidol (HAL). Relating our findings to past research will possibly provide a more
clear explanation to the role of neuroleptic administration in the development of TD. My goal was to determine if there would
be elevated NTR expression in rats treated chronically with the drug up until sacrifice. A previous study examined rats
chronically treated with HAL, which also experienced a 9-week withdrawal period before death. Short-term, but not long-
term chronic treatment caused elevated nigral NTR expression in rats. If rats treated chronically with the drug up until
sacrifice experience similar patterns in nigral NTR expression, this might suggest the development of a tolerance to HAL
after a specific duration of administration. We also want to determine if there is a significant correlation between nigral NTR
Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially disfiguring, debilitating and sometimes irreversible movement disorder, which is
associated with high incidence and a lack of effective treatment. Symptoms of the disease include involuntary orofacial
movements, such as lip smacking, tongue protrusions, and jaw movements. These movements are induced by chronic
treatment of schizophrenia with neuroleptic medications. Vacuous chewing movements in rats are among these symptoms.
Some of these rats also displayed some severe aggression during the haloperidol treatment. This experiment was done to
examine the role of testosterone in this rat model for TD. I wanted to explore the effect of neuroleptic exposure on
testosterone and to investigate the relationship between testosterone in rats and the VCMs of the rats. Group-housed male
Long-Evans rats (at beginning body weights of 90-165g) were monitored blindly for baseline VCMs for two minute intervals
weekly, for 7 weeks, and then for 24 weeks during chronic administration of haloperidol (28.5 mg/kg/ml, i.m., at 3 week
Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder induced by chronic exposure to neuroleptics, typically used to treat
schizophrenia. Often developing after years and persisting indefinitely after cessation of treatment, tardive dyskinesia lacks
an effective treatment due to its unknown etiology and contributing factors. Rats respond to chronic neuroleptic with
behavior analogous to TD referred to as vacuous chewing movements (VCMs). Incidental observations made during the
treatment of a cohort of rats with chronic haloperidol suggested that the severity of TD might be influenced by the stress
axis. Thus I measured mRNA for hypothalamic CRF, an important hormone in the stress response, to assess the
relationship between stress and VCMs in rats. Group housed Long-Evans rats, with starting body weights of 90-165g, were
monitored blindly for baseline VCMs for two minute intervals for 7 weeks, and then for 24 weeks during haloperidol
(28.5mg/kg/ml, i.m., at 3 week intervals: n=43) or vehicle (sesame oil: n=21) injections occurring every third week. At the
D-serine has recently been observed to be a more potent ligand for the "glycine site" on NMDA receptor complex than
glycine (Mothet 2000). To explore the role of this possible new neurotransmitter in tardive dyskinesia (TD), a cohort of rats
was treated with chronic haloperidol (28.5 mg/ml/kg, i.m., at 3 week intervals; n=43) or vehicle (sesame oil; n=21) for 24
weeks to create a rat model for TD. In situ hybridization with a riboprobe for serine racemase mRNA was used to assess
the serine racemase mRNA levels in areas of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, in slide-mounted sections from these
rats, because of their high NMDA receptor contents and the suggested relationship (Naidu et al. 2001) between NMDA
receptors and vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) an animal model for TD. Analysis of the data showed an interesting
correlation between VCMs and serine racemase mRNA levels in areas cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and entorhinal cortex (ERC)
ii, iii, and vi. The results suggest that there may be a role played by the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in the propensity
One concern with findings of abnormal striatal choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in postmortem studies of schizophrenia is
that this could be secondary to medication history. A previous study has found no change in striatal ChAT expression in rats
treated with chronic haloperidol, which experienced 9 weeks of withdrawal. In order to rule out the withdrawal period as the
reason for the lack of ChAT expression change, a new study was conducted. In this new study, the rats were treated with
drug until the point of sacrifice. Group-housed male Long-Evans rats (at beginning body weights of 90-165g) were
monitored blindly for baseline vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), a rat model for tardive dyskinesia, for two minute
intervals weekly, for 7 weeks, and then for 24 weeks during chronic administration of haloperidol (28.5 mg/kg/ml, i.m., at 3
week intervals: n=43) or vehicle (sesame oil: n=21). At the end of the haloperidol treatment, the brains were sectioned onto
slides. A probe, labelled with 35S for ChAT mRNA was applied to striatal sections which were then assayed with in situ
Cannula were implanted in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a prefrontal region of the brain, of 17 rats. The behavior of these
animals was observed after intracerebral infusion or intraperitoneal injection of 8-OH-DPAT, a serotonin-1A agonist.
Behavior paradigms used were the open field, social interaction, forced swim and prepulse inhibition tests. Intracerebral
infusion of 8-OH-DPAT increased exploratory behavior, had a weak anxiety-reducing effect, and decreased social
interaction of the rats, but did not affect depression like behavior or sensorimotor gating. Systemic injection of 8-OH-DPAT
had an antidepressant-like effect. Results indicate a role of 5-HT1A receptors in the OFC in regulating social and emotional
behaviors, and may have implications for psychopathology.
There are approximately 20 different subspecies of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), all of which occupy different
environments. Vervet monkeys adapt very well to various environments. This paper investigated the different types of
environments that vervets occupy (natural, captive, and domesticated) in various parts of the world to see if physiological
and/or behavioral modifications existed in the species according to the environment in which they lived. It was shown that,
overall, vervets do present differences between the environments; however, these differences are not to a great extent, and
do not appear to pose any threat for the survival of the species.



The current study examines the effect of exercise on lesions to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) on acquisition of
olfactory discrimination learning set (ODLS). Exercise animals were given free access to a running wheel five days following
surgery. Animals did not differ on pre- to post-surgical measurements of activity level in an open field, nor did animals differ
in percentage of time spent on a novel object during a novel object recognition task to assess working memory. Therefore,
there were no deficits in activity or working memory among the animals that would impair acquisition of ODLS. Sedentary
and exercise sham animals and SAP exercise animals performed significantly above chance on trial 2 indicating learning set
acquisition. SAP sedentary animals did not perform above chance on trial 2 indicating that they were unable to acquire a
learning set; however, on trials 3-5 they were able to perform significantly above chance indicating olfactory abilities were
intact Furthermore on block 1, sham exercise and SAP exercise performed significantly above chance. Exercise enabled
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the cognitive functioning of humans (Hollingwoth et
al., 2006). Damage to the nBM via human AD or an experimental lesion may alter processing in the amygdala leading to
changes in emotion and mood. AD has also been shown to affect mood, such as anxiety and depression in humans (Delano-
 Wood et al., 2007). The nBM is known to send cholinergic projections to the amygdala (Mesulam et al., 1983), which has
been previously shown to be involved in aspects of emotional learning and fear responding (LeDoux, 2000). The
researchers hypothesized that quisqualic acid lesions will disrupt the cholinergic pathways from the nBM to the amygdala,
which will cause an increase in time spent immobile in the forced swim test, decrease in preference for sucrose in the
sucrose preference test and decrease in entries and time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze. 192- IgG
saporin nBM lesions were hypothesized to effect projections to the cortex and will have fewer changes seen in depression
[abstract not available]




It was estimated that 72.9 million Americans aged 12 years or older were users of a tobacco product in 2006. Nicotine in
tobacco interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and activates reward centers in the central nervous
system (CNS), including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which leads to behavioral reinforcement and addiction.
Nicotinic receptor systems are involved in a wide variety of behavioral functions, including cognition. In both humans and
animals, nicotine administration has been shown to improve reaction time, working memory, and attentional processes.
Importantly, research indicates that measures of nicotine-induced improvement in cognitive processes, such as working
memory, are abolished when concurrently administered with nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC), suggesting that
nAChRs mediate the actions of nicotine‘s cognitive enhancement. In humans, self-administration of nicotine, i.e. smoking,
has been beneficial in alleviating cognitive dysfunction in disorders such as Alzheimer‘s Disease (AD) and schizophrenia.
Rats with bilateral quisqualic acid lesions of the nucleus basalis magocelluaris (nBM), saline sham lesioned rats and non-
surgical control rats, were compared with odor unique learn set problems and open-field activity, under four treatment
conditions: initial 40, saline, alaproclate, and post-test. Pre-training data suggests that simple discrimination ability was still
intact after the nBM lesion was inflicted. Evidence of learning set formation was seen in both control/sham and nBM
lesioned rats with no significant difference between the groups. There was no group difference in open-field activity.
Alaproclate administered in a dose of 7.5 mg/Kg did not enhance learning set ability in either control/sham or nBM lesioned
rats.
The effect of environmental enrichment on learning-set formation, oddity concept use, body weight, fearfulness, activity
level, level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and level of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured in 11 male, juvenile
rats. There were no significant learning differences, in oddity concept use or learning-set formation, between the subjects
raised in an enriched environment and subjects raised in a standard, control environment. The control subjects did have a
more sporadic performance overall than the enriched subjects. Enriched subjects were found to weigh significantly more,
were significantly more fearful as measured in the open field and were significantly less active than controls in the open
field. There were no significant differences in terms of the levels of GABA between the two environmental groups. For most
areas of the brain examined, there were no significant group differences in AChE, but the control subjects did have
significantly higher levels in their hippocampus.
Cognitive impairments have been recognized as a complication of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). This study examined the effect of
DM on spatial cognition and neuronal activity in the hippocampus using Streptozotocin-treated animal models of DM. Water
maze testing was used to examine changes in spatial cognition. C-fos immunohistochemical staining techniques were used
to measure neuronal activity in the hippocampus. DM animals showed impairments in spatial recognition memory tests six
weeks after diabetes was induced. C-fos staining results were inconclusive regarding neuronal activity in the hippocampus.
The results support the hypothesis that DM animals will exhibit cognitive impairments after six weeks of induced DM.



Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disorder known to cause a variety of physiological symptoms such as the
formation of both benign and malignant tumors, and is also known to cause visuospatial learning deficits. A large component
of the learning deficits in NF1 patients is difficulty in visuospatial tasks. The astrocytes of Nf1+/- mice exhibit an increased
outward K+ current which is apamin (a specific blocker of small conductance calcium activated potassium (SK) channels)
sensitive. SK channels appear to play a role in regulating long term potentiation (LTP), a mechanism of learning which has
been shown to be impaired Nf1+/- mice. We found a significant upregulation of SK1 channels in Nf1+/- mouse brains in
comparison to WT brains through western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that the upregulation is localized to
the hippocampus and olfactory tract. We tested 32 mice and administered a 0.4mg/kg dose of apamin either through i.p
injection or micro-osmotic pump to Nf1+/- mice and found that the apamin treated Nf1+/- mice significantly improved
Nine Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to either a NBM quisqualic lesion group (n=6), a sham lesion group (n=2), or
unoperated control group (n=1). The NBM lesioned animals showed a significant impairment in learning set formation
across 40 odor-unique discrimination problems. Nicotine administration (5mg/kg, i.p.) improved performance on Trial 2
across 20 additional discrimination problems in the NBM lesioned animals as compared to control animals. Thus,
suggesting the importance of the acetylcholine system in higher cognitive processes. However, contrary to the hypothesis
the improvements were neither significant nor did the animals perform above chance levels. Reasons why this effect was
found are explored.


The California sea lion is a species which lives in large colonies, resulting in a complex social structure which can be
characterized by the animal‘s social affiliation as well as stereotypical and hierarchical aggression. The purpose of the
present study was to identify and examine several behaviors within the two behavioral categories of affiliation and
aggression while additionally examining when vocalizations occur across these categories. Data was collected over a
period of 13 days through behavior sampling and instantaneous scans of a sample in their natural environment. Results
showed that the sea lions vocalized significantly more during a social interaction than during non-social behavior. When
social interactions were categorized, results showed that vocalizations occurred significantly more often during aggressive
behavior than affiliative behavior and significantly more often during neutral behaviors than affiliative behavior, but there was
no significant difference between vocalizations during affiliative and neutral behaviors. Lastly, it was found that the sea lions
Endogenous b-amyloid proteins are found postmortem in the senile plaques of individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's
disease (AD). Continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of the protein into rodent produces behavioral and
anatomical changes that are associated with AD, including a degeneration of the nucleus basalis magnocelluaris (nBM) and
drop in cortical cholinergic innervation. The nBM plays a critical role in the process of learning set (LS) acquisition in
rodents, an ability which is associated with problem solving and higher cognitive processing. This study observed the effects
of continuous ICV b-amyloid infusion on rodent LS acquisition in hopes of elucidating the connection between increased
central nervous system abeta load and the changes in higher cognition. Two control tasks (open field activity and novel
object recognition) were conducted to help clarify behavioral results, and brains sections were stained with Congo Red dye.
The behavioral results found that neither the protein nor the vehicle group ever successfully performed above chance on
Eight Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: nBM lesion (n=5), sham-operated (n=2), non-
operated control group (n=1). Initial testing indicated learning set formation in control animals but a significant impairment in
learning set formation in the nBM lesioned group. Treatments of flumazenil (3mg/kg; i.p.), a benzodiazepine inverse agonist,
did not improve learning set performance in the nBM lesioned animals in a series of novel odor-unique discrimination
problems.




The current study evaluated the effects of lesions to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) on learning set acquisition and formation in
a visually-cued water maze (MWM) task and olfactory discrimination reversal (ODR) task. The subjects were also tested in
an open field apparatus and in novel object recognition (NOR) to ensure that surgical procedures did not affect their general
functioning or working memory, respectively. We hypothesized that learning set formation would be inhibited or blocked by
the PFC lesion but general functioning and working memory would remain intact. The results indicated that the control
subject were able to form a learning set in the ODR task and perform significantly above chance. The PFC lesioned rats did
not form a learning set in the ODR task and performed below chance. There were no group differences in the MWM task
suggesting that visual cues are not sufficient in learning set formation or methods should be altered. All of the animals
exhibited no change in activity levels or working memory.
There is an abundance of research that exists in respect to eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major
depression. Etiological reasons for the presence of these disorders, time course, lifetime prevalence, several
psychotherapeutic approaches, and a recently advanced field of information on antidepressant medications for treatment
has been studied. Sifting through the depths of the material that is present in the academic world is a long and arduous task,
but upon examination it appears that eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depression have many
features in common. For instance, there is a strong overlap between the criteria the American Psychological Association
has established for these disorders. The goal of this paper is to briefly examine three facets of each disorder in order to
shed light on the distinct, comorbid relationship that appears to be present between them. [from introduction]

The current literature review seeks to explore the physiological and psychological differences between killer whales and
dolphins that were raised both in the wild and in captivity. Categories for comparison include feeding behaviors, territoriality,
communication, reproductive habits, parental care, and pod structure. Though differences do exist, so little is known about
each species that it is difficult to draw conclusions as to whether or not these differences could be detrimental to the animal.




Current research into the timing of pubertal onset suggests that American girls are attaining puberty at an earlier age than
was the case thirty years ago. The potential physiological and psychological effects of early puberty cause concern within
the medical and psychological communities. Studies have shown that precocious puberty may be related to an increase in
the risk of breast cancer as well as ovarian cysts later in life and is correlated to lower self-esteem. Various explanations
have been proposed to explain the occurrence of early maturation. Past research focused on the ways in which nutritional
factors and environmental conditions individually affect the timing of pubertal onset in rats. The present experiment
combined these factors to determine if there is an interaction between diet and environmental conditions on the onset of
puberty. Thirty Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly assigned to four conditions combining high-fat and low-fat diet
with ―environmental stimulation‖ (i.e. group-housing and handling) and ―environmental isolation.‖ The researchers measured
There is evidence to support the up-regulation of BDNF and improvement of depressive and anxiety symptoms as a result of
exercise in both human and animal models. However, some animals models do not support these results. There is also a
lack of research on the effects of cessation and reoccurrence of exercise. The current study investigated the effects of
exercise, exercise cessation, and reoccurrence of exercise on BDNF levels in the hippocampus and behavioral measures of
depression and anxiety (forced swim test, sucrose preference test, elevated plus maze) in four groups of adult rats. Results
do not support the hypotheses that voluntary access to running wheels would cause an up-regulation of BDNF and a
decrease in depressive and anxiety symptoms (as compared to controls), nor were there noticeable trends regarding BDNF
and behavior in the groups that experienced cessation or reoccurrence of exercise. While some past research conflicts with
these results, there is also some research to support them. Explanations, limitations of the current study, and the need for
In this study 10 male rats were trained for 30 days on a match-to-sample odor task with either the same odor discriminanda
(control, N=5) or a trials-unique procedure (experimental, N=5), in an effort to compare learning transfer to a unique
problem. Experimental animals had significantly higher percentage correct on the unique odor presentation day than the
control animals, suggesting their application of a general rule to the problem. Control animals are thought to have formed a
specific rule due to their training procedure, and therefore performed no better than chance with the unique problem.
Experimental animals did not perform significantly better than the controls on number of first trials correct on the unique
problem, as has been found in similar previous studies, but this is believed to be a result of the small sample size.


There is little research examining dolphin interaction programs. A few studies have measured stress levels of dolphins in
various interaction programs (Brensing et al., 2005; Trone et al., 2005) and one study that measured the effectiveness of
treating depression with dolphin therapy (Antonioli and Reveley, 2005). The purpose of these three proposed experiments is
to expand on the research of dolphin interaction programs. The first study will measure the effects different human
interaction situations have on the stress and aggression levels of dolphins. The second study will examine the effects of
dolphin therapy, dog therapy, swimming therapy, and medication only on children with autism. The third study will examine
the effects of dolphin therapy versus swimming therapy on the positive emotions of cancer patients. Following the three
proposals is a literature review discussing the cognitive capabilities that dolphins possess. All three proposed studies are
novel research ideas and the results could revolutionize the prevalence of animal therapy, specifically dolphin therapy.
The concept of transitive inference (TI) is the relation between two pieces of knowledge used to infer a third piece of
knowledge. For example, if told that dogs (A) are nicer than rats (B) and rats are nicer than cats (C), the TI made from this
would be that dogs (A) are nicer than cats (C). TI was tested on rats by the use of five tactile stimuli (A-E) divided into four
premise pairs (AB, BC, CD, and DE) in which choice A is always rewarded and E is never rewarded. The test for TI included
a novel test pair (BD). All rats showed discrimination of the four premise pairs. However, trial 1 performance on BD
indicated that no TI was found.



Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: saline (n = 7) or muscimol (n = 7). The rats
received 0.5 mg/kg of muscimol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) or saline (i.p.) during the initial 40 odor-unique discrimination problems
to test effects of muscimol on the acquisition of learning set. Muscimol did not impair the acquisition of a learning set, as
evidenced by the significantly higher than expected by chance Trial 2 performance. Muscimol also did not result in
performance or motor deficits, or changes in emotionality.




Twenty-eight C57B16 mice were used in this study. The Nf1 mice (n=13) and wild type mice (n=15) were randomly assigned
to one of two groups: enriched environment (n= 12) and non-enriched environment (n= 16). The mice were tested in the
Morris water maze and the open field. Results from the water maze indicated no significant differences in acquisition or
probe trials between the four groups. No differences were found between the Nf1 mice and the wild type mice in the water
maze acquisition or probe trials. No differences were found between the enriched environment mice and the non-enriched
environment mice in the water maze acquisition or probe trials. No differences were found in the open field indicating no
differences in emotionality between the groups of mice.


Age related deficits in spatial memory have been demonstrated in both humans and other animals. Research shows a
negative correlation between the increase in age related deficits and a decline in the number of newly generated neurons in
the hippocampus as animals age. However aged rodents following enrichment show fewer deficits in spatial tasks, and
increased reference memory function (cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) and cognitive enrichment (CE) have been
found to enhance behavioral performance in future cognitive based tasks, such as the Morris Water Maze (MWM), and
increase neurogenesis in hippocampus. Previous work had not yet directly compared animals that have undergone different
forms of enrichment and examined possible differences in plasticity or cognition. The current study examines neurogenesis
and performance on novel cognitive tasks, MWM and Novel Object Recognition, in aged rats after receiving either cognitive
(set-shifting task) or environmental enrichment. It was hypothesized that the enriched groups would show an increase of
Antipsychotic medication is capable of crossing the placental barrier and is also secreted in breast milk (Miyazaki et al.,
1986). Pregnant women and new mothers with schizophrenia using antipsychotic medication must therefore make the
decision whether to continue treating their illness or risk abnormal neuronal development of their child. Perinatal exposure to
antipsychotic medication could disrupt neuronal development and the proper organization of neuronal pathways, such as
the connections of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis and associated brain structures. The HPA axis is involved
in the adaptive stress response. Activation of the HPA axis ultimately results in synthesis and secretion of glucocorticoid
hormone by the adrenal cortex. Circulating glucocorticoids bind with glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the brain and induce
changes that inhibit HPA axis activity and allow for the reestablishment of homeostasis. However, abnormal neural
organization of the HPA axis and associated structures could result in manifestation of neuropathology later in life. In this
[abstract not available]




Animal Assisted Therapy, an interdisciplinary treatment involving nursing, medicine, psychology, social work, and
occupational, physical and recreational therapy, is a therapeutic approach that brings together animals and persons with
special needs (Barba, 1995). Over the past 2 semesters, I have broadened my view on this therapy, and opened others to
the benefits resulting from it. Not only do I wish to inform others about this often overlooked topic, but also to try and
influence more institutes to initiate such a program. Overall, I had two main goals for my St. Mary‘s Project. First, I hoped to
present Animal Assisted Therapy, its history, and its benefits. Second, I wanted to describe how a therapy program may be
introduced and discuss issues such as program requirements and concerns. I believe that helping nursing home residents
should be an important goal in our society. By presenting the benefits of AAT in nursing homes, I hope that others can
extrapolate these findings to other areas. With the help of background research and my own experiences, I wish to relate
[abstract not available]




This document examined the definitions of serial murder, profiling, and the typologies associated. The two typologies
organized/disorganized and the Holmes‘s System were analyzed and real life examples were given for each type listed. The
organized/disorganized typology is a simple dichotomy, where as the Holmes‘s system is very complex, classifying killers as
visionary, missionary, hedonistic, or power/control killers. For both of these typologies, advantages and disadvantages were
given. This paper also examined the history of serial murder in film and fiction, the development of these stories over time,
and compared the real life typologies with ―faces‖ of serial murderers in fiction. Finally, some film characters were analyzed
using these typologies. Many of the film characters have exaggerations, with very little association with reality. Overtime,
these films have moved from mythical creatures to more human forms of fear, but there is still a difference between these
killers and reality.
Fifty-eight students attending a small, liberal arts college participated in a study examining self-regulated academic goal
setting as a possible mediator in the relationship between personality variables (academic locus of control, optimism, and
neuroticism) and academic success (GPA and academic/institution satisfaction). Results showed classroom behavior skills
mediated the association between ALC and GPA while academic attention skills mediated the relationship between ALC
and academic/institution satisfaction. Also, ALC had a unique relationship with GPA that was mediated by classroom
behavior skills and a unique relationship with academic/institution satisfaction that was mediated by academic attention
skills. Limitations and suggestions for future research were discussed.
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that extrinsic motivation would improve the academic performance of
elementary school children with an external locus of control. Twenty-four children completed the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of
Control Scale (N-SLCS), and were randomly assigned to either a reward or no reward condition. Children in the reward
condition were given a small toy following an academic-like math task. There was no evidence that providing a reward to
children with an external locus of control improved their performance. Limitations of the study will be discussed.




Based on previous literature investigating the effects of stress, social support, and coping, it was hypothesized that athletes
having high stress, low social support, and less frequent use of coping behaviors would show the greatest injury severity. It
was also hypothesized that for this population, the use of instrumental support would be as effective as the use of emotional
support, and that athletes under greater stress would engage in more detrimental health practices, becoming injured more
severely. Athletes representing men‘s and women‘s basketball and lacrosse teams (N = 79) completed measures of stress,
social support, coping, and a health behavior inventory prior to the beginning of their season. Injury data were obtained from
the athletic trainers throughout the season. Instrumental support and emotional support singly predicted injury severity.
They also interacted with measures of stress and social support satisfaction to impact injury severity. Health behaviors
interacted with stress and coping, predicting greater injury severity. The hypothesis that high stress, low perceived social
The purpose of the current research is to examine the effect of victimization on social skills in women with schizophrenia.
This is a crucial question because social skills are prognostic of outcome in schizophrenia (Hyronemus, et al., 1998;
Bellack, et al., 1994). The sample consisted of women with schizophrenia who either currently meet criteria for substance
dependence or have a history of substance dependence. I hypothesized that a history of physical or sexual abuse would be
associated with poorer social skills. Moreover, it was predicted that those subjects who experienced abuse in childhood
would have greater social skills deficits than those who experienced adult abuse only, while both child and adult
victimization should result in the greatest deficits. Finally, I expected that a history of sexual abuse would be associated with
poorer social skills as compared to a history of physical abuse only, with the greatest degree of social impairment found in
those women with both sexual and physical abuse histories. Additionally, I expect that sexual abuse survivors will display
This paper addresses three main issues dealing with the topic of criminal investigative analysis. An overview of the subject
is presented, including the description of offenders, the process of profiling, and certain issues surrounding criminal profiling,
such as the organized/disorganized dichotomy and problems with validity. Next, the paper outlines my personal struggles in
trying to obtain criminal profiles and speculates possible reasons why they are not available to the public. Finally, I will
present a proposal for validity research, involving a comparison between aspects of a profile and aspects of an offender. A
critique of this hypothetical research follows, examining possible difficulties with the design.



The association between valence of superstition and mood was examined in 57 adults. Superstition was divided into
positive superstitions, those that foretell of good luck, and negative superstitions, those that predict bad luck. Previous
research has not looked at superstition in this way. It was predicted that positive superstitions would be associated with
higher levels of positive mood. While negative superstitions would be associated with higher levels of negative mood. The
predictions were not confirmed.




The prospective association between self-objectification and mood was investigated in undergraduate women. It was found
that women who viewed themselves from an observer‘s perspective reported higher levels of negative affect and depressive
sympatomatology as well as lower levels of positive affect. Self-objectification was also found to relate to a ruminative
coping style, and this style mediated the association between objectification and depressed affect. Finally, a subset of
participants viewed a video intending to lessen the pernicious effects of self-objectification. There was no evidence that this
video was effective.
The aim of the present study was to study self-reported delinquency and its relationships to personality and coping in a
college sample using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the COPE, and a modified version of the self-report
delinquency questionnaire from the National Youth Survey. Since both the Big Three personality traits and certain coping
styles are known to correlate with delinquency, an attempt was made to integrate the two literatures and test whether use of
these coping strategies mediates the relationship between the trait psychoticism and delinquency. The Big Three
personality traits showed associations with several types of coping. Psychoticism, but not extraversion or neuroticism, was
positively associated with delinquency. Coping styles, especially mental disengagement and substance use, were also
positively related to delinquency, and were also shown to mediate the relationship between psychoticism and delinquency.
Results are discussed in light of findings linking cognitive avoidance to negative affect and substance use to impaired
[abstract not available]




The ability to detect deception is a very useful skill to possess if one is in the law enforcement industry. Criminals,
specifically those with psychopathy, tend to lie in order to avoid criminal charges. It has been shown that individuals who
possess a high level of psychopathy can be expert deceivers. But, does this mean that because these individuals are good
at deceiving, they are also good at detecting deception? This question was investigated by exploring the relationship
between psychopathy and the ability to detect deception. One hundred twenty four students, acting as naïve raters, were
measured on the trait of psychopathy with the Psychopathic Personality Interview (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) and asked to
detect deceptive presentations of 60 individuals who had been videotaped - either attempting to deceive or telling the truth.
The results indicated that as the level of psychopathy increases, the ability to detect deception decreased significantly (r = -
.216, p = .016). Thus, those individuals with high levels of psychopathy were worse at deception detection than those who
Religion has been, and continues to be, investigated by the greatest empirical and metaphysical thinkers of the ages. Even
so, there remains a lack of consensus on the precise nature of religion and the religious experience. According to Freud,
―Religion is comparable to a childhood neurosis‖ (Freud, 1928, p. 353) while, Rudolf Otto the well known theologian said that
―Religion is that which grows out of, and gives expression to, experience of the holy in its various aspects‖ (Otto, 1958, p.
68). The prominent philosopher Immanuel Kant said that ―Religion is the recognition of all our duties as divine commands‖
(Kant, 1800, p. 31). As one can see these varying interpretations of religion remain a source of individual interpretation.
Although interesting, these definitions fall short of unifying all religions under one classification system. An alternate
approach to creating a constraining, all-encompassing set of definitions is to link all religions by a common and seemingly
shared factor - the transcendence of death (Becker, 1973). The one over-arching fact of life is the inevitability of death and,
The current study investigated whether a fear appeal could influence an individual‘s intentions to get the Human
Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Participants (N = 135) were randomly selected to receive either Pro-vaccination or Anti-
vaccination information on HPV and the HPV vaccine. The Pro-vaccination information included examples of a few of the
severe symptoms of HPV and on the high efficacy of the vaccine. The Anti-vaccination information presented samples of the
negative aspects of HPV and the HPV vaccine including side effects and its high cost. All of the information was derived
from publicly available sources and peer reviewed empirical studies. Results indicated that female participants in the Pro-
vaccination condition who had not yet received the HPV vaccine (n = 60) had a significantly higher intention to get the
vaccine in the next year as compared to the Anti-vaccination condition t (1, 58) = 2.073, p = .022. Additionally, participants
were equally aroused in each condition indicating that the Pro and Anti conditions had an equal emotional impact. The
Isolation-rearing of rats leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes including deficits in pre-pulse inhibition, locomotor
hyperactivity, and impairments in spatial learning. These behaviors are analogous to vulnerability to stress and cognitive
deficits in human schizophrenia. This experiment addresses the relationships between these three behaviors through the
use of acoustic startle, locomotor assessment in an activity chamber and a radial arm maze task. The hypothesis was that
animals raised in isolation would have greater PPI deficits, increased locomotor hyperactivity, and more difficulty completing
a radial arm maze task. These behaviors were hypothesized to be positively correlated with one another. The research
showed a significant increase in PPI deficit and difficulty in a radial arm maze task, but did not support the locomotor activity
hypothesis or correlational hypothesis.
Lithium is the only novel pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder; developing novel medications is inhibited by the
lack of a valid animal model. At therapeutic concentrations, lithium inhibits GSK-3, disinhibiting beta-catenin. Beta-catenin
overexpression decreases immobility in the forced swim test (correlated with depressive behavior) and amphetamine
induced hyperlocomotion (correlated with manic behavior), suggesting beta-catenin is involved in the pathophysiology of
bipolar disorder. A progressive beta-catenin knockout in male mice increased immobility time in the tail suspension test, but
had no effect in the forced swim test or hyperactivity. This study examined the validity of the knockout in female mice. The
knockout increased immobility time in the tail suspension test, but had no effect on the forced swim test, baseline activity, or
memory. While the current results do little to support the validity of this knockout as a model for bipolar disorder, further
study is required before dismissing it entirely.
Schizophrenic patients who achieve high levels of education prior to onset of psychotic symptoms have better prognoses
than patients who accomplished lower levels of education, suggesting that early cognitive stimulation may reduce symptoms
in adulthood. The present study assessed the effects of cognitive intervention in adolescence on disrupted adult behaviors
in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia in rats. Neonatal ventral hippocampus lesioned (NVHL) rats were trained in
an attentional set-shifting task during adolescence, which served as the cognitive intervention. In adulthood, rats were
assessed for behaviors known to be disrupted in the model, including prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response,
social interaction, novelty-induced locomotion, dopamimetic drug-induced locomotion, and working memory in the radial arm
maze. Lesioned rats performed worse in the working memory task than shams, as indicated by total errors. The
performance of lesioned rats that had received cognitive intervention, however, was markedly improved (p=.032). The
Environmental stress has been shown to play a significant role in addictive behavior in both animal models and in humans.
The present study investigates whether the stress of social isolation in adolescence increases measures of behavioral
sensitization to methamphetamine in adult rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared either in isolation (n=11) or housed
two to a cage (n=12) beginning in adolescence. At the onset of adulthood, rats were randomly assigned to receive either
methamphetamine (n=15) or saline (n=8), and locomotor activity was measured in activity chambers at baseline, over five
chronic days, and at a later test day. Results reveal that rats reared in isolation in adolescence do not exhibit higher levels of
sensitization to methamphetamine than non-isolated rats. In conclusion, the current study does not show that isolation
rearing increases sensitization to methamphetamine.

Different coping strategies were examined in the context of traumatic physical injuries. Strategies for adherence to
rehabilitation programs were also examined. These were studied through a literature review. Among the recurring findings
was that using internal attributions of control helps to reduce depression and leads to successful coping. Also, early
counseling and education regarding one‘s injury and possibly changed life situation should take place soon after the acute
phase of the injury to reduce stress and prevent distorted self-perceptions. The findings are further revisited in a section
which delivers advice to injured patients in many circumstances.



The effects of chronic A1 and A2A antagonists on spatial memory were investigated. Low doses of drug were administered
daily (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) for 6 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed by performance during Morris Water Maze (MWM) training
and probe tests. The results indicated that subjects that received the A1 antagonist alone tended to acquired memory
slightly faster than animals that received only A2A antagonist. Animals that received A1 antagonist or a combination of the
two adenosine antagonists retained spatial memory preferences longer than animals that received only the A2A antagonist.
This suggest that if adenosine antagonism of the A1 receptor is minor memory is enhanced rather than impaired even when
antagonism occurs over a long period of time. These findings suggest that these low levels of antagonism are enough to
effect receptor activation but not enough to produce long-term changes in receptor binding.

[abstract not available]
Studies have shown that an adolescent’s pubertal timing influences certain factors, like the likelihood of developing
psychological problems, engaging in delinquency, sexual experience, and self-concept. This study seeks to determine
whether pubertal timing influences personality, using the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness,
conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness). Participants completed a questionnaire measuring their perceived pubertal
timing and personality. They were then placed in one of three groups (early, on-time, or late maturers) and their scores for
each personality trait were totaled. A series of 2x3 ANOVAs (sex x pubertal timing) was completed to analyze the data. The
only significant main effect was for sex for neuroticism, with females being more neurotic than males. These results suggest
that pubertal timing does not influence personality.

The present study investigated nicotine‘s role in oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the
cerebrovasculature of rats. Specifically, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and
nitrotyrosine levels were examined in endothelial cells (ECs) of the basilar artery to investigate the role of reactive oxygen
species (ROS) in oxidative stress while proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was examined in vascular smooth muscle
cells (VSMCs) to investigate nicotine-induced promotion of atherosclerosis. This report found that nitrotyrosine levels were
elevated in rats treated with nicotine and given a withdrawal period of 7 days while PCNA levels were elevated in rats
treated with nicotine for 28 days. Discussed are the implications of these findings and the compensatory mechanisms of the
vascular system involved in the cessation of smoking/nicotinic intake.

Chronic stress and release of the stress hormones glucocorticoids (GC‘s) can cause learning and memory impairments.
Chronic binding of GC‘s is toxic to neurons of the hippocampus, the area of the brain involved in learning and memory. The
expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also suppressed in times of chronic stress. The decrease in
BDNF, a protein that supports the functional integrity of neurons, may be the key factor underlying stress-induced memory
impairments. Voluntary exercise by humans and rodents appears to enhance memory and increase the expression of
hippocampal BDNF. The current study investigated whether 2 weeks of voluntary exercise by rats would protect against
memory impairments caused by co-occurring restraint stress (1 hour per day). After 2 weeks of the stress condition,
exercise condition, stress and exercise condition, or control condition, the animals‘ non-spatial hippocampus-dependent
memory was tested using the novel object recognition task.Results showed only a positive main effect of exercise on
Females are diagnosed with anxiety disorders more frequently than males; however, the majority of animal and preclinical
drug research is done with only male subjects. This study aimed to replicate and extend previous research, which has found
evidence for sex differences, by examining sex differences and the effects of chronic diazepam (DZ) treatment on behavior
in the elevated plus-maze and neuronal activation as assessed by Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)
and the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA). Behavioral results supported the anxiolytic properties of DZ; however, did
not illustrate sex differences. Maze-evoked Fos results found evidence for laterality, as well a DZ influenced decrease in
activation, in both regions. Sex was found to interact with laterality in the MeA. Increased Fos expression was seen in the
MeA in females when compared to males. It is possible that the activation is due to the anxiety-inducing event more than the
animal‘s response to that event since no significant sex differences were seen in the behavior in the elevated plus-maze.
The locus coeruleus (LC) and the amygdala are two areas of the brain involved in anxiety. Benzodiazepines, such as
diazepam, decrease anxiety behaviorally. Histological data using cFos also supports diazepam‘s role in reducing anxiety,
through possible regulation by the LC and amygdala. It was hypothesized that a dose-dependent decrease in anxiety after
administration of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg of diazepam would be seen both on the elevated plus maze and open field after
repeated testing and on anxiety-induced cFos expression in both the LC and amygdala. No significant effects of dose were
seen behaviorally or in the number of activated cells, suggesting either these areas do not influence anxiety or that different
experiments are needed to see their effects.


The use of methamphetamine (METH) worldwide, in adults and adolescents, has led to increased research on the
neurotoxicity to brain regions and the cognitive deficits caused by METH. The current experiment focused on the effects of
METH on hippocampus dependent non-spatial and spatial working memory and hippocampal serotonin levels with an
escalating dose model of METH use in periadolescent rats. Using 18 male Spraque-Dawley rats, the novel object
recognition task and the discrete paired-trials delayed alternation task measured working memory and optical density
quantified serotonin found in the hippocampus. The effects on working memory and hippocampal serotonin were found to be
non-significant. Further research should utilize the escalating dose model to determine the developmental issues caused by
periadolescent METH use.
Sixteen rats were administered saline or an escalating dose of methamphetamine (meth) (3 days a week for 5 weeks,
increasing 1 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg at 1 mg/kg a week). Locomotor activity of meth-treated animals resulted in sensitized (activity
increased by 50% or more) and non-sensitized (activity did not increase by 50%) rats. Following a 4 week withdrawal period,
rats were tested for conditioned place preference to determine the rewarding properties of the drug when compared to food.
Additionally, rats were tested in a set-shifting task to assess cognitive impairment due to repeated meth use. Meth had no
effect on either test for any of the three drug groups (sensitized, non-sensitized and saline).



In an attempt to create a working model of Parkinson‘s disease that portrays the motor and non-motor features of the
disorder, the nociceptin/ orphanin receptor (NOP) potent agonist UFP-112 was chronically administered into the substantia
nigra pars reticulata (SNR). Previous studies have shown stimulation of the SNR NOP receptor decreases dopamine
transmission along the nigrostriatal pathway and induces parkinsonian-like motor impairments (Marti et al., 2004b).
Following placement of cannulas into the SNR attached to an osmotic pump containing UFP-112 or vehicle alone, both
motor behaviors and non-motor behaviors were assessed. Chronic stimulation of the SNr NOP receptor system regulated
the nigrostriatal pathway and induced motor performance impairments, but did not disrupt the cognitive and emotional
behaviors involved with Parkinson‘s disease.

Categorization is a cognitive task requiring objects to be generalized into and discriminated out of a category. Touchscreens
are touch-sensitive computer monitors shown to be useful in assisting with cognitive tasks in research. This study sought to
use a touchscreen to have rats categorize stimuli based on membership in the oval, rectangle, triangle or star category.
While none of the rats in the study successfully completed the shaping process to enter the next phases, the results from
the study do not contradict the likelihood that rats are capable of using a touchscreen for this purpose. With more time, the
rats in this study should have completed the shaping process and continued on to the proposed training and testing
methods.


Minor physical anomalies (MPAs), small aberrations in the development of one’s hands, feet, mouth, ears, head or eyes,
and neurological soft signs (NSS), impairments in motor coordination, sensory integration, sequencing of complex motor
acts and the presence of primitive reflexes, have been found to occur more frequently in those with schizophrenia compared
to those without a psychotic mental illness. This phenomenon provides support to the notion that schizophrenia is
neurodevelopmental in origin. A variety of factors, which may potentially dictate NSS and MPAs, have been examined in
conjunction with schizophrenia. Due to extensive methodological flaws and variations, findings pertaining to such factors
are, for the most part, inconclusive. The current proposal relays the results and shortcomings of previous literature, and
suggests an experimental design to eliminate possible confounds of antipsychotics and symptom severity in past studies
assessing MPAs and NSS in those with schizophrenia based on age of onset.
Drug addiction is regulated by dopamine pathways in the human brain. Based on developmental differences between the
adult and adolescent brain, it was hypothesized that adolescent and adult rats would respond differentially to treatment with
drugs intended for cocaine anti-abuse. It was hypothesized that flupenthixol would block place preference in rats, and would
be less effective in adolescent rats. Results show that rats demonstrated place preference, but found no differences
between adolescents and adults, or groups receiving saline or flupenthixol prior to testing. Flupenthixol suppressed activity
and movement, and had a greater affect on the suppression of movement in adult rats. These results suggest that
behavioral responses to dopamine antagonism are different in adult and adolescent subjects.


A dominant submissive relationship (DSR) was established by pairing animals in the straight runway tube task (SRTT) and
measuring their behavior for two weeks. Animals were exercised over a ten day testing period, during which DSR behavior
was measured. After the treatment period, behavior was measured during social interaction and compared to before the
animals were exercised. We were able to successfully establish a DSR by using the SRTT. Non-exercised pairs were
measured for c-Fos and the DSR established in the SRTT was determined to differentially activate the prefrontal cortex
(PFC) and not the amygdala between dominant and submissive animals. Even though some of the behaviors measured
during social interaction were influenced by exercise, dominance behavior was not significantly altered by exercise during
the SRTT or social interaction.
[abstract not available]




Hemispheric specialization of behavior has been demonstrated in many species, including humans, primates, rodents, fish,
reptiles, amphibians and avians. Previous research indicates that this is a developmental process influenced by sensory and
motor experiences during sensitive prenatal periods. Among the major sensory systems, the visual system is suspected to
play a role in the lateralization of organisms. In some avian species, postnatal laterality has been shown to be influenced by
prenatal visual experience. During incubation, the embryo‘s position in the egg exposes the right eye to more visual
stimulation than the left. The authors hypothesized that this orientation results in a difference between the chicks‘
developing hemispheres, producing a population right-side bias. This study exposed Japanese Quail eggs (N=85) to visual
stimulation during the latter stages of incubation. Tests of laterality were conducted in a Y-maze. A Chi-square analysis
showed a statistically significant right-side population bias in the group that received enhanced visual stimulus later in
Previous research using avian species has revealed the significance of prenatal sensory experiences on the development of
postnatal behavioral asymmetries. This study examined the effects of prenatal visual stimulus on postnatal behavioral
asymmetry in a turning task by Japanese quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The prenatal visual stimulus was
provided by placing a pulsating strobe above the incubating eggs during varied days of their final developmental stage. The
data analysis using a Chi-square analysis revealed a significant difference between the control and various experimental
groups. The findings support the hypothesis that prenatal visual stimulus can in fact effect the development of a lateralized
nervous system. The findings also suggest that there is a temporal and/or intensity factor effecting the likelihood of
producing a right-side population bias. Further research is needed to determine if both or one specific factor is more
involved in the process of hemispheric specialization.
Prenatal cocaine exposure has become more prevalent in the United States as the availability of the drug has increased.
Researchers have attempted to characterize a set of symptoms associated with fetal cocaine exposure. However, the
research has yielded no conclusive evidence indicating whether there is a set of symptoms specific to fetal cocaine
exposure. In this study, we evaluated fifty-four children exposed prenatally to cocaine, cocaine and other drugs, or non-
cocaine drugs. The children had been seen by a clinical neuropsychologist, Dr. Jim Lewis, and had been evaluated using
several test batteries. The children were identified retrospectively based on exposure status and referral by the department
of social services, as documented in the charts maintained by Dr. Lewis. We identified seven disabilities, including three
types of ADHD, four learning disabilities, and mild and moderate mental retardation. These disabilities were diagnosed
based on the clinical test batteries. Children in the polydrug and cocaine/polydrug groups were distributed across most of
This paper is an exploration of the different types of psychotherapy and their relation to one another. It examines the
development of the different branches of psychology and their corresponding techniques of and approaches to therapy. It is
argued that, because the therapies are derived from a specific theoretical orientation, there will be certain techniques not
present in the examination of a different kind of therapy. Lack of knowledge and access to the therapeutic techniques of all
major therapies is a problem in the field of psychology, as it prohibits therapists from providing the best possible treatment of
the client based on his or her individual needs. The development of these fields is examined and the need for integration is
discussed. Three case studies are examined to offer examples of integrative therapy techniques.


This project consist of three separate parts; a literature review, an informal interview with NBA Wizards guard, Caron Butler,
and a small empirical study of selected SMCM athletic teams. A literature review was completed on the history of
superstitions, approaches and issues regarding superstitions, superstitions in sport and the factors that influence
superstitious behaviors. An informal interview with a player from the Washington Wizards NBA Basketball team, Caron
Butler, was used to explore the elite level of sport competition and the role of superstitious behavior. Also, an empirical
investigation was conducted to examine superstitious behavior among St. Mary‘s College of Maryland Athletes. The study
examined the frequency and type of superstitious behavior among 93 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
Division III athletes. Questionnaires were administered to determine which types of superstitious behavior and how
frequently they occurred among six different sport teams; Women‘s Volleyball, Men‘s Basketball, Women‘s Basketball,
The focus of this analysis is the police officer and how stressful events that occur because of the law enforcement
profession can have detrimental effects on the officer‘s mental, emotional, and physical well-being. Discussed are two types
of stress seen in law enforcement officers, how poor coping strategies are sometimes employed, and how these impact the
officer‘s behaviors, family life, and potential to commit violence to self. Prevention and treatment programs for officers
experiencing difficulties are also covered.




The case history of one, now deceased, HIV+ male homosexual was detailed in order to unveil the effects of HIV on the
individual‘s psychological, social, and biological systems. Of particular interest was the individual‘s choice to conceal both
his homosexuality and HIV+ status from friends and family for the majority of his lifespan. The sociocultural development of
AIDS-related stigma was analyzed in order to reveal the mechanisms by which an individual may choose to conceal HIV+
status as well as homosexuality. It was found that the association of AIDS with homosexuality (along with sexual promiscuity
and intravenous drug use) has facilitated society‘s negative reactions toward HIV+ individuals, contributing to the
stigmatization of the disease. Nondisclosure of HIV+ status is thought to result from feelings of fear and shame that may
result from owning a stigmatized identity. HIV concealment was found to negatively impact the individual by reducing the
possibility for social and informational support, and contributing to depressive symptoms, social isolation, substance abuse,
Occupational stress was examined in the criminal justice system as a means of identifying the stressors experienced in the
field. Other factors such as the effects of stress and the resources provided to relieve stress were also examined. The
criminal justice system was chosen because it has various different types of jobs that can all be highly stressful. Correctional
officers, police officers, judges, and attorneys were studied to show how different positions in the criminal justice system
involve highly stressful situations that are not experienced in most other job fields. In order to study these positions a
literature review was conducted. In addition to this, interviews with individuals in the mentioned positions were also
completed to supplement the literature. Both revealed that although the positions have unique stressors, all are highly
stressful at times. The stress experienced at work is not addressed or dealt with in a healthy fashion, causing many negative
effects to the individuals and their employers. These results show that much needs to be done in the in the criminal justice
This study examined the role of race on the decisions of mock jurors. Participants read a case vignette describing the
physical assault of either an African American man by a Caucasian man, or vice versa. The racial saliency of the criminal
cases was also manipulated, thereby creating 4 experimental conditions. Participants were asked to return a verdict as well
as several other assessments of the guilt of the defendant. Participants also completed the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) in
order to factor individual levels of prejudice into the analysis. Results showed that African American defendants were rated
as guiltier and deserving of harsher punishments than Caucasian defendants regardless of racial saliency. Furthermore,
individual levels of prejudice as measured by MRS score were positively correlated with guilt ratings and harshness of
punishment ratings of the African American defendant. This study and others of its kind are useful in determining how large
a role racial issues play in legal proceedings and offer opportunities to learn how the effects of racial prejudices may be
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of sexual orientation and violence severity on perceptions of
intimate partner abuse, a form of domestic violence. The study also investigated how these perceptions were influenced by
anti-homosexual attitudes. Two self-report questionnaires were completed by undergraduate students (N=90) at St. Mary‘s
College of Maryland after reading a brief scenario of a domestic violence case. The scenarios depicted an incident of abuse
of high or low severity between a romantically involved heterosexual or homosexual couple. The results indicate significant
effects of sexual orientation and violence severity on several factors, including perceptions and certainty of defendant guilt,
perpetrator responsibility for the abuse, and recommended sentencing. Anti-homosexual attitudes were found to influence
these factors as well, along with perceptions of victim responsibility and sympathy for the victim of abuse. Implications for
future research, the criminal justice system, and public policies are discussed.
The functioning of six factors known to affect the efficacy of substance abuse treatment programs within a correctional
setting were investigated within the Walden Jail Based Substance Abuse Programs at the St. Mary’s Detention Center. The
programs’ procedures in terms of theoretical approaches to treatment, gender, criminogenic needs, inmate motivation,
program characteristics, and aftercare were examined. Direct observations of the group sessions gave insight into the
functioning of these features within the program. The counselor and all inmates enrolled in the Walden Jail Based
Substance Abuse Programs were present during these observations. Interviews with inmates and the counselor were used
to determine the influences of the programs’ features. Six inmates currently enrolled in these programs participated in the
interviews. Most of the features of the programs that were examined met the standards for what current research defines as
effective for substance abuse treatment in correctional facilities. Suggestions include addressing more criminogenic needs,
This paper analyzes alternatives to traditional psychotherapy. I first briefly describe some traditional approaches of
psychotherapy (including psychoanalytic therapy, Adlerian therapy, Rogerian therapy, behavior therapy, and cognitive
behavior therapy) and follow that with an in-depth description of complementary and alternative medicine as well as specific
approaches including yoga therapy, music therapy, pet therapy, qigong, aromatherapy, and acupuncture. Interviews were
conducted with professional yoga therapists, music therapists, a qigong master, and an aromatherapist. Important findings
from the interviews are reviewed. I continue with a discussion of some issues, concerns, and questions that are left
unanswered by the literature. Implications for future research and the future of psychotherapy are also discussed.


The purpose of this study was to learn about the common experiences that accompany the diagnosis of ADHD. There is
controversy over the disorder about whether or not it is over diagnosed, and about the dangers of the psychostimulant drugs
used to treat children. The currents study aimed to investigate the opinions of college students about these issues. Twelve
college students were interviewed about their experiences relating to ADHD, school, personal life, and treatment history.
The interviews were analyzes by content areas and common themes found within the responses. These included:
Symptoms, individual coping methods, teacher accommodations, parental support, parent-child relationships, social life,
attitudes about counseling, attitudes about ADHD, adjustment to college, and medication. Based on these themes, an
informational document was developed with suggestions for parents and children who are currently experiencing the
challenges of ADHD.
A survey was designed by the researcher to measure the stress levels and coping strategies of college athletes based on
ten different scenarios. The survey was distributed to 144 St. Mary‘s College varsity athletes, 58 females and 86 males, via
their respective coach. Results supported the hypothesis that there would be an effect of sex on stress levels. Data showed
that females reported higher stress levels than males. Data also showed support for the hypothesis that there were effects
of sex on coping choices, with males reporting more use of emotion focused and avoidance coping styles and females
utilizing problem focused and approach coping styles. Finally, data showed an effect of years of experience on stress levels
with fourth year students reporting less stress than second and third year students when dealing with academic problems.
There were also results which reported an effect of stress levels on the coping styles chosen to deal with the given
stressors. Thos athletes who reported higher stress levels were more likely to use problem focused coping while those who
Crisis and hostage negotiation, a discipline which has only become a reality in the last 30 years, has gained great popularity
in the law enforcement community in recent years. Negotiation teams are not only called upon to deal with hostage
situations but with suicide threats, crisis situations, and sieges.The history of such developments is explored in addition to
the current techniques of negotiation and their application.




The study examines the effects of juror perceptions of mental illness on judgments in a criminal trial. One hundred
undergraduates (87 female, 13 male) read a scenario consisting of two parts, a general description of a crime (the same for
all participants) and one of five condition specific sections consisting of testimony about the defendant and his mental state
(the defendant having either no mental illness, or one of four disorders: Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Antisocial
Personality Disorder (APD), or Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED)). The effects of specific diagnosis, juror perceptions of
the responsibility of the defendant for the crime, and juror perception of the dangerousness of the defendant, on juror
judgments were examined. Also, the effect of general attitudes about mental illness and knowledge about the disorders
involved is investigated. The results showed that disorder and responsibility have significant effects on juror judgments but
perceptions of dangerousness are not good predictors of any judgments included in the questionnaire. Furthermore,
In this work, I shall review the literature that assesses psychological and biological gender differences related to the
Feminist, Social Learning, and Sociobiological perspectives of rape, as well as Psychoanalysis. I also conducted a study
(which is contained in the contents of the Social Learning discussion) entitled, The Effects of Fraternity-like Membership and
Gender on Rape Myth Acceptance. Using the ―short-form‖ of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale (IRMA-SF) I compared
the degree of rape myth acceptance given by members of a fraternal-like organization to that given by a general St. Mary's
College population. I also assessed any gender differences between females and males within each condition (general
population and fraternal-like population) as well as between the total population of females and the total population of males.
From St. Mary‘s College of Maryland 120 students (57 male and 63 female) between the ages of 18 and 22 participated.
The findings from this study suggest that males are more accepting of rape myths than are females. However, the results
In this paper, I highlighted the fundamental philosophies behind the medical model and psychosocial model of viewing
mental illness and discussed the benefits and costs of taking each view in relation to both the individual and society. I
based my conclusions on published literature and personal observations. From these sources, I came to the conclusion
that one should be wary of the current shift that is taking place in how mental illness is viewed that is directed toward an
increasingly predominantly medical view. The main support I provide for this conclusion comes from evidence supporting
the existence of strong cultural and societal influence on the conceptions of mental illness and the assumption that the
conception of illness must be universal in nature. Thus, in showing that the conception of mental illness derives from social
influence, I argue that there is no universal conception of mental illness. Because of this, I argue that mental illness cannot
be considered an actual illness and, in turn, cannot be appropriately dealt with from the medical model.
In 1997 the Oregon Death with Dignity Act was implemented, legalizing physician-assisted suicide. The law stipulated that in
order to receive an assisted suicide, a patient must be terminally ill with a life-expectancy of fewer than 6 months. The law
also requires that patients who are to receive an assisted suicide have the requisite decision-making ability to do so. If a
physician is unsure of a patient‘s decision-making ability he or she is required to refer the patient to a licensed psychologist
or psychiatrist for a mental health evaluation. Throughout the law‘s existence the referral rate has been low and in 2006 only
4% of patients were referred for an evaluation. This paper presents an analysis of decision-making ability as it pertains to
patients who have requested assisted suicide as well as a new tool designed to help physicians determine what patients
should be referred for a mental health evaluation.

Survivors of mass violence and torture in Cambodia, Uganda, and Guatemala developed post traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD) as a result of trauma they faced during periods of national conflict. During 1975-1979, Cambodia faced mass
genocide, torture, and forced labor under the Khmer Rouge regime. The Mayan population in Guatemala was targeted by
the government and faced torture, disappearances, and murder during their 36-year civil war, and Uganda continues to face
torture and other mass human rights violations long after their most notorious ruler, Idi Amin Dada, lost power. To treat for
mental illness, including PTSD, native practitioners and foreign volunteer groups tend to use community based therapies
and incorporate indigenous healers into therapy sessions. Western treatment methods administered in the United States to
patients who have achieved or are seeking refugee status include drug therapy, but typically do not include indigenous
healers and community therapies. Further research should be conducted on the most beneficial and cost-effective
Provided within is an overview of domestic violence. A brief history is discussed, beginning in the mid 18th century, which
includes the major legal successes, such as the Domestic Violence Prevention and Services Act, and the Violence Against
Women Act. This paper attempts to provide readers with an understanding of various literature regarding the reasons why
men beat women, why women stay in abusive relationships, and what help there is for women seeking to leave an abusive
relationship. Also included are two interviews with people work with domestic violence cases on a regular basis, which gives
further insight into the issue.



This project focuses on the factors contributing to police-induced false confessions and provides suggestions to prevent
their future occurrence. Part I offers a review of the relevant literature on this topic, and Part II contains information gathered
from interviews with police officers. There are three categories of causes of police-induced false confessions: suspect
characteristics, interrogation characteristics and interrogator characteristics. Furthermore, there are many legal issues
surrounding permissible interrogation techniques and the admissibility of confessions evidence. In order to prevent future
false confessions, there are reforms that can take place within law enforcement, inside the courtroom and within the criminal
justice system. Finally, Part II includes information gathered concerning: training, determinations of guilt and innocence,
false confessions, Miranda issues, interrogation techniques, and recording interrogations.

The concept of child custody preference following divorce was investigated using a method of self-report survey analysis.
The generated survey consisted of three distinct parts, with ‗Part I‘ inquiring about sex, age, and parental marital status.
The 25-item ‗Part II‘ was completed if the participant had come from an intact family, whereas the 27-item ‗Part III‘ was
completed if one‘s parents had divorced. It was hypothesized that preferred living arrangement would differ according to
parental marital status while actual living arrangement experienced in childhood was expected to be associated with
preferred living arrangement in retrospect for those from divorced families. It was further assumed that those from divorced
families who preferred sole custody as the best living arrangement in retrospect would report a better relationship with their
mother than those who selected joint physical custody. The results indicated that those from divorced families did prefer a
sole custody living arrangement significantly more than those from intact families and that their actual living arrangement
Due to the reformation in juvenile transfer policies in the early 1990s, the purpose of the U.S. juvenile transfer system
changed from rehabilitative to punitive. As a result, more and more juveniles are transferred to criminal court and tried as
adults each year. Yet, many juveniles, especially the young, are incompetent to stand trial as adults due to their mental
immaturities, vulnerabilities, and reduced culpability. Such factors question their participation in the legal procedure and
fairness in the court. This paper examines data regarding serious violent crimes by juveniles, juveniles who commit serious
violent crimes, structure and criteria of juvenile transfer mechanisms, adjudicative competence and criminal culpability of
juveniles, and differences between the U.S. juvenile justice system and that of the Japanese juvenile justice system. Based
on the research, it is suggested that many juvenile offenders, especially the young, need rehabilitation rather than
punishment due to their impaired mental maturity and vulnerability. In order to rehabilitate them, assistance from legal
Community notification and civil commitment for sex offenders are both important and controversial issues in our country.
There have been many cases dealing with the legality of both of these issues. Also, there are many different psychological
aspects for both laws including a possible hindrance on rehabilitation and kinds of treatment for offenders. There is varying
evidence for the effectiveness of treatment, which can be utilized for civil commitment purposes or programs attended after
release from prison. There are several states that have either or both community notification and civil commitment laws,
which are listed in this paper. There have been many pros and cons outlined for both kinds of laws and there have been
many suggestions for changes in current policies.


The worried well are patients who are worried about their health, but have no medical illness. This population contributes to
the burden the healthcare system currently experiences by excessively visiting the physician and overusing available
resources. To reduce this burden, I proposed a worried wellness scale to identify this population comprised of four
components, including doctor-patient relationship, psychological illness, perceptions of self, and family medical history. In
addition, I was interested in identifying demographic characteristics and personality traits of this population. The factors that
emerged from the four factor solution factor analysis were similar to the proposed components of the worried wellness scale.
One component of the worried wellness scale did not correlate with the global worried wellness score, signifying that
participants’ self report of patient-doctor relationships does not help to identify the worried well population. Participants who
scored higher on the worried wellness scale were more likely to exhibit neurotic personality characteristics. The results
Racism, prejudice, and discrimination are still major problems within our society. Blacks are greatly disadvantaged in our
country. Whites control most of the power and money. This paper is designed to open up communication between the
races, break down the walls of fear and silence that have built up since the end of the Civil Rights Movement, and educate
the reader about the black perspective. To do this a discussion of vocabulary, research and black history are provided. It is
desired that the reader, at the end of the paper, feels educated enough to discuss race and racial issues as well as
empowered to join the fight for a true egalitarian society.



This study intended to observe the differences between students‘ self-esteem and delinquency levels. A sample of 12
learning disabled (LD) and 10 non-learning disabled (NLD) students were compared using the Rosenberg Self-esteem
Scale, the Delinquency Checklist, and a demographic questionnaire. The LD students received a questionnaire about their
disability and the NLD students were given a questionnaire about favorites. It was hypothesized that the LD students
diagnosed within the first two years of schooling would scored higher on levels of self-esteem and lower on levels of
delinquency that those LD students diagnosed recently, and that when compared to the LD students the NLD students
would do the same. The results showed no significant differences between the groups; however, differences in delinquency
did occur in the hypothesized direction.

This study examined the effect of VMBR on golf target accuracy performance. The participants N= 6, engaged in a target
accuracy pre-test, physical practice procedure, and VMBR procedure. A pre-test post-test design was used to evaluate
target accuracy over three trials. The relationship between imagery vividness, controllability, and target accuracy increases
was explored. Accuracy increased over the three target accuracy trials, but it could not be attributed to the use of VMBR. A
correlation between imagery ability and increase in target accuracy scores revealed a relationship that was not significant.
The confusion surrounding ADHD's definition, diagnostic criteria, etiology, assessment, and treatment can only be solved
through subsequent research. The definition of ADHD generally assumes three symptom areas, inattention, impulsivity, and
hyperactivity. ADHD's diagnostic criteria varies depending on which a person believes in. Etiology is generally looked at
across genetic and environmental causal factors. All of this impacts assessment, which generally involves observations
and/or behavior rating scales. Impact is still further witnessed in treatment. The current research set out to uncover the
usefulness of two behavior measures, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scale (BASC-PRS) and
the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. Parenting styles, permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative, were also assessed through the
Parental Personality Questionnaire. It was discovered that children with and without ADHD did differ across some behaviors
measured on the BASC-PRS and on all scores obtained from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. It was also discovered that
The first half of this study consists of a literature review investigating treatment plans and therapeutic techniques that should
be used on adolescents requiring psychiatric inpatient hospitalization. Factors affecting readmission, the length of stay, and
measuring outcome are discussed. Treatment approaches suggested by peer-reviewed literature including family
involvement, treatment of suicidal adolescents, those with anorexia nervosa, and those with drug use are examined. A
compilation of these suggestions is provided. The second portion of this study consists of interviews with two practitioners
from different psychiatric hospitals in Maryland that provide inpatient treatment to adolescents. They were asked questions
about background information of the hospital, admissions, readmission, treatment, activities, family involvement, discharge,
and quality. Themes were identified from the interview responses. Themes included an average length of stay of three to
seven days, readmission being a problem, treatment focusing on short-term crisis stabilization, and emphasis on group
The current researchers endeavored to ascertain the psychological and philosophical statuses of those individuals who
adhere to either a vegetarian or nonvegetarian diet. A sample of 141 participants was secured from various four-year
institutions across the Eastern United States. Participants were administered a battery of (predominantly) personality-based
inventories intending to assess variables such as Gender/Sex-Role, Philosophies of Human Nature (i.e., Trustworthiness,
Independence, Altruism), Neuroticism/Extraversion/Openness/ Agreeableness/Conscientousness, Self-Efficacy, Aggression,
Empathy, and Liberalism/Conservatism. Results indicate that Vegetarians are more Open, Agreeable, are better able to take
on the perspective of others, are more Empathic, and are globally more Liberal. The results tentatively suggest that
Vegetarians do not view others as Altruistic, and may possess higher levels of Hostility. The Results additionally indicate
that Nonvegetarians have higher levels of stereotypical Masculinity, are more Angry, and Physically, Verbally, and Globally
The influence of family interactions on the development of eating disorders was studied by questionnaire and interviews with
six college-age women with eating disorders. A comparison group of 34 women with no history of eating disorders also
completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire findings revealed no significant differences between the two groups of
women on the variables included in the questionnaire. The findings were not conclusive but suggested support for some of
the literature findings on family relationships.




With the use of past literature, a questionnaire was constructed to measure parental involvement dimensions of school
involvement, social monitoring, support and communication over three schooling periods: elementary school, high school,
and college. The questionnaire was completed by 137 students attending a small liberal arts college. The results indicate
that the different types of parental involvement do change over years of schooling. In addition, females report higher levels
of parental involvement on all dimensions, over all of the schooling years, when compared to males. Parental involvement
and academic achievement were not significantly correlated at the elementary and college levels, but all parental
involvement dimensions were significantly negatively correlated with academic achievement at the high school level. The
implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Two studies were conducted to assess the consistency of behaviors across the settings of sibling relationships and
friendships. The first study examined aggressive and prosocial behavior in preschool children using doll play sessions.
Results indicated that when in a prosocial situation, a child is likely to act in a prosocial manner, in an aggressive situation, a
child is likely to act aggressively, and in a neutral situation a child is likely to act neither aggressively nor prosocially. The
second study examined conflict resolution strategies used by undergraduate students with siblings and friends. Two
questionnaires were completed twice each, once about the sibling and once about the best friend. Results indicated that
similar conflict resolution strategies are used in the context of both a sibling relationship and a best friendship. Results of
the second study are consistent with results of the first study and provide support for the carryover model which predicts that
types of interaction will be the same across sibling and peer relationships.
A sexuality education program was provided to adults with developmental disabilities (DD) and their residential caregiving
staff to examine whether their sexual awareness and knowledge could be enhanced. A curriculum including a pretest
posttest design was developed, then modified for use with each of the two participant groups. Utilizing this curriculum, two
concurrent multisession programs were offered; one included twelve adults with (DD), the other targeted their caregiving
staff. A small N rendered statistical analysis of the staff program inappropriate. However, an ANOVA demonstrated that the
program did improve sexual knowledge of adults with DD, F [1,10] = 20.80. A T test showed that this groups‘ opinions and
values were also changed.


Because siblings are known to provide assistance to their brothers and sisters with disabilities, discovering what affects the
levels of caregiving may help us understand why some people will partake in caretaking responsibilities of their siblings with
disabilities and others will not. Participants included 100 St. Mary‘s College of Maryland students with a mean age of 18.20
years of which 26% were male and 74% were female. They received a vignette describing a hypothetical sibling suddenly
stricken with severe disabilities who needs daily caretaking. They completed a battery of surveys that included the Level of
Involvement Scale, NEO-Five Factor Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Scale of Attitudes toward Disabled Persons,
and a list of adult roles. Our analyses revealed: a preference for distal tasks (i.e., non-personal) over proximal tasks (i.e.,
personal), greater caregiving levels among females, and higher caregiving levels for siblings who were not going to live for
more than two years. The findings of this study and future research may reveal important information for adults who become
The behaviors associated with ADHD can cause many problems in the classroom. Detecting ADHD is integral to maintain
an environment conducive to learning. School psychologists assess children and plan interventions to eliminate negative
behaviors associated with ADHD. This study aimed to examine what behaviors are associated with ADHD and whether
those behaviors stand out in a classroom setting. It was hypothesized that children with possible ADHD would exhibit higher
levels of off-task behaviors and out of seat behavior and there would be grade level differences. Results show that children
with possible ADHD do demonstrate more behaviors as well as out of seat behavior but only out of seat produced a grade
level difference. Implications, limitations and future research are discussed.


Although inclusion has become a major focal point of the United States‘ educational system, there is relatively little research
available that clearly defines in what settings inclusion is most beneficial to all participants. This review of the literature
sought to determine how the success of an inclusive environment is measured, as well as the variables that influence that
success. Once the measures of success and possible benefits of inclusion in educational and recreational settings were
identified, factors necessary in the preparation, support, and instruction of an inclusive environment were used to suggest a
model for developing future inclusive environments. Overall, no common method of identifying success in inclusive
educational environments was found, nor was there plentiful methodologically sound empirical data regarding inclusion in
recreational settings.

Different sex education programs and curriculums were examined. The effectiveness of abstinence-only and comprehensive
programs was compared. Abstinence-only programs were deemed ineffective by existing literature while comprehensive
programs were found to be most effective at lowering pregnancy and STD rates among teens. A number of components and
topics included in many sex education programs were examined in detail and the wishes of parents and students in sex
education programs were discussed. An existing middle school sex education curriculum was critiqued and changed to form
the author’s ideal which includes more parental involvement, a teacher with a health background, and topics including
communication skills, obtaining accurate health information, and homosexuality. Recommendations were made for future
research in those areas.

This study analyzed the overall knowledge of ADHD of practicing teachers of St. Mary’s County Public schools in the state of
Maryland. Their knowledge of ADHD was compared to their attitudes towards students with ADHD and their self-efficacy of
teaching these students. The knowledge of ADHD was measured using a newly developed instrument while the attitudes
and self-efficacy were measured through a direct probe question. There was no correlation between the overall knowledge
of ADHD and attitudes or self-efficacy. However, there was a negative correlation (which was predicted) between attitudes
and self-efficacy. The results of this study were relatively similar to previous studies and showed the need for more
resources that have information regarding the treatment of this disorder. The discussion compares the results of this study
to previous literature and discusses the implications of these findings.
Attitudes towards people with disabilities and personality characteristics were studied in relation to satisfaction with a camp
experience and likelihood of returning to camp work in 32 female and 22 male experienced and inexperienced counselors
working at a summer camp for children and adults with disabilities. Results demonstrated that experienced counselors had
more positive attitudes than inexperienced counselors and that attitudes of inexperienced counselors actually became more
negative after the camp experience. Counselors with higher levels of agreeableness and openness as measured by the
NEO-FFI also reported more positive attitudes. With regard to turnover rate, participants that stated they would be likely to
return, did in fact significantly return more than participants that said they would not be likely to return. Also, participants that
had high SWB camp scores at all three time periods were more likely to predict returning. Lastly, participants who predicted
they would volunteer after camp also predicted they would be more likely to return to camp. The findings demonstrate the
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that is becoming increasingly prevalent in the media and in
diagnosis. People have very strong opinions about this disorder, and many of these opinions are developed from false
information. The present study examines knowledge, perceptions, and misperceptions of ADHD within three levels of
experience: undergraduate students, regular educators, and special educators. 39 undergraduate students, 161 regular
educators, and 35 special educators from the state of Maryland completed the Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorders
Scale (KADDS) that measured knowledge in three areas: symptoms/diagnosis, treatment, and general information.
Participants also rated themselves on their perceived knowledge of ADHD, and completed a biographical and attitudes
questionnaire. Participants scored were significantly higher on the symptoms/diagnosis subscale than they did on the
treatment and general subscales. Special educators scored significantly higher on both perceived and actual knowledge
Research suggests that teachers tend to hold negative attitudes toward students with special needs. This study investigates
the effect that special education labels have on the formation of these attitudes. A total of 147 3 rd, 4th, and 5th grade
teachers from throughout Maryland participated by reading a brief vignette about a student who is labeled either learning
disabled or mildly mentally retarded, who receives special education services but is not assigned a label, or who is normal.
After reading the vignette, teachers responded to 22 attitude statements regarding their feelings about the student.
Participants also supplied demographic information, including the amounts of training and experience they have had in
dealing with special education issues. Teachers‘ attitudes toward the normal student were significantly positive than their
attitudes toward the 3 types of students in the disability groups, none of which were significantly different from each other.
The amounts of training and experience the teachers reported had no effect on their attitudes. The results of this study
[abstract not available]




[abstract not available]




The United States is one of the few countries where bilingualism is not a common practice. With increasing rates of
immigrants from all over the world, it is essential to understand how being bilingual affects learning in the classroom. This
paper analyzes recent research pertaining to second language acquisition, the critical period hypothesis, two-language
systems, bilingual literacy skills, and current suggestions for handling bilingualism in the classroom. I believe that it would be
beneficial for all students to have early exposure to a second language, and propose methods of doing so.
Cancer and type 1 diabetes are two chronic pediatric illnesses that complicate lives of children, families, and friends. Sick
children experience physical changes to daily activities and health routines at home and school. These changes, combined
with limited social exposure, cause behavioral and emotional problems, especially at school. To avoid maladjustment,
children and families must adjust and cope with changes in positive ways. This review and analysis of published literature
and methodologies examines characteristics of cancer and type 1 diabetes, explains implications of these illnesses on sick
children‘s lives, explores coping strategies for such changes, and discusses effective ways to conduct research in the field.
Limitations of this project include oversimplification of similarities between illnesses and lack of empirical support.


BE SAL U.TA-ma AMA-su I-zir. This phrase, meaning ―If a woman gives birth and the infant rejects his mother‖ was carved
into ancient Mesopotamian medical tablets (Gillberg & Coleman, p. 1). This simple phrase has led researchers to believe
that autistic behaviors have been observed disturbing people of every race, religion, and social class for many centuries.
However, even though the behaviors have been present for such a long period of time, it was not until 1943 that Leo Kanner
presented the official diagnosis: autism.




[abstract not available]




The current study examined the human ability to recognize sex and activity in biological motion. Observers were nine female
and seven male undergraduate students. Point-light displays of four male and four female actors performing biking,
overhand throwing, underhand throwing, and walking were created. Observers viewed the point-light displays and made sex
and activity judgments regarding the displays. Using multiple mixed-factors ANOVAs, the results revealed effects of actor
sex, activity, and view on sex judgments and an interaction between the three variables. Factors that may have contributed
to this finding include differences in biological structure and lateral body sway between sexes and social constructs held by
the observers.


Biological motion displays were presented to 18 naïve participants in two experiments. The first experiment used between 1
and 11 different colors to attempt to disrupt the grouping of the dots of the biological walker. The second experiment used
lines, as opposed to dots, in between one and eight different orientations also in an attempt to disrupt walker grouping. No
significance was found between any conditions of either experiment when d‘ scores were analyzed. This would suggest the
ability to group biological motion dots into a human-like figure is stronger than anticipated and not easily disrupted.




Point light displays sufficiently convey enough biological motion information for naïve observers to interpret motion cues as
human without any interference from structural cues. Even the more specific characteristics of sex and emotion of the
actors are accurately recognized from such displays. The aim of this study was to see if certain emotions were recognized
better than others, if actor sex influences emotion perceived or vice versa, and if the other emotion in the interactive point
light display influences either emotion or sex perception. Congruent emotions (such as happy and sad or angry and scared)
were perceived more accurately when performed in the same display. In addition, sex judgments were based on emotion;
males were identified with the emotions angry and happy, while females were identified with the emotions sad or scared.
Children‘s experience of bereavement is different than adults‘ due to differences in cognitive abilities, support systems, and
understanding of death itself. Bereaved children typically experience physical, emotional, and behavioral problems, although
active participation in the experience through self-reflection and emotional awareness can help prevent these problems from
becoming clinical or chronic. The present study investigates how dream themes (anxiety) and characteristics (distortion and
goodness of recall) differ in bereaved children (loss group) versus non-bereaved children (non-loss group). The researcher
met with each participant twice. The researcher distributed dream journals in order to aid dream recall at the first meeting,
and then conducted a recorded interview. Loss group interviews were conducted in their homes, non-loss group interviews
were conducted in their school counselor‘s office. Interviews were transcribed and coded. The results indicate that bereaved
children experience more anxiety, particularly more mutilation anxiety, than their non-bereaved peers. There were no
Motion-induced blindness (MIB) is the apparent invisibility of a static stimulus when viewed with a moving pattern. In some
cases, the static stimulus is not entirely invisible, but instead appears faded. I hypothesized that total faded time would
increase as invisibility decreased. Static dot size was used in Experiment 1 to manipulate invisibility time. Experiment 2
involved the critical comparison of one large static dot and four medium sized dots plotted in the same area as the large dot
to determine whether suppression was based on object or area. Experiment 1 provided evidence that static dot size does
significantly influence invisibility time but not fading time. Results from Experiment 2 suggest that suppression may be
influenced by objectness, not area.


Templer‘s Death Anxiety Scale has proven internally valid and reliable in measuring death anxiety. Previous research has
shown a wide range of disagreement as to how death anxiety should be measured and what thoughts and behaviors are
related to death anxiety. The current research addresses this controversy by investigating factors likely to be related to
death anxiety to determine what factors are of interest.One hundred and forty-seven students at St. Mary‘s College of
Maryland completed a 49 question survey designed to measure experience with death, anxiety, personal habits, and
pseudoscientific/supernatural beliefs. Factor analysis showed seven factors accounted for over 58 percent of the variance.
There were seven significant correlations, including correlations between experience with death and anxiety, anxiety and
personal habits: life-threatening, and sex and anxiety. The results showed that the more experience with death a person
has, the more anxiety they will exhibit and that the more experience with death a person has, the less likely a person will be
In this study three major themes were observed: adolescents‘ ideal body image for each sex, their own body image, and
their self-esteem. The participants were first-year college students and they represented a small portion of adolescents.
Each participant was given a series of drawings and the Rosenberg‘s Self-Esteem questionnaire. The new lineup of images
is a redrawing of the Stunkard, Sorensen, and Schulsinger (1983) Stunkard Body Image Scale. The new drawing had six
figures that ranged from very thin to obese, with the exception of the males bodies which were more muscular. The new
body scale labeled the male images 1 through 6 and the female images A through F. There was a uniform ideal body image
for males (Body Image 3 and 4) and females (Body Image C, with recoded both Body Image C and D). The females own
body image was larger than her desired ideal body image. The males own body image was not smaller than the ideal. Males
identified that medium images (Body Image C and D) to be the ideal, and the females chose Body Image 3 as ideal. There
The self-medication hypothesis states that socially anxious individuals drink alcohol to alleviate anxiety symptoms and
facilitate social interaction. The purpose of the present study was to examine this self-medication hypothesis and determine
its effect on the drinking habits and social-avoidant behavior of socially anxious individuals. A total of 80 undergraduate
college students completed self-report measures of social anxiety, alcohol consumption, and alcohol expectancies. In
addition, participants responded to multiple hypothetical scenarios designed to measure anxiety relief from alcohol across
various degrees of anxiety-producing social situations. Socially anxious participants reported more frequent alcohol
consumption and greater anxiety relief from alcohol than did non-socially anxious participants. Socially anxious participants
were also more likely than non-socially anxious participants to report that they would avoid social situations when alcohol
was not available. The present results indicate that socially anxious individuals do in fact perceive alcohol as an effective
The Defining Issues Test is a measure of moral judgment. Studies have been conducted to determine if the DIT measures
political attitude, if the DIT can be faked in an upward direction, and what the effects of education about moral development
may be. In an effort to see if the DIT can be faked in an upward direction, education about the DIT, as well as instructions to
fake a higher score based on a stereotyped political attitude were used in this study as variables. There were a total of 60
participants drawn from a small liberal arts college who completed the entire study by taking the DIT-2 twice and undergoing
an educational intervention. Thirty-four participants were females and 11 were males. At the second administration of the
DIT-2, 9 participants were randomly selected as the control group and took the test a second time with no additional
instructions or education. Thirty-six of the participants were involved in an educational session that described the stages of
moral development and the test that measures the use of those stages, the DIT. After the session, 19 of those 36
Are we paying attention to what we watch on television? The present study examines the accuracy of content recalled from
ten different national news broadcasts, focusing on the retention of news content by 140 students at St. Mary‘s College.
Participants answered three questions from each broadcast. The most accurately remembered broadcast involved a report
on tax scam email (part of the participant‘s domain knowledge), and the least remembered broadcast involved a topic
outside of participant‘s domain knowledge, the Chief Executive Officer of Dubai Ports World. Results indicate a floor effect,
several explanations are given for the variance in content recalled concluded by a discussion of limitations and suggestions
for future research.


One hundred twenty-eight participants diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) completed the condition-specific
Multidimensional Health Locus of Control assessment (MHLC form C) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression
inventory (CES-D). Subjects were courted via bulletin board message on arthritis support groups (www.arthritis.org;
www.rheumorweb.com) to participate in a study about health locus of control and rheumatoid arthritis. Additional
demographic data were collected: gender, sex, age, and age at onset of RA, as well as the patient‘s perceptions of the
overall severity of illness, current severity of joint pain, and efficacy of medication regimen in controlling disease on a 1-10
scale. Principal components analysis was conducted to verify the existence and consistency of the four previously identified
sub-categories of the condition-specific MHLC. A stepwise linear regression was run on the four locus components [Internal,
External, Doctor, and Other (Powerful) People] to test their value in predicting depression scores. The belief in control of
The purpose of this study was to discover whether attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, gender, familial prevalence, or
socioeconomic status (measured only by means of the level of education acquired) were associated with nocturnal enuresis.
 Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis within the respondents, the perceived experiences at home and in school, self-esteem
levels, and interventions used for participants who experienced primary nocturnal enuresis were also considered. Results
are indicated with some old information being confirmed and some new information being related. A descriptive analysis of
the data revealed that 38 (25.2%) of the 151 participants responded yes to having had or presently experiencing nocturnal
enuresis. Most nocturnally enuretic participants (63.2%) responded as receiving no treatment for their enuresis. Of the
remaining participants who did receive treatment, only four responded as the treatment received was beneficial in
decreasing their enuresis. A chi-square analysis showed that sex had a significant effect among those participants with
A study was conducted to determine attachments relation to ego identity formation. Factor analysis revealed two factors for
attachment: Anxiety, Close. Factor analysis also revealed two factors for ego identity: Exploration and Commitment. A
correlation analysis was conducted where attachment‘s relationship to ego identity formation was determined. Anxiety as a
factor of attachment was shown to be related to ego identity formation. There was no significant difference seen between
men and women therefore they were not analyzed separately in the correlation matrix.




Victims of domestic abuse are often blamed for the situations they are in due to people‘s ignorance, attitudes, and
misconceptions about spouse abuse. The present study considers possible factors that influence how much a victim is
blamed. The effect of participant gender, sex-role attitudes, and victim sex on blame attributions and acceptance of abuse of
both male and female victims of spouse abuse was investigated. Because males are traditionally viewed as the stronger and
more masculine sex, they were predicted to attribute more blame for being victimized than the female victims. One hundred-
ten undergraduate students completed a questionnaire consisting of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, six spouse-abuse
scenarios, and a blame questionnaire. A statistical analysis revealed that participant gender and victim sex had a significant
effect on both blame attributions and acceptance of abuse. Contrary to predictions, traditional sex-role attitudes did not have
a significant effect on blame or acceptance.
The therapeutic community (TC) is a residential program that uses a self-help social learning approach to treat individuals
with substance abuse and co-existing disorders. Following an overview of the history, treatment approach, and research
conducted to evaluate traditional and adolescent TCs, a case study of an adolescent TC in Töpeln, Germany is presented.
Daily life in the community and the reasoning behind how the program is run is described and critically analyzed. The
program’s success is also demonstrated through personality inventory score changes and information gathered by the
author in informal interviews. Based on the reviewed literature and the presented case study, it is concluded that although
many of the therapeutic aspects of TC treatment are not understood, the social, caring environment and structured lifestyle
are fundamental to the positive influences adolescent TCs have. [Includes DVD recording of documentary film "Parceval :
an adolescent therapeutic community."]
Current preventative and remedial interventions in the lives of the frail elderly and poor increasingly rely upon social
psychological quality of life (QOL) measurements. Essential to the assessment of life quality is the accurate identification of
the major predictors or determinants within a given population. In an effort to support evidence-based interventions, this
study examined the potential elevation in subjective QOL associated with an improvement in objective housing condition.
Content analysis of qualitative research interviews was used to identify the relevant QOL determinants for a sample of low-
income, elderly homeowners. Specific life domains were selected, and their support in previous QOL literature is discussed.
Determinant and overall subjective QOL were measured quantitatively in a scale administered cross-sectionally to several
groups associated with a housing renovation organization. Principle components analysis (PCA) revealed several coherent
factors for comparison with the theoretical determinants. Previous recipients of home improvement reported greater
In today’s society, interracial relationships are still perceived and evaluated negatively. The current study focuses on sex,
race, self-esteem and age attitudes toward racial fear and racial equality on interracial dating preferences. Participants
numbered 420; 300 were Caucasians and 64 were other races including Latinos, African Americans, Asians, and Native
Americans. Males were 75 and females were 289, and their ages ranged from 7 to 47 years old. A regression analysis failed
to reveal that sex, race, self-esteem and age are predictors of racial fear and racial equality in interracial dating preferences.
Implications and future research are discussed.



This study aims to analyze the developmental impairments associated with women growing up in father absent homes. This
will entail gaining a greater understanding of the historical and societal factors that influence our views of marriage, the
family system and parent/child interactions. The analysis of parent behavior, child temperament, parent/child relationships
suggest that parents influence our social and cognitive development. A woman‘s relationship satisfaction, fear of intimacy
and her social competence through assertion and dating are assessed in this examination of father absence; in addition, to
an investigation of age on outcome. This study used a sample of 195 undergraduate women aged 18-25 to complete an
online survey. This survey includes Thelen‘s fear of Intimacy scale, The Hendrick Relationship Assessment Scale and the
Dating and Assertion Questionnaire. A Univariate Analysis of Variance was used to investigate significance on each of these
variables. Results revealed that the woman‘s age at the time of the initial father absence showed no significant differences
This study was designed to compare first and fourth graders‘ relationships to their teachers in terms of attachment,
interpersonal connection, and dependence. Participants included 19 first graders (7 male, 12 female) and 16 fourth graders
(10 male, 6 female). It was hypothesized that first graders would be more attached than fourth graders, fourth graders
would be more connected than first graders, and girls of both ages would be more attached and connected than boys. A
factor analysis of the data revealed the created measure had three factors: lack of interpersonal connection, difficult child,
and dependence. No significant differences were found on any factor. The limitations of the study as well as the
possibilities for the future are discussed.


The sexual double standard is defined as an inconsistency in socially acceptable sexual activity for males and for females. A
sexual double standard was demonstrated solely in participants’ views of the target’s self-esteem and female participants’
views of the target’s responsibility. A reverse double standard was supported for ratings of target intelligence. For goal-
orientedness, respectability and responsibility a single sexual double standard was supported. The hypothesis that female
participants would rate the female target significantly more harshly than male participants was supported for both
responsibility and self-esteem. Male peers were trended to be more forgiving over all, supporting the hypothesis that
participants will perceive lower ratings from female peers.


Prior research has shown that cancer diagnosis can have a significant effect on psychosocial functioning. Young adult
cancer survivors (especially survivors of childhood cancer) display unique psychosocial characteristics, coping styles, and
difficulties. Prior research has found that cancer patients experience some stigma, although this stigma is often more
positive than stigmatized views experienced by other groups. Research also suggests that people with chronic illness may
be more empathetic and open to others. Thus, this study was designed to test stigma and attitudes in young adult survivors
of childhood cancer compared to other young adults. The researcher compared young adults‘ social acceptance of
hypothetical peers with cancer or depression. The researcher also examined whether status as a cancer survivor or as a
friend/relative of a cancer survivor impacted social acceptance. Results showed that young adults are significantly more
accepting of hypothetical peers with cancer as opposed to peers with depression; participants who had been diagnosed with
Ever since the passage of the ADA in 1990, those providing services to the public were required to be cognizant of disabled
individuals or face possible legal action. Deaf mental health services have been an area of considerable need for decades
despite ADA regulations. An evaluation of resources and services shows the psychological community is doing a poor job
of addressing the needs of the deaf and hard-of-hearing. Specialists and interpreters are lacking nationwide, especially in
rural areas. Future suggestions are numerous, but must include community services with qualified individuals to be
efficacious. As the baby boomers age, they will increase the need for the number or deaf/hard-of-hearing services like
never before. The psychological community will soon be unable to ignore the needs of the deaf. Only time will tell what
direction mental health services for the deaf and hard-of-hearing will take.

The present study examined acceptance/rejection of individuals with various degrees of depression (clinical, situational, or
no depression). This study also investigated how the gender of the target, the gender of the participants, and participants‘
sex-role beliefs influenced participants‘ reactions. Participants (62 women and 47 men) completed a BEM Sex-Role
Inventory, read 6 passages reflecting levels of depression, and answered a 13-item questionnaire (measuring
acceptance/rejection) after each passage. The data, analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA),
indicated that participants rejected individuals with clinical depression more than those with situational or no depression.
Although there was a trend for men to be rejected more than women, there was not a significant effect. Nor was there a
significant effect for rejecting the same-sex more than the opposite-sex. The results did show a significant main effect for
sex-role beliefs.
Researchers studied 10 players of the developmental role-playing game Mithral Quest, aged 6-13, 9 males and 1 female.
Participants were administered the Piers-Harris Self-Concept survey twice. The pretest was held at a gathering of Mithral
Quest participants. The posttest was held 1 week later following roughly 3 hours of Mithral Quest participation. Differences in
the pre and post game versions of the Piers-Harris were not significant. A licensed psychologist observed Mithral Quest and
provided her notes on the session.




It is widely acknowledged that there are social factors that influence women differently than men. How these differences are
manifested in a specific college environment is the focus of this exploratory study. Three main issues are under
investigation: sexual scripts and the double standard; body image and attractiveness; and achievement related issues.
Interviews were conducted with 8 college women and 2 college men to pinpoint issues perceived as critical in college
women's lives. A questionnaire based on the information yielded from the interviews was developed and administered, in
conjunction with the Stunkard Body Image Scale and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, to 183 college students. Exploratory
analyses revealed significant sex differences for a variety of variables, including, but not limited to, the sexual double
standard, sexual scripts, and body image discrepancies.

Peer victimization is a severe problem in schools today, creating extreme maladjustment in those children targeted.
However, not much is known about the long-term effects of peer victimization in youth. In the current study, the researcher
examined the long-term effects of victimization with attribution type as a mediator in 133 participants, aged 18 to 30. It was
hypothesized that higher levels of characterological attribution and recalled teasing would predict a lower GPA, higher levels
of negative affect, and lower levels of positive affect. Data were collected online through three different surveys and
demographic questions. Findings suggested that attribution type and teasing history did not predict GPA, positive affect, or
negative affect. This study has implications for future research and the understanding of the long-term effects of peer
victimization in youth.

The researcher investigated the relationships of parents‘ perspective of their bipolar children‘s disorder, family cohesion,
family conflict, and parenting style. Parents completed three surveys assessing the level of family cohesion, family conflict,
and type of parenting style as seen from the parents‘ perspective. Results supported multiple hypotheses: (1) Parents of
bipolar children are more likely to experience higher levels of family conflict than those without; (2) Parents of bipolar
children are more likely to have higher ratings of over-reactivity than those without; and (3) levels of family cohesion, parent
style, and family conflict interact.
[abstract not available]




The relationship between divorce/separation status of parents and children‘s academic behaviors was studied. Using a
population of kindergarten, first, and second grade children, ages 5 through 8, the Behavior Checklist (Teacher‘s Report
Form) was given to teachers to fill out on children randomly selected from their classrooms. After all checklists were
completed, the divorce/separation status of parents was placed on the checklist. T-tests were performed on divorce status of
parents and gender, along with ANOVAs on all sub-scales of checklist. Divorce/separation status of parents was found not
to be significantly related to any academic behaviors except social problems. Divorce status by grade interactions were
found with anxious/depressed behaviors and social problems. Males were found to have higher mean scores for attention
problems, aggressive behaviors, and other problems.

The present study examined whether controversial information that conflicted with an undergraduate student‘s previously
held religious beliefs would alter or change those beliefs in any way. The study also investigated whether an emerging
adult‘s life satisfaction was related to their change (or reluctance to change) their religious beliefs. To test a participant‘s
religious beliefs information about an early form of Christianity known as Gnosticism was presented. Participants consisted
of 59 St. Mary‘s College of Maryland students who were asked to read the information and report their religious beliefs
before and after its presentation by using the Short Version Christian Orthodoxy Scale (Hunsberger, 1989). Participants
were also asked to report their life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Griffen & Larsen,
1985). The findings showed that the presentation of information about Gnosticism did not effect religious beliefs and that life
satisfaction scores were correlated with a change in religious beliefs at a near significant level. Since religion plays such an
[abstract not available]




St. John‘s wort (SJW) is a popular herbal supplement commonly used as a self-prescribed treatment of minor depression. It
is possible that the general public using it may not know its intended use or may be using it for other purposes. 58 male and
99 female St. Mary‘s College students were surveyed. Most were familiar with SJW, 16% had used it, and 66% knew that
people frequently used it for depression. An empirical study of SJW created animal models of depression to examine the
efficacy of SJW against a control and compare it to the known antidepressant imipramine on a series of behavioral tests.
During a six-week testing period, each animal performed the open-field-hole-board, black and white box, tail suspension,
and forced swim tests. One group received a daily oral dose of SJW (250mg/kg body weight) mixed with food to mimic the
oral method of administration among humans. A second group received imipramine hydrochloride (30mg/kg body weight)
i.p. prior to each behavioral test once a week. A third group served as the control. SJW was significantly better than control
The present study investigated the role of the agranular insular cortex (AIC) in the expression of positive symptomatology
and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm of acoustic startle was used to assess
positive symptomatology, specifically involving deficiencies in sensorimotor gating. Cognitive impairments, including
working memory deficits and perseveration in particular, were assessed with an 8-arm radial maze task, requiring working
memory for spatial location at 3 delay conditions. Results indicate intact (PPI) in lesion animals, thus suggesting that the
AIC does not provide a modulatory role for the regulation of PPI. Additionally, the AIC does not appear to subserve working
memory function. Given both of these results, the role of the AIC in schizophrenia has not been substantiated. However,
limited evidence exists for the role of the AIC in planning and executing behavioral strategies.
Cocaine sensitization is the process whereby a sub-threshold dose of cocaine, given intermittently and chronically, becomes
more and more potent. The amygdala is crucial to the development of cocaine sensitization. Lesions to the amygdala
prevent cocaine sensitization. Through the amygdala run many NMDA glutamate connections. As well as lesions, AP5, an
NMDA antagonist, put into the amygdala prevents the development of cocaine sensitization. Following logically, the author
thought that it would be intriguing to ask, if these NMDA pathways in the amygdala were blocked, would cocaine
sensitization develop? As a pilot study, our laboratory studied the effect of cocaine sensitization interaction on another
behavior known to be modulated through the amygdala the acoustic startle response. It was found that startle amplitudes
increased with repeated administration of cocaine sensitization. The present study investigated whether or not blocking the
NMDA receptors would prevent cocaine sensitization of startle. Animals received either sterile water injections, the NMDA
The purpose of this study was to examine the sources through which individuals attain their knowledge of drugs. The
accuracy of this knowledge was then tested using a short quiz. Two groups were then formed from the participants, a DARE
and a NoDARE group. These groups were then compared. Findings show that the DARE group reported more lifetime use
and relied more on their peers for knowledge, as compared to the NoDARE group. Performance on the quiz was not
significantly different between the groups suggesting 1.) problems with the quiz itself; or 2.) DARE was not successful in
providing accurate information above and beyond other possible sources of knowledge. The perceptions of drug use were
exaggerated for all drugs, with the exception of alcohol.


[abstract not available]




People with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show specific difficulties on tests of vigilance and sustained
attention, but most animal models of ADHD emphasize impulsivity rather than sustained attention. One exception is the
work of Puumala et al. (1996) using the 5-choice serial reaction-time vigilance task. They proposed that poor performers
are a valid model of ADHD. These animals performed most poorly toward the end of lengthy sessions. Methylphenidate
(MP), a psychostimulant frequently prescribed for ADHD, increased performance of poor performers, but was not
administered during the longest sessions. The current study investigated Puumala et al.‘s model, looking especially at the
effects of vehicle (normal saline), 0.5 mg/kg MP, and 3 mg/kg MP. Without MP, discriminative accuracy was negatively
correlated with premature responses. Methylphenidate caused a dose-dependent decrement in performance. Animals that
performed well showed the greatest performance decrement, whereas poorer performers showed either no decrement or
The ability of cocaine sensitization to induce a failure to habituate was explored. Subjects were male albino rats. A chamber
with two distinct and separated halves was used in conditioning. Conditioning consisted of cocaine (10 mg i.p.) being
exclusively paired with an environment in one group (n= 14). Vehicle was exclusively paired with an environment in another
group (n= 6). A final, cpp like group of animals received cocaine pairings in one environment and vehicle pairings in the
other environment (n= 8). After 7 20- minute long pairings, all animals were presented with both chambers. The chambers
were adjoined and separated by an open doorway. For all groups, but the cpp group, one chamber was novel. Cocaine did
not produce robust cpp. Vehicle animals avoided the novel chamber. Animals with a cocaine history did not distinguish
novel from cocaine paired environments. Animals receiving cocaine exhibited more robust sensitization in the drug paired
environment. Data suggest environmental distinctions in sensitized animals were due perseveration, not conditioning.
Behavioral sensitization is thought to be augmented by classical conditioning to a test environment. This idea was explored
by creating two groups of rats that were given the same acquisition schedule for cocaine sensitization, however, one group
received their dose of cocaine (10mg/kg) paired with the test environment, and one group received their cocaine in their
home cages. Each group was then split and challenged after a 3-day drug washout with either vehicle or cocaine in the test
chamber. Paired vehicle control animals demonstrated higher levels of locomotion and rearing over controls. Head bobbing
was only significant in paired group. Thus all behavioral measures were influenced by classical conditioning. Levels of
tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme were studied in the paired and unpaired group as a measure of DA activity in the ventral
tegmental area, caudate, nucleus accumbens and cortex. Levels of TH found in the caudate of vehicle challenged animals
was similar to those found in the cocaine challenged animals, indicating that perhaps DA levels do increase in response to
Within the past several years, education has moved from a very pencil and paper oriented ideology, to a more practical life
philosophy. In the education of students elementary through high school age, assessment is now more often performance
based rather than the traditional standardized written exams. Among the myriad of performance based assessments
available to educators, are portfolios. These showcases of student work, allow individuals to express themselves through
their achievements and long-term growth. Whether following the student from kindergarten through graduation or used as a
culminating senior project, portfolios are unique. This outlet for school performance provides for a different, more
personalized view of the individual and the meeting of predetermined goals. A logical extension of this type of assessment of
students is a similar assessment of educators. Although assessment tools, such as the National Teacher Examination, give
a background check on individuals entering the field of education, they do not assess beyond that point. Until recently, there
The current study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of Asher's (1969) Total Physical Response (TPR) method in
second language acquisition (SLA) in young students. The study took place in two first grade classrooms in a bilingual
school in Heredia, Costa Rica. The hypothesis stated that TPR, a comprehension based approach to second language
acquisition, will be more effective with an instructional approach to second language acquisition when used with young
children than the traditional grammar based instructional approach. In the current study first grade students in the
experimental group will improve their scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) significantly more from pretest
to posttest than the first grade students in the control group who have been taught using the traditional grammar based
approach. The study was based on a quasi-experimental pretest/ posttest design. The results indicated that the increased
scores from the pretest to the posttest for the experimental group was significantly greater than the improvement in the
The two theories tested in this study were the Terror Management Theory (TMT) and the matching hypothesis. The goal of
this study was to determine which theory better predicts the importance of physical attractiveness in developing a potential
long-term relationship. Some studies have revealed that relationships serve as a buffer against the anxiety of death, and
when placed in a mortality salient condition, people will compromise the ideal level of physical attractiveness they want in a
potential mate. Other researchers claim that a matching of physical attractiveness is what occurs between romantic partners
when considering each other as a potential mate. The results of this study did not support the TMT. However, matching was
found to occur in college students‘ considerations for a potential mate.


Anger has become an increasingly prevalent issue for young children in today‘s society. Research conducted by Kenneth
Dodge (2002) and his colleagues suggests that in every social situation there is a cognitive process that every individual
unconsciously experiences, which Dodge labels the Social Information Processing Model. According to this model, social
information processing appears to occur in six steps, namely, encoding, interpretation, goal setting, strategy development,
strategy evaluation, and enactment of behavior. Dodge and his colleagues suggest that when a step in this process is
skipped or is misinterpreted, excessive anger or aggression may result. In order to help young children learn to properly
process social information to prevent anger and aggression, an anger management curriculum, which includes activities and
programs focused on reflection, meditation, physical activity, social skills training, physiological awareness, and positive
reinforcement was developed for use by teachers, counselors, and administrators, with first and second graders.
Obstacles to palliation and pain management for Hospice patients receiving care in the facility and home setting were
examined. Thirty-one prospective participants enrolled in the hospice program of St. Mary‘s county were evaluated and
considered for participation. Due to ineligibility, rapid physical and mental decline, and death, the focus of the study
transitioned from empirical to exploratory. This review identifies areas of palliative care where improvements are necessary,
specifically the transition from curative to palliative interventions, psychological, spiritual, and pain management for the
patient and family prior to death, and the cooperative effort of Hospice in facility settings. Challenges associated with
conducting end of life research with vulnerable populations are delineated and suggestions for overcoming these obstacles
are provided.

The aim of the current study was to determine the relationships of sex and self-esteem on risk-taking behavior from a terror
management perspective. Terror management theory states that when an individual is reminded of their inevitable death
they will be struck with terror and anxiety. To defend against the terror and anxiety and individual will use their worldview
defense and their self-esteem. The current study made participants aware of their inevitable death through mortality salience
or participants were in a control condition. The dependent variable of risk-taking behavior was measured through a self-
report. The results of the current study showed that participants who have a higher self-esteem will endorse risk-taking
behaviors on a sensation seeking scale because participants with higher self-esteem are more confident in their abilities.
However, further research should be done concerning terror management theory on risk-taking behavior; in order to, find
reasons to why people engage in risk-taking behaviors.
The emotional response to athletic injury and the impact that athletic identity, social support, injury severity, pain, type of
sport, timing in season, and gender have on the emotional response were investigated. Participants were varsity athletes
from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland; 199 healthy athletes participated in phase 1 of the study and 27 of those athletes
participated in phase 2 of the study following an athletic injury. Phase 1 questionnaires were collected before athletes began
their sports season to measure athletic identity, social support, and current mood, in addition to other demographic
information. Phase 2 questionnaires were collected within 72 hours of an athletic injury, and again at one-week intervals
until the athletes returned to play; the questionnaire measured athletic identity, social support, current mood, injury severity,
type of injury, pain, and timing in season. Analyses did not reveal any significant findings between mood disturbance and
athletic identity, social support, injury severity, pain, timing in season, and gender; some significant findings not
Rates of depression are rising in adolescents. Adolescent depression is strongly linked to perceived social support. The
increase in the prevalence of adolescent depression presents several concerns because of the negative outcomes
associated with the disorder. Using existing research a program has been designed to use group activities and discussion
as a means to increase the participants‘ ability to receive and benefit from increased levels of peer social support. Based on
the assumption that improving an adolescent‘s perceptions of and actual peer social support will act as a protective and
preventative factor in regards to depressive symptoms it is possible that this program may help to prevent and decrease
depressive symptomatology in the participants.


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the psychological cue of confidence on the second and fourth
stages of the self-fulfilling prophecy by demonstrating that a coach‘s impression of athlete confidence predicts coach
behavior and athlete performance. This hypothesis was tested with one coach and 13 Division III collegiate swim team
participants. Mid-season, the coach completed an overall expectancy rating and a trait sport confidence scale for each
participating athlete. At the end of the season, athletes completed a measure assessing the frequency of specific coaching
behaviors, and a trait sport confidence inventory. Performance information including percent of improvement over the
season and percentile rank among participating athletes at a conference championship were collected. Step-wise linear
regressions showed that the coach‘s perception of the athletes‘ confidence was the strongest predictor of athlete recall of
positive and negative coaching behaviors such that as the coach‘s confidence impression increased, the athletes‘ recall of
The study and awareness of self-mutilation by educators dealing with teens is important because of the increasing
incidences among adolescents and even if self-mutilation is without suicidal intent, it can still cause long-term damage to the
body (Zanarini et al., 2006). Education on the matter is the best defense for self-mutilation prevention (Izutsu et al., 2006;
Berne & Huberman, 2000). The purpose of this study was to provide extensive background research on self-mutilation as a
tool for middle and high school faculty and staff members, and to develop educational materials to aid schools in educating
themselves, their students, and the parents and guardians.



Adolescent drug use is a common problem in today‘s society. Many programs have tried to combat the ever-growing
problem, some with very little success (Abbey, 2000; Donnermeyer, 2000; Ellickson, 2003). Factors such as family
influence, peer choice, as well as the media‘s role in shaping adolescent perceptions need to be taken into account for such
programs to be effective (Bauman, 1994, 1996; Dinges, 2003; Jenkins, 1996; Kandel, 1996; Stephenson, 1996; Tickle,
2001; Windle, 2000). The inclusion of parents in prevention programs also greatly influences the efficacy of such programs.
The program proposed in this study uses the aforementioned factors as a foundation in order to make the most effective
drug prevention program possible.


Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, developmental psychologists have observed an increasing number of
developmental stages in a person‘s life in societies where that has been considerably affected by industrialization. A
significant new stage that became apparent is emerging adulthood. This period last between the ages of 18-25 and is a
common time for those in a broad socializations to explore many different aspects of life including love and work and to
finish creating their unique identity. This new developmental stage has been a cause of an increasing trend to delay
marriage. Postponement of marriage until a person completes the emerging adult stage and forming his/her identity may
lead to more successful and long lasting marriages for future generations. However, the changing trends of emerging and
young adults in attitudes towards marriage need to be continually researched and addressed as a society.
Social anxiety was studied with regard to academic performance of 100 students at a small college in Maryland. Previous
work suggested a potential link between the two aspects. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale was used to assess social
anxiety among participants. A background questionnaire requested information on GPA, likes and dislikes of the school
atmosphere, and classes with majors, along with level of extra-curricular participation and amount of pressure felt to
succeed academically. Differences between those with and without social anxiety were apparent for pressure felt to
succeed, disliking participation requirements, and rating lack of social options as a drawback of the school. Correlations
existed between social anxiety and pressure felt to succeed, amount of extra-curricular participation, and ratings of disliking
participation requirements, small class sizes, and lack of social options at the college, along with ratings of enjoying
engaging discussions, and knowing people who currently attend the college or did in the past. Implications for this study
Internal factors such as perfectionism and external factors such as media were looked at as predictors of body image in
elderly and college aged women. Participants were given surveys to assess body esteem, perfectionism levels, and media
exposure. An experimental group was also given a packet containing photographs of thin models. Results suggest that
perfectionism is negatively correlated with body esteem in both age groups. The media manipulation (exposure to a booklet
containing images of thin models) also had a negative effect on body esteem in both age groups, lending support to media
cultivation theory. Older women were found to have higher body esteem than young women. This result is discussed in term
of social comparison theory.


The purpose of this study is to explore whether or not there are differences in personality traits between people with body
modifications and people without body modifications on the IPIP; to see if a clear predictor variable for whether or not a body
modification will be obtained will emerge; and to see if people without body modifications perceive the description of the
person with body modifications significantly differently than the other descriptions, as well as to see how stigma affects their
perception, on the Perception Scale. It was hypothesized that there would be no personality differences for neuroticism
between people with and without body modifications; a clear predictor variable would emerge; and the description of the
person with body modifications would, as a result of being more stigmatized, be perceived significantly differently than the
other descriptions. Results indicated that there were no significant personality differences between people with and without
body modifications on the IPIP. As a result of this, no significant predictor variables emerged. Finally, the description of the
In the first section of this paper, I describe the most popular theories concerning bargaining and the decision-making
process and the corresponding bargaining personalities. This will be followed by an examination of the factors, which can
alter and be used to manipulate a person‘s bargaining behavior. The third section of the paper will analyze if the social
constructs of personality, gender, age, and culture have any influence over bargaining behavior. The various empirical
studies discussed will provide a scientific framework and will support or contest the validity of the various negotiation
theories. I will also relate the current empirical research to the three current leading texts on the subject; Robert Mnookin's
Beyond Winning: Negotiating to Create Value in Deals and Disputes (2000); Roger Fisher and William Ury's Getting to Yes
(1983); and Herb Cohen's Negotiate This! (2003), in order to formulate a conclusion on the most effective bargaining
strategy.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality and color preference in a laboratory setting
and in real world applications. Experiment 1 consisted of 25 college students (age range=18-24) that were given the
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Eysenck & Eysenck, 2001) and a color preference test. The results of this
experiment revealed a significant correlation between color preference and personality. Experiment 2 consisted of 25
participants in the community (age range=14-60) who had a room painted for them in the color of their choice prior to
testing. The color was given a value using the Munsell Book of Color (Munsell, 1929) and participants were also given the
personality and color preference test as in Experiment 1. Results from Experiment 2 indicated no significant correlation
between color and personality in real world applications. Conclusions from the two experiments reveal there was a
significant correlation between color preference and personality in a laboratory setting and there was not a significant
The current study sought to explore differences between honors program participants and non-participants in academic self-
concept and exposure to good practices of learning outcomes at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland, a small liberal arts college.
Currently enrolled students completed the SDQ III which is comprised of 13 subscales of self-concept (including an
academic subscale). Using the college‘s Office of Institutional Research data, differences in educational experiences
between honors and non-honors senior students and alumni were explored. It appears that honors program participants
have more positive academic-self concept than their non-honors peers. Participants tended to be exposed to some aspects
of good practices of learning outcomes more frequently than their non-honors peers. Possible effects of program
participation and other explanations and implications are discussed.
Straight Edge is an adolescent subculture that formed in reaction against pressures to use drugs and partake in
promiscuous sex. There is very little research on this group, but evidence suggests that they are very different from
normative abstainers from deviant behavior. The current study examined the risk and protective factors of 23 members of
the Baltimore area Straight Edge population and compared them to 43 members of a comparison of students at St. Mary‘s
College of Maryland. The propose of the study was to determine whether Straight Edge participants differ significantly from
normative drug abstainers, or if they more closely resemble drug users, but are protected by a desire to maintain their
personal freedoms and rebel against drugs. Results suggest that Straight Edge youth are high in psychological reactivity
and other risk factors for drug use, and mush less conformant that non-Straight Edge abstainers.

Young adulthood is the time when depression is most prevalent among young adults. Because of this reason, it is no
surprise that college students are at high risk from depression and psychological distress. College students suffer at
increasing numbers compared to their peers that are not undergraduates. It is disputed whether these levels have been
increasing over time, but regardless it is important to consider the role of college counseling centers in supporting their
students mental health. College students often suffer from psychological health and do not seek treatment for it. This
literature outlines the potential reasons for the lack of students that seek psychological treatment. These include fear of
treatment and stigma, ethnicity, gender, emotional openness and competence as well as self-disclosure and self-
concealment. Because of the findings of this literature review, two projects were completed. These are an informational
website on the topic of various therapies as well as an informational brochure.
Social aggression is defined in this study as behavior aimed at hurting a person‘s feelings, relationships, reputation, or self-
esteem, and can be manifested directly (in the presence of a target) or indirectly (behind their back). The present study
used content analysis to evaluate the prevalence of aggressive acts that occurred in popularly viewed television shows by
adolescents, as determined by the annual Teen Choice Awards. Eighteen hours of television were coded for social versus
physical aggression, direct versus indirect aggression, and male versus female aggressors and targets of aggression, with
all categories overlapping. Group size and specific types of social aggression were analyzed, with verbal aggression being
the most commonly used form. Social aggression appeared in 100% of the data sample, whereas physical aggression only
appeared in 7% of the cases. Gender failed to be a significant factor in social aggression; group size, and number and type
of responses. Further studies investigating gendered aggression are proposed.
[abstract not available]




Bibliotherapy is a useful therapeutic technique used in conjunction with traditional therapy that is applicable to a wide variety
of diagnoses and situations. The incorporation of fictional literature utilizing factual representations of psychological
disorders in therapy targeting children provides a creative and less threatening outlet for therapeutic progress to occur.
Literature addressing the effects of a diagnosis of autism within a sibling relationship serves as a source of educational
material for the public about the disorder as well as a therapeutic tool for children in similar circumstances.




The following study evaluated the relationship between client growth and an increase in premature terminations. The study
was conducted through the implementation of the ―Client Satisfaction Questionnaire‖ (CSQ-8) ( Larson, Atkinson, Hargraves
& Nguyen, 1978), one open-ended question, and background data obtained from client files. The subjects in the study were
38 public health services clients who terminated treatment prematurely. Although the present study was unable to show a
main effect with regard to client terminations and level of satisfaction, the study did reveal that the majority of clients that
terminated therapy did so do to financial reasons.
Mentoring is a highly important task to take on; it requires tremendous dedication and time. This paper looks at the
importance of mentoring and its personal meaning to the writer. In addition, a general overview of mentoring is given to help
provide a better understanding of this helping mechanism. Understand the general terms such as: mentor and mentoring,
effective communication and population are discussed in depth to give the reader a general view of what takes place in any
type of mentoring program. The overall purpose of this project was to demonstrate the importance of mentoring minority
youth and the detail the distinct difference between mentoring minority youth in comparison to other youth. To do this
African-American youth were used as a catalyst to express this view. Two mentoring programs dedicated to mentoring
minority youth were interviewed and surveyed so to analyze the individual programs. In conclusion, the two programs were
compared and used as tools to further stress the importance of mentoring African-American youth through incorporating a
Aggression and violence among the nation‘s youth is becoming an ever more significant issue, especially to young people
themselves. Recent identification and examination of social aggression among female adolescents has sparked a new
interest in aggression during the adolescent life period. This literature review examines definitions and typologies of
aggression as well as gender differences among its expression during adolescence. It briefly describes and evaluates three
more conventional theories of aggression, as well as a more recent theory of aggression proposed called Dominance
Theory. Suggestions for future studies with respect to adolescents and aggression are discussed as well as a specific
prevention program for schools.


This study contained 24 participants who were categorized into two groups, athletes and non-athletes. There were 12
athletes and 12 non-athletes. Participants completed a demographics questionnaire and two dream report sheets collected
at different time periods. Dream report sheets were collected at a preseason and midseason time period. Data were
analyzed using the Whitman et al. (1961) Motility Scale and the Wood (1961) Activity Scale. The researcher hypothesized
that athletes would contain greater motility and activity in their dream contents than non-athletes. The researcher believed
athletes needed more mental preparation due to their sport. Results showed that there was no significant difference
between motility and activity between athletes and non-athletes.


Left-handedness is a topic that has a wide variety of implications for psychological research. Through a review of the
literature, the current study attempts to synthesize the theories and findings that have accumulated over years of research.
Assessments, causes, and consequences of laterality are discussed, and suggestions for future research are made.
Consequences include implications for a person‘s health, cognitive capacities, sexuality, and belief systems, among other
things.




My project looked at how clothing effects the first impression of a stranger. There were six different clothing conditions, suit,
skirt, sport, grunge, goth, and average. Each participant was given one photograph and a list of 27 adjective pairs to be
ranked on a 7 point Likert type scale. Significant results where found in eight of the 27 ANOVA‘s and one of four factors
found had significant data in it. The results showed interesting reactions to a modest tank top as well as three of the four
factors were very similar to factors found in the NEO.




It has been said that the problem with today‘s youth is that there are not enough caring adults in their lives to provide the
guidance and support that is necessary for children to reach their full potential. Children are also faced with many other
stresses in today‘s society; homes where there is substance abuse or domestic violence, poverty, poor education, lack of
supervision, the negative influences of the media, etc. Big Brothers Big Sisters of Southern Maryland, Inc. (BBBS)
ameliorates those stresses on children by providing volunteer mentors who help to broaden children‘s resources and
confidence. Many of the children in the BBBS program come from single parent homes, where they have experienced
abandonment by the absent parent, who are not usually positive role models. [from introduction]
Communication facilitates the creation, preservation, advancement, and utilization of knowledge. However, there are many
people in society who have difficulty communicating and require aid from speech-language pathologists (SLPs). SLPs
assess, treat, and help to prevent speech, language, cognitive communication, voice, swallowing, fluency, and other related
disorders. It is important for concerned parents to ask their child‘s healthcare provider for a full evaluation as well as a
hearing test. If a child has a speech-language delay, the child may have future academic and/or social difficulties. This
paper explains the importance of speech-language pathologists in the school system and intervention strategies used by
these therapists. As well, it includes possible precursors of speech delay, the diagnosis procedures used to identify children
with speech impairments, and helpful tips that parents can use to help their child speak clearly.

This literature review focuses on the behavioral treatment of children with autism. Reviewing the most known and used
behavioral treatments such as ABA, VBA, and TEACCH. Some interventions are coupled with supplemental treatments and
sensory and motor interventions. An in-depth look at the similarities and differences that each intervention has to each
other, as well as which intervention seems to work best for children with autism.




The author interviewed seven lucid dreamers ages 18-21. All participants were asked a series of 24 open-ended questions
about their lucid dreams. Questions dealt with quantity of dreams, emotions, elements of control, effects in waking life, and
meaning. Transcripts of interview were then assessed according to Hill, Thompson, & Williams (1997). Researcher wanted
to do qualitative assessment of dream content to get full understanding of dream experience.




Chances are that there is more than one person that you know that has gone through some type of divorce or separation, or
has had to deal with single-parenting, remarriage, or the emergence of a new stepfamily unit (whether it be a stepfather,
stepmother, or stepsiblings). The fact of the matter is that divorce has skyrocketed in the last 20-30 years, has plateaued
recently, but is still on an upward trend. Nowadays 50% of all marriages are likely to end in divorce, and these percentages
are between 55%-60% for the United States (Amato, 1994). Amongst those currently divorced, 75% will involve children,
and 60% of these that involve children result in single-parent families (Hetherington, 1988). In addition, 1/3 of the children
that experience their parent‘s divorce will experience their remarriage as well, and even more alarming is that 62% of these
remarriages appear destined to end in divorce too (1988). Equally as distressing is that those remarriages that involve
children from previous marriages are at a 50% higher risk for dissolution than those remarriages that don‘t involve
The purpose of this literature review was to examine research about how children with autism view friendships, and to use
this information to create a book for children with autism. There are a few main areas of research this paper centers around.
These are: the problems children with autism face, how these problems could be related to cognitive behaviors, how
children with autism view themselves, how children with autism view friendships, reading comprehension of children with
autism, different interventions that are helpful for children with autism, and the effect of bibliotherapy on children with autism.
Bibliotherapy was found to correct negative social behaviors of children with autism, so the idea of bibliotherapy was used
for the completed children‘s book. The main theme in the book was that children with autism can have friends and that
friends should accept and celebrate each other‘s differences. The book, called ―My Friend David‖ is included in the appendix
of the paper.
In the past, researchers have noted that a main focus in early childhood is on the development of gender roles and gender
identity. Although social interactions and exposure to popular media sources have been shown to provide a basis for this
gender role development, children’s books have been considered a powerful influence as well. In the present study, a
collection of 71 children’s picture books were analyzed for gender representation and emotion stereotypes. All examined
books were awarded either the Caldecott Medal or Caldecott Honor award, making them top-selling picture books. It was
anticipated that overall female presence and female main character presence would increase in the illustrations and text of
these books over the years. In addition, it was hypothesized that, with time, female characters would be associated with
fewer emotion words and male characters with more emotion words. All hypotheses were unsupported. In the case of these
award-winning books, male characters continuously outnumbered female characters in terms of visibility, or explicit
Youth sports participation has been a topic of great concern in terms of its benefits. The purpose of this paper is to take a
closer look at the research investigating the effects of sports participation on a youth population. The psychological,
emotional, social, and intellectual benefits of sports participation are all reviewed, revealing sport has the potential to offer
positive outcomes for participants. Following the literature review, the research focusing on sports participation is evaluated,
outlining issues with quasi-experimental designs and problems arising from not having a control group. An outline of a sport
program that has the potential for the most psychological benefit to participants is included as well as suggestions for
designing research that will provide a better indication of the actual affects of sports participation on a youth population.


Autism is shrouded in the public eye as a mysterious disorder in which communicating with diagnosed individuals is near
impossible. The goal of this review is to take some of the mystery out of autism and present the dynamics and variability of
the spectrum of social symptoms, neurological correlates, and behavioral therapy that consumes both the individual and his
or her family. The information presented is the foundation of a supplementary [documentary film] entitled Seeing Eye to Eye:
Autism, Therapy and the Family and is an attempt to give a wider audience an appreciation for the intricacies, struggles, and
triumphs involved in living with autism.



In the life of an individual, he or she will be subject to new experiences and new environments repeatedly but, it is the first
major transitional experience into a new setting which can be the most troublesome to a child. When preparing a child to
endure a transitional experience into a new setting, caregivers should keep in mind the importance of the child‘s
temperament, the parent-child attachment relationship, parenting style, and the environment, which the child would enter.
Particularly, the day care (or preschool), school, and clinical settings are found to have criteria for what make a good
environment. Although the environment of the new setting is important to the transition, a child may have some underlying
conflicts with the situation. In order to communicate his or her feeling about the matter, children who do not have the
motivation or verbal competence to talk out the problem can act out the problem through play. Play can serve as therapy for
almost any child in almost any situation. Although play therapy may not be effective for immediate results, it does in fact
Violence against women is a real problem in India. This paper looks at the societal, community, relational, and individual
factors which contribute to the abuse of Indian women. A plan for a women‘s center to help ameliorate this problem is then
developed, and limitations thereof are discussed.




This study investigated the effects of different incentives on the recruitment of participants for an online student
questionnaire. It also examined whether participants in the different incentive conditions differed in social self-esteem. Of the
potential participant pool of 300 individuals, 100 in each treatment condition, a total of 101 participants responded to the
recruitment e-mail and 91 of those participants fully completed the Social Self-Esteem Inventory (SSEI) and Texas Social
Behavior Inventory (TSBI). Findings supported the primary hypothesis that the mention of incentives in the recruitment email
was not independent of response rate. Specifically, it appears that extra credit was more effective in recruiting participants
than either entry into a lottery or no incentive. The secondary hypothesis was not supported, as participant social self-
esteem scores were not found to differ among treatment conditions. These results extend previous literature, as the majority
of previous research only uses monetary payments or lotteries as their forms of incentive. This study also suggests that
The present study looked at the impact of an ostomy on self esteem and assertion as it deals with dating and sexuality on
77 participants with ostomies. There are many major physiological and psychological difficulties that the presence of an
ostomy can create. The desire for dating and sexuality can be complicated by concerns about ones body image. A person‘s
self-image as it relates to relationships with others has been highly studied; however, in the population of ostomates, there
is significantly less information provided dealing with the sometimes difficult physical changes and their impact on self-
esteem and dating. The study was done through an internet questionnaire, including two measures, the Dating and
Assertion Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and two narrative questions relating to positive regard for
the ostomy and dating. The results demonstrated that there is no relationship between the number of years since ostomy
formation, age and self esteem, dating and assertion. It was also found that there was no relationship between ostomy type
There is a dramatic rise in the number of nontraditional students, over 24 years of age, entering colleges and universities.
The nontraditional student is often married, with children and/or a job. Many of these more mature students confront stress
and strain related to multiple roles, student demands, financial obligations, and nonconformist peer status. Research has
demonstrated that social support may buffer the stress encountered by the nontraditional student. In this qualitative study,
10 nontraditional students attending a small public honors college were interviewed about their college experiences.
Results indicated experiences varied among the participants by age and gender. Married females with children reported the
most stress related to multiple roles, and the least amount of family support. Students closer to the traditional age reported
stress related to their student status, but not multiple roles. They also indicated the greatest amount of social support.
Males reported more family support than females, and the least amount of stress related to the number of roles. A social
Interactive Personality is a new theory of the self that focuses on our interpersonal interactions as the defining component of
who we are. This paper outlines the foundation, structure, and function of Interactive Personality, the first official outline of
this theory. A discussion of Interactive Personality‘s connection to existing theories and constructs in psychology includes
classic theories of personality, Higgin‘s Theory of Self-Discrepancy, and Festinger‘s theory of cognitive dissonance. A
progress report on a study designed to test the reliability and validity of a basic measure of Interactive Personality is also
included, followed by a discussion of general conclusions of the theory and possible avenues of further research. Overall,
this paper is designed to serve as a foundational paper upon which research testing and expanding of Interactive
Personality may be conducted.

Initiation rites have been prevalent is society for thousands of years. Research has also shown an increase in the mount of
athletic hazing as well as fraternity hazing. We would like to see whether or not there is a relationship of athletics hazing on
a small liberal arts campus. We hypothesized two main things: firstly those athletic participants will acknowledge a more
common scenario of hazing than not athletic participants. And secondly that in respect to gender men will acknowledge
hazing more than females. The results showed no significant interactions for either hypothesis, however there was an
extremely small sample size obtained that could have been responsible for the lack of significant results.



The statistics between the United Sates and Europe in terms of teen pregnancy, STD and HIV/AIDS rates for youth differs
dramatically. This literature review explores possible reasons of why the United States holds the highest rates for these
issues over any other industrialized country, namely, through the difference in sexuality education of Adolescents. Pervious
research found that while all sex education programs are affective in decreasing teen pregnancy, STDs and HIV/AIDS, the
United States lacks in providing comprehensive sexuality education programs for youth, when compared to Europe.




This study examined various correlates of lucid dreaming ability and dream recall frequency. 55 people (45 females, 10
males) from the St. Mary‘s College of Maryland psychology subject pool completed a questionnaire that sought to examine
the most enigmatic qualities and determinants of lucid dreaming and dream recall frequency. A one-way ANOVA confirmed
the hypothesis correlating DRF and dream salience. The hypotheses that DRF would be correlated to imaginative life and
interest in dreams was not supported. A bi-variate correlation revealed a significant correlation between imaginal life and a
sense of connectedness, interest in dreams, social boldness, and the ability to dream lucidly. A sense of connectedness
was significantly related to social boldness and interest in dreams was significantly correlated with the ability to dream
lucidly. No significant interaction was found between gender and dream recall frequency. Findings suggest new
correlations between various DRF and lucidity variables and reinforce previous findings correlating salience and DRF.
This research reflects an attempt to find parallels by review of the studies for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation that have
been conducted and the present findings of motivational strategies or elements applied in the elementary, middle and high
schools of today. Supporting evidence for increased motivation as a result of parental support, perceived autonomy, choice,
and working with peers emerged. Elements of negative influences are discussed as well.
This research provides more information about a specific case of bipolar disorder. It features a 23-year-old primary
participant whose onset occurred during high school and is currently living a relatively stable life. The study included 5
respondents that are integral parts of the primary participant’s life. 4 of the respondents witnessed the initial acute phase of
his disorder. It is an in depth look at the current literature on pharmacological treatment, psychotherapy, treatment
adherence, and other aspects of life that are affected by bipolar disorder. Each aspect was applied to the primary
participant’s lifestyle before, during, and after diagnosis. It identifies where he can be compared to available literature and
where he differs from what was been reported for patients who are diagnosed with bipolar disorder.


The way in which girls and women experience their bodies has changed dramatically over the past four decades, reflected
by changes in the representations of women presented by the media. The increase in dieting and disordered eating
behaviors among women has accompanied the glamorization and popularization of eating disorders in the media, a trend
which has raised the pursuit of thinness to what Gordon (1992) calls a "mass cultural obsession." The goal of this project is
to examine the role of the media in the development and maintenance of disordered eating behaviors, and to investigate
how the imagery of the popular media has come to shape and monitor the values and eating habits of a generation of
women. Embedded in this goal is the need to evaluate these phenomena in a way that takes into account the individual,
social, political, and cultural contexts within which these attitudes and behaviors take place. A qualitative study, designed to
integrate the voices and experiences of women into a review of the psychological discourse which has described,
This study investigated whether the cause of the demand/withdraw pattern in dating relationships is based on the individual
differences perspective or the conflict structure perspective. The researcher gathered 31 couples. 16 of the 31 were male
couples, where the male was required to attend St. Mary‘s College, and 15 were female couples, where the female was
required to attend St. Mary‘s College. Males in the male couples and females in the female couples determined what the
most difficult issue is in their relationship and both partners filled out the Communication Patterns Questionnaire twice: once
to assess their general perceptions or their communication patterns during conflict and once to assess their patterns during
a specific conflict. A paired samples t-test was completed to determine whether female demand was overall greater than
male demand and results indicated that women reported demanding at a much greater rate then males. Another paired
samples t-test was completed to determine if there was a shift in male demand from discussion over conflict in general to
This review of the literature examines several different mental strategies that can be used to enhance an athlete‘s
performance in sports, including imagery, goal setting, management of stress and anxiety, pre-game rituals and
superstitions, and team building. Several studies are referenced to indicate the effectiveness of the strategies, and to help
understand the appropriateness of the techniques in various situations. Using the information concerning the mental
strategies, I will be creating a publicly accessible sports psychology website for St. Mary‘s College of Maryland athletics.




The purpose of this study was to examine and evaluate the content patterns of seven commercial magazines directed
towards the female adolescent consumer. Eleven categories were used to code the articles of each magazine. These
magazines had a high content percentage of articles about improving a female adolescent‘s fashion sense, physical
appearance, and advice on how to look like various featured celebrities. The magazines in this study had a low content
percentage of articles about education and careers, family, health, and friendship. This research was done to add to the
previous knowledge that media targets adolescent females by influencing them to create the perfect body image.



The purpose of my SMP was to research and design an inclusive summer camp designed to specifically teach social skills.
The literature review of psychology articles includes the positive effects of summer camp attendance and inclusive
environments, and the unique needs of a special needs child in a summer camp. The project culminated with a proposed
summer camp model which specifically lays out how to foster an inclusive environment that promotes positive social skills,
and more broadly, how the camp will operate.
Buddhism and psychotherapy both attempt to reduce or eliminate suffer to allow one to live a satisfying life. I advance the
thesis that the maximally fulfilling life can be achieved with the help of both Buddhism and psychotherapy, by both working
to improve one‘s life and by accepting the results, whatever they may be. I explain the nature of Buddhism and how it aims
to achieve its goal. I then discuss several approaches to therapy, highlighting their interactions with Buddhism. I then
propose that Buddhism may can easily be misinterpreted to suggest a passive approach to live. Finally, I explain that
mindfully accepting whatever we experience, as Buddhism suggests, should be done in the context of our attempts to
change our lives as we see fit and to fulfill our desires. Psychotherapy is one way of changing our lives in an advantageous
way.

The following pages will take you through a journey of how and why we dream and its personal relationship with each
individual. We start with the functions of sleep because sleep is where we dream, and will continue through dream theorists
and their theories. With a broad swath of information regarding these multifaceted theories and theorists we will conclude
with the concept of dreams as a tool for interpretation. [from introduction]




The present study combined a literature review with a case study of an elementary school to determine the effectiveness of
school-wide PBIS [Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support] programs in elementary schools. The school-wide PBIS
program of a Maryland public elementary school was observed in order to determine how effective this program was. It was
found that the school adequately implemented the program and was able to decrease problem behaviors as well as
increase academic achievement. However, this particular school does show a need for some minor adjustments in order to
maintain the success of the program. An extensive literature review also revealed that there is much evidence in support of
the effectiveness of school-wide PBIS programs within elementary schools.


Bipolar disorder stands as one of the fastest growing diagnosed psychiatric disorders in the United States. As one of the
more severe mood disorders, pharmacotherapy is usually the first response to treatment. However, psychosocial issues
such as interpersonal relationships, medication noncompliance, and vocational goals are not adequately addressed by
pharmacotherapy. Subsequently, psychotherapy complements pharmacotherapy, effectively treating the psychosocial
aspects of bipolar disorder. This assessment evaluates creative therapies, cognitive behavioral therapy, family therapy, and
group therapy in their approaches to bipolar disorder. Finally, a proposed method of therapy integrating these treatments is
suggested to comprehensively treat bipolar disorder‘s psychosocial needs.


Portions of the unpublished works of the mother of the author, who was diagnosed with Bipolar I disorder, are analyzed for
characteristic manifestations of manic-depressive illness. A literature and symptom review catalogue the typical
manifestations of the illness in writers, and the connections between manic-depressive illness and creativity are discussed.




The following is an in-depth look at the discrimination lawsuit involving The Town of Leonardtown and a local clinic for the
mentally ill, Pathways Psychosocial Support Center. The District Court of Maryland found that Leonardtown, by denying
Pathways an occupancy permit, violated the American‘s with Disabilities Act, and the fourteenth amendment. The two
parties settled the case out of court, and the settlement involved monetary as well as non-monetary damages. The non-
monetary damages included sensitivity training for local government officials in hopes of preventing further discrimination.
However, some of the stipulations of the settlement were not carried out in the time frame outlined by the settlement.
Although United States Federal laws protect the mentally disabled from discrimination, cases such as this occur often and
little is done to assure changes within local governments.
To understand how Division 3 athletes conceive of their inevitable retirement from sport this study employed open-ended
interviews. The Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) was used to analyze participant responses. Findings consisted of
all participants agreeing that their upcoming transition out of competitive sports would come with substantial difficulties.
Participants also largely agreed that they would miss the benefits that come with being part of a team. St. Mary‘s College of
Maryland coaches emphasized academics before athletics and that this was a philosophy present in all of Division 3
athletics. Findings were congruent with most previous research that suggests retiring athletes experience difficulties with
quitting sporting competition.


The present study combined a literature review with a qualitative study to examine the extent to which the psychological
scars of Holocaust survivors affect the adjustment of their children. Data were collected from fourteen adult children of
survivors who either completed a questionnaire or took part in an interview. Contrary to much of the literature reviewed, it
was found that some degree of psychopathology is not inevitable in children of Holocaust survivors. The one conclusion that
can be drawn from this study is that the children of survivors who participated seem to be very well adjusted in their adult
lives. The implications for future research on this topic are extensive.



This study intended on discovering, through a review of the literature, the factors contributing to success in inclusive
classrooms. Results of the review showed teacher-related variables, student-related variables, and environmental variables.
Interviews were also conducted with a fifth grade general education teacher and her special education co-teacher to
examine their thoughts about inclusion. In order to examine the interactions in an inclusive classroom, students with special
education needs were observed regarding their interactions with IEP students, non-IEP students, and teachers. Results of
interactions with non-IEP students showed an increase in positive interactions and a decrease in negative and neutral
interactions over time.


Research indicates that adolescents are less likely to seek professional help in the event of a psychological problem than
adults. This study examines first year college students’ attitudes toward seeking help, based on problem severity and
attitudes toward the stigmatization of mental illness. Using a series of scales, attitudes toward help-seeking and mental
illness were assessed, as well as what types of behavior participants exhibited in relation to low-grade affective disorders,
which are prevalent during this developmental time. There was no significant effect indicating that stigma against mental
illness acts as a mediator between willingness to seek professional help and problem severity. However, results indicated
that first year college students tended to have high levels of stigma of mental illness. Other factors may contribute to
whether or not an individual seeks professional psychological help.

The current study serves to inform educators of the current condition of the inclusive classroom environment and the
possible dangers the general classroom poses for included students with mild or hidden disabilities. The study examines
teachers and peers typically negative attitudes toward students with hidden disabilities through the lens of differentiated
expectations and the tolerance theory. Teacher and peer attitude are of particular concern, as classroom characterized by
negative attitudes toward included students jeopardizes their learning and social opportunities. Concurrently, a classroom
that does not accommodate all of its students inherently violates the principal of inclusion. The current study addresses such
concerns in a review of the literature and makes recommendations in an accessible website geared to improving teachers’
attitudes by providing resources to improve teachers’ skills in instructing in the inclusive classroom.

Twenty children between the ages of 2 and 19 were observed in an informal, community arena to examine cross-age and
cross-sex interactions and aggressive tendencies. Due to the setting and nature of the community and the fact that the
children had grown up together, it was predicted that their interactions would differ from those typically found in the
literature. Results indicated significant relationships among age, sex, and mixed-sex interactions as well as among age and
leadership and sex and leadership. Future research points to exploration of parental monitoring and sibling presence in
informal settings among children involved in close communities.
[abstract not available]




[abstract not available]




This study, examining the relationship between boundary structure in the mind as a measure of personality and several
aspects of dream content, involved the administration of Hartmann‘s Boundary Questionnaire and a Dream Report prompt
to 130 college students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland. Dream content was analyzed using a modified version of Hall and
Van de Castle‘s system of classification for the content analysis of dreams. Results of several one-way ANOVA‘s indicated a
significant relationship between the number of familiar characters in a dream report and the dreamer‘s Boundary Category
identification. Further significance was found in the relationship between the incidences of threat made by the dreamer and
the Boundary Category that the dreamer identified with. Other variables examined were friendly interactions, setting, number
of unfamiliar characters, primary emotion, and various demographic variables; none of these yielded significant results.

Implicit Theories of Relationships (ITRs) can predict behaviors pertinent to romantic relationships. Noting the alarming rates
of domestic abuse between intimate partners, this study explored the relationships between the ITRs of growth and destiny
and tolerance for psychological abuse. Male and female undergraduates (N = 129) completed measures of ITRs and self-
esteem, and the researcher-designed psychological abuse and mistreatment scale. Results suggested that neither beliefs in
destiny nor beliefs in growth were significantly correlated with experiencing abuse. Furthermore, no significant correlation
between destiny belief and the dissolution of abusive relationships, nor a correlation between self-esteem and the
termination of abusive relationships were found. An unexpected finding showed a positive correlation between self-esteem
and destiny beliefs. The results of this study will aid in identifying potential risk factors for continued victimization associated
with romantic beliefs.
Following the era of desegregation of schools, there has been much research done comparing and contrasting the college
experience of Black and White students. The current study aimed to further investigate this arena by examining the
differences in experience of Black students on predominantly White Campuses (PWC) to those on predominantly Black
campuses (PBC). One factor that separates the experiences of these students is stereotype vulnerability, a disturbing
awareness among members of a negatively stereotyped group that anything one does, or anything about oneself that fits
the stereotype, may confirm it as a self- characterization. In the current study, researchers looked at the effects of racial
anxiety on the college experience of Black students at PWC‘s and PBC‘s. Students from a Maryland and D.C. campus
completed an eighty-five-item questionnaire to further examine the hypothesis that as a result of racial anxiety, Black
students on predominantly white campuses have a different college experience than students on predominantly Black
The current study assessed individual perceptions of violent musical lyrics when purported as coming from different
sources. Participants read a lyrical passage with violent themes, and were told that they were written by (a) a black rap
artist, (b) a white rap artist, (c) a black country artist, or (d) a white country artist, and provided ratings of its violent and
antisocial content. Participants then read a fictional account of the artist engaging in violent behavior, and rated the severity
of the event and the degree to which the event was caused by dispositional vs. situational variables. Significant race, genre,
and race x genre effects were found. Lyrics written by a black artist were perceived as more violent than lyrics written by a
white artist, while lyrics and violent behavior committed by a white rap artist were perceived as being the most violent. Older
participants provided more negative ratings of the lyrical passage than did younger participants. Familiarity with the musical
genre in question was negatively correlated with negative attitudes towards the lyrical passage, as well as perceptions of the
In this study, I looked at the discrepancies between how college students and homeless individuals; conceptualization of
volunteerism. I examined two categories for volunteerism; egoistic helping (external volunteerism) and altruistic helping
(intrinsic helping). Results showed that participation in community service and the sex of participants had no effect on the
negative attitudes towards the homeless. In addition, the results showed that four groups—egoism, altruism, prosocial
behavior and prosocial behavior with no financial goal—differed in how they defined volunteerism. The research found that
the groups that expressed the most negative attitude towards the homeless were the egoism group. Further analysis
suggested that males were more likely to conceptualize volunteerism more with altruism than females, implying that men
have higher self-esteem than females.

Parents and families of children with autism face years of decision making and adjustment when coping with the disorder.
The literature in the field of developmental disorders has expanded greatly in recent years; however, the research is still
young and in some cases inadequate. The purpose of this literature review is to reveal the effects that a child with autism
can have on their surroundings and the coinciding interactions and relationships that ensue. It is proposed that families
experience intense levels of stress and anxiety resulting from the developmental disorder, but eventually adaptation and
adjustment will occur resulting in family cohesion and positive outcomes. Focus on the families of children with
developmental disorders, specifically autism, presents a different perspective on finding a possible solution to this pervasive
disorder.

In this guide five different individual counseling techniques were researched, described, and reviewed. The five techniques
were behavioral-cognitive therapy, Adlerian therapy, person-centered therapy, interpersonal therapy, and existential therapy.
These five techniques were briefly compared to non-individualistic counseling techniques in order to show the differences in
methods. Also, a brief history of the foundations of counseling was provided. The researcher used the information that was
provided about each technique in order to generate a hypothesis about which technique or combination of techniques is the
most effective. In order to test this hypothesis in a future study the researcher developed and outlined a hypothetical study.



This investigation sought to reveal how people respond to computer based surveys on the Internet, as opposed to more
traditional paper‑based methods. Of particular interest were varying levels of perceived anonymity. This investigation
attempted to determine whether or not the Internet is a viable source of subjects for any research. Investigators explore the
differences in self-report, self-presentation, and general social deviance among three separate populations: the traditional
student population, the general population, and the Internet population. This was accomplished via various questionnaires
assessing self-monitoring, social desirability, deviant attitudes and behaviors, anti-social desirability, and reported
participation in criminal activities. Additionally, a questionnaire measuring the basic personality traits of introversion and
extraversion was administered to determine if there are any existing norms or patterns to be seen in the Internet population.
These surveys were pseudo-randomly administered to an Internet population, a student population, and a general
Sexual minority adolescents have a set of problems that are unique to their age group and culture. In the past, researchers
and educators have neglected to address the needs of this subsection of children and their disregard has been shown to
have serious consequences for the mental and physical health of these youth. One way of fulfilling the obligation that
educators have toward ensuring the wellbeing of sexual minority youth is to reform health education classes by adding
sexual diversity studies into the high school curriculum. This paper seeks to identify the problems that nonheterosexual
adolescents face and then make suggestions as to how we can change health education curricula in the state of Maryland
to satisfy the current need for adolescents to learn about sexual diversity. The author hypothesizes that, if all students are
given more unbiased information about alternate sexual lifestyles, queer students will begin to show signs of improved
mental health and be less prone to victimization from heterosexual students.
Researchers conducted the present study in order to examine differences among female college students regarding their
levels of happiness and loneliness based on their relationship status. Measurements of loneliness, self-disclosure, life
satisfaction, and self-reported time spent with out a significant other are distributed to 100 undergraduates. Females
currently involved in an intimate relationship self-reported lower levels of loneliness and higher levels of happiness than
women who are not currently involved in an intimate, committed relationship. Generally these women spent more time with
their significant other, whereas disclosing more information to their significant other. These results suggest that loneliness
and happiness are correlated with a female‘s relationship status, and that being in a relationship significantly increases a
females happiness levels, and significantly lowers her loneliness levels. Women who are in a relationship have a sense of
emotional support which helps them to develop friendships more thoroughly.
The researcher examined the relationship between parenting styles, romantic attachment styles, gender role orientation, self-
esteem, and relationship satisfaction in college students. Participants completed surveys measuring these variables. I
conducted a regression analysis with relationship satisfaction as the criterion and other measured variables conducted on
the variables. As hypothesized, I found that an authoritative parenting style was positively correlated with a secure
attachment style, self-esteem, and relationship satisfaction. Conversely, an authoritarian parenting style was found to be
associated with maladjustment in the dimensions of the other variables. Finally, a secure attachment style was found to be a
mediator for father authoritativeness and self-esteem, and these three variables were found to be the significant predictors
of relationship satisfaction.

Divorce is a trend that has been steadily on the rise and is more accepted everyday. Present researchers investigated the
effects that divorce could have on the offspring‘s romantic relationship satisfaction level. Sixty eight participants from St.
Mary‘s College of Maryland completed an online survey assessing family situation, relationship characteristics, experience
with divorce, and romantic relationship satisfaction. The results also showed that the remarriage of the mother, the age at
which divorce took place, and the length of the relationship are not related to the romantic relationship satisfaction. One
interesting finding showed that if divorce took place during the critical age of the offspring, 11-17, then these offspring would
show more difficulty sharing with their partner. Implications for this study include a greater understanding for the impact of
divorce on intimacy levels if the divorce occurred during the ages of 11-17 as well as implications for further studies.

Pleasure was examined by the author to qualitatively see whether the pleasure one derived from unprotected sex was the
predictor variable above and beyond the following variables: Substance use before sex, Sexual Communication skills, Total
AIDS knowledge, Risk reduction behavioral intention, Attitudes toward condoms, and personal vulnerability. Participants
were 60 students from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland who were paid to take the anonymous survey. Results indicated that
pleasure was not the main predictor variable. In fact, the only variable that was found to predict condom use was a person‘s
overall knowledge of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS.



The distribution of gender role identification, and the attribution of responsibility to a victim of rape, was compared across
U.S. (n=110) and Spanish (n=90) coed college samples. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich, &
Stapp, 1974) measured gender role identification, showing a cross-cultural gender difference among females, but not males.
 Androgyny was more prevalent within the U.S. Rape attribution was measured used a scale developed by the researchers,
and found no effect for traditional gender role identification on attribution of rape victim responsibility. The Spanish sample
attributed significantly more blame to the rape victim than that of the U.S., but the U.S sample attributed a higher desire for
sex to the rape victim. Limitations and implications were discussed.


Humor has always possessed enigmatic characteristics, and its pervasiveness yet complexity have long intrigued the minds
of social scientists. Ethnic and racial humor are particularly interesting because of the issues of intergroup relations inherent
within them. While most researchers thus far have offered theoretical interpretations of the various social dynamics
surrounding racist humor, very few have offered empirical support for their ideas. This study sought to investigate the
possible influence of exposure to racist humor on individuals' racial attitudes. Measurement of 40 students' racist attitudes
were compared before and after exposure to racist or non-racist jokes. Results found a significant relationship between
participants' appreciation of racist jokes and their racist attitudes as measured by the Modern Racism Scale. Implications of
these findings are discussed within the context of race relations in America.

This study investigated the relationship between real-ideal balance of power discrepancy in interpersonal relationships and
academic achievement. Real-ideal balance of power was measured using the ―Interpersonal Relationships Questionnaire‖,
which was created for this study. It was hypothesized that this relationship would be mediated by global self-esteem.
Participants were 60 college students attending a small northeastern liberal arts college. The main hypotheses were not
supported. Exploratory analyses revealed that for participants who had more decision-making power than they would like,
there was a negative relationship between decision-making discrepancy and grade point average. Also, for participants who
had less than ideal emotional involvement, emotional involvement discrepancy was negatively correlated with global self-
esteem.
Perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, and work-family conflict are all issues of concern within the world of work.
The purpose of this study is to offer a more complex and inclusive design of the effects of gender orientation on levels of
perceived organizational support and job satisfaction. Furthermore it is examined whether gender orientation can be shown
to predict the direction of conflict between work and family. Self-report survey methods were employed to analyze 60 male
and female managers‘ responses on 5 measures. Results support no significant findings but limitations of the study and
issues regarding the need for further research are discussed.



Previous literature has studied the immediate socio-emotional effects of owning a pet. Self-esteem and empathy are
generally considered to be important characteristics that are part of normal development. A person that has positive feelings
about themselves and is in touch with the feelings of those around him or her has the basis to be successful in life. The
current study sought to discover whether owning a pet as a child was related to individuals having higher self-esteem and
empathy later in life compared with those individuals who did not own a pet. Students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland were
surveyed using a pet-ownership questionnaire and measures of animal bonding, self-esteem, and empathy. It was predicted
that in general, students who had a pet as a child would score higher on both the self-esteem and empathy scales than the
non-pet-owners and furthermore that dog-owners would score higher on the two scales than cat owners. The results showed
that students who owned a pet as a child scored significantly higher on empathy than those students who did not own a pet.
In order to more carefully examine the effectiveness of different coaching techniques on athletes, an extensive literature
review was done on various research and studies associated with coaching technique. The conclusions drawn from this
literature review regarding coaching strategy and the psychological profiles of athletes are presented in this [project]. The
chapters are broken down into four main concepts that affect the psyche of an athlete: motivation, confidence, loss, and
success. The emphasis of the paper relates to the idea of a coach developing stronger relationships with his athletes and
examining the personality structure so that his coaching style can be most efficient by reflecting the individual differences
among athletes.


Twelve participants from a nursing home and retirement community completed a survey that assessed the factors
influencing the fear of death in the elderly. Surveys that measured life satisfaction, health status, social support, locus of
control, and religiosity were administered to the facility residents. The data was analyzed using an independent t-test and
the Pearson correlation to find correlations between the psychosocial variables, death anxiety, and the participants'
residence. Only one correlation consistent with past research was found, no significant differences in psychosocial
variables and death anxiety were found between the two residences. The lack of significant results is discussed in light of a
small sample size. Suggestions for future research on the role residence plays in determining death anxiety in the elderly is
also discussed.

Motivation in the workforce has been found to predict job satisfaction. This study examines motivation on a cross-cultural
level, looking at the similarities and differences in motivation of employees in the developed countries of the United States
and Japan and of employees in the undeveloped countries of Honduras and Madagascar. While the effects of motivation on
job satisfaction have been studied cross-culturally, there is little research in this area when comparing developed countries
and undeveloped countries. It is hypothesized that workers in undeveloped nations will be more intrinsically motivated, and
therefore experience more job satisfaction, while developed nations will be more extrinsically motivated, and therefore be
less satisfied with their jobs.


First impressions are affected by many factors. The purpose of this experiment was to determine what effects a tattoo or
body piercing has on first impressions amongst college students. The gender of the viewer was investigated to see if there
would be differences in first impressions. Photographs were manipulated into three conditions of either having a tattoo,
having a body piercing, or no body art. Participants were to rate the likelihood of the individual portrayed in the photograph
to certain characteristics. Results indicated that there were gender differences between first impressions of individuals with
tattoos or body piercings. Future research is suggested for investigating different aspects of body art and how it influences
the formation of a first impression.
This article explores the effects of attachment style, sex, gender role orientation, and race on partner preferences. Few
investigations have examined the effects of multiple variables influencing partner preference, as partner preferences are
important in mate selection. A college sample of 80students (18-29 yrs old) completed Hazan and Shaver‘s three category
self reported system of attachment (AAS), a thirty-five item measure of characteristics desired in a partner/dating option, as
well as a shortened version of the Bem sex-role inventory (BSRI). The results indicated that attachment style varied on
partner preference, although this was only found for feminine partner preferences. Consistent with hypothesis gender role
orientation differences emerged for partner preferences, however along dimensions of race no differences emerged.
Interestingly and inconsistent with hypothesis sex differences emerged for partner preference.

This literature review presents an analysis and discussion of the current research in the field of body image, adolescents,
and obesity. A majority of research found relates to the affect body image has on adolescents views towards obesity and
overweight. The research mainly focused on adolescent females because male adolescents were not seen as being as
susceptible to body image and the negative consequences. In addition, factors were evaluated such as race and
socioeconomic status. Psychological affects were analyzed and included when considering eating disturbances as a result
of body image and obesity. Finally, a few prevention techniques were suggested to help reduce unhealthy behaviors and
habits.


Many studies concerning resiliency, risk, and poverty were reviewed. Many results were found and a few broad conclusions
can be made. One collective result found was that the presence of emotional support systems for the parents and the
children in impoverished families increased the child‘s chance for resiliency. In addition, children who had a pleasant
temperament as infants also had increased instances of resiliency. The main factor that seemed to contribute to a child‘s
resiliency was the quality and structure of his home environment. These results and results from specific studies can be
applied to some resiliency theories and to broad theories from social psychology.



[abstract not available]




Without being able to separate the effects of ―nature‖ from ―nurture‖, it is impossible to clearly define depression properly.
The ability of both perspectives to explain a reasonable amount of cases and details of the disorder prove them as
worthwhile and valid. However, neither the biological or environmental camps can truly claim to have full precedence in
determining the onset of a depression. It is through the interactions of these two rivaled ideas that we can come to catch
even a distant glimpse of the disorder in all of its complex design. Without taking beneficial aspects of each major theory,
there is little hope to the discovery of the true mechanism of depression. An interaction seems very certain, and until
researchers can find a way to properly incorporate the two together, there will not be a clear understanding of the cause of
depression. [from conclusion]

The emergence of a new phenomenon on college campuses called hooking up was investigated. A hook up was defined as
a sexual encounter occurring between two people who are strangers or brief acquaintances, that usually takes place on only
one occasion, but may occur at several different times. The current study aimed to investigate expectations of post-hook up
relationships as compared to actual outcomes of relationships. It was hypothesized that females‘ expectations would not be
congruent with outcomes, that males‘ expectations would be congruent with outcomes, and that females would have overall
more positive expectations for post-hook up relationships than males. Hypotheses about homosexual students were also
made but not enough data was collected to analyze these participants. The participants were 64 undergraduate college
students, 62.5% women and 37.5% men, mean age = 20.06 years, 87.5% of participants reported being exclusively
heterosexual. Participants were asked to complete 3 questionnaires outlining demographic information, expectations of post-
The researcher of the present study set out to determine if there was a difference between the personality, gender, and
stress. Specifically, the researcher hypothesized that individuals displaying Type A behavior traits will have a higher level of
stress. It was hypothesized that emergency service personnel, would display more type A behavior and will have a higher
perceived stress level; however, they will be more capable of dealing with that stress better. Two scales of measurement
were utilized in this study, the Jenkins Activity Survey and the Perceived Stress Scale. Four sub-scales were extracted from
the Jenkins Activity Survey (Speed and impatience, hard-driving and competitiveness, type A behavior, and job
involvement). Both scales of measurement proved to have good reliability. T-tests and ANOVAs were run and found that
non-rescue squad personnel were more likely to have a higher perceived stress level. Females, in general were more likely
to have an increased level of ―speed and impatience‖ compared to men. No other significant findings were noted.
The current review examines three agents of religious socialization in childhood and adolescence: family, peers, and
religious institutions. Parents act as the primary religious socialization agent, with peers and religious institutions being
secondary. Factors affecting the socialization process related to each of these agents are also examined. The quality of the
relationship with the parents can affect the socialization process as well as the number and strength of relationships with
peers and members of religious institutions. The review continues by examining the literature regarding factors that affect
religious behavior, such as the motivation for being religious. The review concludes by examining theories on reasons for
going religious institutions and a personal account of a religious upbringing.


In an empirical study, researcher administered five surveys which tested religiosity, peer influences, parenting
styles/influence, and self-esteem. A total of 121 participants between ages 18-26 were recruited through convenience
sampling from St. Mary‘s College, Catholic University, Bowie State University, and Howard University. The purpose of this
study was to investigate racial differences in drinking behaviors among college-aged students in particular Black and White
students based on the above factors. The results indicated that Whites drink significantly more than Blacks and have more
problems associated with alcohol. Also, there were significant differences found between Blacks and Whites on religiosity,
self-esteem, and the social and conformity subscales. From these differences Blacks expressed high religiosity but overall
people were more likely to be influenced by their peer group than religious orientation or parents.

I have chosen to explore the complex relationship between social power and linguistic expression through a review of a
variety of languages that employ honorific registers to express respect, intimacy, and a multitude of personal and cultural
beliefs about interpersonal relationships as well as abstract concepts such as anger or honesty (Kulick, 1998). These
honorific registers may be expressed through simple isosemantic lexical substitutions (replacing one word with another that
has the same denotative meaning but a different connotative one), phonological variations, stylistic cues, or a combination
of any of these factors. By exploring the contexts in which such registers are employed, the conditions under which
speakers switch registers, and listeners‘ responses to being addressed within a particular register, we may be able to gain
some insight into the dynamics of power in human relationships. This study is by no means attempting to make the claim
that power relations in one culture will be identical to another, or that the use of honorifics is generalizable across vast
Because many college student athletes are often branded with the stigma of a ‗dumb jock‘, the current research investigates
the actual differences between academic performance of NCAA Division III college athletes and non-athletes. Previous
research has suggested that better students have a tendency to participate in athletics. Researchers measured college
GPA, the Time Use Efficiency (TUE), Athletic Identity (AI), including subscales of Academic Motivation (AM), Student
Athletic Motivation (SAM), and Career Athletic Motivation (CAM), along with a number of other variables related to academic
performance and academic behavior in college. The data showed no difference in academic performance between college
student athletes and non-athletes. Researchers also found that student-athletes show better Time Use Efficiency than their
non-athlete counterparts. It may be concluded that athletic participation does not predict better or poorer academic
performance.
[abstract not available]
Though women in the workplace are achieving equality, much still remains unequal within the home. On average, women
perform over 2/3 of all household labor and a large majority of the traditionally feminine tasks, tasks which are more time-
intensive and are performed more regularly. One of the explanations for this is the gender ideology perspective. It was
hypothesized that those who are more traditional will be part of a household where women perform a majority of the
housework, while those who are more egalitarian will distribute housework between spouses more equally. Researchers
surveyed seventy-four college students in regards to egalitarian and traditional beliefs and future predictions of time spent in
domestic labor for themselves and their spouses. A gender divide was found to exist between individual and spousal
estimates in terms of feminine and masculine type tasks: women predict to perform more of the feminine tasks while men
predict to spend more time on the masculine type tasks. However, this distribution of labor appears unaffected by gender
Researchers of the present study examined performance and personality evaluations of black and white law enforcement
officers for possible racial disadvantage. Participants (n = 101) read a racially manipulated vignette concerning a domestic
disturbance call and then rated the described officer on a number of personality traits and the likelihood of early and regular
promotion recommendations. Participants were designated into high and low prejudice groups by their score on the Modern
Racism Scale (MRS). Analyses of variance resulted in a majority of nonsignificant results. Overall, black and white officers
appeared to be rated similarly on positive character traits, as well as aggressive and dominant character traits. Both officers
were rated similarly for likelihood of being recommended for early and regular promotions. However, participant scores on
the MRS did have influence on the ratings to some degree. Results are discussed in terms of previous research.
Implications from the current data and suggestions for future research are explored.
This study investigated if college students with tattoos and body piercings engaged in risk taking behaviors more often than
students without tattoos and piercings. 154 (134 female, 20 male) students participated in this study and of these
participants 24 had tattoos and 39 had body piercings other than earlobes. The hypothesis that people with body art would
engage in risk taking behavior more often was not supported. A significant correlation did not exist between tattoos and the
sensation seeking score from the Zuckerman-Kulhman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). Nor did a correlation exist
between body piercings and the sensation seeking score. The results did not support previous literature and the gender
limitations of this study may be a reason why the results did not correlate. The majority of participants were female and there
were only two males with tattoos and no males in this study had body piercings. The results from this study show that
college females with body art are not risk takers.
Research was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the perceived closeness of family and the
presence of technology. Surveys were administered to participants that included questions about perceived cohesion and
interactions. Results showed a relationship between perceived parental closeness and amount of total interaction and also
showed a relationship of amount of interaction and cohesion among neighbors. Face to face communication was perceived
as the most intimate form of communication with traditional mail being the least. Participants who had a computer and
participants who had e-mail perceived greater familial closeness than those with out. Those who did not have e-mail
reported a greater level of neighbor intimacy. Generational differences were also discovered: younger participants were
more likely to own a computer. Older participants perceived greater familial closeness and were more likely to use face-to-
face communication.
The purpose of this paper is to propose the theory that the first stage of Erikson‘s Psychosocial stages of life, trust versus
mistrust, is predictive to an individual‘s later life behavior. The developmental theories of Erikson (Psychosocial stages of
life), Bowlby (bonds), and Ainsworth (attachment styles) are all used to show that the initial trust an individual formed with
their caregiver is influential for the rest of their life. This trust formed will lead to the behavior, actions, and beliefs of the
individual. The paper also discusses the difference between a secure or strong trust versus a poor trust in an individual‘s
life. If a person has secure trust, then there are many positive social outcomes for them. For example, they are more
popular, have more stability in life, have better problem solving techniques, and are better in social situations in general. On
the other hand, poor trust leads to poor social skills, poor problem solving, and more importantly for this argument; deviance
or criminal behavior.
Over the last sixty years in western cultures there has been an increase in women's body dissatisfaction levels. This shift in
body image has happened concurrently with a shift in the ideal of physical attractiveness towards a thinner physique.
Research suggests that the downward shift in body satisfaction has been caused, at least in part, by social comparison with
the thin-ideal of feminine beauty presented in the media. The body dissatisfaction felt by women has further reaching
negative effects on women's lives than development of an eating disorder including selective attention to negative body
feedback, relationships, work performance, and career advancement. While endorsement of feminist ideals does not seem
to provide a large level of protection against body dissatisfaction it does seem to prevent the use of some of the more
extreme weight control methods. Looking to the future, emphasis should be placed on teaching acceptance of many body
shapes in order to encourage positive body esteem.
In this current study, the researcher examined psychosocial factors that hinder achievement for college students, particularly
for African American students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland. The researcher was conducting an analysis in verifying
which psychosocial variables correlate with underachievement for college students by posting a survey on St. Mary‘s
College psychology pool website. All participants were current St. Mary‘s college students and ages ranged from 18-25. The
results were none of the psychosocial variables examined had a significant effect, except for academic self-esteem and
racial anxiety. In this study African American students scored lower on academic self-esteem and experienced higher racial
anxiety compared to White students.


A brief review of the recent developments in the study of stress research is offered in the present paper with a specific focus
on the development of the concept of coping. Following a review of the literature on stress and its effects on college
students and academic achievement, the present study hypothesized that avoidant-oriented coping would correlate with
higher levels of stress and also lower levels of academic achievement. It was also predicted that there would be a variety of
correlation between specific personality characteristics and different stress coping styles. However, there was found to be
no correlation whatsoever between avoidant-oriented coping and either stress or academic achievement. The predictions
made involving personality characteristics and their relationship to coping styles was proven to be partially correct, marking
the first step in validating the scale created for the purpose of this research project. Interesting data was gathered that
related the academic ambition of students to what style of stress coping they utilized and also how high their GPA was.
This paper seeks to outline a theoretical and empirical background for recruitment and retention issues in order to determine
the cause of the Maryland State Police Recruitment Unit‘s downward follow-up applicant trend. Many recruitment and
retention variables that may affect an applicant‘s decision to maintain their applicant status are examined and assessed in a
survey. Possible solutions to maintaining applicant status are discussed. Finally, the author suggests methods of
expanding future recruitment as well as other aspects of law enforcement research.




This research project will investigate feminism and intellectualism conceptually across cultures and will focus on cultural
issues for community. The purpose of this research study is to explore the prevalence of intellectualism within African-
American culture while comparing life skills intellectualism with academia intellectualism from a feminist perspective. Life
skills intellectualism is defined as a historical wisdom that is passed on to each new generation from the generation
preceding them. This type of intellectualism focuses on an ethic of care, a form of feminism that teaches and nurtures each
member of the community. These intellectuals teach the community spirituality, healing, economics related to poverty
issues, pride in heritage, and wisdom enabling members to function on a daily basis. [p. 1]


The purpose of the current literature review was to investigate predictive factors of high risk sexual behaviors in African-
American female adolescents. The reasoning for investigating high risk behaviors in black female youth was the
disproportionate numbers of contractions of HIV/AIDS, and how this is hurting the African-American community. Therefore,
the author investigated three main variants that were correlated with high risk behavior, which included the factors of
interpersonal relationships, environment, and media influence. The author also reviewed historical factors that influence high
risk sexual behaviors, implications sexual deviant behaviors have on HIV/AIDS rates in the black community, and prevention
programs to reduce high risk behaviors.


[abstract not available]
The effect of the presented gender of children on their behavior was studied in an observational design. The behavior types
examined were helping and aggression, which were subdivided into masculine and feminine types. Clothing types were
used to code presented gender. The hypothesis was that children who self-present a masculine image would use more
masculine behaviors and less feminine behaviors and vice versa. Chi-square analysis revealed partial significance for the
presented gender of children on behavior. Further chi square analysis revealed that biological sex was related to the gender
type of behavior, but not related to the types of behavior irrespective of gender.



The effects of stereotype endorsement and attitudes towards interracial dating were investigated in this study. 81 subjects
volunteered to fill out a questionnaire. The samples were taken from two different college campuses. The subjects
indicated their personal attitudes about interracial dating, their first impressions of a Black/White interracial couple, and their
agreement or disagreement of stereotypes about interracial dating and interracial daters. The first impressions portion of
the study was done by randomly assigning subjects to two different descriptions of the couple. The results showed that
Blacks agreed with more stereotypes and also showed slightly more negative personal attitudes about interracial dating.
The results of the first impressions portion of the study showed that people looked at the couple more favorably when they
had been described as being together for 4 years, had dated mostly inside their own race previously, and had lived in areas
predominated by the other race.
[abstract not available]




The purpose of the current study is to determine if there is a relationship between an individual‘s gender role orientation and
how salient aggressive acts are to the individual on the basis of their gender. Aggressive acts were defined as physical or
social. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to identify individuals‘ gender and the Social Behaviors Questionnaire
Revised (SBQ-R) was used to determine the salience of certain aggressive acts. The results support a significant link
between femininity and the salience of aggressive acts in general, instead of for specific aggressive acts. There were no
effects found for androgyny; masculinity and undifferentiated genders were merged into androgyny and femininity,
respectively, due to the low number of participants identifying with those genders. Implications and limitations of the
findings are discussed.

[abstract not available]




The current study examines the relations between self-perception and participants‘ propensity to engage in anti-social
behaviors in a self-verification framework. Several dimensions of self-concept and global self-worth were examined as well
as the participants‘ perception of the importance of each of these dimensions of the self. Self-verification theory suggests
that those individuals with low self-perceptions in certain domains of their self-concepts and high ratings of importance with
regard to these domains will attempt to reduce the resulting dissonance through motivated actions. One suggested avenue
for doing so is by engaging in behaviors that verify the existing self-perceptions of such individuals. Sixty-five college
students were examined to determine if propensity to engage in antisocial behavior correlated with self-reported self-
perceptions as well as importance ratings for various domains of the self-concept. Self-verification theory would suggest
that those individuals reporting low self-concepts and high importance ratings for global self-worth would also demonstrate a
[abstract not available]




The study of criminology has traditionally been a cross-disciplinary study of social behavior. Although there is a wealth of
theoretical work devoted to the explanation of criminal behavior there have been few definitive empirical validations for any
of these causal theories. This study used a questionnaire to assess the suitability of Merton‘s social strain theories for
explaining masculine patterns of aggression and deviance. Researchers hypothesized that crime could be explained by
individuals using deviant behavior to establish a masculine identity. Methodological flaws in sampling, however, prohibited
researchers from drawing any firm conclusion. A lengthy description of future research is offered to suggest ways in which
the questionnaire developed here could be used in subsequent studies.


Ninety-nine college students completed a variety of rating scale and open-ended questions assessing appropriateness of
obscenity use with implied motivations in different dyads, personal levels of use, perceptions of male and female obscenity
use in society, and obscene insults for men and women. Results supported the lasting permanence of a masculine
conception of obscenity. Marginally significant differences were found in levels of appropriateness between parallel
vignettes describing obscenity use in same-sex and mixed-sex dyads, depending on the sex of the speaker. Males reported
significantly higher obscenity use than females based upon one measure, but no significant differences were found when
using another measure. Participants rated males and females significantly different on a variety of statements describing
obscenity use. Additionally, significant sex and race differences were found in the production of obscene female insults.
Results are discussed in terms of the functions of obscenity, a masculine style of speech that serves as an agent of social
The current study measures the relationship between parental gender role attitudes and college student gender role beliefs
about household division of labor in future relationships. A sample of 169 college students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland
participated in a short online survey. It was hypothesized that there would be a positive correlation between students‘
perceptions of their parent‘s gender role adherence and students‘ personal gender roles beliefs about household division of
labor. Gender role beliefs about household division of labor were defined as traditional and non-traditional. College students‘
beliefs were found to be positively correlated with perceived parental gender role beliefs. It was also found that men were
more traditional in their ideals about household division of labor but expected to take on more non-traditional household
tasks in future marriage or cohabitating relationships.

Poverty pervades every country in the world. Research has identified Belief in a Just World as an important factor
influencing a person‘s perceptions of poverty. This study investigated the relationships between Belief in a Just World,
perceptions of the poor, perceived reasons of why poverty occurs, and assessments of aid institutions meant to help the
poor. Participants were asked, among other items, to characterize the poor, middle, and upper classes so that correlations
between the evaluations could be analyzed. The results indicated that significant relations and effects were indeed present
between many of these factors, and that many individuals do have positive evaluations of the upper and middle classes
while having negative evaluations of the poor. The reasons for these correlations and interactions are discussed.


This study was undertaken to better understand the relationship between athletes‘ preference for and perception of their
coaches‘ leadership behavior, athlete satisfaction, and athlete sport self-esteem. Chelladurai and Saleh‘s Leadership Scale
for Sport (LSS) was used to examine five dimensions of a coach‘s leadership behavior: training and instruction, democratic
behavior, autocratic behavior, social support, and positive feedback. Using the LSS, athletes‘ satisfaction with coaches‘
leadership behaviors was determined by comparing athletes‘ perception of their coaches‘ behavior to their preference for
coaching leadership behavior. Athletes‘ satisfaction with coaching leadership behavior was then compared to athletes‘
sports self-esteem, using a sports adapted version of Rosenberg‘s Self-Esteem Scale. Significant differences were found
between athlete preference and perception of coaches‘ leadership behavior.
This study investigates the similarity of favor asking and help seeking. Help seeking has been researched in depth and has
found that seeking help poses a threat to the self-esteem. This threat is greater for individuals with higher self-esteem
because they have more to risk, therefore higher self-esteem individuals tend to ask for less favors. Another personality
factor that significantly reduces willingness to engage in help seeking is gender. Males are brought up to be strong
independent and secure through the gender role socialization theory. Seeking help poses a threat to each aspect of the
male persona. It is because of this increased threat that males engage in less help seeking. A third factor which influences
help seeking is birth order. Oldest children are conditioned to helping younger ones, and seeking help themselves. In the
same manner younger children are accustomed to being helped and asking for help. Consequently, oldest children tend to
ask for less help than younger bourns. In this study these three personality factors were examined in the domain of favor
Many researchers have studied aggression. The current study examines a small sample of students at St. Mary's College of
Maryland and two Charles County Community College campuses. Participants read two vignettes, one detailing a case of
provoked aggression and the other a case of unprovoked aggression. Researchers are looking at the effects that family
dynamics might have on the development of aggression. Results showed no evidence for a relationship between family
dynamics and the aggressiveness of the participant. While the results were insignificant, it may be due to problems with the
sample. Future research needs to examine factors that are associated with aggression across more diverse samples.



The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of formality of clothing on self-efficacy. The data collected from 76
college students, 26 males and 50 females, supported the belief that professional dress can raise one‘s self-efficacy. Two
instruments were used to measure the self-efficacy levels of the participants. The first instrument, The Problem–Solving
Self-Efficacy Assessment, contained two scenarios, which were each followed by six problem-solving questions. A
secondary measurement, The Perceived Self-Efficacy Survey, was used to investigate if the participants internalized a
change in their self-efficacy. A two-way ANOVA revealed that formality of clothing does have a significant effect on self-
efficacy; participants who were professionally dressed felt more confident about their dress style. There were no differences
found between males and females.

Gender-schema theory predicts children will invoke gender schemata processing of information differently for males and
females. This indicates that they will be more attentive to gender-consistent than gender-inconsistent material and
subsequently recall the gender-consistent material more accurately. Forty-nine fifth grade students were presented with 15
pictures categorized as masculine, feminine, and neutral in content. They were asked to recall the pictures after viewing
them. A significant main effect was found for both pictures and for gender. A repeated measure ANOVA suggested
marginal significance in the interaction effect. The discussion will address reasons why marginal significance was produced.



Most research devoted to the development of emotion recognition in children has focused on facial expressions of emotion.
However, in recent years some attention has focused on vocal expression of emotions. The present study tested whether or
not age and gender differences exist in the accuracy of children‘s perceptions of five basic vocal emotions: anger, fear,
disgust, sadness, and happiness. Two actors, one male and one female encoded emotions using a fixed statement. One
hundred and ten children in grades kindergarten, third, and fifth heard each emotion twice and were asked to identify the
emotion that best fit in a forced choice format. Significant age differences with respect to accuracy were found, whereby
older children were more accurate than younger children. No gender differences were found. Accuracy in identifying
emotions increased the second time the participant heard the emotion. Happiness was the emotion most accurately
identified and disgust was the most difficult emotion to identify. Information learned from the present study and other such
Although not portrayed often, when gay characters are on television they are presented in a stereotypical manner. The
purpose of this study is to determine whether the manner in which gay men are portrayed on television affects individuals‘
beliefs about the stereotypes of gay men. Furthermore, the effect on homophobia was also of interest. Participants in this
study either viewed a television program with a gay character (―Will & Grace‖) or one without a gay character (―Friends‖).
They then completed measures that assessed both implicit and explicit adherence to stereotypes. Results indicated that
individuals who watched ―Will & Grace‖ reported less adherence to stereotypes of gay men and lesbians, for both the
implicit and explicit measure. No differences were found among conditions regarding homophobia. The significance of
these results, implications, and need for future research are discussed.
Abundant research has focused on the collective trap, a situation of social interdependence in which individuals are faced
with a dilemma of choosing to pursue self-interest and maximize personal gains or cooperate with other group members to
benefit the group as a whole. Various research paradigms have been used and a wide array of variables affecting choice
behavior in collective traps has been identified. The present study uses a resource dilemma game and isolates the effects
of knowledge and accountability variables to determine if cognition or motivation is more influential in decision-making.
Participants who received more detailed game instructions that highlighted the nature of the dilemma exhibited more
cooperative, group-interested behavior than participants who read basic instructions. Public accountability did not affect
choice behavior, except for participants who received detailed instructions. The implications of these findings are discussed
in terms of the role of cognition in decision-making.
The current study looked at the effects of tattoos and piercings on interviewers' decisions to hire applicants. Sixty-six
undergraduate students evaluated an applicant on two different occasions: once after reading his resume and a second time
after reviewing an interview with an attached photograph. In the photograph, the applicant had a tattoo, a piercing, or
neither. I expected that ratings of the applicant with a tattoo or piercing would decrease after participants viewed his
photograph. The applicant was given lower ratings after the interview across all conditions, which suggests that body art
had no effect on the decision to hire this applicant.



The study dealt with the media and the stereotypes they promote against adolescent fathers. Participants viewed tapes that
depict African American and European American adolescent fathers in a negative or positive way. The participants filled out
surveys correspondent to nine categories (emotional stability, financial stability, quality time spent with child, quality time
spent with mother and child, and the Five Myths) that voiced their opinions on the adolescent fathers after viewing the tapes.
 The participant‘s responses supported the theory that the media has influence over society when depicting adolescent
fathers in a couple of the categories. In this study, one gained insight demonstrating that the media has a positive effect on
society and makes people believe that the images they provide are always true in nature.


In the environment surrounding murder cases it is hard to know whether a defendant in the case receives a fair trial when
people are already forming opinions about the case based on media reports before the trial even starts. In this study the
researcher manipulated the order of information and the tone of the information presented to the participants. In each of the
eight conditions, participants read defendant background and trial information. Background information was manipulated by
using either positive or negative descriptions of the defendant. Trial information was manipulated by using either common
language or legal terms. Order of information was manipulated by presenting either background or trial information first
followed by the other factor. The researcher predicted a background main effect whereby only background information
would affect the verdict and sentencing. The study showed that there were no significant background and trial effects, or in
the order of presentation in reaching a verdict for the simulated murder trial.
Past research has established a relationship between risky driving and the positive-self bias. The current study expands on
this theory to include the Fundamental Attribution Error as a factor in risky driving, otherwise known as road rage. The
results show that an attributional bias did occur; however no correlation existed between road rage-like actions and use of
the Fundamental Attribution Error. There were also no significant differences between road rage scores for males and
females as other research suggested. These findings and others based on differing aspects of the questionnaire may be
related to the sample population used. The limitations and implications of the research are discussed in great detail. Further
research is suggested, as well as some ways for the state Motor Vehicle Administration to incorporate these findings into
future safety campaigns and driving courses.

Now, more than ever many institutions are aware of the need of multiculturalism or intercultural sensitivity. Educators and
companies, aware of this need, have begun implementing practices to help create and promote a diverse atmosphere. The
raise and invention of the internet, various forms of telecommunications, and travel has enabled a wider array and spread of
people to communicate and interact with one another; further, stressing the need in addressing issues involved with cultural
sensitivity …. Comparing St. Mary‘s College students (SMCM) to the Japanese students in Akita International University
students (AIU) intercultural sensitivity will be significantly greater among the Japanese sample. There are several reasons
which allude to why one might find this to be true. For one thing, each student is required to know a second language other
than Japanese, as they take college level course in English. The next reason deals with the curriculum as each student is
required to achieve a certain level of proficiency in English attaining a certain score on the TOFEL test thus going a abroad
The purpose of this study was to further examine the benefits of alternative treatments on Generalized Anxiety Disorder,
focusing specifically on meditation and yoga. Existing literature concerning these concepts was reviewed to determine
evidence of reduced symptoms following treatment. Local professionals connected to these fields were also interviewed to
gain real-life perspectives concerning treatment implications and results. These sources revealed support for these
alternative treatments by presenting observed differences in chemical, physiological, and psychological characteristic
following practice and incorporation of techniques in daily life style. This information illustrates additional treatment options
available to those afflicted with anxious symptoms, focusing on a more natural and holistic approach.


Through past observations when working with young children, researchers wanted to develop a program to help modify the
behavior of disruptive students. Three main themes were selected, respect (for oneself, for peers and for staff),
responsibility (for one’s work, and actions), and coping with emotions (anger, sadness, worry). Research on therapy
techniques for young children was examined and compiled to create a unique behavior modification program. The program
used techniques such as sand tray therapy, expression through arts and crafts, group discussion, and reward systems.
Students felt successes of the program included learning to deal with bullies, anger, and worry, learning to enjoy competition
for the fun of it, and learning to be a better person. Researchers found similar successes.


This study aims to detect change in fine motor activity among children who are exposed to new manipulative lessons
created by Maria Montessori. The study contained one experimental class (n=15) and two control classes of children (n=22)
who were pre-tested, and then post-tested after one month, on their fine motor ability through three tests of skill: tong test,
dressing test, and marble test. The experimental class received an intervention of new classroom materials stemming from
the Montessori Method in between testing sessions. The data was analyzed and showed a significant effect at time 2
through a repeated measures test. An ANOVA was run on each condition to determine that the effect was between the
experimental class and a control group. The results show a significant increase in fine motor ability among children in the
experimental condition after using these lessons, which was also found to be a significantly higher increase from the control
classrooms. This study is useful in detecting early intervention activities for preschoolers and young school-agers with a
This literature review investigates the effectiveness of the use of meditation in conjunction with psychotherapy through the
examination of the measured or reported changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression. It was hypothesized that
participants receiving therapy and practicing meditation would have more positive outcomes, operationalized as the
alleviation of symptoms of anxiety and depression, than those participants receiving therapy alone. Information was
gathered by conducting a literature review on both qualitative and quantitative studies in which adult participants practiced
meditation at least three times per week. Previous studies used a wide range of therapies coupled with a wide range of
sitting meditation techniques. All were included in the current research because they fulfilled specific therapeutic and
meditative criteria. Results overwhelmingly supported the hypothesis that participants who practiced meditation as well as
received therapy were significantly less functionally impaired, than those receiving therapy alone, in the domains of
This study examines the use of play therapy in working with children with Autism. Research shows that play can provide a
supportive environment for expression and emotional development. Play has been shown to improve social interaction,
communication, and behavior in children with Autism. In the present study, the researcher interviewed three play therapists
to gain a better understanding of the approach, process, and development of autistic children in play therapy. The
researcher found that emotional development appeared to be the most important aspect of change in these children.
Children also showed great improvements in social interaction and communication but did not seem to improve in behavior.
The researcher concludes that play might be best utilized in conjunction with other therapy approaches and that overall,
there should be a greater emphasis on the use of play with this population.

A study of members/residents of three secular intentional communities was conducted to determine the demographic and
personality traits of the individuals who choose to join intentional communities. 62 community members/residents completed
a survey with demographic and personality assessment items. The survey results from community members/residents were
compared with the results from a comparison group, and some significant differences were found. The survey results from
community members/residents were also tested for intercorrelation. Seven community members/residents participated in
interviews to provide information on the experience of individuals within communities. The themes of sustainability,
feminism, and active conflict resolution/prevention (ACRP) were isolated from the interviews. The implications of the
findings, both for future research and for mainstream society, are discussed.
Although it has been proposed that difficulties coping with acculturative stress may result in mental illness, little research
has directly focused on indigenous populations known to experience such stress as a result of globalization (Arnett, 2002;
Berry,1997). The current study examines the phenomenon of “Nerves” syndrome, a label used locally for a group of young
Gambian men who desperately want to travel. Because the population afflicted with the “Nerves” syndrome is composed of
youth who are involuntarily immobile, previous research indicates that this population may be particularly susceptible to
mental health problems (Berry, 1997; Carling; 2002). Through participant observation in local mental hospitals as well as
interviews with (n = 7) Gambian and Senegalese respondents, this study investigates whether those experiencing this
“syndrome” experience mental illness, as well as the local and global context influencing the experience of the “syndrome.”

Goals are often implemented due to the recognition that a positive result is associated with having personalized goals. The
present study aimed to explore the extent to which goal-setting influences motivation and goal progress from 18 clients in a
clinical rehabilitation setting. Participants had the option of independently filling out surveys or being interviewed. A
significant positive correlation was found between client self-reports of goal progress and levels of motivation. Further
research should examine client perceptions of symptom interference and medication issues to eliminate motivation and goal
progress barriers.



The current treatment trend for Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the use of medication, primarily stimulants.
Though this treatment option has proven to be very effective there are still questions of whether or not medication should be
the primary treatment. Though medication treats the core symptoms of ADHD, there are many psychological components of
the disorder that medication cannot treat fully. Each case of ADHD is different and thus it is very important to look at each
case individually. Treatment matching has become a topic of focus in the recent past. By treating each child diagnosed with
ADHD individually, using psychosocial interventions, medication, or both, future treatment will be much more efficacious.



[abstract not available]




This study evaluated the St. Mary‘s County Family Independence Project by analyzing the opinions, attitudes and responses
of the participants about the program. Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected. Responses indicated that the
financial mentors, financial workshops, and the retreat weekends were the most beneficial aspects of the programs. The
financial mentors and workshops helped families to gain an abundance of vital financial knowledge. The retreat weekends
allowed for families to relax, spend time together, and learn life skills. Limitations and directions for further research are
discussed.



The Gambia is a small developing nation with a population that is 90% Muslim and a culture that is struggling to find balance
between tradition and western influence. The focus of this study is interpretation of cultural influences on interactions
between men and women from the US and the Gambia in social and professional settings. Primary data collection method
consisted of several focus groups with college females, in both the Gambia and US. The purpose of the study is to provide a
way for exchange students from each country to understand their social interactions within the cultural context. Preliminary
results reveal that cultural differences in constructs of respect, persistence, class and reputations create cross-sex tension
between the cultures and that emotional experiences of women in each culture are similar.
This research aimed to understand the way that art therapy is conducted, better understand ways in which art therapy
facilitates both similar and dissimilar conditions when compared with traditional, talking-based therapy, and to gain a
clinician‘s perspective on previously published literature, with specific attention to the goals of art therapy. In order to meet
these goals, the researcher developed a series of questions to be posed in an interview format to Ms. Patti Prugh, a
practicing art therapist at Sheppard Pratt Psychiatric Hospital in Towson, Maryland. Additionally, the researcher observed
three art therapy sessions conducted by Ms. Prugh on the Trauma Disorders Unit at Sheppard Pratt. Data was gathered
based on a coding scheme developed by the researcher. The coding scheme consisted of 10 conditions that, based on
previous research, are likely to occur during an art therapy session. Observations were conducted and coded for content
based on a time-sampling method of one-minute increments. The two conditions met the most often were warmth and active
The Gambia is a small developing country in West Africa that has a long standing patriarchal social structure. This study
investigates the women‘s rights movement in the Gambia through a linguistic and content analysis of articles from two of the
country‘s prominent newspapers: The Point Newspaper and Daily Observer. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count,
dimensions of the articles such as pronoun use and psychological processes were calculated. Results revealed that women
were more likely than men to express certainty in their writing and women also used a higher ratio of positive to negative
words. Emotional language varied significantly between topics. Additionally, there were several differences between the
language characteristics of Gambian journalists and language characteristics that have been found in previous research
using American populations.

Given that child behavior problems are becoming more prevalent and are often influenced by a number of parental factors,
the aim of this study was to determine the degree to which parents understand how they may impact children‘s behavior
problems and assess parents‘ attitudes toward their participation in parent based interventions. Thirty-two parents
completed surveys inquiring about their attitudes toward parenting, child behavior problems, and ways of intervening in such
problems. Results suggest that many parents have an understanding of the role parents play in child behavior problems
and express a willingness to participate in parent based interventions. Although some did not share these same
perceptions, the results provide an understanding of who those parents are likely to be and ways of improving their outlook
on parenting. Future research would be well spent aiming to determine whether the attitudes reported by parents in this
study correspond to actual behaviors.
There is an increasing shortage of nurses. Factors of job stress and autonomy affect the job satisfaction of the nursing
career. Decreasing levels of job satisfaction affect the turnover intent which contributes to the nursing shortage. The nursing
shortage ultimately results in lower quality of patient care and lower job satisfaction of nurses. This study examines the
findings in previous literature. A literature review of job satisfaction in the nursing career was completed and three nurses
were interviewed. The interviews reflected on their job satisfaction as a nurse. Comparisons were drawn between the
findings in previous literature and the nurses‘ responses to job satisfaction. It was hypothesized that the previous findings of
job satisfaction in nursing and the job satisfaction of the nurses would be parallel. The responses of the nurses further
support the findings in previous literature.

This study focused on determining the prevalence of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and subsyndromal-SAD in a college
sample. High levels of SAD and S-SAD may warrant preventive or therapeutic measures to be put in place to treat students
who suffer from winter depression. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was administered to 48
participants in two psychology classes at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland to determine the prevalence of SAD and
subsyndromal-SAD in a college sample. A second survey was administered to look at specific vegetative symptoms,
changes in appetite, sleep and activity levels typical of SAD and subsyndromal-SAD. The prevalence of SAD was 6.25% (n
= 3), and 29.2% (n=14) met the two criteria for subsyndromal-SAD. This study suggests that subsyndromal-SAD may have a
higher rate of occurrence in college students than an adult population, so measures should be taken to detect individuals
with subsyndromal-SAD and offer them treatment.
Cultural psychologists believe that the process of development is inherently social and cultural. Thus culture cannot be
seen as separate from the individual, but rather as a shaping force that guides individuals in their early development and
throughout their adult lives. Children born into traditional Latino families in which male and female roles are strictly defined
are likely to be socialized to assume their respective gender roles, and are likely to form strong gender stereotypes. The
present study investigates processes of gender stereotype development among Latino preschoolers. Using the Gender
Stereotyped Attitude Scale for Children (GSAC) and behavioral observations the researcher studied a classroom of Latino
preschoolers at the Spanish Educational Development Center in Washington, D.C. Findings reflect patterns in gender role
formation among these Latino preschoolers, including a positive relationship between amounts of television watched daily
and rigidity of gender role perceptions. Future research should concentrate on reworking the present study and conducting
Past research suggests that yoga may be related to increased body-satisfaction. This relationship is particularly noteworthy
for the population of adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to examine yoga as a possible method for
increasing body-satisfaction among sixth grade girls. This age group was targeted with the aim of counteracting developing
low levels of self-esteem and body satisfaction that increase throughout adolescence. For this study, a six week yoga
intervention program was implemented as an after school program activity option at a local Boys and Girls Club. The scale
used to measure body satisfaction, the Body-Esteem Scale was deemed inappropriate because participants based ratings
of body satisfaction on functionality of their bodies rather than appearance. The functionality based nature of participants‘
responses may indicate that greater cognitive, physical and situational differences exist between pre-adolescents and
adolescents than was previously expected.
Research on the mechanisms of attitude formation has demonstrated that exposure to valuated messages about gender will
influence one‘s conception of gender, gender roles, and gender differences. Older siblings may be particularly influential
mediums of attitude transmission by serving as model of gendered behaviors and appropriate gender attitudes. In the
present study, gender role attitudes were evaluated as a function of sibling relationship context to examine whether growing
up with older siblings of the opposite sex facilitates formation of egalitarian gender role attitudes. Ninety-eight college-aged
(18-24) participants were self-selected into three groups: those with older siblings within 4 years of their age, those with any
other opposite-sex sibling, and those with no opposite-sex siblings. Gender role attitudes were measured by comparing
participant responses to King and King‘s (1993) Sex Role Egalitarianism Scale, Form KK. Results indicate that, for the
respondents surveyed, gender role attitudes do not differ significantly based on sibling relationships. Consistent with similar
The objective of this study was to implement an after-school dance program aimed at improving body image in elementary
school children. Previous research has shown that dance movement therapy has been successful in treating many
disorders in children and adults, including eating disorders and body image distortions. Six elementary school children
participated in five 30 minute sessions of themed dance activities. Body image was measured through participants‘ journal
activities, coded video-taped sessions, and interviews. Results suggested that the dance program was successful in
improving body image in the participants. This conclusion was indicated by participants experiencing decreases in shyness,
increases in confidence, increases in or maintenance of positive body feelings, and changes from restricted movements to
open and natural movements. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of programs designed to prevent
eating disorders in children by correcting body image distortions at an early age.
The effect of television viewing habits on children's ability to attend was examined with the aim of determining whether there
is a relationship between a child's viewing of private television programs, usually perceived as being highly stimulating and
of little educational value, and decreased attention levels. Two hundred seven students from a private school in Maryland
were surveyed using a measure of television viewing habits and the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment
(ASEBA)-Youth Self-Report (YSR; Achenbach, 2001). A similar media survey and the ASEBA-Child Behavior Checklist
(CBCL; Achenbach, 2001) were also administered and matched to the parents of the students. Results found no
relationships among television access, parental supervision, mimicking behavior, or types of programming and children‘s
attention levels. Minimal differences were discovered between the educative value and stimulating programming on
increased attention problems in children. Limitations considered concerned a non-representative sample and a low
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is rapidly becoming the biggest epidemic in history. At the end of 2002, there
were 28 million deaths from HIV/AIDS, a statistic that will soon amount to over 100 million (Hunter, 2003). Unfortunately, this
rampant spreading of AIDS is affecting all aspects of life in Africa, particularly the children. The children are being raised in
an environment stricken by poverty and death, stunting their growth and jeopardizing their futures. Slowly, the epidemic is
tearing apart families, leaving children to support themselves or live on the streets, where they face abuse and exploitation
daily (AVERT, 2005). Unless something is done to help the African continent, exhausted and hopeless because of
deprivation and disease, their youngest generation, and therefore their economy, will eventually collapse.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences between male and female serial killers. In particular, this
literature review examined how male and female serial killers differ in their method of murder. I hypothesized that those
female serial killers who adopt more feminine gender roles will use a covert method of murder when killing, while male serial
killers who identify with more masculine gender roles will use an overt method of murder. Additionally, I hypothesized that
the male serial killers who employed covert methods to kill were at the times of their murders in female dominated
occupations. These hypotheses suggest that an individual‘s gender role identity and occupation are associated with a serial
killer‘s choice of murder weapon. The results of the studies support these predictions.
Transforming Our Youth (T.O.Y.) is a behavior modification program that utilized creative therapeutic techniques to reduce
the frequency of problem behaviors in a group setting of fourth and fifth graders. Prior to sessions, two volunteer coders
observed children (in both control and experimental groups) for three minutes each, marking down misbehaviors (as
dictated by a researcher designed coding sheet). T.O.Y. consisted of four females and one male, and lasted approximately
five weeks. There was an average of three sessions per week that aimed to address issues of respect, responsibility, and
coping with emotion in new and innovative ways. Group members enjoyed sandplay and progressive relaxation, made worry
dolls, grew lavender plants, watched caterpillars transform into beautiful butterflies, and partook in meaningful discussions
about anger and communication. After the sessions were complete, volunteers repeated the coding process for post-
intervention measurements. Unfortunately, due to a lack of observed behaviors, as well as a small sample size, quantitative
The first portion of the research was gathered in The Gambia, West Africa, during a seven week field study program in the
summer of 2004. Seeking to find the perceptions and conceptualizations that The Gambians had of mental illness and
treatment, I set up multiple interviews with traditional healers, health professionals and everyday citizens. The research
continued at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland. Since The Gambia is 95% Muslim, questionnaires were given to Muslim college
students. They were asked questions about their perceptions on the Muslim religion and how it may relate to
psychopathology. It was found that most Gambians and Muslim students categorize the manifestation of mental illness into
three areas: spirits, psychological and drugs. The findings also suggest that the Muslim religion may have some aspects,
such as prayer, that are protective against mental illnesses, especially in the realm of anxiety.

This research explored the perceptions of first and second generation immigrant females. Eight college participants from
diverse countries were interviewed individually regarding issues such as their families, gender roles, their futures and ethnic
identity. The researcher hypothesized that the participants would integrate aspects of Western culture and their parents‘
country of origin into their identity, engaging in selective assimilation. It was found that most participants considered their
ethnic identity important and hoped to learn more about their countries of origin. Commonalities between the experiences of
participants were restrictive parents while growing up and interest in further education and career before having a family.
The findings of this study can add to the limited research regarding immigrant females and help to understand the needs of
females when coming to a new country.

Predictors of resilience in a young woman with Cerebral Palsy were examined in the following case study. Factors of family
support, including caregivers‘ level of hope, perceived social support, and family support services were hypothesized to
predict resiliency. Qualitative and quantitative analysis has found high levels of hope, perceived social support, family
support services, and separating oneself from the disability to predict resilience in a young woman with Cerebral Palsy.
Information gained from the present study is important for health care providers, teachers, insurance companies, parents,
and health departments to know in order to foster the development of resilient characteristics in terminally ill children.



The purpose of this study is to examine the observable reactions elementary age children with problem behaviors have
toward their school environment, peers and teachers. The investigation will also examine how peers interact with classmates
who exhibit difficulty controlling their behavior and how teachers and other school staff deal with students who display
troubling actions. One of the most significant analyses in the research that was undertaken for this study is the behaviors
that peer and teacher response elicit in children who have a problem controlling their conduct within a large, public school
setting. It is also necessary to look at the curriculum, classroom and school atmosphere in general and the effects these
scenarios have on the external behavior of children who exhibit less control over their impulses and have low abilities in
social and academic competence. Recent trends in behavior management and prevention have been examined to gain a
better understanding of what schools and teachers can do to intervene in and prevent the worsening of problem behaviors in
A Yoga Intervention Program was conducted with students from a local Boys and Girls Club to determine whether it
increased their levels of self-compassion. Based on my knowledge of the Buddhist notion of compassion and the practice of
Yoga and meditation, I expected that the yoga program would increase the amount of compassion the girls felt towards
themselves. Yoga and meditation entail a directing of consciousness to oneself and one‘s body and mental processes. With
this turning inward of attention comes an attitude of acceptance - acceptance of one‘s feelings, emotions, thoughts, and
behaviors. Such acceptance can lead to increased compassion towards oneself, and if practiced for long enough, towards
others. Although the program did not seem to directly influence the amount of self-compassion the girls felt towards
themselves, it certainly moved their thinking in the right direction. More importantly, the girls learned important aspects of
Yoga and breathing techniques that they could use on their own. This study examines the connection between mind and
A preliminary exploratory investigation of the issues and perceptions surrounding SHL, a rehabilitation and special
education center in rural Guatemala. The center offers free services to children and other members of the local communities
in the town of San Pedro and its vicinity; most of the affiliated people identify to belonging to the Tzutujil Mayan culture.
Many of the issues investigated are a response to observations made as a foreign volunteer. A written inquiry was sent to
three women working at the center: the special education teacher, the secretary/director, and the physical therapist. The
inquiry consisted of three major sections: Professional and Educational History, Experiences at the Center, and Opinions.
Questions were open ended and a number of themes and issues were extracted from the responses. Directions for further
study are discussed.

The interaction between the misrepresentative nature of news media and the risk perceptions of college students is an area
in need of further research. This study seeks to understand the role of the availability heuristic in shaping the world view of
college students as a product of their exposure to the news media. 40 students from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland
participated in a survey measuring their news media exposure, and general knowledge of current events. This was followed
by a manipulation of availability through varied exposure to different risks that cause death, and estimations of mortality
were made based on a hypothetical population of 100,000 people between the ages of 20-24. The study found that in
general college student are good at assessing risk, the notable exceptions being the overestimation of car accident
mortality, and the underestimation of homicide mortality. More in depth findings are covered, and suggestions for future
research and flaws in the design are discussed.
Past research and theoretical background of mental practice are discussed and reviewed. Visual Motor Behavior Rehearsal
(VMBR), a form of mental practice, was used with a Division III women's lacrosse team to see if it would improve goal
shooting accuracy. A four week training session in relaxation and visualization was implemented at the beginning of the
regular season to train the subjects. Shooting trials occurred before, during and after the training sessions to determine if
VMBR would be effective. The results showed great variability and no significant difference was found between the
relaxation control group and the VMBR group. External variables that affected the data are discussed and implications are
made for future research with VMBR.


Experimenters attempted to assess confidence and anxiety in athletes and non-athletes based on their performance. There
were 101 participants (47 men and 54 females) who volunteered to compete in a beanbag toss, golf-putt, and dart throw to
win one of four 50 dollar prizes. Conditions included alone, positive reinforcement (cheering), negative reinforcement
(booing), and simply the presence of people. Results showed a significant main effect in the performance of athletes to non-
athletes, however, there was no significant effect of condition. Future research should examine further the effects of anxiety
on athletes with more "sport specific" triggers.



[abstract not available]




Individual differences and their effects upon the reality monitoring model are examined within this study. Two separate
vividness scales were are utilized in measuring one‘s vividness. The first scale tested one‘s visual vividness and the other
examined an individual‘s ability to mentally recreate auditory stimuli. It was hypothesized that those who are rated as being
high imagers will experience greater reality monitoring errors while attempting to determine the origin of the event memory.
Participants were shown a video, which instructed them to either imagine something or prepare to experience something by
one of the real exposure conditions. In reviewing the results of the study, it was determined that no correlation existed
between the frequency of one‘s errors and their level of vividness. A reality monitoring error did occur within the imagine
hear and see condition. In addition, a finding that was not expected occurred in which the imagined hearing condition
demonstrated the best recall, when compared to the other imagined conditions. Thus, there is a need for the further
The correlations between individual difference factors and the ability to reduce false memories created in the Deese-
Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm through the use of a warning were examined. This paradigm involves the
presentation of lists in which all words are related to a target word, which is not presented (known as the ―critical lure‖).
False memories of critical lure items created within this study were lower when a warning was given, however their recall
and recognition was not eliminated, showing the robust nature of this task. The warnings were found to be more effective
for individuals scoring high across several academic measures as well as several personality measures.



Previous areas of research involving youth tobacco use have addressed a few different approaches toward tobacco
programming: a) psychosocial factors, which includes combating peer pressure and understanding social norms; b)
information campaigns, which inform students of the negative health problems associated with tobacco use; c) logical
reasoning skills, which encourage students to understand what possible motivations encourage them to smoke. All of these
approaches incorporate persuasive mechanisms, but they often do not address persuasion directly. It is an implied process,
used in subtle ways as part of program configurations. The purpose of this proposal is to analyze the use of persuasive
mechanisms as an integral part of a tobacco prevention program. There are several reasons for this focus. One reason is
practical: A thorough review of all approaches to prevention programming would require years to complete. A second reason
is strategic: By providing a base knowledge and framework for this kind of approach, schools will be able to use the
With a brief review of information on working memory and visuo-spatial memory, this study examines task-switching
between different difficulties of the same task, in this case a computerized Corsi block tapping task. Independent variables
examined were length, display—blocked versus random, and notification—whether the participant was told sequence length
or not. Dependent variables were accuracy and reaction time, RT. With n=5, there were main effects for accuracy based on
length and notification and a main effect for RT based on accuracy (F(2, 8) = 11.725, p = .014, F(1, 4) = 14.425, p = .019,
F(2, 8) = 17.541, p = .001, respectively).



For this St. Mary’s Project in the field of psychology, a study was designed to assess the effect of subconscious priming on
behavior. Past research shows that subconscious priming, or flashing words below the conscious awareness level, may
have an effect on subsequent actions. The present study seeks to further this research by observing the proposed effects of
subconscious emotion priming on judgment decisions. 102 college participants were subconsciously primed with angry,
happy, guilty, or neutral words. They were then asked to determine the punishment they would administer in three vignettes
depicting crimes of varying severity. There were no significant results of the study, which shows that there was no effect of
priming on judgment. There was also no effect of sex on judgment. Recommendations for research suggest modifying
details in the methodology, and extending the categories of subconscious priming.

The phenomenon of group memory refers to the individual memory of those in a group. Individuals who discuss a series of
events after witnessing them are often found to have memories that they had not had initially, but have come to believe to
be truths after hearing them from other members of the group. This study investigated the effects memories of a partner,
either being a friend or stranger, have on the memories of an individual. Forty eight males and females participated in the
experiment in pairs. First, participants were given a questionnaire assessing how well they knew their partner in the
experiment. Each participant then watched a slide show depicting a theft. However one central item and one peripheral item
were different for each slide show. Participants then answered a questionnaire asking them to recall information from the
slide show. They were also asked to rate their confidence for each question. They were then instructed to discuss with each-
other what they had seen, and to describe it to the experimenter as if telling a police officer. They then completed the same
Analogical transfer in problem solving occurs by means of mapping a transfer problem onto the elements of a base
analogue. Transfer often fails to occur at any significant rate in experimental designs unless the subject is explicitly directed
to use the base analogue to solve the transfer problem. Herein is a literature review of articles focused on various domains
in the realm of analogical problem-solving. Various explanations for the cause of transfer failure are offered, as well as
solutions for improving transfer. The theoretical basis for these potential solutions and the means by which they were tested
are delineated. Limitations and implications of these solutions are discussed.
How does a person interpret a simple geometric shape such a circle as an animate or inanimate object? The current study
tries to answer this question by looking at cerebral cortex activity while subjects watched 12 different simple motion cartoons
under functional magnetic resonance imaging conditions. Each motion cartoon was portrayed with two different
backgrounds—one to suggest the motion was animate and one to suggest the motion was inanimate. Interpretation of
animate motion, compared to inanimate motion, elicited greater activity in superior temporal sulcus, ventromedial prefrontal
cortex, and amygdala. Compared to animate motion, inanimate motion interpretation resulted in greater activity in middle
temporal gyrus. These systems of activation suggest that motion interpretation can occur in a top-down process in those
areas implicated in bottom-up processing in previous research.

The current study examined three cognitive factors influencing consumer behavior in the context of excessive product
choice, also known as ―consumer hyperchoice.‖ Past research demonstrates that as the number of choices facing a
consumer (choice set size) increases, consumer well being suffers. In addition, research has demonstrated that individuals,
called ―maximizers,‖ who feel the strong need to find the absolute best products, are more likely to experience post-decision
regret. In the present study, 63 participants (13 males and 50 females) were asked to make judgments about hypothetical
decision making situations, as well as to report their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior regarding every day consumer
decision making. Consistent with past literature, results revealed a significant positive correlation between the propensity to
maximize and post-decision regret.

Thirty-six students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland were surveyed for their memories of a campus party that was dispersed
by campus authorities and law enforcement officers. Eighteen students were arrested, and a number of students reported
being chased by police dogs and sprayed with pepper spray. Student memories of the event remained consistent during the
six month retention interval. Witness confidence was not correlated with memory consistency. Individual difference
measures did not predict consistency, but higher self-monitors had confidence that was predictive of consistency.
Participants that reported being under the influence of alcohol or other drugs in the fall showed a significantly lower
correlation between confidence and consistency. Suggestive questions and a photograph lineup of foils did not significantly
produce false memories.

America has been called the fatherless nation by many researchers (Debell, 2008). Today, father absence is more of a
problem than ever in the history of the United States. The current divorce rate is at nearly fifty percent (Jones, 2007). Half of
American children will spend part of their childhood in a single-parent home; with most of the homes not headed by their
biological fathers (Jones, 2007). Previous research was done to operationally define father absence and accurately define
risk-taking and correlate it to father presence. This study consisted of 323 participants from the St. Mary’s College of
Maryland, 79 were males and 240 were females. This study was designed to examine how father presence impacts risk-
taking behaviors in young adults. Risk-taking was divided into six sub categories and father impact was measured through a
number of questions regarding marital status, father closeness, frequency of father visitation and age at which father
separation happened. Results indicated inverse trends for numerous hypotheses about risk-taking and father absence. The
High school and college students face a variety of new cognitive, social, and emotional experiences. Some relieve the stress
of these experiences through the use of substances. Utilizing social norms theory we see that students often gauge their
own substance use in relation to their peers. This study used a survey in order to assess correlates with substance use in
high school and college. The participants were 101 students from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland; 87 females and 14 males.
Hypotheses centered on the factors of sex, academic achievement, peer influence, and drug education and how these
factors would mediate substance use. The researchers found no significant findings due to an unrepresentative sample.



Studies have shown that consumers find discounts given in percents more favorable on low priced items and discounts
given in dollar amounts more favorable on high priced items. In addition studies have also shown that the type of promotion
can affect an individual’s perceived price for the item on promotion. The current study aims to investigates these findings
and determine if consumers preferences for the discount display is a function of price or durability. A survey was
administered to 102 college students to test the hypothesis. Findings have showed that for the very high priced items
participants were influenced by the discount display.
The present research involves motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic) and the impact that pre-established motivation,
social support, and athletic identity have on adherence measures post-injury. Participants were varsity athletes at St. Mary‘s
College of Maryland (Division III school); 121 participants participated in Phase 1, and 32 sustained injury during data
collection and thus participated in Phases 2 and 3. Data collection was done by survey questionnaires that measured
perceived social support (Smith et al., 1990), athletic identity (Brewer & Cornelius 2001), and sport motivation (Pelletier et
al., 1995), and adherence (Brewer et al., 2000). Correlation analysis did not find significant results regarding adherence and
motivational factors. Athletic identity was significantly correlated with intrinsic motivation and subgroups of social support
were significantly different from one another pre-injury to post-injury, suggesting a shift in the amount of perceived support of
athletic trainers from pre-injury (5th place) to post-injury (2nd place). Research is important for coach and athletic trainers
A brief philosophical review of the notion of altruism is offered in the present paper, as well as an extensive psychological
literature review of altruism, volunteerism, and particular personality correlates. Upon reviewing literature on altruism and
volunteerism, the present study hypothesized that extraversion, openness, and preference for loosely structured volunteer
experiences would positively correlate with measures of altruism amongst college student participants who were currently or
recently had been involved in some type of volunteer endeavor. Three modes of measuring altruistic motivation (both
explicitly and implicitly) in a questionnaire series were designed. All three altruistic motive measures correlated positively
with one another. As predicted, there was a significant positive correlation between altruistic motivation and openness, as
well as a significant positive correlation between altruistic motivation and a preference for loosely structured volunteer
experiences. There was no significant correlation between extraversion and altruistic motivation. Unexpectedly, there were
The current investigation evaluated whether or not adults are susceptible to false memories when misinformation of an
event is introduced. After reading a newspaper article describing an on-campus event, participants were assigned to a
condition; student condition or authority condition. Those in the student condition read a letter that was said to be written by
a student and those in the authority condition read a letter that was said to be written by the president of a college, when in
actuality they were identical letters. Particular items were chosen to test the participants’ recognition of true
central/peripheral information and false central/peripheral information. Memories were assessed through the use of a
recognition questionnaire. I discovered that the participants did report false memories of central and peripheral items and
were less accurate for peripheral items then central items. Both of these findings are congruent with previous research.
However, it was found that assigned condition had no effect on the participants’ recognition and was not a predictor of false
The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the relevance of information affects the preference for
information consistent with personal views. Participants were given a proposal of a new required college course involving
teaching library and technological skills. The proposal pertained to either the student’s present institution or a different
college. Participants gave their initial decision and then were given more information about the proposal (either two or ten
pieces of information) then had to choose which piece of information was most useful and make their final decision. Results
indicate a preference for consistent information regardless of information quantity.



This study was designed to explore the racial/ethnic and cultural identity development of Korean transracial adoptees. Given
the limited amount of information in this area, this study is not based on a specific hypothesis rather it explores possible
factors influencing identity development of Korean transracial adoptees. Data is presented from interviews with thirteen
Korean-born adoptees attending colleges or working in the mid-Atlantic region. Responses to the interview questions
focused on four major aspects of identity: (a) self-labeling, (b) belonging, (c) cultural knowledge, and (d) changes in identity.
Subthemes within each of these sections are discussed. Applications of existing racial/ethnic identity models and related
research is discussed. In addition, a tentative model of racial/ethnic identity for transracial adoptees is proposed based
upon the findings of this study.

The interaction between the variables masculinity, alcohol consumption and problems associated with alcohol were
investigated in African American males. The relationship was investigated through a review of psychological literature,
English literature and an empirical psychological study. Fifteen works from the authors Kenneth Carroll, LeRoi Jones,
Malcolm X, Langston Hughes and James Baldwin were reviewed. Both literature reviews investigated the various socio-
cultural factors which influence the three variables. The themes of culture, discouragement, economic class, alcoholism,
problem behaviors and bearing witness are explored throughout the works, as well as psychological literature. The empirical
study revealed significant positive relationships between the variables alcohol and masculinity and alcohol and alcohol
related problems. Sixty-five subjects from Morgan State University and Tennessee State University were tested using three
scales of measurement: the Quantity Frequency Variable (QFV) (Cahalan et al, 1969), the Hyper-masculinity Index (Mosher
The present study investigated the links between several variables and satisfaction in romantic relationships. Measures of
religiosity, optimism, relationship satisfaction, religious homogamy, religious orientation, perceived social support and
intimacy were administered. Results of this study showed no significant relationship between religiosity and relationship
satisfaction. However, optimism and relationship satisfaction were highly correlated; with evidence indicating that perceived
level of support was a mediating factor in this link. Significant correlations were also found in regards to intimacy, religious
homogamy, religious orientation and relationship length. Implications of these findings on relationship outcome are
discussed.


[abstract not available]




Although many groups are stereotyped and stigmatized, one group of people that is often stereotyped is the
psychotherapist. The purpose of the current study was to explore the prevalence of stereotypes of psychotherapists in
various films. An analysis instrument was designed to measure stereotypes in films. Frequencies of stereotypes were
calculated and are fully discussed and various t-tests were performed to determine gender differences in characterized
psychotherapists. If psychotherapists are being portrayed negative in the media, then it is possible that consumers (potential
clients) will develop negative views of therapy. The negative stereotypes present may cause many potential therapy clients
to never seek professional help.


With body image a hot topic among researchers, the question of how young girls are affected is now starting to get more
attention. This study was conducted to examine body image in girls age 10-16. This study examines the media influences on
body image as well as parental influences on body image. Data was collected from both mothers and their daughter using
questionnaires. Questionnaires gathered data on self esteem, body esteem, BMI, ideal body type and demographic
information. It was expected that the media will have a negative impact on body esteem. Also, that there will be a correlation
between the body esteem of the girls and the body esteem of their mothers. This study also found data suggesting a racial
difference between ideal body shape as well as body esteem.


This study explored the variety and amount of disobedience exhibited by characters in children‘s television programs.
Previous research has demonstrated how exposure to such inappropriate behaviors influences children‘s development and
interpersonal skills. Researchers coded a selection of the most popular children‘s shows for varying types of disobedience
and a number of other descriptive variables. This study presents the general trends of disobedience displayed in children‘s
programming to create archival data for future studies, educators, and concerned parents.




The relationship between scores on the five factor model of personality and class selection in a Massively Multiplayer online
(MMO) game were investigated. Participants included 1541 players of World of Warcraft (194 females and 1347 males,
aged 12-55 and older) that were made aware of the study via forum posts on the World of Warcraft forums. Participants
took a survey with a shortened version of the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (IPIP)‘s Big-Five Factor Markers
questionnaire. Questions relating to gaming behaviors and choices were included. Participants that played a priest were
higher in agreeableness than those that played a warrior. There were no other significant results for personality and class
selection, but a number of exploratory analyses of personality (as well as gender) and gaming behaviors and choices were
examined. This study discusses the directions that future exploration of MMOs is likely to take.
The present study sought to find differences in the way women are perceived based on the size of their breasts, and
whether or not the media influences society‘s approval of breast augmentation surgery. The hypotheses were that women
with large breasts would be rated more positively than women with small breasts, and that negative media would negatively
influence participants‘ attitudes towards breast surgery, whereas positive media would positively influence participant‘s
attitudes towards breast surgery. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment participants viewed the same
model with either large breasts, medium breasts or small breasts, and were asked to rate her based on character traits. In
the second experiment, participants viewed either a negative, neutral or positive video, and then reported their attitudes
about breast augmentation surgery. The findings show that the hypotheses were supported in part. The large-breasted
model was viewed as more popular than the small-breasted model, but also as more self-centered. For the second
The effects of pornographic images on individuals’ attitudes about date rape and sexual consent were examined. In addition
to examining sex differences, the study aimed to see if the race of the women in the pornographic images influenced
participants’ attitudes. Participants either viewed neutral images, pornographic images of White women or pornographic
images of Black women. Participants completed the Sexual Consent Attitudes Scale (Humphreys & Herold, 2007) and
answered questions about a date rape scenario (Katz, Moore & Tkachuk, 2007). A series of 2 x 3 ANOVAs were conducted.
Significant main effects for sex were found, but no significant main effects for image type were found. No significant
interactions were found, but non-significant trends were found. The conclusions of the study indicate that more research
needs to be done in this field.

The current study was designed to examine the roles of self-objectification and social comparison as they impact the
experience of social comparison, self-objectification, body shame, body anxiety, and self-restricted eating in college
females. The independent variables manipulated were the sex of the anticipated evaluative audience (either male or female)
and the presence of others while being evaluated (single, paired with thin-ideal peer or paired with average peer). None of
the results from a series of ANOVAs were found to be significant except for a significant interaction for body shame.
Variables that may protect against the experience of body shame, self-objectification and disordered eating behavior are
discussed.


The role of television in the daily lives of children has been explored for several decades, with investigations focusing on
various aspects of the medium. One area of children‘s programming that has received a great deal of attention is
educational television, and whether or not it serves as a valuable educational tool. Many of the investigations examining
educational television have studied not only the overall content, but also the contribution of specific shows, such as Sesame
Street or Blue‘s Clues. The current investigation consists of three distinct parts, the first of which is an extensive literature
review of the research conducted regarding educational television. The second is a content analysis of the children‘s
program Dora the Explorer, which will be utilized to create the study materials for the third and final portion of the
investigation. This third portion is a research proposal designed to examine the educational contribution of Dora the
Explorer, which has gained popularity throughout the past few years. This particular show is important to investigate due to
Instant messenger has become a popular tool for socializing, particularly on college campuses. However, there is
considerable controversy regarding whether friendships developed over this medium are of equal quality to those developed
face-to-face. This study had pairs of female participants engage in conversations over the course of three sessions, either
face-to-face or using instant messenger. They completed the Reysen Likeability Scale (2005) after each session, and their
conversation was coded for self-disclosing and affectionate statements using the Couple‘s Communication Coding System
(Hollinsworth, King, & Woolley, 1991). The results showed no difference in likeability ratings between the two
communication mediums, but revealed that those who spoke face-to-face used more self-disclosing statements than did
those who used instant messenger.

Americans, especially teens and young adults, have extensive exposure to various types of media such as television, music,
internet, and magazines. Because of this large exposure, many social scripts and stereotypes are learned though media,
including scripts and stereotypes about gender. The goal of this research was to examine whether repeated exposure to
men displaying stereotypical feminine traits and women displaying traditionally masculine traits could reduce sex
stereotypes that current and past media have aided in creating. To examine this influence, 29 undergraduate students were
randomly assigned to view either media depicting reverse stereotyped gender roles (e.g., men cooking) or gender absent
media. Each participant viewed media once a week for four weeks. Participants completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory
(BSRI) and a Sex Role Belief Survey both prior to the study and at the last session of the study. Results examined the
difference between gender identity and stereotyped beliefs between pre and post media exposure measures as well as
The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between conservatism and (1) each of the Big Five factors of
personality, (2) self-esteem, and (3) life satisfaction. Measures of personality, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and political
orientation were administered to 286 participants at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland. A Pearson product-moment correlation
revealed that conservatism correlated negatively with both Openness to Experience and Agreeableness, and that
conservatism correlated positively with self-esteem. These results lend support to the notion that conservative individuals
tend to be less open to new experiences and novel ideas than individuals who are less politically conservative, and that
conservative individuals tend to be less concerned with others and less able to sympathize with others‘ feelings than those
low in conservatism. The positive correlation between conservatism and self-esteem was an unexpected finding. However,
this finding reiterates the complexity of this relationship and encourages future research.
Sympathy is often understood as an emotion reserved for victims of a negative event or tragedy, yet it is rare for a victim to
occupy only one role. The victim-offender dynamic becomes especially complex when the victim is himself an unrepentant
offender. The current study investigates the extent to which committing a prior offense will influence judgments made of the
offender. Participants were asked to report how much sympathy they felt for both a target that had been established as an
―offender‖ and a neutral target for several negative events (moderate and severe) and how deserving the target was for
these events. The influences of trait empathy and target retaliation were also examined. As predicted, less sympathy and
more deservingness were reported for the offender compared to the neutral target, and this was qualified by a significant
severity by target interaction. The most sympathy was reported for neutral targets who experienced severe negative events,
while the least sympathy was reported for offenders who experienced moderately severe events. Interestingly, there was no
Facial attractiveness is normally a subjective matter which varies across cultures. An objective means of measuring facial
attractiveness was developed by Marquardt (1997) using a geometrical relationship to form the features and structure of the
face. However, this Golden Decagon Mask has only been tested in predicting attractiveness for Caucasian females. This
study compared the mask to the African-American and Asian faces. Comparison among the cultures revealed that indeed,
the mask was best at depicting the Caucasian faces, which shows a difference in facial structure between different
ethnicities. A negative correlation was found between the total mask deviation score and facial attractiveness for all
ethnicities. Unfortunately, there was not a strong enough correlation to show that total mask deviation scores can predict
attractiveness. Certain nodal points on the face were also predictive of attractiveness in the Asian and Caucasian cultures.

One‘s rationale for conforming to and affiliating with the members of a group depends on a variety of factors and
circumstances. Previous studies have examined the extent to which the ―severity of initiation‖ and hazing as a whole effects
one‘s desire to affiliate, one‘s degree of conformity, and one‘s attraction to the group. Furthermore, it has been suggested
that one‘s gender, one‘s age, and the size of the group all have different influences on one‘s desire to conform and affiliate
with the members of the group and the group as a whole. The current study examined additional influences on conformity
such as the influence of gender, self-esteem, and the effects of the severity of initiation/hazing on group cohesiveness and
group attractiveness, as the degree as these factors have only briefly been discussed in the previous literature that exists.
[from introduction]

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of misogynistic rap music on implicit and explicit attitudes toward
women. The difference between the effects of music alone and music videos was also examined. The results show that
although there was no specific effect of the misogynistic content on attitudes, there were several findings that showed males
in all conditions had higher implicit attitudes of women, with the most positive attitudes being in the misogynistic music video
condition. Males also showed more knowledge of the misogynistic content than females. Males also showed higher
adversarial sexual beliefs than women. Discussion focuses on the lack of expected results despite strong previous findings,
the role of the rap music exposure in the experimental study and the possible implications of the significant results and
some of the non-significant trends.

The present study assesses the different reasons why an individual may cheat on their partner and any gender differences
in these reasons by combining Rusbult‘s Investment Model and evolutionary theory. Possible explanations for cheating
were measured by three variables from the Investment Model: relationships satisfaction, investment size, and alternative
quality. Sixty-eight participants were obtained, 23 male and 44 female, and 16 cheaters and 47 non-cheaters. Participants
completed a survey that assessed their reasons or hypothesized reasons for cheating based on the three Investment Model
variables. It was hypothesized that for both cheaters and non-cheaters, females would be more likely than males to report
relationship satisfaction and investment size as explanations for cheating, and males would be more likely than females to
report alternative quality as an explanation for cheating. Although the data did not support this hypothesis, it indicated that
responses from cheaters were very different from the responses of non-cheaters.
Sex appeal is frequently used in advertising to entice consumers to buy a product. Past studies examined the level and the
effects of sex appeal in advertising, but few studies have looked at sex appeal in advertising from a cross-cultural
perspective. This study conducted a cross-cultural examination of sex appeal in advertising. The first part of the study
involved a content analysis of sex appeal in advertisements from eight different countries in the transnational magazine
Vogue. The second part of the study was a cross-cultural examination of opinions about sex appeal in advertising in general
and in twelve specific advertisements. This study found that there were cross-cultural differences in sex appeal in magazine
advertising. In addition, people from different countries had different perceptions of sex appeal in advertising and found
advertisements from their own countries to be more effective than advertisements from other countries. The results from this
study suggested that advertisements should not be completely globalized, because people from different countries are used
Self-esteem has long been an indicator of performance as well as perceptions made by others. Additionally, peripheral vocal
characteristics, such as rate of speech, pitch, and volume, have illustrated perceptions of such character traits as
competence, credibility, and trust. The current study aimed to study the relationship between self-esteem and vocal
characteristics, to determine if positive and/or negative feedback had an effect on vocal performance in high and low trait
self-esteem individuals. Bogus feedback was given to participants over a computer following a task that was said to be
measuring ―reaction ability.‖ Additionally, participants were asked to complete two measures of self-esteem (one prior to
feedback, one following feedback) and record a vocal passage twice (once prior to feedback, once following feedback).
Results indicated no effects of the feedback manipulation on pre- to post-recording changes in any of the peripheral vocal
characteristics: rate of speech, pitch, or volume.
Negative news encompasses news that is violent in nature and evokes feelings that are detrimental to the viewer‘s well-
being. Research has shown that the United States has a high amount of negative news on television. The present study
examined the amount of negative news on US television compared to a similar country, Australia. Fear and anxiety of
participants in the United States (n= 103) and Australia (n=33) were self-assessed and then related to the amount of
negative news participants‘ were exposed to. There was no significant difference between the amounts of negative news in
the United States and Australia; however Australia did have significantly higher reporting of positive news compared to the
US. There was no difference in fear of participants from the two countries, but the United States had more reported anxiety
than Australia. Negative news exposure was not a predictor of fear or anxiety in either country. Possible differences between
the two countries and implications for future research are discussed.
Internet use has reworked the way individuals interact and communicate with one another. Some of the most widely used
sites online would be online social networks such as MySpace and Facebook, in which individuals, specifically adolescents
and young adults, provide personal information about themselves as a way to meet new people. With a site such as
MySpace, users have the ability to explore possible interests, crowds and communities of people, and their own identities.
The purpose of the current study was to examine MySpace users’ profiles and analyze the type of identity-related
information that was provided by males and females who were 18-, 19-, and 20-year-olds. Based on Erikson and Marcia’s
theories of identity development, it was hypothesized that individuals ages 18 and 19 would be more inclined to be going
through moratorium than 20-year-old subjects. As for sex, it was hypothesized that females would be more likely to be
emotionally expressive, more willing to disclose information about their identity relative to males. The results indicated that
This study examined changes in female gender role stereotypes in film over a period of 23 years. Sixteen movies were
chosen based on box office success and presence of two lead female characters. Movies were grouped in six year spans,
and within these groups, one movie was selected for each MPAA rating. These movies were then coded for
stereotypical/non-stereotypical behavior of the lead females. A survey was constructed to assess how influential these
movies were on women when they were viewed. Sex roles of the viewers were evaluated as well as their desire to be like
movie characters. These results were then compared to the content analysis data on those characters. The prevalence of
feminine characteristics in movies did not change over time. Masculinity of the characters increased over the time period of
the study. Participant identification with sex role characteristics of movie characters did not predict participant‘s own sex
role characteristics.
The current research examined the effects of the presence of college romantic relationships on students in terms of
academic achievement, levels of depression, and academic motivation. Multiple factors of relationship health were
investigated; hypothesizing that healthy college relationships would buffer the generally accepted negative effects of dating
in an academic setting, while unhealthy relationships would increase these effects. Relationship presence was significantly
correlated with lower academic performance, however results indicated contradictions to many hypothesized effects, and an
overall lack of finding for others, including findings of previous research. Results suggest the possibility that in rigorous
academic institutions, the negative effects of romantic involvement on academic performance are not as concrete as
previously thought. Similarly, GPAs of participants were higher than the average student and not particularly variable, and
history of relationship involvement was not associated with GPA. These results suggest a less dramatic impact of
This study set out to examine the relationship between level of athletic participation, alcohol consumption, and extraversion.
This study included 80 participants that completed a specially designed questionnaire made specifically for this study. The
hypotheses included that the higher level of athletic participation a person was involved in the more alcohol they would
consume, the higher level of athletic participation a person was involved in the more extraverted they would be, the more
alcohol a person consumed the more extraverted they would be, and males would consume more alcohol than females.
Results indicated that athletics and alcohol consumption, athletics and extraversion, and alcohol consumption and
extraversion were all positively correlated. Further analysis revealed the specific differences between the groups. The
mediational analysis model revealed that extraversion played a role in mediating the relationship between athletic
participation and alcohol consumption indicating that those who participate in higher levels athletics consume more alcohol
The present study investigated the relationship between fear appeals, gender, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Two
questionnaires were distributed to measure attitudes and behavioral intentions in response to manipulated print
advertisements intended to arouse different levels of social fear. A statistical analysis of participants‘ responses found that
fear level significantly affected the amount of fear reported by participants, though not entirely in a positive direction as
predicted. A near significant positive effect of fear level on advertisement attitudes was also found. Gender moderated the
effect of fear level on advertisement attitudes, while self-esteem significantly predicted average reported fear. Self-efficacy
significantly affected advertisement attitudes and fear levels for the low fear condition only, while self-efficacy was positively
related with many product and advertisement attitudes and purchase intention outcomes overall. The implications of this
research and ethical concerns about the use of fear appeals are discussed.
The comparison of negative television news content from the United States and Australia was examined to see if the content
affected the viewer‘s fear and anxiety levels. One hundred three U.S. participants and thirty three Australian participants
completed a general questionnaire and fear and anxiety subscales. The general questionnaire reported demographic,
statistical, and opinion information about the participant‘s viewing habits while the subscales recorded each participant‘s fear
and anxiety level. Television news media content samples from both countries were coded with a focus on specific negative
news variables. There was no statistically significant difference between the two countries for the amount of negative news
content. Killings and shootings was found to be significantly higher in the United States content when compared to
Australian content. U.S. participants were more anxious than Australian participants and had a more negative state of mind
after viewing the news and negative perceptions of the news. Negative news did not predict fear and anxiety levels. Positive
Meditation has been widely documented for its ability to reduce anxiety, stress, pain and its clinical applications in the
medical field. However, the effects of meditation on behavior have not yet been investigated. One form of Buddhist
meditation called loving-kindness meditation (LKM) aims to cultivate feelings of unconditional empathy towards all beings.
Indeed, LKM practice has been shown to increase feelings of compassion for self and others (Weibel, 2007), social
connectedness (Hutcherson et al., 2008), empathy and perspective-taking (Lutz et al., 2008), and reduce chronic lower back
pain, emotional distress and trait anger (Carson et al., 2005). The empathy-altruism hypothesis posits that pro-social helping
behavior is motivated by an emotional state of empathic concern for a distressed other (Batson et al., 1988; Batson, Fultz &
Schoenrade, 1987). It was predicted that LKM would increase empathy, perspective taking, helping behavior and reduce
personal distress compared to a progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) technique. This experiment compared the effects of
The Internet is a multifaceted realm in which users engage in several gratifying activities. Some people use the Internet as
forum to seek both romantic and sexual endeavors. Secretly engaging in online sexual activities can prove detrimental to
monogamous relationships. This study investigates whether participants who engage online sexual activities are also more
prone to commit offline infidelity. Results showed that those who participated in online sexual activities significantly had
more offline sexual partners. Significant main effects were found for gender where non-online sexual activity female
participants reported feeling high levels of betrayal, opinions on whether online sexual activities are acts of infidelity, and the
likelihood of believing that their partner would commit infidelity due to their engagement in online sexual activities.


This study analyzed the effect social influence has on perceived physical attractiveness of the opposite sex. It was
hypothesized that social influence would have an effect on the perceived facial attractiveness of the opposite sex. Women
would be more influenced by negative opinions of other women when judging attractiveness, while men would be more
influenced by positive opinions of other men. It was also believed that individuals who were high self-monitors would be
more influenced by confederates, regardless of gender. 118 St. Mary‘s College of Maryland undergraduate psychology
students, 84 females and 34 males, participated in this study. A self-monitoring scale was used to measure an individual‘s
level of self-monitoring. The participants were asked to rate a series of 25 pictures of the opposite sex. There were two
conditions, control and experimental. In the experiment groups the participants were presented with verbal comments
intended to influence their ratings of the photographs. It was found that social influence does affect an individual‘s
Television news in the United States seems to be saturated with violence and negativity. Although many American T.V.
news producers claim that this negativity in the news is representative of the events that are being reported, research has
shown that news overemphasizes the amount of negativity that is actually occurring in real life. The intent of this study was
to investigate the possible harmful effects of negative news media on it viewers, specifically looking at the relationship
between watching negative news and the amount of fear and anxiety in its viewers. In addition to examining the effect of
negative news in America, this study was also interested in determining if the U.S. differed from other countries regarding its
negative news reports. This study also compared the amount of negativity in Australian and American news, and compared
the amount of fear and anxiety between the viewers of each country.

[abstract not available]




At-risk students need additional help in their academics (specifically reading and math) which can be provided in the after
school hours. After school programs help students to improve their academic skills but also provide supervision during the
times when temptations for bad behavioral choices are the highest. In evaluating a local after school program, we are able
to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of a program of this type. Students and teachers involved in the program
discuss the program‘s general development and their feelings towards the program. Suggestions are made for
improvements to the program in future years.



The relationship between adult attachment styles and expected vs. perceived intimacy was examined. It was hypothesized
that individuals with anxious or avoidant attachment would be more likely to have a large discrepancy between the current
intimacy in their relationship and the ideal intimacy levels they would like to have in a relationship. Participants were given
two surveys. One survey measured whether the individual was anxiously, or avoidantly attached. The second survey
measured the differences between current and ideal levels of intimacy of the individuals‘ relationship. Sets of Pearson
correlations were performed to determine if there was a relationship between attachment style and intimacy discrepancies.
The hypothesis was supported by the results. Possible explanations for the relationship are discussed.


The current literature review analyzes the hypothesis which states that the impairments observed in autistic individuals are
the result of a core deficit of theory of mind reasoning. The literature review first summarizes previous literature on autism; a
disorder characterized by severe impairments in social and language development. Second, it reviews theory of mind, the
ability of individuals to understand other‘s emotional states. Thirdly, the paper provides a summary of recent literature about
theory of mind deficits in autism. The paper concludes that although it is currently impossible to definitively attribute the
social and language impairments seen in autism to deficits in theory of mind, it is the most prevalent and supported theory
available.


The author of the study examined the development of Theory of Mind in typically developing children and children with
Autism. In Study 1, 15 typically developing children were interviewed with five questions, ranging from basic seeing is
knowing concepts to false belief tasks. In Study 2, which was a proposal, 15 children diagnosed with autism will be recruited
and asked the same five interview questions. The children are expected to perform better on the Theory of Mind tasks and
they increase in age. Typically developing children are expected to perform better than the autistic children. It is also
expected that the children‘s answers will reveal a pattern, which supports the theory that Theory of Mind development is a
slow and continual process. This was found, in addition to an increase in Theory of Mind abilities with age.
The current study aimed to investigate the use of traditional writing therapy in personal journals and weblogs. Previous
research has indicated that writing about personal traumas in laboratory settings can relieve anxiety and symptoms of
depression (Pennebaker, 1997). This study utilized an original questionnaire to explore participant’s usage of journals
(handwritten or word processed) and weblogs, specifically in the areas of structure, disclosure, emotional regulation, and
depth of content. Weblogs are widely used in the United States and around the world as a place to record personal thoughts
and feelings. Demographic information about participants that used journals and weblogs was collected. Results between
journal users and weblog users were compared using paired-samples t-tests. URL addresses from 37 participants were
collected to explore the use of writing therapy techniques first hand.

The purpose of the research presented here in is to see if there are correlations between attachment behaviors and conflict
for participants from both intact and divorced families. 96 participants completed questionnaires on perceived parental
marital conflict, parent-child attachment and adult attachment. The results indicated that perceived parental marital conflict
was negatively correlated with parent-child attachment, parental marital conflict was not correlated with adult attachment
and parent-child attachment was correlated with adult attachment.




[abstract not available]




The purpose of this handbook is to educate its readers on the developing psychotherapeutic discipline of drama therapy.
Briefly, drama therapy can be understood as the intentional application of the art of drama along with techniques from
theater to achieve therapeutic goals. The wide-ranging conceptual basis of drama therapy and its sister field, psychodrama
is examined. The history of drama therapy and its development from psychodrama among other sources is explored. The
often-misunderstood differences between drama therapy and psychodrama are discussed, as well as the relation of drama
therapy to other forms of psychotherapy. The techniques, theory, and current methods are described. Finally, the
weaknesses of the discipline are analyzed and suggestions for the further development of drama therapy are given.


This study explores the history of meditation and its relationship to psychotherapy, with a focus on Mindfulness-Based
Stress Reduction (MBSR), a relaxation technique that aims to increase awareness and enhance general well-being.
Researchers hypothesized that a brief MBSR intervention would improve mood and reduce anxiety. Participants completed
the Profile of Mood States Bipolar Version (POMS-Bi) to assess baseline mood on six different subscales and the State-Trait
Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to assess baseline anxiety. Experimental participants listened to a MBSR audio tape while the
control group laid in silence. All participants then completed the POMS-Bi and STAI to assess changes from baseline
measurements. Data was analyzed and results indicated significant increases on three positive POMS-Bi subscales and
significant decreases in anxiety for both experimental and control groups.

Television viewing and exposure to media are currently widespread phenomena regardless of age, but of particular interest
is the changing media consumption patterns found in children aged two years and younger. Over the last decade there has
been a rapid expansion of televised media products marketed to this age range, but this expansion has not been matched
by research into the effects this exposure has on children‘s cognitive, developmental, and health outcomes. The current
research examines the impact of media products on general language outcomes and target word learning, as well as
exploring the utility of televised media products as a means to present general information and inform children‘s
understanding of reality. In order to investigate caregivers‘ motives for exposing young children to television, consumer
reviews of children‘s media products were qualitatively analyzed. A number of conclusions and recommendations based on
this research are offered.
The systematic study of bullying began in the 1970s. Scandinavia was one of the first countries to investigate the behavior
patterns and reactions to this phenomenon. Norway later joined this force toward the early 1980s and the global
investigation catalyzed in the 1980s and early 1990s (Olweus, 1997; 2003). Bullying has existed in schools for centuries. In
the past people viewed it as a normal part of growing up, a toughening phase of childhood (Ma, Stewin, & Mah, 2001).
Inquiring minds and school officials were alerted to these incidents when children began committing suicide and leaving
notes about how they could not suffer the harassment of their classmates anymore. In Norway, three boys took their lives
partly as a result of severe bullying and in Tokyo a 13 year-old boy hanged himself, leaving a note that blamed his
classmates (Ma et al., 2001). The U.S. Secrete Service conducted a study to identify the psychological and familial factors
related to school-shooters. Through interviews they found that 71% of the shooters had been victims of bullying (Vossekuil,
[abstract not available]




The first therapeutic horseback riding program centers were established in the 1950s and therapeutic riding has since
gained popularity. It is viewed by many as an acceptable for of therapy for children and adults with physical and mental
disabilities, as well as for those with other difficulties (such as children with behavioral problems). Despite the success of
these programs, there is limited research to support their claims of being therapeutic. Much of the literature in support of
therapeutic horseback riding is based more on speculation and limited case studies than empirical research. Therapeutic
horseback riding has the ability to help some individuals better their lives, and any activity that might provide this opportunity
is certainly worth examining further. This project provides the reader with a history of and background research on
therapeutic horseback riding and proposes a study to examine specific effects of therapeutic horseback riding on autistic
children.
After-school programs are slowly gaining popularity all across the country. New information about children‘s use of their
after-school time has prompted many school officials to take action and provide students with an after-school alternative.
Many children go home to empty houses or engage in dangerous activities once school is dismissed. Spending time in an
after-school program gives students the opportunity to be in a supervised environment and gives parents the peace of mind
that their children are safe. After-school programs come in various forms, but academically based programs have been
receiving a significant amount of attention due to the fact that they can provide additional help for the many at-risk children
who struggle with their schoolwork during the day. One school, Carver Elementary, implemented such a program, and for
the 2003-2004 school year observations were made and interviews were conducted to determine the progress and status of
the program. Initial results showed that Carver‘s after-school program is doing well. Like many other young programs,
The roles, responsibilities, and methods of intervention of school-based speech-language pathologists have changed
substantially over the past decades. All facets of education in American public schools have been affected over time by
continuous change in legislature, regulations, societal demands, fiscal restraints, and professional factors.
The American Speech Language and Hearing Association refers to language as ―our most human characteristic,‖ as it is a
quintessential aspect of learning, working, and social interaction (2003). Within the United States, an estimated 6 million
students under the age of 18 suffer from a speech or language disorder. When the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act (IDEA) Amendments were passed in June of 1997 there was a 10.5% increase in the number of students treated by a
speech-language pathologist, indicating the accurate prevalence of speech and language disorders within the school
system (Owens, Metz & Haas, 2003). The 22nd Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of IDEA (1998) stated
Researchers have come to several different conclusions concerning the development of morality. The Defining Issues Test
(DIT) was used to determine the level of moral reasoning achieved by students at a public liberal arts college. Students were
studied cross sectionally through a sample of first year students and seniors only. Three predictions were made based on
pervious research using DIT scores. Seniors were predicted to score higher than first year students. Students who have
taken an ethics class were predicted to score higher than those who did not take an ethics class. The final prediction was
that males would display a higher level of moral development on the DIT than females. No significant results were found for
any of the predictions.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between childhood imaginary companions and adulthood
creativity styles. Imaginary companions included both invisible friends and personified objects. The sample consisted of 182
students from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland, 33 male and 149 female. Seventy-six had childhood imaginary companions
and 106 did not, 12 were personified objects and 64 were invisible friends. Participants completed a demographic survey,
the Creativity Styles Questionnaire-Revised (Kumar & Holman, 1997), and an imaginary companion questionnaire. The
subscales from the Creativity Styles Questionnaire-Revised included: overall creativity, belief in uncontrolled processes, use
of techniques, use of other people, superstition, and use of the senses. The imaginary companion questionnaire
investigated characteristics of the imaginary companion(s) as well as the child and his or her environment. Adults who had
childhood imaginary companions were more likely to use multiple techniques in the creative process. Participants that had
The moral development of college students at a liberal arts college was explored using the Defining Issues Test-2. Based on
previous research in the field three hypotheses were tested. It was predicted that males would exhibit higher levels of
principled reasoning than females and that seniors would exhibit higher levels of principled reasoning than first year
students. In addition, it was hypothesized that students who had participated in an ethics based class would score higher on
principled reasoning than students who had not taken an ethics class. No significant differences in the use of principled
reasoning were found between males and females, first year students and seniors, or students who had taken an ethics
class and students who had not taken an ethics class.


Children with autism display unique behavioral and social characteristics that must be addressed before they are able to
acquire and develop essential knowledge, skills, and independent functioning abilities. Because of the complicated nature of
autism, parents and educators should do all they can to maximize autistic children‘s potential to learn. Intervention should
be continued throughout the day regardless of being in the school setting or at home so that these children are constantly
working towards their goal of displaying appropriate behavior. Several behavioral therapies including functional
communication training, various reinforcement procedures, self-management, and circle of friends have shown promising
results in terms of decreasing disruptive behavior and also increasing positive behavior.


[abstract not available]




[abstract not available]




The handbook is a resource of counselors and their clients focusing on the positive and negative characteristic of individual
and group therapies. The goal of the handbook is to provide readers with need information to help facilitate the therapeutic
process as well as provide a possible program to counsel children of divorce. The extensive literature review is followed by
the proposed program and multiple handouts and activities to benefit the therapeutic interaction.
A child‘s understanding of the concepts of death is based on the age at which he or she experiences death as well as the
explanation that may be provided to the child about death itself. The death of a family pet is generally the first experience
that a child has with death. Twenty-two Introductory to Psychology students were surveyed about their experiences with the
death of a pet in childhood. A pilot study involving the interview of a family who had recently lost several pets provided
additional insight into this topic. The effectiveness of parents‘ discussions and coping techniques are discussed.




To compare preferred learning style and task motivation of English Language Learners (ELL), ten Spanish-English bilingual
Costa Rican students observed on levels of individual learning, working and temperament style, as well as task motivation
using tangrams. The Kaleidoscope Profile was used to measure learning style preferences and a task forming tangrams into
a square was developed on three measures: silence, music, and reading. Collected data reports gender differences on all
accounts except motivation. The majority of females were visual learners while males were kinesthetic. Overall females
worked best abstract globally while males worked best concrete sequentially. Females resulted as sensing perceivers while
males were sensing judgers. Male participants were highly motivated under the reading measure but there was no dominant
motivational measure for females. Cultural differences between genders were also observed.

Past research indicates that adult men and women differ in their use of emotion terms when describing past events. The
present study investigated whether gender differences were present in adults‘ recollections of events from four time points:
age 3-7, 10-14, recent, and future. A methodological comparison of written and typed event memory narratives was also
included so as to explore the impact of response mode on narrative length. Women provided more emotion and other
internal state terms than did men across all life phases, reflecting gender-based socialization. Further, both women and men
indicated typing as their preferred response mode, and narrative length was greater for those individuals who typed their
responses; this suggests that researchers should utilize computer word processing programs in the collection of
autobiographical memory narratives.

Undergraduate researchers worked with Academic Services at a small liberal arts college to create a peer support group,
named Peer AD/HD Support System (P.A.S.S.) for fellow students who are diagnosed with Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity
Disorder. The student lead group addressed pertinent topics for AD/HD students. Academic self-concept and other self
constructs were measured at an early P.A.S.S. meeting to determine differences between participating and nonparticipating
students. It appears from a preliminary survey of the data, in this very small pilot study, as though there might be some
different characteristics between individuals who decided to participate in P.A.S.S. and those who decided not to participate.
Feedback questionnaires were also distributed at the end of the semester to both P.A.S.S. and non-P.A.S.S. group
members. This allowed members of both groups to explain why the came to P.A.S.S. group meetings, why they didn‘t come,
and what the suggestion they have to making P.A.S.S. successful in the future.
In the current study, relations between parental dental fear and dental anxiety, the level of preparation of the child for a
biannual dental exam, and the observable stress experienced by the child during the visit were investigated. Child and
parent participants were patients at a local pediatric dental practice. Parents completed paper-pencil questionnaires,
consisting of items regarding demographic information, a parental dental fear measure, a parental dental anxiety measure,
and a questionnaire with items relating to the preparation of the child prior to the dental visit through parental disclosure.
Dental assistants completed a measure of observed child stress during the visit. The results supported the hypothesis that
higher scores of parental dental fear and parental dental anxiety would be correlated with higher ratings of observed child
stress. Also, as hypothesized, parental reports of some preparation prior to the dental visit were correlated with higher
ratings of child stress. The results of this study support the findings of prior research, emphasizing the importance of
The following study is an investigation of the differing ways in which college students perceive academic-related stress over
the course of one semester. Depressive symptoms in students were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies
Depression Scale (CES-D), and academic stress levels in students were assessed using Gadzella‘s Student Life Stress
Inventory (SSI). These measures were administered three times throughout one semester. It was hypothesized that stress
levels and depressive symptoms would rise in conjunction with the increase of work associated with the progression of a
semester, culminating in final exams and projects. Data analysis revealed main effects for gender and session on the CES-
D but no interactions, and main effects of session for two of the SSI subscales. Data analysis also indicated that when an
effect of gender for the SSI was present, females always scored higher than males. The implications for these results are
addressed.
Undergraduates worked with Academic Services at a small liberal arts college to create a peer support group for fellow
AD/HD students. The student lead group addressed pertinent topics for AD/HD students such as time management, goal
setting, organization, self-advocacy, study skills and environments, and medication. Academic self-efficacy and other self
constructs were measured to examine differences between students who did and did not attend. Feedback questionnaires
were used to elicit criticisms that could be used for future planning and remodeling of the group.




The cultural diversification occurring within the United States in the last twenty years also mirrors the changes that are
occurring within the school systems. In order for students to function effectively within the 21st century, education must be
changed in substantial ways to successfully address the various learning needs of such a diverse student population and
the subsequent pluralistic society for which children will be responsible of. One way to accomplish this idea is through
multicultural education. This paper addresses the importance of preparing children early on in their developmental years
and encourages successful strategies for achieving multiculturalism within the classroom. More significantly, multicultural
literature can be used as powerful vehicle for children to explore others different from themselves.


The purpose of this paper is to explore how roommate expectations change from the first year through the fourth year of
college. Undergraduates, with roommates, at a small liberal arts college participated in the current study. Questionnaires
were completed in person and on the Internet, asking students to describe their ideal roommate and to rate the importance
of different possible roommate traits and characteristics. Collected data reports that current roommate matching systems
may not be asking the right questions and that they can be improved by asking students to describe their ideal roommate. It
was also determined that roommate matches may be more successful if schools have different matching systems for 1st
and 2nd year, and then 3rd and 4th year students because students seem to have different roommate expectations as they
progress through college. Based on the collected data this study includes a proposal for a new roommate matching system,
which may result in more successful roommate experiences.
Our advising system utilizes solely faculty advisors and we are of the minority of public institutions who do so; however,
when you consider the size of St. Mary‘s we are not alone. Most smaller schools have not introduced professional advisors
into their academic advising systems. All faculty are required to advise, therefore we do not select specially qualified
advisors. Advisees are asked to provide evaluations of their advisor when their advisor is being considered for tenure;
however, advising is not routinely evaluated like teaching is. As of yet there have been no comprehensive evaluations of the
academic advising program at St. Mary‘s. We also do not formally reward good advising, even though it is expected of all
faculty. NACADA also has both a National and Regional Awards program for academic advising that individual universities
may participate in (NACADA, 2006). However, St. Mary‘s does have annual training programs for advisors. This assessment
will provide us with both student and faculty perspectives on how advising is being handled at St. Mary‘s. By dividing the
There is a good deal of quantitative research available on adolescent help-seeking behavior. This paper reviews the
literature, including research on gender, SES, race, and other factors that affect an adolescent‘s decision to seek help, as
well as adolescents‘ considerations when choosing a counselor. The present study uses the CQR methodology to explore
12 first-year college females‘ perceptions of and experiences with professional counseling. 5 participants had been to
professional counseling, and 7 had not. Reasons for seeking professional counseling included encouragement from others
to get help, as well as having a specific problem requiring help. Reasons for not seeking professional counseling included
lack of access and not having a need for counseling.


This two-part study looked at adolescents‘ willingness to seek help for a general problem and also for more serious
problems. Many studies have been done to show that adolescents will seek help from different people depending on the
problem, gender, and race. This study measured willingness to seek help as the definition of help seeking behavior. In
addition to gender and race, social economic status was also examined. Results show a correlation between help seeking
behavior and attitude. They also show no difference among adolescents in college when race, gender, and SES were
examined. Finally, this study found that adolescents were more likely to seek help from friends than from any other group
for general problems.
The relationship between actual birth order, psychological birth order, academic achievement and anxiety was investigated.
Eighty college participants (aged 17-50) completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Speilberger, 1983), the Psychological
Birth Order Inventory (Campbell, White & Stewart, 1991) and a question assessing Grade Point Average. The results of the
study suggest that there was a negative relationship between anxiety and psychological birth order for the position of middle
females. There is no other evidence that actual birth order position as well as psychological birth order position have a
significant relationship to anxiety or academic achievement.



The following study explores the controversy found in the literature surrounding Eye Movement Desensitization and
Reprocessing (EMDR). This therapy, primarily used to treat anxiety-related disorders, has found support in some areas of
research and endures intense critiques in others. There is little agreement about what makes EMDR effective and what
differentiates it from a more traditional exposure technique (e.g. flooding). The researcher explores the relationship between
EMDR‘s reputation in the literature to local practitioners feelings toward the therapy. A survey was sent out to practitioners in
the Southern Maryland area to assess their feelings toward EMDR. The researcher found that the same mixed reviews that
EMDR receives in the literature were also found in the local practitioners‘ views in Southern Maryland.


The media places high expectations for females to maintain a slim figure. Women may engage in unhealthy diet and
exercise methods to obtain the skinny look. Females may feel the pressure to maintain the idealized figure from the media;
however, female athletes may be at greater risk for disordered eating because of the high pressures placed by coaches,
fans, and teammates. Currently, there is no program that targets disordered eating specific to female athletes at Saint
Mary‘s College of Maryland. The current paper proposes a Disordered Eating Response team that is specific to female
athletes. The goal of the Disordered Eating Response Team is to prevent and educate female athletes about disordered
eating, as well to increase self-esteem and decrease negative body image perceptions.


The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between desire for fame, narcissism, and spirituality. In order to do
this, two groups were administered surveys: a Buddhist and non-Buddhist sample, each sample of varying age and gender.
A scale measuring the desire for fame was administered along with a scale measuring the level of narcissism present in the
participants‘ personalities. The hypothesis, that the levels of desire for fame and narcissism would be less in the Buddhist
sample than in the non-Buddhist sample, was supported.




The present study examined the relationship between the personal experiences of therapists and the amount and type of
therapist self-disclosures (TSD) used in the therapeutic environment. Two self-report questionnaires were completed by 196
counseling psychologists. The Counselor Disclosure Scale measured participants‘ level of disclosure related to personal,
interpersonal, and professional issues. The Salient Life Events Inventory measured the number and perceived stressfulness
of major events occurring in the past year of the participants‘ life. Correlational analyses yielded significant results, indicating
that participants who had experienced a greater number of major life events were more likely use TSD with clients. Results
are discussed in terms of previous research, and implications and suggestions for further research are explored.


College students once or currently engaged in psychotherapy were surveyed on their experiences with touch in
psychotherapy. The results indicated that a majority of clients (70%) had experienced touch in therapy. Most clients reported
neutral to positive general evaluations of the touch. Client evaluations of the touch were related to the form of the physical
contact, the reason for engaging in the contact, and client history with psychotherapy and other therapists. Touch in
psychotherapy may contribute to a stronger therapeutic alliance, as clients who experienced touch had a stronger
therapeutic alliance with their therapists than clients who had not experienced touch in therapy. Sexuality and ethicality
issues related to touch in psychotherapy were explored in depth.
Relational aggression is aggression used to inflict harm on others. It involves excluding a person from a group, gossip, or
making negative facial expressions (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; Grotpeter & Crick, 1996). The purpose of this study was to
determine the relationship between relational aggression and psychosocial functioning, especially depression. In the study
one qualitative data was collected using an original survey to examine college student‘s high school experiences school in
their own words. Themes found in this study are that social hierarchies are divided into a top, middle, and bottom tier. The
majority of people are in the middle and top tier. Most participants had prevalent gossip in their high schools, participated in
and were the objects of gossip and were rejected from groups. Most participants felt high school still had an impact on their
current psychosocial functioning with most good but some bad impacts. In the second study quantitative data was gathered
using the Revised Peer Experiences Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. No correlation was found between
Further research is needed for better eating disorder treatments. For example, there is some agreement in the literature that
the interplay of familial, societal, and psychological factors lead to the development and maintenance of the
psychopathology. Many treatments have been successful. Specifically, bibliotherapy, in which therapists assign their
patients reading, may help clients ―own‖ their treatment, thereby increasing motivation and decreasing defensiveness. This
paper will outline the current research on eating disorders and review the research done of the effectiveness of
bibliotherapy. It will subsequently argue that bibliotherapy may be an effective treatment for eating disorders. Lastly, it will
present a list of books that may be used for treating eating disorders with bibliotherapy.


This study attempted to determine if therapists‘ graduate training on sexual attraction prepared them to effectively manage
such feelings. Surveys were sent to 250 randomly sampled psychotherapists. One hundred and seven surveys were
completed and returned. The descriptive statistics show that therapists are feeling sexually attracted to clients but it is
seldom a problem in therapy. Furthermore, certain training techniques, such as lectures, ethics, large group, and small
group discussions, may be useful tools for preparing therapists to manage feelings of sexual attraction in therapy.




With the considerable rise in violence and behavioral and emotional problems in today‘s elementary schools, more diverse
interventions are needed to help children express their concerns and emotions. An after-school art program was designed
with an emphasis on the individual, in attempts to develop a stronger sense of self-concept in participants. In a two group
pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research designed pilot study, effects were assessed to determine whether an art
therapy based curriculum could help to improve elementary school children‘s self-esteem, mood, and behavior. Despite
data collection problems, students responded extremely well to projects and positive changes in self-esteem related
attitudes were noted. If replicated over a longer period of time with a greater number of participants, this pilot study shows
support for improving a child‘s well being.

Schadenfreude, or feelings of pleasure at the misfortune of another, was investigated under a framework of gender, social
comparisons, and competition. Thirty-six participants (29 female, 6 male) acted as the judge of a competition between two
manipulation students that were made up (a superior comparison student and an average comparison student) via ―online
communication.‖ Participants rated Schadenfreude, and various other perceptions about the comparison students. In the
second part of the study, the students directly competed with the superior student. Interactions between gender and whether
the superior comparison student won or lost were investigated, but no significant results were found. Gender differences
were not found in relation to Schadenfreude, and the data do not conclusively suggest that Schadenfreude is experienced in
competitive situations. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.

The purpose of this study was to explore the various acculturation and ethnic identity concerns that exist among Asian
American individuals and to then examine opinions regarding the use of multicultural and cross-cultural therapy for the
reconciliation of related issues. After gathering a sample of nine undergraduate Asian American students, phone interviews
pertaining to acculturation concerns and subsequent psychological help-seeking preferences were conducted and
transcribed. Following the transcription process, a technique known as Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) was utilized
in order to determine trends in the data. Ultimately, researchers determined that acculturation and ethnic identity
experiences were highly dependent upon individual factors such as feelings towards culture, parents‘ feelings towards the
role of culture in their children‘s lives, and the implementation of various coping mechanisms. Furthermore, opinions
regarding the use of therapy for the mitigation of these concerns were often contingent upon individual preferences and
[abstract not available]




This study took an exploratory approach to investigating young adults‘ experiences and management of challenges, with
particular emphasis on aspects of self-assessment. Sixteen college students (8 male, 8 female, ages 18-22) were
interviewed and data were analyzed using Consensual Qualitative Research. Analysis yielded nine broad domains,
described as recent or common challenges, feelings and reactions, approaches, self-assessment of management ability
and strategy effectiveness, helpful and hindering aspects of strategies/approaches, amendments, suggestions to others,
predictions about the future, and descriptions and thoughts about self. Results suggest that traditional investigations of
coping may not sufficiently recognize the subjective aspects of the stress and coping experience, and that further research
is necessary to better understand the implications of individuals‘ self-assessments relating to challenges and challenge
management.
Using a modest size sample (N = 106) of college age students from St. Mary‘s College of Maryland, the researcher for the
present study aimed to discover whether or not client fear of therapy was moderated by three independent variables: client
gender, therapist gender, and facial expressions displayed by the therapist. A series of statistical analyses were done,
including between subjects t-tests, partial correlations, and two 4 x 2 x 3 ANOVA‘s, to find support for the experimental
hypotheses. Regrettably, no significant results were found in support of the hypotheses. Implications for these results
include the potential efficacy of online-based therapy as an alternative for males as opposed to traditional therapy.
Limitations and future research are also discussed.


The current study focused on the representations of gender stereotypes that prevail in prime-time Turkish television dramas
and sit-coms. Specifically, a content analysis was conducted for prevalence, age, weight, hair color, setting, and gendered
activities of male and female characters. Findings suggested that there were significant differences between male and
female characters that characterized women as younger and decorative, whereas men were portrayed as older, more
overweight, and more likely to be seen outside of the home. An extensive literature review discussed television research in
general, cross-cultural media research, and a brief history of Turkish politics.



Study 1 examines the issue of therapist preference, with the hypothesis that match will be preferred by minority clients.
Questionnaires were administered to obtain preferences for and importance ratings of specific therapist characteristics,
including race, age, gender, sexual orientation, religion and political ideology. Participants reported therapists‘
demographics did not matter except for gender and sexual orientation and overall did not want to be matched. In Study 2,
archival data from a mental health facility showed the effect of matching client and therapist, using the number of sessions
to determine the affect that level of demographic match had on therapy. Age, gender and race match were considered and
all were found to lack any relationship with the number of sessions attended.


The present study added to previous studies that examined the relationship between personality (introversion and
extraversion, specifically) and coping with negative emotions such as anger. It was hypothesized that there would be a
positive relationship between extraversion and the use and effectiveness of social coping methods and a negative
relationship between extraversion and the use and effectiveness of creative coping strategies. It was also hypothesized
that extraverts would find social coping methods as more effective, while introverts would find creative coping methods as
more effective. Participants completed surveys to determine their personality type and their preference for coping methods.
 Significant findings included the frequency of social coping was positively related to the effectiveness of social coping and
also to the extraversion score. The findings of the study support the descriptions of extraverts and introverts and the
hypothesis that there are differences in the coping methods of individuals with different personality types.
The social conflicts of preadolescent and adolescent girls, a topic that has recently gained media and researcher attention,
often involve the use of relational aggression, defined as the ―harming [of] others through purposeful manipulation and
damage of peer relationships‖ (Crick and Grotpeter; 1995, p. 711). Programs created to combat aggression have rarely
focused specifically on the use of relational aggression or the unique social experiences of young females (Committee for
Children, 1997; Frey et al., 2005; Nixon, 2005). Using some of the principles of feminism and feminist therapy practice
(Enns, 1992; 1997; Worell, 1992), the author has designed a program for middle school girls to raise their awareness about
and combat relational aggression while actively discussing what it means to be a girl in today‘s society.


This study challenges our traditional understanding of homophobia and suggests that homophobia is a response to gender-
role violation, and homosexuality incites homophobia because engaging in intimate same sex relationships is a gender-role
violation. The homophobia scale and a likeability scale were used to assess the reactions of 40 male college students to a
videotape consisting of one of the following: a stereotypically masculine heterosexual male, a stereotypically masculine
homosexual male, a stereotypically feminine heterosexual male, and a stereotypically feminine homosexual male. The study
found a significant difference in the rated likeability of the target based on presented gender. The stereotypically masculine
target (M = 3.63), regardless of sexual orientation, was liked better that the feminine target (M = 3.331), t(38) = 2.05, p < .05.
One possible implication is that both the word homophobia, and our understanding of it, should be changed.

The socioeconomic status of a child‘s family has been linked to his or her academic ability (Brodnick & Ree, 1995). Several
studies in recent years have examined this trend and expanded it to include more access to print at an earlier age (Smith &
Dixon, 1995) and parental involvement in the child‘s school (Brody et al., 1990). In the current study, it was hypothesized
that parental involvement in a child‘s academic career may be the determining link between socioeconomic status and
academic success. Parents of third graders in Southern Maryland were asked about their family in a series of two
questionnaires measuring socioeconomic variables and parental interaction. The child‘s academic success was also
considered. Results indicated that the parents‘ socioeconomic status was a predictor of the child‘s academic achievement.
However, the parental involvement factor was not found to be significant.

A qualitative study was conducted to examine the contribution of the individual therapist to therapy, the individual
psychotherapist being a neglected variable in psychotherapy research. Thirteen child and adolescent psychologists were
interviewed about the resources found from the ―person‖ of the therapist in their practice of therapy. The person of the
therapist was explored in relation to the use and impact of the individual therapist‘s life experiences, traits and interests, and
values and beliefs. Individual therapists acknowledged the use of their personal characteristics and experiences in their
work with clients. The resources of using the life experiences of childhood problems and being a parent were typically
discussed. The impact of the therapists‘ use of the person of the therapist included that they experience increased
understanding of the client from their own life experiences, they share personal stories with the client in therapy, that their
beliefs lead them to be nonjudgmental of the client, and they experience their use of their sense of humor as helpful.
Sexually explicit materials (SEM) used amongst women has not been researched as thoroughly as the topic warrants. Fifty-
four female participants were given surveys to assess the types of SEM they have used, the reasons they used SEM, and
their levels of sexual functioning. The women were found to have repeated exposure to most types of SEM examined in the
study. Curiosity was the most common reason given for use of every type of SEM. The women used SEM independent of
the presence of a partner or sexual activity. These findings suggest there could be a female population of SEM consumers
that will use specific types for certain reasons and will use them independent of sexual activity.



The relationship between masculine gender role conflict (GRC) and reluctance toward seeking help is well-established.
However, despite empirical and theoretical support, depression has not been explored as a moderating factor between GRC
and help-seeking attitudes. In attempt to fill this gap in the research, the present study examined a sample of 120 college-
age males (44 depressed and 76 nondepressed) who completed a measure of GRC along with a help-seeking
questionnaire. As hypothesized, GRC was negatively related to help-seeking attitudes. However, the interaction between
GRC and depression in regard to help-seeking attitudes was nonsignificant, and thus depression does not appear to
moderate the relationship between GRC and help-seeking attitudes. Implications and suggestions for future research and
psychotherapy with men are discussed.
A wide social support network is highly valuable to children and adolescents who are attempting to overcome the many risk
factors associated with parental divorce. Due to the fact that they have an intimate knowledge of the child, and the familial
structure as a whole, siblings can be especially valuable in serving as a source of support and care following parental
divorce. The present study was designed to examine whether the presence of a sibling can act as a protective factor,
serving to buffer feelings of loneliness and strengthen global life satisfaction following parental divorce. The present study
compared an experimental group of participants with divorced parents to a control group of participants whose parents are
not divorced to assess whether parental divorce correlated with higher levels of loneliness and lower levels of overall life
satisfaction. Additionally, sibling presence was taken into account in order to assess whether the presence of a sibling
correlated with lower levels of measures of loneliness and higher levels of overall life satisfaction.
This review aims to define art therapy and explore its history and current uses. Techniques and processes of art therapy will
be discussed. In addition, art therapy will be discussed in regards to its basis in a dominant orientation, and further, its
widening influence in other theoretical orientations. Moreover, dominant client demographics and prevailing neuroses in the
field of art therapy will be addressed. Finally, this review will offer a critique of the research in art therapy examining
research methods, outcome, and limitations. [from p. 4]




College students (N = 308) completed a battery of self-report measures assessing eating disordered attitudes, gender role
orientation, and attitudes towards dating and sexuality. A new measure, the Dating Attitudes Inventory, was created in order
to assess the relationship between eating disordered attitudes and traditional and active dating roles. Results indicated
significant positive relationships between eating disordered attitudes, sexual permissiveness, and adherence to non-
traditional and active dating roles. Despite a significant overall relationship, post hoc analyses revealed that no particular
gender role orientation was consistently associated with eating disordered attitudes. Future research should investigate the
relationship between eating disordered attitudes and the possibility of an internal conflict between synchronous traditional
and non-traditional attitudes on additional social variables.

Characteristics related to reported psychological distress and help-seeking were examined among 314 students to establish
trends for counseling center users and non-users. Consistent with past research, the majority of participants were non-
users, with users reporting higher distress than non-users. However, contradictory to past findings, no significant differences
were found between genders for counseling center usage; however, females did report significantly higher levels of distress.
More generally, reports of depression, academic issues, and social anxiety were significantly lower than the sample groups.
Furthermore, reports of substance use, general anxiety, family issues, and spirituality were significantly higher. Through the
synthesis of psychological distress rates and trends in counseling center usage, prototypical characteristics were
established for students at St. Mary’s College of Maryland.

This study evaluated the counseling services available at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland by comparing staff perceptions and
student opinions. Interviews were conducted with the Director and Assistant Director of counseling services, and 387
students completed an online survey. The results indicated that most students who have been to counseling services would
recommend them to fellow students, but almost one third of students who have not been said they considered it and did not
go. Students believe the services would be improved if there were more staff members and greater access to a psychiatrist.
Increased communication between students and counselors may help increase student awareness of counseling services
and comfort with seeking help there.


The current study explored the relationships between trauma type with forms of dissociation and specific sleep
phenomenon. We utilized a sample of 140 undergraduate students and using the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Iowa
Sleep Experiences Survey, and Trauma History Questionnaire ran a correlational analysis. As previously found, overall
traumatization was associated with dissociation and general sleep experiences. Counter to our hypothesis, we found that
crime-related experiences, not physical and sexual traumas, were related to dissociation, and most strongly associated with
derealization. Lucid dreaming was unrelated to all forms of trauma. Furthermore, nightmares were associated only with
physical and sexual traumas. Additional research should replicate this study with a trauma measure that collects severity
data and is intended for questionnaire use.
This research investigated factors that influence student decisions to choose a major, use of academic major stereotypes as
a social categorization tool in a college setting, and the impact of majors on student identity formation at St. Mary’s College.
Open-ended questions were answered in individual interviews with 15 students ranging in age from 18 to 21 years (M =
20.4, SD = 1.08). The Consensual Qualitative Research method (Hill et al., 1997) was used for data analysis. This sample
showed a combination of career goals and personal interests, workload, and faculty support contributed to major
persistence. Majors were also used as a social categorization tool in college settings and influenced the way students were
perceived by themselves and others.


The current study investigates popular media among female college students and its influence on body image. The contents
of popular magazines and TV shows (and their advertisements) were analyzed in terms of their portrayal of the ―thin ideal.‖
Participants were asked their height and weight (from which a BMI was calculated). They were surveyed to discern which
magazines they read, which TV shows they watched, and how often. Participants were then administered the Body Esteem
Scale to determine their attitudes about their body. Based on previous research, it was expected that a high BMI would
predict lower scores on the Body Esteem Scale. Further, participants who consumed media (both TV and magazines) that
portrayed more examples of the ―thin ideal‖ would have lower body esteem; this effect would be more pronounced when
media was consumed more frequently. In addition, lower body esteem would be seen more in women that read magazines
frequently than in women that watched TV frequently. It was expected that women that described their favorite celebrity
Eight practicing art therapists were interviewed over the phone on various aspects of child art therapy, particularly pertaining
to its place in the public school system. The data was analyzed using a modified Consensual Qualitative Research method
(Hill, Thompson & Williams, 1997) by one judge and one auditor. Results showed that the participants did agree that child
art therapy programs in the public schools would be beneficial and that a wide variety of methods and theories should be
employed by the attending therapist who should have at least a Masters in art therapy. Data also indicated that most, if not
all, children would benefit from a child art therapy program. Limitations and implications were discussed.



Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is more effective than medication alone and supportive therapies in reducing psychotic
symptomatolgy, preventing relapse, and increasing psychosocial functioning in people with schizophrenia. This literature
review discusses studies concerning the applications of CBT in treating positive and negative symptoms both during and
after an acute episode, teaching coping skills, consumer education, relapse prevention, and in groups and day treatment
programs. Next, an original 10-week CBT treatment program with individual and group sessions was developed using
techniques shown to be effective in previous studies. The program was presented to a group of mental health therapists,
who then completed a survey about the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed program. The program was generally
supported and viewed as effective, with a few possible areas for improvement.

The literature shows that gender differences exist in sexual behavior and attitudes. Several theoretical explanations were
explored and used as a basis to investigate these differences. The purpose of the present study was to explore the
prevalence of gender roles, stereotypes and issues of power in sexuality. A qualitative approach was used to avoid biases
found in previous studies. Results indicated that gender roles and stereotypes do exist, as well as specific types of power
associated with gender, enmeshed with gender roles and stereotypes. Implications for future research were discussed.




Throughout history revolutions have brought about drastic changes. Many different fields of study, including but not limited
to history, political science, and social psychology, have examined the specific conditions surrounding revolution. No one
perspective can hypothesize an accurate and comprehensive theory using information from its field alone. ―The difficulty
with naïve interpretations of culture in terms of individual behaviour [sig.] is not that these interpretations are those of
psychology, but that they ignore history‖ (Benedict, 1934, p. 214-215). The purpose of the current paper is to review and
integrate various psychological theories in order to explain revolutions that occur in an oppressive environment. The
theories will then be placed in a social and political context and applied to Tibet in order to create a comprehensive theory of
revolution.
There are several therapeutic approaches to helping children with special needs, such as physical, occupational, speech,
and play therapy. A new technique has been introduced into schools to help special needs children: social skills
intervention. A qualitative and observational design was used to determine whether social skills interventions effectively
help to improve children‘s behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social skills. Interviews were conducted with parents of
special needs children enrolled in a segregated special education school in the mid-Atlantic region. Observations of the
children were also conducted in the natural school setting. Results indicate that the children are functioning well, and the
school has been a great asset to their growth, although it can not be determined that the school directly caused this growth.
Parental involvement was found to be a large factor contributing to this growth as well.

Literature was reviewed on three sexual disorders: vaginismus, dyspareunia, and orgasmic dysfunction. Vaginismus is the
involuntary contraction of the vaginal walls. There is a debate in the minimal research done as to whether vaginismus has a
psychological or organic base. Dyspareunia was also underreported in the literature and refers to sexual pain. The
literature on orgasmic dysfunction is the most prevalent female sexual disorder, and is seen more often in the literature than
the other two disorders. Group therapy is believed to be the most effective form of treatment. A meta-analysis was
performed on the effectiveness of psychological treatment on orgasmic disorder. Twelve studies were evaluated, and a
significant effect was found (r=.43638, p>.01). The researcher proposes several arguments that suggest that the results
may not be as strong as they appear. Minimal amount of research, lack of operational definitions, and poor methodology
are suggested as criticisms of sex therapy research.
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Date Completed         Student Name            Dept.                           SMP Title
    yyyy-mm

1998-05          Campbell, Vicki A.      Psychology    Family influences on the development of eating
                                                       disorders




1998-05          Czopp, Alexander Matthew Psychology   Effects of exposure to racist humor : do racist jokes
                                                       influence racist attitudes?




1998-05          Davis, Benjamin C.      Psychology    Quality of life of the low-income, elderly : evaluation of
                                                       determinants and the effects of an improvement in
                                                       housing condition




1998-05          Day, Stephanie C.       Psychology    Racial/ethnic identity in Korean transracial adoptees




1998-05          Deutchman, Jessica      Psychology    Effect of visual motor behavior rehearsal on lacrosse
                                                       goal shooting accuracy




1998-05          Kolody, Andrew Walter   Psychology    Role of the NMDA glutamate system in the
                                                       development of cocaine sensitization
1998-05   Paribello, Ariana Marie    Psychology   Teacher portfolios




1998-05   Richman, Cynthia E.        Psychology   Issues that affect college women : an exploratory study




1998-05   Smeller, Heidi             Psychology   Alcohol use and abuse in hyper-masculine African
                                                  American males




1998-05   Wilbur, Brian              Psychology   Children of divorce and separation : relationships with
                                                  academic behaviors




1998-12   Caspar, Laura Ann          Psychology   Sexuality education program for adults with
                                                  developmental disabilities and their caregivers




1999-05   Breymaier, Matthew John;   Psychology   Internet survey research : an investigation of sample
          Cramer, Tara Louise                     generalizability and an exploration of the effects of
                                                  differing levels of perceived anonymity
1999-05   Doyen-Scott, Aegina L.   Psychology   Gender orientation as a moderating factor of
                                                perceived organizational support, job satisfaction,
                                                work-family conflict




1999-05   Lindblad, Matthew Paul   Psychology   Prenatal visual stimulation effects postnatal
                                                lateralization in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix
                                                japonica)




1999-05   McHale, Luke             Psychology   St. Mary's project




1999-05   Nacson, Alise B.         Psychology   Role of media imagery in the development of
                                                disordered eating : women speak about the media,
                                                culture, and eating disorders




1999-05   Newman, Rachel Alice     Psychology   Effects of prenatal visual stimulus on postnatal
                                                laterality in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)




1999-05   Rosano, Rebecca          Psychology   Autobiographical memories of a campus incident
          Elizabeth                             involving police
1999-05   Stout, Robert W.           Psychology   Instrumental deviance as a masculine coping strategy




1999-05   Sweigard, Peter N.         Psychology   Gender and the use of obscenity : analyzing the
                                                  functions, motives and meanings of swear words




1999-05   Wotthlie, Katherine A.     Psychology   Female sexual dysfunctions : a literature review and
                                                  meta-analysis




1999-05   Zimmermann, Tara E.        Psychology   Total physical response : a comprehension based
                                                  approach to second language learning




1999-12   Jeanmary, Guirlaine E.     Psychology   Investigation of the transitional experience of young
                                                  children when introduced to new settings and how to
                                                  incorporate play as therapy




1999-12   O'Brien, James Christian   Psychology   Effect of cocaine sensitization on habituation as tested
                                                  by reactivity to a novel environment
1999-12   Schubert, Marybeth         Psychology   Self-reported relationship between eating disordered
          Rebecca                                 behavior and attitudes towards dating, sexuality and
                                                  adherence to traditional gender roles




1999-12   Washington, Elizabeth      Psychology   Road rage and the fundamental attribution error
          Margaret




1999-12   Yates, Jennifer Kathleen   Psychology   Prenatal substance exposure : the incidence of
                                                  learning disabilities, ADD/ADHD, and mental
                                                  retardation




2000-05   Allen, Tiamo; Fisher,      Psychology   All eyes on me : the impact of racial anxiety on the
          Barbara Selena                          experiences of black students on predominantly black
                                                  and white campuses




2000-05   Bauer, Colleen Debra       Psychology   Antidepressant effects of St. John‘s wort (Hypericum
                                                  perforatum) and imipramine on rats and an
                                                  investigation into the knowledge and use of St. John‘s
                                                  wort and use of antidepressant drugs among students
                                                  at St. Mary‘s College




2000-05   Chess, Amy Carol           Psychology   Developing an animal model of schizophrenia : the
                                                  role of the agranular insular cortex
2000-05   Donlon, Michelle Marie     Psychology   Effects of an art therapy based curriculum on the
                                                  mood and behavior of elementary school children




2000-05   Grizzard, Mairi Brighid    Psychology   Thin or thick boundaried personality type as
                                                  expressed in choice of major




2000-05   Hunting, William J.;       Psychology   Effects of family dynamics on aggression
          Switzer, Jamie Christine




2000-05   Kaltreider, Sylvia         Psychology   Psychosocial factors that promote resiliency in at-risk
                                                  youth




2000-05   Meldrum, Tanis Annette     Psychology   Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in school age children




2000-05   Olson, Kari Lynn           Psychology   Relationship of reasons women state for using
                                                  sexually explicit materials and the types of sexually
                                                  explicit materials they choose and their levels of
                                                  sexual functioning
2000-05   O'Neal, Amanda Lynn        Psychology    Effects of classical conditioning on behavioral
                                                   sensitization to cocaine and tyrosine hydroxylase
                                                   levels in rats




2000-05   Polster, Devin B.; Ting,   Psychology;   Psycho-philosophical statuses : a multivariate analysis
          Tina Ray-yee               Philosophy    between and within vegetarians and nonvegetarians




2000-05   Pomeroy, Jeffrey           Psychology    Society's unwanted boys
          Woodland




2000-05   Smith, Randy L.            Psychology    Self-perception and propensity to engage in anti-social
                                                   behavior : an application of self-verification theory




2000-05   Wagner, Holly Ann          Psychology    Comparative analysis of children with and without
                                                   Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and their
                                                   families




2000-05   Wise, Lara Noelle          Psychology    Effectiveness of social skills intervention for special
                                                   needs children
2000-12   Collins, Loretta Mae     Psychology   Gender role identification and its effect on perception
                                                of rape victim responsibility : a cross-cultural study




2000-12   Wood, Benjamin Alan      Psychology   REM sleep debt and its effects on interpersonal
                                                interactions




2001-05   Arthur, Steven Anthony   Psychology   Music label, race, and the perception of violent
                                                behavior




2001-05   DeGregorio, Alicia Ann   Psychology   Therapist sexual attraction to clients in the therapeutic
                                                environment : an assessment of therapist graduate
                                                training




2001-05   Dela Cuesta, June        Psychology   Attitudes and expectations of potential Big Brother Big
          Christina                             Sister volunteers




2001-05   Hance, Rhyan Marshall    Psychology   Effects of individual differences in vividness upon the
                                                reality monitoring process
2001-05   Harsh, Bridgett J.       Psychology   Individual differences and the effectiveness of
                                                warnings in the DRM false memory paradigm




2001-05   Hess, Lauren Summer      Psychology   Psychosocial correlates of death anxiety in the elderly
                                                : what role does residence play?




2001-05   Howard, Letitia Tice;    Psychology   Basic vocal emotions : children‘s perception of
          Sutton, Katie Lynn                    emotion through voice




2001-05   Leary, Scott Paul        Psychology   Fashionable and fun-loving : the portrayal of gay men
                                                on television and its effect on stereotypes




2001-05   Linn, Crista Elizabeth   Psychology   Effects of personality on methods of coping with anger




2001-05   Loving, Michelle Lynn    Psychology   History and knowledge : an investigation of the drug
                                                education history and the accuracy of the drug
                                                knowledge of St. Mary‘s College of Maryland students
2001-05   Menard, Jennifer A.     Psychology   Superstition and affective states




2001-05   Miller, Aaron Leigh     Psychology   Decision-making problems in trial verdicts : a study of
                                               primacy and recency effects in court cases




2001-05   Milstein, Jean Adair    Psychology   Investigation of an animal model for Attention Deficit/
                                               Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)




2001-05   Norton, Aaron Travis    Psychology   Effect of dietary fat and social conditions on the timing
                                               of puberty in female rats




2001-05   Pillai, Dair Tamara     Psychology   Legal and psychological aspects of community
                                               notification and civil commitment for sex offenders




2001-05   Rudisill, Meghan Lynn   Psychology   Danger in becoming the eye of the beholder : the
                                               relationship between self-objectification and
                                               depression
2001-05   Ruiz, Kathleen Mary       Psychology    Higher cognitive functions : a test for transitive
                                                  inference in rats




2001-05   Swope, Sean M.            Psychology    Effect of visual motor behavior rehearsal on golf target
                                                  accuracy




2001-05   Weih, Carrie Marie        Psychology    Psychological causes of revolution in response to
                                                  political oppression




2001-05   Williams, Melanie Katharyn Psychology   Examining developmental relationships among age,
                                                  gender, and aggressive tendencies




2001-12   Cowan, Mary Ellen         Psychology    Effects of clothing on first impressions




2001-12   Vietri, Jeffrey Thomas    Psychology    Personality, coping, and delinquency
2001-12   Wade, Lorien Ronnelle      Psychology   Striatal choline acetyltransferase expression in a rat
                                                  model for tardive dyskinesia




2002-05   Anderson, Rebecca Claire Psychology     Qualitative study of adolescents and professional
                                                  counseling




2002-05   Asher, Caroline Nimakoa    Psychology   Volunteerism among college students : perception
                                                  discrepancies between homeless and non-homeless
                                                  individuals




2002-05   Banig, Aubrey Ann          Psychology   Nigral neurotensin receptor mRNA following chronic
                                                  administration of haloperidol as a model for tardive
                                                  dyskinesia




2002-05   Bederka, Julie Elizabeth   Psychology   Animal Assisted Therapy : a journey through research
                                                  and personal experience




2002-05   Biddinger, Sue-Ellen       Psychology   Child sexual abuse survivors : victims of their past
          Patricia
2002-05   Bowers, Stephanie Nichole Psychology   Role of testosterone in an animal model for tardive
                                                 dyskinesia




2002-05   Childers, Christa Ann    Psychology    Dress for success : the effects of clothing on self-
                                                 efficacy




2002-05   Flanagan, Molly J.       Psychology    Gender stereotypic memory in fifth graders




2002-05   Galowin, Melissa Dawn    Psychology    Improving academic performance : the role of
                                                 motivation and locus of control




2002-05   Graham, Erin O'Brien     Psychology    Attachment and interpersonal connections in teacher-
                                                 student relationships




2002-05   Gurski, Kimberly Lynn    Psychology    Examination of the sexual reproduction and courtship
                                                 differences between Hippocampus ingens,
                                                 Hippocampus erectus, and Hippocampus barbouri
2002-05   Horn, Jennifer Ann          Psychology   First impressions of body art




2002-05   Howard, Erin Elisabeth      Psychology   Qualitative investigation of challenge management in
                                                   young adulthood : exploring aspects of self-
                                                   assessment and subjectivity




2002-05   Humler, Michael Steven      Psychology   Ambivalence of rape : an assessment of biological
                                                   and psychological gender differences associated with
                                                   sexual assault




2002-05   Johnson, Erin McKernan      Psychology   Environment and learning : investigation of learning-
                                                   set formation and oddity concept-use in juvenile rats
                                                   raised in an enriched environment




2002-05   LeClerc, Jared Elliott      Psychology   Minimizing competitive behavior in collective traps




2002-05   Lindsley, Angelena Yvette   Psychology   Effects of body art on hiring decisions
2002-05   McCarron, Sarah Cook      Psychology   Correlates of dream recall frequency and lucidity




2002-05   McGuirk, Laura Marie      Psychology   Parental and socioeconomic influence on school
                                                 performance




2002-05   McPherson, Candace        Psychology   Media, stereotypes, and adolescent fathers : does the
          Towanda                                media effect how society views adolescent fathers?




2002-05   Nasatka, Mary Elizabeth   Psychology   Effects of special education labels on teachers‘
                                                 attitudes




2002-05   Nealon, Julie Guthrie     Psychology   Role of individual differences in hypothalamic stress
                                                 hormones in vulnerability to tardive dyskinesia




2002-05   Nowicki, Bradley Burton   Psychology   Development and stability of feelings of trust in
                                                 humans : can trust lead to deviance?
2002-05   O'Brien, Kelly Ann         Psychology   Qualitative study of the person of the therapist




2002-05   Shaffer, Samantha Erin     Psychology   Effect of time of diagnosis of learning disabilities on
                                                  self-esteem and delinquency




2002-05   Sukontarak, Sara Jess      Psychology   Serine racemase mRNA levels in the hippocampal
                                                  formation in a rat model for tardive dyskinesia




2002-05   Tanzi, Alan Scott          Psychology   Maryland State Lifeguard Training Academy




2002-05   Walls, Kerry Jean          Psychology   Use and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy
                                                  in the treatment of schizophrenia




2002-05   Young, Courtney McDevitt   Psychology   Effects of preference versus perception of coaching
                                                  leadership behavior on athlete satisfaction and sport
                                                  self-esteem
2002-05   Young, Derek Morgan      Psychology   Self-evaluation processes : self-enhancement and self-
                                                verification in performance situations




2002-12   Allport, Erin Naomi      Psychology   History of diagnosis




2002-12   Phelps, Lori Michelle    Psychology   Redefining feminism : a multi-cultural perspective on
                                                intellectualism




2002-12   Ruffin, Kristen P.       Psychology   Endorsement of stereotypes and its effects on
                                                openness and attitudes towards interracial dating




2002-12   Schmitt, Christine Ann   Psychology   Symbolic speech : an intensive review of art therapy




2003-05   Atkinson, Lora Beth      Psychology   Correlates of help seeking behavior and attitudes
                                                among adolescents in college
2003-05   Branigan, Daniel Belleman Psychology     Profiling of serial murderers and their portrayal
                                                   through media




2003-05   Brittingham, Laura          Psychology   Reformation of health education in secondary schools
          Elizabeth                                to include sexual minority adolescents




2003-05   Costantini, Cara Danielle   Psychology   Miracle manifested : a new vision of public education




2003-05   Draheim, Angela Rae         Psychology   Examining predictors of academic success
          Trinidad




2003-05   Goodwin, Dennit             Psychology   Effectiveness of the cognitive interview in event recall
          Washington




2003-05   Grabill, Kristen Michelle   Psychology   Role of instrumental support, emotional support, and
                                                   health behaviors in the relationship between stress
                                                   and athletic injury
2003-05   Hill, Sarah Katherine     Psychology   Cross-cultural comparison of motivation in developed
                                                 and undeveloped countries




2003-05   Hittle, Eric Thomas       Psychology   Biological motion : effects of color and orientation on
                                                 grouping




2003-05   Hoffman, Susannah         Psychology   Effects of victimization on social skills in women with
          Margaret                               schizophrenia




2003-05   Hoof, Emily Joy           Psychology   Effects of serotonin on nucleus basalis
                                                 magnocellularis lesions facilitated by alaproclate on
                                                 learning set acquisition in male long-Evans rats




2003-05   Jobe, Brian M.            Psychology   Client preferences and the effectiveness of client and
                                                 therapist match on therapy outcome




2003-05   Johnson, Chara Marielle   Psychology   Attachment style, sex, gender role orientation, and
                                                 race : an examination of partner preferences
2003-05   Knight, Hannah Leah    Psychology   Effects of parenting styles




2003-05   Kurisch, Julia Grace   Psychology   Emperor has no clothes : the truth behind criminal
                                              profiling




2003-05   Lawrence, Emily Rae    Psychology   Comprehensive evaluation of counselors and their
                                              experiences at a summer camp for children and adults
                                              with disabilities




2003-05   Lee, Jennifer Marie    Psychology   Effects of nicotine on learning set acquisition in
                                              nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) lesioned rats




2003-05   Loeper, Elizabeth M.   Psychology   Stress, social support and the nontraditional student :
                                              a qualitative study of the nontraditional student at St.
                                              Mary‘s College of Maryland




2003-05   Marcantonio, Chad      Psychology   Homophobia, perhaps it‘s not what we originally
          Schaefer                            thought
2003-05   Mariast, Danielle Renee    Psychology   Effect of friends versus strangers on group memory of
                                                  central and peripheral items




2003-05   Maron, Leslie Nicole       Psychology   Sex education and adolescents : a comparative study




2003-05   Martin, Kelly Christine    Psychology   Effects of flumazenil on learning set formation in nBM
                                                  lesioned Long-Evans rats : GABAergic influences




2003-05   McLarney, Dana Colleen     Psychology   Analogical transfer in problem solving situations




2003-05   Mervis, Katherine Leah;    Psychology   Strategies for reducing physical conflict in upper
          Treusdell, Elizabeth                    elementary school students
          Dorothy




2003-05   Milleville, Shawn Curtis   Psychology   Brain activation areas in response to animate and
                                                  inanimate stimuli
2003-05   Padukiewicz, Kristin       Psychology   Conceptual learning in match to sample odor tasks in
          Elizabeth                               rats




2003-05   Paradise, Kristin Jean     Psychology   Understanding and dealing with death : adults‘
                                                  accounts of the loss of a childhood pet




2003-05   Payne, Rachel Marie        Psychology   Adolescent females : creating the perfect body image




2003-05   Peters, Lauren Brooke      Psychology   Maintaining applicant status : recruitment issues within
                                                  the Maryland State Police




2003-05   Reeder, Noelle Anastasia   Psychology   Gender differences in use of internal state terms in
                                                  written and typed event narratives




2003-05   Robinson, Kevin J.         Psychology   Presented gender and its effects on helping and
                                                  aggressive behavior in children
2003-05   Seymour, Angel Marie        Psychology   Teacher's handbook : strategies to use in the
                                                   classroom to encourage and provide the most
                                                   beneficial education to students with disabilities




2003-05   Sherman, Thomas Joseph Psychology        Fisticuffs and rumors : how gender affects the
                                                   salience of aggression




2003-05   Vizcarrondo, Valerie Jane   Psychology   Persuasion of Olympic proportions : an applied
                                                   literature review




2003-05   Wagoner, Lori Catherine     Psychology   Child art therapy in the public school system : a
                                                   qualitative study on the needs and components




2003-05   Webb, Lindsey Alexandra     Psychology   Gender roles, stereotypes and power in sexuality : a
                                                   qualitative investigation




2003-05   Weiler, Elizabeth Ann       Psychology   Altruism, volunteerism, and personality
2003-12   Bowes, Loriann        Psychology   Relationship between client satisfaction and
                                             premature termination in a public mental health clinic




2003-12   Chun, Elaine Mum      Psychology   Dream content : comparison between athletes and
                                             non-athletes




2003-12   Cleghorn, Tava C.     Psychology   Does pleasure override knowledge? : a study about
                                             condom use




2003-12   McGeachy, Keisha R.   Psychology   Differences in drinking behaviors among white and
                                             black college students




2003-12   Ogden, Emily B.       Psychology   Relationship between bereavement and dream
                                             content in children ages 6 – 10




2004-05   Arndt, Melissa Anne   Psychology   Evaluation of the effectiveness of an after school
                                             program for at-risk children
2004-05   Baker, Erin Laura        Psychology    Anger management for early elementary school
                                                 children




2004-05   Barnett, Carolyn         Psychology    Siblings vs. friends : behavior patterns across
                                                 relationships




2004-05   Bernatchez, Ashley Quinn- Psychology   Deadly secrets : the sociocultural causes and
          Hannah                                 psychosocial effects of HIV nondisclosure




2004-05   Bishop, Kyle Kimberly    Psychology    Evaluation of individual therapeutic models and their
                                                 effectiveness on socialized individuals




2004-05   Bryant, Zakiya Iman      Psychology    African American mentee : mentoring minority youth




2004-05   Bulger, Deirdre Ann      Psychology    Nocturnal enuresis and its relation to attention deficit
                                                 hyperactivity disorder and other variables
2004-05   Campbell, Robert Charles; Psychology    Effects of action and view angle on the identification of
          Edmonds, Jennifer Lea                   sex and activity of biological motion displays




2004-05   Carpenter, Rebecca L.      Psychology   Ego development and its relation to parental
                                                  attachment




2004-05   Chiappelli, Joshua John    Psychology   Behavioral functions of 5-HT1A receptors in
                                                  orbitofrontal cortex of rats




2004-05   Clark, Kathryn Elizabeth   Psychology   Effects of differing environments on the physiological
                                                  and behavioral characteristics of the vervet monkey




2004-05   Coffey, Kristin Ann;    Psychology      Young adults‘ levels of caregiving for hypothetical
          Wasson, Heather Hae-sun                 siblings




2004-05   Daly, Katherine Diane      Psychology   Obstacles to palliation and pain management for
                                                  hospice patients receiving end of life care
2004-05   Deveney, Melissa Anne      Psychology   Effects meditation in adjunct to psychotherapy for the
                                                  alleviation of anxious and depressive symptoms : a
                                                  literature review




2004-05   Francis, Kristin Theresa   Psychology   Knowing your athletes from the inside out




2004-05   Garger, Jennifer Joan;     Psychology   Effect of anxiety and confidence as it relates to athletic
          Humphrey, Devon Marie                   performance




2004-05   Goodman, Christopher       Psychology   Adolescent adjustment to newly formed stepfamilies
          Michael                                 and possible therapeutic intervention




2004-05   Haley, Tracy Elizabeth     Psychology   Evaluation of the effectiveness of after-school
                                                  programs for at-risk children




2004-05   Heisler, Ellen Margaret    Psychology   Treatment matching in childhood Attention Deficit-
                                                  Hyperactivity Disorder
2004-05   Hnath, Lillian Marie      Psychology   Reversed sex role conditioning : the effects of
                                                 exposure to reversed gender stereotyped roles in
                                                 media




2004-05   Landon, Jacquelyn R.      Psychology   Ostomy formation, self -esteem and sexual
                                                 attractiveness




2004-05   Lee, Benaiah James        Psychology   Philosophical challenges inherent in the nature versus
                                                 nurture dichotomy : how is major depression affected
                                                 by these complexities?




2004-05   Little, Sarah Christine   Psychology   Hookups : expectations versus outcomes among
                                                 college students




2004-05   Massaro, Luciana Rose     Psychology   Social anxiety and academic performance in college
          Angelica




2004-05   McGee, Jessica L.         Psychology   Psychology of domestic violence
2004-05   McIntyre, Kathryn Suzanne Psychology    Cross-cultural review of research on linguistic power




2004-05   Nagano, Hiroyuki           Psychology   Juvenile transfer : a response to serious violent
                                                  juvenile crime




2004-05   Oliver, Mary Virginia      Psychology   Prevalence of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and
                                                  subsyndromal-SAD in a college sample : an
                                                  examination of changes in appetite, sleep and activity
                                                  level




2004-05   Pelczar, Tiffany Kathryn   Psychology   English Language Learners (ELL) : learning style and
                                                  task motivation




2004-05   Raley, Sarah Golden        Psychology   Reflection of color preference and personality : color
                                                  and personality




2004-05   Rathbone, Allan VanBuren Psychology     Self concept impacts of Mithral Quest
2004-05   Raulin, Lee Mathiew        Psychology   In the pursuit of happiness : how Buddhism and
                                                  psychotherapy can work together to create a fulfilling
                                                  life




2004-05   Redmond, Alexander         Psychology   I sleep to dream
          Jerome




2004-05   Reinckens, William Brown   Psychology   Evaluation of a peer mediated support group for
                                                  AD/HD college students




2004-05   Sawkiewicz, Julie          Psychology   Overcoming racism and prejudice in today‘s world
          Catherine




2004-05   Shores, Laura Nicole       Psychology   Gender differences in serial killers : how does one‘s
                                                  gender role identity and occupation influence their
                                                  method of murder?




2004-05   Sidhom, Katreen Marie      Psychology   Academic stress and depressive symptoms in college
                                                  students
2004-05   Simpson, Laura Marie        Psychology   Peer AD/HD support system : evaluation of a peer
                                                   support group for college undergraduates with
                                                   Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder




2004-05   Singer, Carrie Lynn         Psychology   Adoption and identity issues




2004-05   Strange, Sarah Hodgetts     Psychology   Look at discrimination towards the mentally ill : a local
                                                   case




2004-05   Toussaint, Michelle Leigh   Psychology   Case study of resilience in a young woman with
                                                   cerebral palsy : hope, social support, and family
                                                   support services




2004-05   Wathen, Rhonda              Psychology   Externalizing behavior among elementary school
                                                   children




2004-05   Wilder, Rachael Laura       Psychology   Thanatos : a correlational study of experience with
                                                   death, anxiety, and personal habits in college students
2004-05   Wood, Amanda Jill         Psychology   Examining the straight edge subculture : why some
                                                 adolescents rebel against drugs




2004-05   Zell, William Francis     Psychology   Personality factors and favor asking




2004-12   Knicely, Jordan Lynn      Psychology   Investigation into spatial working memory and task-
                                                 switching




2004-12   Neidhart, Leigh Ann       Psychology   Technology and its impact on the closeness among us




2004-12   Salama, Christina Helen   Psychology   Methods of psychotherapy in the treatment of bipolar
                                                 disorder : integrating creative therapies, cognitive
                                                 behavioral therapy, family therapy, and group therapy
                                                 into a comprehensive approach to bipolar disorder




2004-12   Searle, Jessica Wheeler   Psychology   My mother‘s madness : a case-study of manic-
                                                 depressive illness and artistry
2004-12   Straub, Jason Michael;     Psychology   Factors correlating with substance use in high school
          Swarr, Nathaniel Beidler                and college




2005-05   Alafriz, Courtney Erika    Psychology   Social aggression among adolescents : an analysis of
          Murphy                                  ―teen‖ television




2005-05   Anthony, Erin Patricia     Psychology   Psychotherapy integration




2005-05   Barndt, Carolyn Marie      Psychology   Bibliotherapy : developing fiction for siblings of
                                                  children with autism




2005-05   Beal, Georgene Marie       Psychology   Stress in law enforcement officers




2005-05   Blackwell, Elliott Gill    Psychology   How political debate and directed faking studies
                                                  support a method of cheating on a test of moral
                                                  development
2005-05   Bryant, Erin Hart          Psychology    Multidimensional health locus of control and
                                                   depression in a sample of rheumatoid arthritis patients




2005-05   Cawthorne, Kari Maureen    Psychology    Parental divorce : its effects on offspring‘s young adult
                                                   relationship satisfaction




2005-05   Celedonia, Karen Lynn      Psychology;   Craving the spotlight : the desire for fame in Buddhists
                                     English       vs. non-Buddhists




2005-05   Cramer, Christine Marie    Psychology    Relationship of relational aggression and depression




2005-05   Dansie, Katherine Fauver   Psychology    Treating eating disorders with bibliotherapy




2005-05   Davies, Kimberly Ann       Psychology    Ideal balance of power in interpersonal relationships,
                                                   self-esteem, and academic achievement
2005-05   Davis, Lauren Fusting    Psychology   Types and levels of disobedience in popular children‘s
                                                television programs




2005-05   Derocher, Anne-Marie     Psychology   Importance of speech-language pathology : children
          Junee                                 with speech-language impairments




2005-05   Desmond, Angela Marie    Psychology   Drama therapy : a handbook




2005-05   Doyle, Susan Elizabeth   Psychology   Mindfulness-based stress reduction : the interface of
                                                meditation and psychotherapy




2005-05   Eck, Kathleen Ann        Psychology   Stress and athletic competition : how do athletes
                                                cope?




2005-05   Flanagan, Emily H.       Psychology   Weathering the storm : a proposed intervention to
                                                increase peer social support among adolescents
2005-05   Fleisher, Doria          Psychology   Inclusion in educational and recreational settings : a
                                                literature review focusing on the variables affecting the
                                                implementation of successful inclusive environments




2005-05   Fletcher, Eleanor Ward   Psychology   Use of play therapy with children diagnosed with
                                                autism




2005-05   Genau, Jacqueline Lee    Psychology   School-wide approach to the bullying problem facing
                                                elementary schools




2005-05   Glynn, Joseph Andrew     Psychology   Lucid dreaming : a qualitative assessment




2005-05   Graham, Kerry Beth       Psychology   Coping with 9/11 : conquering the tragedy with or
                                                without God




2005-05   Groth, Byron N.          Psychology   Crisis negotiation in law enforcement : history,
                                                mechanics, and the application of psychology
2005-05   Hannon, Paige Lee         Psychology   Evolving responsibilities, issues, and methods of
                                                 intervention effecting school-based speech-language
                                                 pathologists




2005-05   Hawes, Rachel June        Psychology   Self-fulfilling prophecy in college athletics




2005-05   Hjemvik, Leeann Marie     Psychology   New approach to adolescent drug use prevention




2005-05   Hovatter, Jessica Lynne   Psychology   Sex and emotion detection in interactive point light
                                                 displays




2005-05   Huggins, Elizabeth Anne   Psychology   Evaluation of the mental health services available to
                                                 the deaf and hard-of-hearing




2005-05   Hunt, Jennifer Jean       Psychology   Tobacco-use prevention : using persuasive
                                                 techniques to prevent smoking
2005-05   Krebeck, Aurore Lynn     Psychology   Cross-sex and cross-cultural interactions among
                                                Gambian and US men and women




2005-05   Krohn, Daniel Thomas     Psychology   Comparing the medical model to the psychosocial
                                                model : the positive and negative consequences that
                                                arise from the way one approaches mental illness




2005-05   Lamont, Amanda Brooke    Psychology   Efficacy of art therapy as a diagnostic tool and
                                                therapeutic intervention for treating children
                                                traumatized by physical and/or sexual abuse




2005-05   Leonard, Jessica Marie   Psychology   Identity formation in emerging adulthood that links to
                                                delayed marriages




2005-05   Lobkowicz, Hope Sandra   Psychology   Aggression, affiliation, and vocalization patterns in the
                                                California sea lion, Zalophus californianus




2005-05   Long, Tabitha Margaux    Psychology   Does being involved in the rescue squad effect one‘s
                                                perceived stress level and his/her personality?
2005-05   MacHarris, Molly Ann    Psychology   Initiation rituals and hazing : a comparison within
                                               athletics and clubs




2005-05   McQuighan, Lisa Marie   Psychology   Nature of infidelity in romantic relationships




2005-05   Meyer, Kevin Patrick    Psychology   Child preference in custody disputes




2005-05   Miller, Jennifer Amy    Psychology   Investigation of parents‘ thoughts and attitudes about
                                               parenting and child behavior problems




2005-05   Miller, Kathryn Anne    Psychology   Critical investigation of the relationships between
                                               eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and
                                               depression




2005-05   Mitchell, Michael       Psychology   Handbook on divorce : a resource for counselors and
                                               their clients
2005-05   Moore, Elizabeth Anne       Psychology   Freedom of choice : blessing or burden? : the
                                                   relationship between choice set size, maximization
                                                   propensity, and post-decision regret




2005-05   Naab, Pamela Jo             Psychology   Housewifery in the 21st century : distributions of
                                                   domestic labor within marriage




2005-05   Newell, Delia May           Psychology   Behavioral and developmental differences in wild- and
                                                   captive-bred cetaceans




2005-05   O'Sullivan, Elizabeth Anne Psychology    Someday my prince will come : gender stereotype
                                                   evolution in film from 1980-2003




2005-05   Pennington, Nicholas        Psychology   Analysis of negotiation theories, bargaining strategies,
          Morris                                   and the psychological precepts which influence
                                                   bargaining behavior




2005-05   Pugliese, Jennifer Nicole   Psychology   Influence of athletic participation and extraversion on
                                                   the alcohol consumption behaviors of college students
2005-05   Ravitz, Nadine Kathleen   Psychology   Gender role formation in Latino preschoolers in
                                                 Washington, D.C.




2005-05   Rotholz, Abigail Michal   Psychology   Gender role attitudes as function of sibling relationship
                                                 context




2005-05   Rowe, Christina Marie     Psychology   Gender differences in the perception of fear appeals :
                                                 self-esteem and self-efficacy as moderators




2005-05   Shutty, Meagan Lynne      Psychology   Effect of muscimol, a GABA agonist, on the
                                                 acquisition of learning set in male Long-Evans rats




2005-05   Sides, Ashley Mae         Psychology   Effect of enriched environments on the learning
                                                 deficits of type 1 neurofibromatosis mice




2005-05   Sloane, Sarah Louise      Psychology   Effects of a Muslim culture and faith on
                                                 psychopathology
2005-05   Stancavitch, Amy Lynn     Psychology   Importance of multicultural literature in the early
                                                 elementary school classroom




2005-05   Stout, Alexandra Larsen   Psychology   College counseling centers : challenges and
                                                 recommendations




2005-05   Tyler, Megan McLeod       Psychology   Media influences on female body esteem
          Dodson




2005-05   Wilson, Laura Chin        Psychology   Measuring undergraduate students‘ life satisfaction
                                                 and reactions to gnosticism




2005-05   Wise, James Sherer        Psychology   Just world or just unlucky? : a study of public
                                                 perceptions concerning the reasons for poverty and
                                                 the methods of helping the poor help themselves
                                                 using students at St. Mary‘s College of Maryland




2005-08   Grisham, Carrie Bess      Psychology   Therapeutic horseback riding for autistic children : a
                                                 review of the literature and a proposal for research
2005-08   Joseph, Crystal Marie      Psychology   Obesity and the importance of body image on
                                                  adolescents




2005-12   Baxter, Shane Michael      Psychology   My child is different : a focus on the trials and
                                                  tribulations of family adjustment to children with
                                                  autism spectrum disorder




2005-12   Brooks, Cori Renee         Psychology   Effect of relationship status on female college
                                                  students : happiness and loneliness regarding single
                                                  women and women involved in a romantic relationship




2005-12   Dugan, Erin T.             Psychology   Autism and treatments in school aged children




2005-12   Gardiner, Stephanie Joan   Psychology   Search for balance : the acculturation process of
                                                  Asian American undergraduate students and the role
                                                  of therapy in the reconciliation of related concerns




2005-12   Kallarackal, Angy Jose     Psychology   Effect of apamin, a small conductance calcium
                                                  activated potassium (SK) channel blocker, on a
                                                  mouse model of neurofibromatosis 1
2005-12   Pennington, Nicholas      Psychology   Causes of self-defeating behavior
          Morris




2006-05   Ahrendt, Kenneth Carl     Psychology   Media influence and risk perception : the impact of the
                                                 news media on risk perception




2006-05   Asmann, Suzanne           Psychology   Behavioral investigation of an isolation-rearing model
          Elizabeth                              of schizophrenia in rats




2006-05   Baker, Allison Kathryn    Psychology   Effects of parental involvement on student academic
                                                 achievement




2006-05   Barnes, Eileen Patricia   Psychology   Relationship between birth order, achievement, and
                                                 anxiety




2006-05   Berger, Samantha Leigh    Psychology   Relationship between attachment and expected vs.
                                                 perceived intimacy
2006-05   Borsch, Emily Victoria   Psychology   Tactic is distraction : the news broadcaster‘s influence
                                                on content recall




2006-05   Burkman, Lisa Michele    Psychology   Stereotypes of psychotherapists in film : a content
                                                analysis




2006-05   Burtis, Amy LeeAnn       Psychology   Applying the theories of aggression to adolescent
                                                aggression




2006-05   Bushell, Thomas R.       Psychology   Role of occupational stress in various positions
                                                throughout the criminal justice system




2006-05   Butler, Sylvia Claire    Psychology   Correlation between parental practices on gender role
                                                orientation, attachment style, self-esteem and
                                                satisfaction in later romantic relationships




2006-05   Calhoon, Gwendolyn       Psychology   Effects of cognitive intervention in adolescence on
          Gabrielle                             behavioral abnormalities in a rat model of
                                                schizophrenia
2006-05   Callahan, Lauren Jean    Psychology   Effects of isolation rearing in adolescence on
                                                behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine in
                                                adulthood




2006-05   Carrico, Lea Rene        Psychology   Adult attachment and its correlations with parental
                                                marital status and conflict




2006-05   Cochran, Christa A.      Psychology   Therapist personal history variables and their effect on
                                                the quantity and quality of self-disclosure in the
                                                therapeutic relationship




2006-05   Davis, Brendan Michael   Psychology   Strategies for coping with injury and rehabilitation
                                                program adherence




2006-05   Dinh, Dian Phuong;      Psychology    Personality and character class selection in World of
          Proimos, James Theodore               Warcraft : an exploratory study of massive multiplayer
                                                choices and behaviors




2006-05   Dixon, Amber Lynn        Psychology   Breast obsessed : the importance of breast size in
                                                American society and its' influence on the approval of
                                                cosmetic breast surgery
2006-05   Freethey, Miranda Maeve     Psychology   Schadenfreude, social comparisons and competition




2006-05   Hege, Johnathon Robert      Psychology   Development of friendship over Instant Messenger




2006-05   Jones, Victoria Mackenzie   Psychology   Developing a women's center in India




2006-05   Kloster, Laurie Evelyn      Psychology   Personality and political orientation : the relation
                                                   between conservatism and the five-factor model




2006-05   Lubben, Jade Marie          Psychology   Exercise as a protective mechanism against chronic
                                                   stress-induced memory impairments and hippocampal
                                                   damage in rats




2006-05   Lutterbie, Simon J.         Psychology   Interactive personality : theoretical foundations and
                                                   measure development
2006-05   MacFarland, Megan          Psychology   Sex differences in the effects of valium on neuronal
          Elizabeth                               activation and elevated plus-maze behavior in the rat




2006-05   Mandell, Melissa Beth      Psychology   Feminist approach to combating relational aggression
                                                  among middle school girls




2006-05   Maslyar, Constance Grace Psychology     Going beyond ―no‖ : behavior management strategies
                                                  for children with autism




2006-05   Mathews, Sarah Elizabeth   Psychology   Experience, knowledge, perceptions, and
                                                  misperceptions of teachers and undergraduates about
                                                  students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder




2006-05   McBride, Megan A.          Psychology   Media effects on body image in elderly and college
                                                  aged women




2006-05   Messenheimer, Sharon       Psychology   False confessions : the problem and possible solutions
          Lynn
2006-05   Mills, Brian Matthew     Psychology   Differences in time use efficiency and motivation in
                                                relation to athletic role identity and academic
                                                performance of NCAA Division III athletes and non-
                                                athletes




2006-05   Mitchell, James Robert   Psychology   Stigma of mental health therapy : sociocultural factors
                                                and recommendations for change




2006-05   Mundle, Erica Leigh      Psychology   Effects of viewing television news programs : an
                                                analysis of the United States and Australia




2006-05   Nugent, Kevin Carson     Psychology   Poked and prodded : the role stigma plays in
                                                perception of people with body modifications, and
                                                personality differences between people with and
                                                without body modifications




2006-05   Okidegbe, Oluchi         Psychology   African American achievement at St. Mary‘s College of
          Nwalokomobi                           Maryland




2006-05   Opel, Katelyn            Psychology   Demand withdraw pattern in dating relationships :
                                                individual differences perspective vs. conflict structure
                                                perspective
2006-05   Richards-Peelle, Kathryn   Psychology   Effects of yoga on body satisfaction in pre-adolescent
          Canfie                                  females




2006-05   Roberts, Elizabeth Anne    Psychology   Bilingualism and its effect on learning




2006-05   Robey, Lauren M.           Psychology   Stress in the dental chair : an investigation of the roles
                                                  of parental stress and child preparation




2006-05   Ryan, Katie Marie          Psychology   Effectiveness of PBIS programs in elementary schools
                                                  : a case study




2006-05   Sawyer, Wesley Neal        Psychology   Differences between television news programs : an
                                                  analysis of the United States and Australia




2006-05   Scarr, Ashley E.           Psychology   Is media the menace? : investigating the effects of
                                                  highly stimulating television programs on the
                                                  symptoms of ADHD
2006-05   Schlosnagle, Leo           Psychology   Sibling relationships as a protective factor following
                                                  parental divorce




2006-05   Seneff, Alexis Mackenzie   Psychology   Lost generation : the effects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic
                                                  on South African youth




2006-05   Stephens, Teresa Michele   Psychology   Invisibility and fading in motion-induced blindness as
                                                  static dot size increases




2006-05   Stone, Holly Theresa       Psychology   First and second generation female immigrants in the
                                                  United States




2006-05   Ulino, Alison Jane Sarah   Psychology   Motivation factors that influence athlete's adherence to
                                                  rehabilitation programs after suffering an injury




2006-05   Walper, Daniel J.          Psychology   ADHD : peer identifiability and perspective on
                                                  treatment
2006-05   Whitehead, Vanessa     Psychology   Cross-cultural differences between television news
          Alexandra                           programs : an analysis of negative news and the
                                              effect of fear and anxiety in the United States and
                                              Australia




2006-05   Wickizer, Rebecca      Psychology   Yoga intervention program and its effects on
          Christine                           compassion in adolescent females




2006-05   Winkler, Melinda Kay   Psychology   Scotopic sensitivity : what do we know in southern
                                              Maryland?




2006-05   Wirtz, Ashley Brooke   Psychology   Chronic pediatric illnesses : impact and coping during
                                              the elementary school years




2006-08   Gayle, Diana Andrea    Psychology   Father absence and its effects on college women‘s
                                              interpersonal interactions




2006-08   Snavely, Carl Russel   Psychology   Intimate relationships : relationships correlates with
                                              depression and academic performance
2006-12   Allen, Elizabeth Jayne   Psychology    Animal assisted therapy (AAT) and animal assisted
                                                 activities (AAA) : a literature review




2006-12   Barnes, Katherine Hemsley Psychology   Closer look at Eye Movement Desensitization and
                                                 Reprocessing (EMDR)




2006-12   Bhanot, Rashmi           Psychology    Disordered eating in female athletes




2006-12   Black, Colin Sime        Psychology    Alcohol : a self-medication for socially anxious
                                                 individuals




2006-12   Hammamy, Ranwa Diaa      Psychology    Value of educational television : examining the
                                                 contribution of Dora the Explorer




2006-12   Hammond, Arianna Marie   Psychology    Appraisal of goal progress, motivation and life
                                                 satisfaction in a mental health rehabilitation program
2006-12   Lichtenstein, Hannah        Psychology   Relationship between childhood imaginary
          Rebekah                                  companions and adulthood creativity : a retrospective
                                                   study




2006-12   Mason, Michelle Alice       Psychology   Early childhood reading programs : parents' role in
                                                   their children's reading success




2006-12   Strauss, Ethan Thomas       Psychology   Understanding college athletes readiness to quit
                                                   competitive sport : a qualitative study




2006-12   Tress, Megan Elizabeth      Psychology   Attraction : yours, mine, or ours? The effects of social
                                                   influence on perceived physical attraction




2007-05   Abell, Kimberly Danielle;   Psychology   Romantic beliefs and abusive relationships : how
          Riedel, Christina Leigh                  beliefs in destiny and beliefs in growth affect one's
                                                   tolerance for abuse




2007-05   Ballute, Amanda Jo          Psychology   Superstitious behavior in sports
2007-05   Bancells, Andrea Maria     Psychology     Coping strategies exhibited by parents of children with
                                                    autism : from diagnosis to present day




2007-05   Buechler, Kerry Lisa       Psychology     Theory of mind development in autistic and non-
                                                    autistic children




2007-05   Connolly, Jennifer Christine Psychology   Influence of sexual orientation and violence severity
                                                    on perceptions of intimate partner abuse




2007-05   Connolly, Kevin Michael    Psychology     Left-handedness : implications and consequences




2007-05   Cordani, Diane Elizabeth   Psychology     Blame attributions of male and female victims of
                                                    spouse abuse




2007-05   Emerson, Charles           Psychology     Pet ownership as a child and the development of self-
          Christopher                               esteem and empathy
2007-05   Farley, Megan Jean      Psychology   Making a comeback : collegiate athletes and the
                                               emotional response to athletic injury




2007-05   Havens-McColgan, John   Psychology   Legal ramifications of juror perceptions of mental
          Charles                              illness




2007-05   Hickman, Megan Anne     Psychology   Beyond cutting classes : a guide for middle and high
                                               school educating professionals on adolescent self-
                                               mutilation




2007-05   Hoehn, Jessica Lynn     Psychology   Stigma and cancer : young adults' attitudes toward
                                               hypothetical peers




2007-05   Ikizler, Ayse Selin     Psychology   Gender role representations in Turkish television
                                               programs




2007-05   Ivy, David Patrick      Psychology   Oxidant stress and nicotine‘s role in diffuse vascular
                                               injury : vascular response to chronic nicotine
2007-05   Jensvold, Karin Patritia   Psychology   St. Mary's project




2007-05   Jones, Amanda Catherine    Psychology   Evaluation of the St. Mary‘s County family
                                                  independence project




2007-05   Kampmeyer, Hannah Marie Psychology      Effects of socialization on expression and acceptance
                                                  of depression in men and women




2007-05   Leech, Hillary Meredith    Psychology   Women‘s rights in the Gambia : an analysis of
                                                  Gambian newspapers




2007-05   Lubben, Joshua Todd        Psychology   Religious socialization and religious behavior : a
                                                  literature review




2007-05   McGill, Jacquelyn Ann      Psychology   Effects of diazepam on anxiety with repeated testing in
                                                  rats
2007-05   Muehl, Allison Nicole     Psychology   Vocal characteristics as a response to self-esteem
                                                 manipulation : findings and implications




2007-05   Pitts, Katrice Charita    Psychology   Thank heaven for little girls : high risk sexual behavior
                                                 of African-American female adolescents with
                                                 relationship, environmental, and media factors




2007-05   Reid, Chelsea Maitland    Psychology   Periadolescents on methamphetamine : the impact of
                                                 an escalating dose regimen of methamphetamine on
                                                 non-spatial working memory and serotonin within the
                                                 hippocampus




2007-05   Ruiz, Casimira Teresa     Psychology   Cognitive deficits and individual differences resulting
                                                 from behavioral sensitization to an escalating dose of
                                                 methamphetamine




2007-05   Sumner, Jaclyn Michelle   Psychology   Qualitative study of children of Holocaust survivors




2007-05   Sutton, Jeanne Peri       Psychology   Forms of trauma and their relationships with
                                                 phenomena of dissociation, sleep, and dreaming
2007-05   Tranen, Naomi Shoshanah Psychology     Roommate expectations throughout college




2007-05   Ward, Caitlin Gore        Psychology   Conditioned place preference and the effect of
                                                 dopam