Youth Group Graduation Certificate Template - Excel

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					PORTFOLIO ID    PORTFOLIO NAME                        KNOWLEDGE AREA CODE

               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723

               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723

               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723
               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723
               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723




               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723

               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723

               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723

               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723


               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723
               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723
               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723

               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723
               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability     723




5   Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5   Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5   Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5   Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5   Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability     723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability     723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723


5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723

5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723




5 Farm Management for Sustainability   723
KNOWLEDGE AREA NAME

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety


Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety

Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
Hazards to Human Health and Safety




Hazards to Human Health and Safety
PROGRAM NAME

Community Development

Community Development

Community Development
Community Development
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability


Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Human Nutrition, Food Safety and Human Health and Well-Being
Human Nutrition, Food Safety and Human Health and Well-Being
Human Nutrition, Food Safety and Human Health and Well-Being

Human Nutrition, Food Safety and Human Health and Well-Being
Human Nutrition, Food Safety and Human Health and Well-Being




Individual Wastewater Systems-Implications for a New Rural Generation




Individual Wastewater Systems-Implications for a New Rural Generation
Individual Wastewater Systems-Implications for a New Rural Generation




Individual Wastewater Systems-Implications for a New Rural Generation




Individual Wastewater Systems-Implications for a New Rural Generation




Individual Wastewater Systems-Implications for a New Rural Generation




Individual Wastewater Systems-Implications for a New Rural Generation
Individual Wastewater Systems-Implications for a New Rural Generation
Aging Lifestyles




Watershed Management and Planning




Watershed Management and Planning




Watershed Management and Planning




Watershed Management and Planning
Watershed Management and Planning




Watershed Management and Planning




Watershed Management and Planning




Watershed Management and Planning
Food, Nutrition & Health


Food, Nutrition & Health
Food, Nutrition & Health




Food, Nutrition & Health
Food, Nutrition & Health
Pest Management
Pest Management
Pest Management




Pest Management

Pest Management
Community and Economic Development




Pest Management
Pest Management




Pest Management




Pest Management
Pest Management




Pest Management




Pest Management
Pest Management




Pest Management




Pest Management
Pest Management




Pest Management




Diet, Nutrition and Healthy Lifestyles

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Community Development
Human Health and Safety-OARDC Led




Human Health and Safety-OARDC Led




3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health


3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health

3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health


3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health


3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health




3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health

3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health

3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health

3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health


3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health

3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health
3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health

3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health




Food Safety and Nutrition




Food Safety and Nutrition




Food Safety and Nutrition




Food Safety and Nutrition

Food Safety and Nutrition




Food Safety and Nutrition

Food Safety and Nutrition
Human Health, Environment, Family, Youth, Society and Community




Safety and Health Extension




Safety and Health Extension

Safety and Health Extension


Safety and Health Extension




Human Nutrition, Diet Adequacy, Health and Wellbeing
Aging Lifestyles




Human Health, Environment, Family, Youth, Society and Community
Human Health, Environment, Family, Youth, Society and Community




Human Health, Environment, Family, Youth, Society and Community




Human Health, Environment, Family, Youth, Society and Community




Human Health, Environment, Family, Youth, Society and Community




Human Health, Environment, Family, Youth, Society and Community




Cancer Risk Reduction and Early Detection




Food Safety and Nutrition
Agricultural and Food Biosecurity




Agricultural and Food Biosecurity




Agricultural and Food Biosecurity




6.Health and Wellness of Hawaii's Families and Communities
6.Health and Wellness of Hawaii's Families and Communities

6.Health and Wellness of Hawaii's Families and Communities




6.Health and Wellness of Hawaii's Families and Communities
6.Health and Wellness of Hawaii's Families and Communities




Promoting Healthy Living Environments for Underserved and Hard to Reach Audiences - TU/FF NEWS-Fami




Child Passenger Safety
Promoting Healthy Living Environments for Underserved and Hard to Reach Audiences - TU/FF NEWS-Fami
Food, Nutrition & Health
Food, Nutrition & Health




Food, Nutrition & Health




Food, Nutrition & Health




3.1 Nutrition, Food Safety and Health




Human Health, Environment, Family, Youth, Society and Community


Food, Nutrition & Health
Food Production

Health Promotion and Disease Prevention




Environmental Science




Assist Individuals and Families to Achieve Economic Well-being and Life Quality


Health and Safety
Health and Safety




Health and Safety




Assist Individuals and Families to Achieve Economic Well-being and Life Quality




Environmental Science




Human Nutrition, Food Safety, and Human Health--research
Human Nutrition, Food Safety, and Human Health--research




Food Safety and Nutrition
Human Health and Well-Being




Diet, Nutrition and Healthy Lifestyles




Diet, Nutrition and Healthy Lifestyles




Human Nutrition, Diet, and Health
Human Nutrition, Diet, and Health




Indoor Air Quality




Indoor Air Quality
Indoor Air Quality




Youth Food Producing Animal Quality Assurance (Extension)

Pesticide Education Program (Extension)




Youth Food Producing Animal Quality Assurance (Extension)


Human Health and Safety-OARDC Led




Human Health and Safety-OARDC Led


Human Health and Safety-OARDC Led
Human Nutrition, Diet, and Health

Health Promotion and Disease Prevention




Institute for Labor Studies and Research Programs


A Model of Macrophage Particulate Matter Air Pollution Interactions




Food Processing, Product Storage, and Food and Product Safety

Food Safety
Food Safety

Food Safety

Food Safety


Food Safety

Food Safety
Food Processing, Protection & Safety

Agriculture and Food Defence Program / Agrosecurity

Agriculture and Food Defence Program / Agrosecurity

Safe Food and Human Nutrition




Health and Human Nutrition




Safe Food and Human Nutrition


Safe Food and Human Nutrition

Safe Food and Human Nutrition




Safe Food and Human Nutrition


Agriculture and Food Defence Program / Agrosecurity

Food Processing, Protection & Safety

Food Processing, Protection & Safety
Safe Food and Human Nutrition




Agricultural and Emerging Chemicals: Fate, Effect & Exposure




Environmental Chemicals as Transcriptional Modulators: Understanding Health Effects as a Function of




Environmental Chemicals as Transcriptional Modulators: Understanding Health Effects as a Function of
Environmental Chemicals as Transcriptional Modulators: Understanding Health Effects as a Function of




Microbiology and a Healthy World




Microbiology and a Healthy World




Animal Health and Disease
Animal Health and Disease




Animal Health and Disease




Animal Health and Disease




Agricultural and Emerging Chemicals: Fate, Effect & Exposure
Agricultural and Emerging Chemicals: Fate, Effect & Exposure




Water and Environmental Quality




Food Safety
Strong Families, Healthy Homes




Strong Families, Healthy Homes
INSTITUTION NAME 1      INSTITUTION NAME 2

University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont




University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont


University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont

Purdue University
Purdue University
Purdue University

Purdue University
Purdue University




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Missouri
University of Maine




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Arkansas


University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas
Montana State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




University of Kentucky                          Kentucky State University

University of Vermont

University of Vermont
Ohio State University




Ohio State University




Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station




Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Cornell University      NY State Agricultural Experiment Station
Cornell University   NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Cornell University   NY State Agricultural Experiment Station




Clemson University   South Carolina State University




Clemson University   South Carolina State University




Clemson University   South Carolina State University




Clemson University   South Carolina State University

Clemson University   South Carolina State University




Clemson University   South Carolina State University

Clemson University   South Carolina State University
Michigan State University




West Virginia University




West Virginia University

West Virginia University


West Virginia University




University of Illinois
University of Maine




Michigan State University
Michigan State University




Michigan State University




Michigan State University




Michigan State University




Michigan State University




Texas A&M University




Clemson University          South Carolina State University
Pennsylvania State University




Pennsylvania State University




Pennsylvania State University




University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii

University of Hawaii




University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii




Tuskegee University




Texas A&M University
Tuskegee University
University of New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire




University of New Hampshire




University of New Hampshire




Cornell University            NY State Agricultural Experiment Station




Michigan State University


University of New Hampshire
University of Massachusetts

University of Massachusetts




Lincoln University of Missouri




University of Florida            Florida A&M University


University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University
University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee          Tennessee State University




University of Florida            Florida A&M University




Lincoln University of Missouri




University of Florida            Florida A&M University
University of Florida       Florida A&M University




Clemson University          South Carolina State University
University of Puerto Rico




University of Kentucky      Kentucky State University




University of Kentucky      Kentucky State University




Auburn University           Alabama A&M University
Auburn University   Alabama A&M University




Rutgers




Rutgers
Rutgers




Ohio State University

Ohio State University




Ohio State University


Ohio State University




Ohio State University


Ohio State University
Auburn University                        Alabama A&M University

University of Massachusetts




West Virginia University


University of the District of Columbia




Oklahoma State University

University of Idaho
University of Idaho

University of Idaho

University of Idaho


University of Idaho

University of Idaho
University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

Kansas State University




University of Idaho




Kansas State University


Kansas State University

Kansas State University




Kansas State University


University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University
Kansas State University




Oregon State University




Oregon State University




Oregon State University
Oregon State University




Oregon State University




Oregon State University




Oregon State University
Oregon State University




Oregon State University




Oregon State University




Oregon State University
Oregon State University




University of Idaho




University of Idaho
Colorado State University




Colorado State University
INSTITUTION NAME 3   INSTITUTION NAME 4   STATE CODE STATE NAME

                                          VT         Vermont

                                          VT         Vermont

                                          VT         Vermont
                                          VT         Vermont
                                          VT         Vermont




                                          VT         Vermont

                                          VT         Vermont

                                          VT         Vermont

                                          VT         Vermont


                                          VT         Vermont
                                          VT         Vermont
                                          VT         Vermont

                                          IN         Indiana
                                          IN         Indiana
IN   Indiana

IN   Indiana
IN   Indiana




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
MO   Missouri
ME   Maine




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
AR   Arkansas


AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas

AR   Arkansas
MT   Montana




VA   Virginia
VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia
VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia
VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia
VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia




KY   Kentucky

VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont
OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio




NY   New York


NY   New York

NY   New York


NY   New York


NY   New York




NY   New York

NY   New York

NY   New York

NY   New York


NY   New York

NY   New York
NY   New York

NY   New York




SC   South Carolina




SC   South Carolina




SC   South Carolina




SC   South Carolina

SC   South Carolina




SC   South Carolina

SC   South Carolina
MI   Michigan




WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia

WV   West Virginia


WV   West Virginia




IL   Illinois
ME   Maine




MI   Michigan
MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan




TX   Texas




SC   South Carolina
PA   Pennsylvania




PA   Pennsylvania




PA   Pennsylvania




HI   Hawaii
HI   Hawaii

HI   Hawaii




HI   Hawaii
HI   Hawaii




AL   Alabama




TX   Texas
AL   Alabama
NH   New Hampshire
NH   New Hampshire




NH   New Hampshire




NH   New Hampshire




NY   New York




MI   Michigan


NH   New Hampshire
MA   Massachusetts

MA   Massachusetts




MO   Missouri




FL   Florida


TN   Tennessee
TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




FL   Florida




MO   Missouri




FL   Florida
FL   Florida




SC   South Carolina
PR   Puerto Rico




KY   Kentucky




KY   Kentucky




AL   Alabama
AL   Alabama




NJ   New Jersey




NJ   New Jersey
NJ   New Jersey




OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio


OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio


OH   Ohio
AL   Alabama

MA   Massachusetts




WV   West Virginia


DC   District of Columbia




OK   Oklahoma

ID   Idaho
ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho


ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho
GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

KS   Kansas




ID   Idaho




KS   Kansas


KS   Kansas

KS   Kansas




KS   Kansas


GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia
KS   Kansas




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon
OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon
OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon
OR   Oregon




ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho
CO   Colorado




CO   Colorado
OUTCOME MEASURE
number of Rural and Ag VocRehab consumers who have maintained or increased income, or
decreased monetary losses
number of Rural and Ag VocRehab consumers who report increased satisfaction with actual or
potential employment

number of farm and rural residents with disabilities successfully served (ie case is closed)
number of farmers with disabilities maintaining employment
extension employees will know what is expected from them in a disaster




number of dairy farmers who indicate intent to make at least 1 change
number of producers who have increased understanding of avian influenza risk, signs of
disease, and who to contact

increase in collaboration with agency and industry personnel to address farm safety
number of fair and field days, and similar events that incorporate assessment and
implementation of practical safeguards
number of fair, field days or event attendees who demonstrate an increased understanding of
the health risks associated with the failure to wash hands by using safeguards provided (such
as hand sanitation stations)
number of farms that have current plans for use by emergency first responders
number of farms that incorporate biosecurity, safety and preventative measures

Number of persons who increased their knowledge of keeping food at a safe temperature
Number of persons who increased their knowledge of storing foods properly
Number of participants passing food handler certificate

Decreased % incidence of food borne illness associated with unsafe food handling practices
Decreased % mortality due to unsafe food handling practices




Five hundred (500) on-site sewage installers, real estate professionals and home inspectors
will increase their awareness and have access to on-site sewage information technologies.




Five hundred (500) on-site sewage installers, real estate professionals and home inspectors
will increase their understanding of how an on-site sewage system works and the importance
of soils in determining the type of on-site system being installed.
Agency personnel will understand the functions of on-site sewage systems.




Five hundred (500) class participants will increase their awareness of on-site system
alternatives and when they should be used.




There will be an increase in the number of alternative on-site sewage systems being installed
in environmentally sensitive areas.




There will be reduced risk to human health from waterborne bacteria due to fecal coliform.




Five hundred (500) class participants will incorporate information about human health risk
and environmental quality when evaluating site selection and on-site system design during
inspections and land transfers.
In areas of class participation, 1,500 on-site systems will be installed under latest guidelines
that protect environmental quality through reduced wastewater nutrients in surface and
groundwater supplies.
Balance roles, responsibilities, and stress




Each year, three workshops (Watershed Management and Planning) will empower local
people and agency personnel to organize watershed advisory groups to begin a process of
evaluating, planning and implementing strategies for protecting water resources.




Each year, two watershed planning and management educational programs will be developed
and implemented in identified watersheds.




Five watershed communities each year will be actively involved in the development of
watershed management plans in various geographic regions of the state.




Three new watershed management advisory groups will be formed each year.
Each year, three watershed groups will implement watershed management plans that focus
on improving water quality.




Each year, three watershed communities will develop watershed management plans that
have been approved by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources.




Each year, three communities, with approved plans, are using the plans in the development of
watershed management plans for total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), source water
protection, and other land use planning decisions affecting their watershed.




Fifteen watersheds will be targeted for watershed management planning, development and
implementation. An advisory committee will select the watersheds for the programming
efforts.
Number of research projects conducted related to Food, Nutrition & Health

Number of participants who indicated that they increased their knowledge related to Food,
Nutrition & Health following an educational class, seminar, or workshop
Percent of county and state Extension FCS/Nutrition educators and other public and private
representatives involved in discussions regarding public and organizational policies,
regulations and industry practices that are barriers to dietary quality and physical activity




Number of Refereed Journal Publications
Number of journal articles accepted
Number of participants becoming aware of IPM strategies
Number of participants passing commercial pesticide certification exams
Number of homeowners adopting one or more IPM practices




Number of participants adopting one or more proper pesticide application practices

Number of participants gaining knowledge of proper pesticide application practices
COMMUNITY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Short Term
Number of community leaders, agency personnel, organization members and other citizens
that will gain an understanding of the value of creating a community development/economic
development plan.




Medium Term:


      Number of community leaders, agency personnel, organization membership that will
collaborate on economic development strategies.

      Numbers of communities that will utilize an inclusive process to establish goals and
action plans.




Number of individuals gaining knowledge of IPM
Number of production units that adopt one or more additional IPM products, services, tactics,
or practices for selected commodities and/or at selected sites




Number of applicators who gain knowledge in pesticide safety through certification training
and pass the state certification exam(s)




Number of applicators, farmworkers, and the general public who gain knowledge in general
pesticide safety who are not seeking certification as pesticide applicators
Number of trainers who gain knowledge in pesticide safety and pesticide curriculum and
progam training in established train-the-trainer workshops




Number of pesticide drift violations prosecuted by VDACS




Number of personal protective equipment violations prosecuted by VDACS
Number of applicators successfully maintaining their pesticide applicator certification to
legally apply pesticides in the Commonwealth




Crop acreage impacted by the continued availability of viable pest management tools as a
result of pest management strategic planning activities and the communication of pest
management information to policymakers




Potential dollars per acre saved by adoption of new tools for integrated pest management.
Number of pounds of pesticide waste disposed of through a statewide pesticide waste
disposal program.




Number of pesticide waste containers recycled as a result of pesticide container recycling
programs.




Number of individuals adopting at least one new safety practice (bicycle helmet, smoke
detector, radon detector, fire extinguisher, farm safety devices, ATV safety, etc.).
increase in number of fair and field days, and similar events that incorporate assessment and
implementation of practical safeguards (Action)

increase the number of individuals who know what is expected from them in a disaster
Increased knowledge in health education impact is important if medical interventions are to
provide maximum benefit.




Increased knowledge of interventions to improve human health is critical area research
needed to advance the national health care system.

# of program participants who demonstrate knowledge or skill gains related to food, nutrition
and health topics including: attitudes about healthy eating, healthy food choices, selection of
healthy foods, preparation of healthy foods. (3.1.1e)

# of program participants who demonstrate knowledge or skill gains related to benefits of
physical activity, physical activity recommendations for health and obesity prevention. (3.1.1f)
# of program participants who demonstrate knowledge or skill gains related to healthy weight
gain during pregnancy and breast feeding. (3.1.1g)
# of program participants who demonstrate knowledge or skill gains related to issues that
influence food and health behavior and associated appropriate public/community actions,
programs, and policy. (3.1.1h)
# of program participants who demonstrate knowledge or skill gains related to status of food
security in their communities and possible actions to promote increased food security.
(3.1.2c)

# of program participants who demonstrate knowledge or skill gains related to reducing food
safety and/or food borne risks and illnesses including recommended food purchase, storage,
handling, and preparation practices. (3.1.3b)
# of program participants documented to have increased participation in public/community
health-related programs. (3.1.1.l)
# of program participants documented to have reduced one or more chronic disease
indicators. (3.1.1m)
# of participating communities that assess food insecurity and develop appropriate action
plans. (3.12f)
# of household and food handler participants documented to have increased application of
safe food preparation practices (storage, preparation, and serving, i.e, HACCP standards.
(3.1.3c)

# of individuals or households documented to have improved food security status. (3.1.2h)
# of communities/firms/or organizations documented to have implemented improved
practices or food safety policies as a result of participating in relevant educational programs.
(3.1.3d)

# of participating communities reporting declines in food-related illness levels. (3.1.3e)




Number of participants reporting increase knowledge in safe food handling and nutrition




Number of managers/supervisors/food handlers completing educational program and
receiving a course certificate




Number of food establishments represented by food handlers.




Number of people served in the food establishments represented by trained food handlers
Number of participants reached with food safety information by volunteers who participated
in an Extension training program




Number of facilities meeting HACCP standards for food safety
Number of people reached through media outlets that utilize Extension food safety, food
biotechnology and nutrition resources
Number of research programs to determine whether and how phytochemicals and probiotic
bacteria can reduce the development of cancer cells and chronic diseases.


Individuals receiving WVUSHE occupational safety/health training will learn appropriate
methods to comply with federal, state, and local legislation.




Individuals receiving WVUSHE occupational safety/health training will experience fewer on-
the-job injuries and illnesses.

Workplace facilities and environments will have fewer safety and health hazards.

Workplaces will employ -- in all types of positions including managerial, supervisory, and the
trades -- employees trained in appropriate safety and health legislation and compliance.




Determining The Impact Of Soy Formula And Its Components
Describe how to manage stress.




Number of research programs to determine the biological mechanisms that affect the quality
and safety of meat food products.
Number of research programs to develop improved methods to assess the allergen-causing
potential of foods.




Number of research programs to develop new techniques that are fast, efficient, easy to use
and easy to interpret to detect toxins in foods, especially Listeria, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7
and Campylobacter.




Number of research programs to develop processing techniques to optimize the safety of
processed protein-based foods.




Number of research programs to develop new methods to reduce the transmission of food-
borne pathogens.




Number of research programs to understand how environmental pollutants, especially ozone
and endocrine disruptors, affect human health.




# of kids who intend to not use tobacco based on signing a 'No Tobacco' contract.




Improved food safety at the microbiological level
Number of participants who were evaluated and demonstrated increased knowledge and
skills related to agricultural and food biosecurity issues




Number of participants who were evaluated in a follow up and who implement/adopt
practices related to agricultural and food biosecurity issues




Number of diagnostic tools implemented or adopted for threat identification




Number of people trained and who receive their pesticide applicators license
Number of people who changed their behavior to better their health

New methods are developed for rapid extraction and measurement of toxic chemicals




Number of people who increased their knowledge in health and wellness through outreach
activities
Total dollar value of grants and contracts obtained.




Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and good nutrition habits among adults




# of car seats inspected.
Participants will incorporate skills and change behavior; the number of people following
guidelines on most 60-minutes, 5 days a week will increase; the percent of participants using
food guide pyramids and dietary guidelines will increase and the percent of participants
reporting improved quality of life will increase.
Number of graduate students trained
Number of Undergraduate students trained and/or performing investigations


Number of presentations/posters at regional, national or international conferences or
workshops




Number of Grant submissions




Electrochemical Microbiosensor for Botulinum Toxin Detection on the Farm and in Food




Number of research programs to develop an understanding of how n-3 polyunsaturated fatty
acids affect human health and disease, especially cardiovascular disease and inflammation.


Results to NH DES
Individuals who use pesticides adopt practices that lower their risk from and exposure to
pesticides and fertilizers
Individuals who use pesticides adopt practices that lower their risk from and exposure to
pesticides and fertilizers




Chemical and biological characterization of the ecosystems
Contribution to understanding of interactions between human practices and natural
ecosystems
Enhanced stakeholders knowledge and understanding of environmental issues




Improved practices to strengthen individuals, couples and families.


Adequate Rollover Protective Structure standards
Assisting disabled farmers




Better spun-bound non-woven fabrics




Improved procedures and techniques to maintain a healthy and safe home




Expected change in agricultural practices from farmers
Better management of agricultural and natural ecosystems complex.




Reducing Insects and other pests that affect humans
Reduce hazards to human health and safety




Improve health and well-being by reducing environmental pollutants
Number of persons learned about risk reduction and safety




Number of individuals implementing personal health protection practices appropriate for
their life stage (preventive health practices, participation in screening and detection
opportunities, immunizations, etc.).




Number of individuals indicating they gained knowledge related to safe food storage,
handling, and preparation.




ETP 21H Metropolitan Health, Nutrition and Wellness
ETP 21H Metropolitan Health, Nutrition and Wellness
Held 40 hand washing demonstrations; conducted 20 groups for older adults for 6-10 weeks;
35 interactive classes for 1400 youth and teens on nutrition, health, and exercise; and a
seminar for 65 senior companions on nutrition and food preparation; disseminated
information on chronic diseases; and 10 major health conferences, forums, and workshops for
800 women on chronic diseases, exercise, and health eating.




Short Term

  Increased recognition of environmental respiratory disease hazards in the residential
dwelling service (realtors, lenders, inspectors, construction trades)
  Increased awareness of policies related to indoor air
  Established a comprehensive asthma surveillance program
  Individuals have fewer emergency room and acute care visits related to asthma and other
respiratory disease
  Health professionals have increased continuing professional development on
environmental respiratory disease
  Families with children at-risk for lead poisoning have their children tested
  Public health work force and healthcare providers have knowledge of environmental
hazards in the home




Medium Term

  Increased number of buildings constructed to meet indoor air quality guidelines

  Increased awareness of environmental respiratory disease among communities, healthcare
providers and individuals

  Increased access to knowledgeable healthcare providers and information sources

  Increased use of uniform case definition and diagnostic protocols for respiratory disease

  Increased ability to respond to indoor air problems by public health agencies

  Increased number of homes at-risk that have participated in the NJ "Lead-Safe"
or "Lead-Free" Registry
Long Term

  Residents have reduced exposure to environmental determinants that contribute to
respiratory disease

  Residents with respiratory disease successfully manage their disease in accordance with
recommended practices

  Accurate diagnosis of environmental respiratory disease

  New construction meets the criteria to have good indoor air quality

  The best available technology is used to remediate homes for lead or radon




(Activity 1, 2, and 3) Assuring that youth comprehend QA principles will increase the number
of Livestock producers in the future that will be assuring consumers that they are receiving a
safe wholesome product from the food producing animal industry.
Number of participants who have adopted or plan to adopt a practice to protect human
health or the environment

(Activity 3) To determine the effectiveness of QA programming, there will be a Pre- and post-
test set administered for determining the comprehension of youth in QA principles. This will
determine the effectiveness of the information listed in the YFAQACG and the
implementation of the minimum standards delivered to 56,500 yearly in Ohio.

Reduce through research, development, and outreach the negative impact of farm-,
recreation-, or industry-related accidents within agriculture and natural resources.

Reduce through research, development, and outreach the exposure to biohazards, pathogens,
and similar to the extent that annually such are reduced per capita with an overall time and
economic savings to those who may be affected.

Reduce safety risk by releasing at least one major study to either
manufacturers and/ or consumers that will reduce or prevent work or play. related accidents.
Each ACES employee is required to provide a success story on the program activity which they
felt best demonstrates the impacts of their work. These success stories contain the following
elements:
Why: Explain the reason the program was done, or the situation or problem that the program
addressed
What: Specifically what was done and how it was done.
When: If this was a one-time event, the date it occurred. If it is was a series of events, or an
on-going program, when it began.
Where: Specific location-- the county or counties involved.
Who and how many: The "who" includes both who did the program and who
were the clients of the program, as well as how many people were served.
So what: This is the part that gives the real meaning to "success". The basic
question to be answered in this part is "what difference did this program make".
The difference may be measured in terms of dollars, or in changes in habits, lifestyles or
attitudes. Whenever possible use numbers to show the effect of the program. If it is not
possible to use numbers, provide a qualitative measurement like client comments or another
type of testimonial about the program.

Since this program area is very broad in scope and contains multiple Extension Team Projects
Participants will adopt safe practices related to the preparation, processing, and consumption
of food




Increased capacity, knowledge, and/or heightened awareness by workers and labor union
members about ways their organizations can be improved or strengthened.


Development of an in vitro model of the biological effects of particulate air pollution.




Number of processors and/or regulatory agencies implementing new rapid testing methods
O: People will use requested advice.I: Percentage or number of people who plan to use
requested advice.
O: People will change behavior.I: Change in intent.

O: Interested consumer will be certified or re-certified in FSA.I: Number of certifications.
O: Other scientists are aware of our research findings.
 I: Number of refereed scientific journal articles.

O: Participants will identify an opportunity for improving hand washing behavior.I: Percentage
of participants who identify an opportunity for improving hand washing behavior.
O: Participants will increase level of knowledge.I: Percentage with increased level of
knowledge.
Number of invited presentations at professional society meetings
Percentage of program participants reporting increased knowledge after program
participation.

County Agriculture Response Teams or county agriculture emergency plans created.

Percentage of individuals and families who have reduced anxiety related to food security




O: An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.
I: Number of M.S. and Ph.D. candidates relevant to this topic team.




Number of participants passing food handler certification


Percent of participants increasing knowledge of storing foods properly
Number of individuals and families who have adopted best management practices for food
handling and agricultural biosecurity




Increase in knowledge level and attitude of clientele in safe food production, handling, and
sanitation programs; best management practices to prevent foodborne illness; and social,
economic, and communications issues related to food safety and agricultural bio-security
Number of additional direct extension contacts made by volunteers, staff, or county agents
not receiving federal funds as a direct outcome of the work of federally funded faculty
associated with this planned program.
Reduction of incidence of foodborne illness due to better training methods on handling and
processing food safety.
Placement of gradutate students in food related industry, government agencies or institutions
of higher education.
Decreased incidence of food borne illness associated with unsafe food handling practice
*Will not be measured in the near future


Informed decision makers and citizenry

  Improved understanding of the spatial and temporal variability and distribution of
bioavailable agricultural contaminants
  Fate and impact of temporal influences on bioavailable contaminants
  Methods and approaches for evaluating effects of aging on bioavailability of agricultural
contaminants
  Document occurrence, exposure, fate, and treatment options of fluorochemicals in
wastewater, the atmosphere, landfill leachate, snow, and crops
  Determine extent that landfills are a significant source of fluorochemicals and a significant
extent in the crops intended for human consumption
  Provide technical training and resources to agricultural and regulatory stakeholders on
ecotoxicology of pesticidesand integrated pest, nutrient, and water management.
  Increase ability of governments in Senegal and Mauritania, and eventually throughout the
sub-region, to economically and efficiently monitor pesticides and their impacts of human and
ecological systems.




Characterize and model
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Characterization of specific responsive genes to toxicants
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Model system to evaluate dioxin toxicity to humans
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Role of human AhR polymorphisms and role of Arnt in mediating dioxin toxicity
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Understand downstream effectors of and Ahr antagonists to relieve dioxin toxicity
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Examine mechanisms that underlie the immune suppression induced by TCDD
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Novel role for Ahr in the induction of Treg cells
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Identify agents, mechanisms of action, and dose response for reducing fetal risk from toxic
chemicals




Develop transgenic lines of zebrafish for response to toxicants
Advance scientific knowledge

    Evaluate gene expression changes in control and toxicant exposed animals over time
    Ability to conduct genetic or small molecule screens for modifiers of the toxic response


   Risk assessment of various hydrocarbons to humans
   Development of agents to treat accidental human dioxin exposure or deliverate poisoning
   Modulate maternal diet to reduce the risk to the fetus from toxic chemicals
UNDERSTAND ROLE OF PROTEINS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TO MITIGATE DISEASE
- Experiments will increase peer understanding of the structure, function and regulation of the
VV G1L proteinase and the role that it plays during the assembly and maturation of infectious
progeny virions
- Experiments will increase peer understanding of the role a number of critical proteins play in
baculovirus genome replication and processing.
- understand the molecular mechanisms of quorum sensing function and consequences of
these distinct properties, which will have important implications for the development of
antivirulence strategies as well as for the particular role of each signaling system in P.
aeruginosa group behavior and pathogenesis.
- gain more detailed knowledge about the molecular biology of RNA viruses affecting corps,
animals and humans, e.g., early stages of viral infection, Trojan horse model, translational
enhancer sequences, dicistronic expression.
- peers learn how the GALLS protein participates in gene transfer to plants and its role in plant
transformation

- researchers will assess chromatophore cells for their use as a living sensor for rapid
detection of food- and water- associated pathogenic bacteria and their toxins.
- learn about new microorganisms and the mechanisms by which microorganisms acquire and

Appllication of new assays and technology will help combat viruses
- .assay development and biochemical details of proteolysis will support ongoing rational
drug design and high throughput screening efforts designed to develop G1L inhibitors as
potential antiviral drugs.
- assist in the continued application of baculovirus technology to a variety of investigations
that have become so dependent upon the use of this remarkable group of viruses.
- information about molecular biology of RNA viruses could be used in designing new
approaches for combating pathogenesis by these viruses.
Researchers gain information about how viruses and bacteria operate in animals and shellfish:

-   the different pathways for influenza occurrence and pathogenesis
-   genetic transformation system for C. suis.
-   molecular mechanisms underlying Vibrio bacterial-shellfish interaction
-   how SPO0A regulates CPE synthesis
-   M. paratuberculosis interacts with the intestinal mucosa
Medical personnel learn about merits of chitosan bandages
New techniques will change how we manage diseases
- Understanding Vibrio ecology will change how the industry handles post-harvest treatment
of shellfish
- Better prevention of flu virus
- More effective programs for public health measures, personal protection, and clinical
therapies for flu
- Better control over Clostridium, by modulating SPO0A-CPE interactions for therapeutic
purposes
- Better and more efficacious practices of prevention of Johne's disease within the cattle
industry
Lives would be saved or made safer through recombinant flu vaccine, Chitosan-based
bandages, and reduction/elimination of Vibrio presence in shellfish. Furthermore,
preparedness in anticipation of zoonotic outbreaks of avian influenza and better health
promotion.




Informed policy-making and management

  Data for environmental models, risk assessment, and risk management.
  Improved decision-making and policy on regulation of PAH in aquatic ecosystems.
  Predict the fate of agricultural chemicals in remote aquatic ecosystems
  Determine the relative contribution of regional U.S. and Canadian agricultural sources (both
current and historic uses of these chemicals) and long-range or global sources in contributing
to the deposition of agricultural chemicals to remote ecosystems
  Agencies that regulate or enforce the regulations relating to pesticides in the state develop
policies or regulations.
  Able to assess trends, identify possible new issues, or assess the success of interventions
In the long run:
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Risk assessment, policies and management of exposure of human and aquatic organisms to
contaminants
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Enhanced environmental quality within an economically responsible context.
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Reduced exposure of human and aquatic organisms to fluorochemicals
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Moderate the relative contribution of regional U.S. and Canadian agricultural sources (both
current and historic uses of these chemicals) and long-range or global sources in contributing
to the deposition of agricultural chemicals to remote ecosystems in the Western U.S.
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Minimize the risk of adverse impact of pesticide use on human health.
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Build environmental public health capacity




O: An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.
I: Number of M.S. and Ph.D. candidates in water and environmental quality graduate training
programs.




O: An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.
I: Number of M.S. and Ph.D. candidates relevant to this topic team.
Percent of participants intending to change behavior as a result of the training.




Percent of participants reporting behavioral change based on participation.
OUTCOME TYPE        KA PERCENTAGE - 1862 EXTENSION        KA PERCENTAGE - 1890 EXTENSION

Knowledge Outcome                                    13

Knowledge Outcome                                    13

Action Outcome                                       13
Action Outcome                                       13
Knowledge Outcome                                     1




Knowledge Outcome                                     1

Knowledge Outcome                                     1

Action Outcome                                        1

Action Outcome                                        1


Action Outcome                                        1
Action Outcome                                        1
Action Outcome                                        1

Knowledge Outcome                                    16
Knowledge Outcome                                    16
Action Outcome      16

Condition Outcome   16
Condition Outcome   16




Knowledge Outcome   30




Knowledge Outcome   30
Knowledge Outcome   30




Knowledge Outcome   30




Action Outcome      30




Action Outcome      30




Action Outcome      30
Condition Outcome   30
Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome    5




Action Outcome       5




Action Outcome       5




Action Outcome       5
Condition Outcome   5




Condition Outcome   5




Condition Outcome   5




Condition Outcome   5
Knowledge Outcome   5


Knowledge Outcome   5
Knowledge Outcome    5




Action Outcome       5
Action Outcome       5
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10

Knowledge Outcome   10
Condition Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   10   0
Action Outcome      10   0




Knowledge Outcome   10   0




Knowledge Outcome   10   0
Knowledge Outcome   10   0




Condition Outcome   10   0




Condition Outcome   10   0
Condition Outcome   10   0




Condition Outcome   10   0




Condition Outcome   10   0
Action Outcome   10   0




Action Outcome   10   0




Action Outcome    4   0

Action Outcome    1

Action Outcome   13
Action Outcome      25




Knowledge Outcome   25




Knowledge Outcome    7


Knowledge Outcome    7

Knowledge Outcome    7


Knowledge Outcome    7


Knowledge Outcome    7




Knowledge Outcome    7

Action Outcome       7

Action Outcome       7

Action Outcome       7


Action Outcome       7

Condition Outcome    7
Condition Outcome    7

Condition Outcome    7




Knowledge Outcome   30   30




Knowledge Outcome   30   30




Knowledge Outcome   30   30




Condition Outcome   30   30

Action Outcome      30   30




Condition Outcome   30   30

Knowledge Outcome   30   30
Condition Outcome    3




Knowledge Outcome   50




Action Outcome      50

Condition Outcome   50


Condition Outcome   50




Knowledge Outcome    0
Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome       3
Action Outcome        3




Action Outcome        3




Knowledge Outcome     3




Action Outcome        3




Condition Outcome     3




Action Outcome      100




Condition Outcome    30   30
Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10




Condition Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome    5
Action Outcome        5

Knowledge Outcome     5




Knowledge Outcome     5
Action Outcome        5




Knowledge Outcome         20




Action Outcome      100
Condition Outcome       20
Action Outcome
Action Outcome




Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome      7




Condition Outcome   3


Knowledge Outcome
Action Outcome      15

Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome         5




Action Outcome      10   10


Condition Outcome    0    0
Condition Outcome    0    0




Knowledge Outcome    0    0




Action Outcome      10   10




Action Outcome            5




Condition Outcome   20   20
Knowledge Outcome   20   20




Condition Outcome   30   30
Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome       4    0




Knowledge Outcome    4    0




Knowledge Outcome   10   10
Knowledge Outcome   10   10




Knowledge Outcome   50




Action Outcome      50
Condition Outcome   50




Condition Outcome   10

Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   10


Knowledge Outcome   25




Knowledge Outcome   25


Knowledge Outcome   25
Condition Outcome    10   10

Action Outcome       10




Knowledge Outcome    20


Knowledge Outcome   100




Condition Outcome     0

Action Outcome       10
Action Outcome      10

Action Outcome      10

Action Outcome      10


Action Outcome      10

Condition Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   32   32

Knowledge Outcome   10    0

Action Outcome      10    0

Condition Outcome    0




Action Outcome       0




Knowledge Outcome    0


Knowledge Outcome    0

Action Outcome       0




Knowledge Outcome    0


Knowledge Outcome   10    0

Action Outcome      32   32

Condition Outcome   32   32
Condition Outcome    0




Knowledge Outcome   57




Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome
Action Outcome




Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome




Knowledge Outcome
Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome




Condition Outcome




Action Outcome      57
Condition Outcome   57




Condition Outcome    0




Action Outcome      10
Condition Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10
KA PERCENTAGE - 1862 RESEARCH        KA PERCENTAGE - 1890 RESEARCH   PLAN START YEAR

                                14                                               2007

                                14                                               2007

                                14                                               2007
                                14                                               2007
                                 3                                               2007




                                 3                                               2007

                                 3                                               2007

                                 3                                               2007

                                 3                                               2007


                                 3                                               2007
                                 3                                               2007
                                 3                                               2007

                                16                                               2007
                                16                                               2007
16   2007

16   2007
16   2007




     2007




     2007
2007




2007




2007




2007




2007
2007
2007




2007




2007




2007




2007
    2007




    2007




    2007




    2007
5   2007


5   2007
 5   2007




 5   2007
 5   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007




10   2007

10   2007
          2007




10   10   2007
10   10   2007




10   10   2007




10   10   2007
10   10   2007




10   10   2007




10   10   2007
10   10   2007




10   10   2007




10   10   2007
10   10   2007




10   10   2007




10   12   2007

 3        2007

14        2007
25   2007




25   2007




 7   2007


 7   2007

 7   2007


 7   2007


 7   2007




 7   2007

 7   2007

 7   2007

 7   2007


 7   2007

 7   2007
 7        2007

 7        2007




30   30   2007




30   30   2007




30   30   2007




30   30   2007

30   30   2007




30   30   2007

30   30   2007
15   2007




     2007




     2007

     2007


     2007




10   2007
     2007




15   2007
 15        2007




 15        2007




 15        2007




 15        2007




 15        2007




100        2007




 30   30   2007
10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




 6   2007
  6   2007

  6   2007




  6   2007
  6   2007




      2007




100   2007
     2007
 3   2007
 3   2007




 3   2007




 3   2007




 7   2007




15   2007


 3   2007
         2007

         2007




     5   2007




10       2007


10       2007
10       2007




10       2007




10       2007




     5   2007




20       2007
20        2007




30   30   2007
          2007




10   12   2007




10   12   2007




          2007
     2007




50   2007




50   2007
50   2007




10   2007

10   2007




10   2007


25   2007




25   2007


25   2007
      2007

      2007




      2007


100   2007




  6   2007

 10   2007
10        2007

10        2007

10        2007


10        2007

10        2007
32   32   2007

 0    0   2007

 0    0   2007

10        2007




10        2007




10        2007


10        2007

10        2007




10        2007


 0    0   2007

32   32   2007

32   32   2007
 10   2007




 57   2007




100   2007




100   2007
100   2007




  7   2007




  7   2007




 13   2007
13   2007




13   2007




13   2007




57   2007
57   2007




 5   2007




10   2007
10   2007




10   2007
                        1862 EXTENSION    1890 EXTENSION    1862 RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE TARGET     OUTCOME MEASURE   OUTCOME MEASURE   OUTCOME MEASURE

                      75 y

                      75 y

                      75 y
                      20 y
                      15 y




                  225 y

                  100 y

                      10 y

                       5y


                 1000 y
                    0y
                   40 y

                       0y
                       0y
0y

0y
0y




0y




0y
0y




0y




0y




0y




0y
1500 y
   5y




   0y




   0y




   0y




   0y
    0y




    0y




    0y




    3y
   17 y   y


22000 y
  10 y




  30       y
  10   y   y
4000   y   y
 600   y
 230   y




 920 y

 920 y     y
 7000 y




10000 y   y
1000 y   y




1000 y




 950 y
100 y




 10 y




 20 y
18000 y




10000 y   y




      y   y
      y   y




      y




26000 y   y

      y

      y
          y




          y




    0y    y


    0y    y

    0y    y


    0y    y


    0y    y




    0y    y

 1500 y   y

    0y    y

   25 y   y


15000 y   y

 5200 y   y
  350 y       y

    0y        y




 9000 y   y




  500 y   y




  100 y   y




 1000 y   y

  110 y   y




    1y

30000 y
   0     y




4000 y




4000 y

4000 y


4000 y




         y
  10 y




   1     y
  1     y




  1     y




  1     y




  0     y




  0     y




700 y   y




  0     y
6500 y   y




2100 y   y




   1     y




  50 y   y
    50 y       y

     0y        y




   100 y       y
200000 y       y




           y




   900 y
100   y
  6       y
  5       y




  7       y




  1       y




          y




  0       y


  0       y
    y

    y




4




    y   y


            y
        y   y




            y




    y   y




3




            y
              y




 1200 y




26000 y       y




35000 y       y




      y   y
       y   y




2000           y




3000           y
3000    y




   0y

   0y




   0y


   0    y




   0    y


   0    y
   9y      y

       y




1500 y


   0           y




   0           y

2853 y
  483 y

   57 y

    2y    y


 9198     y

 1320 y
    1

   80 y

   10 y

    2y    y




    3     y




    0y


    0y

    0y




    0y    y


26000 y

    0y

    1y    y
0y




5    y




5    y




0    y
0   y




0   y




0   y




5   y
5   y




5   y




0   y




0   y
0   y




7   y




2   y
50 y




  y
1890 RESEARCH
OUTCOME MEASURE   ACTUAL AMOUNT

                                    30

                                    54

                                    29
                                    49
                                    11




                                    58

                                     0

                                     1

                                    20


                                   800
                                     0
                                    51

                                   219
                                  9647
3147

   1
   0




 500




 500
0




0




0




0




0
 0
12




 0




 0




 0




 0
    0




    0




    0




    5
   69


30222
   33




   82
   83
 9247
  835
  411




 2730

12953
9346




6814
     554




    1888




y   3598
  619




    4




13711
13711




16000




  400
92097




10300




32093

   20

   11
    0




    0




    0


    0

    0


    0


    0




    0

16928

    0

  591


21968

11105
    221

      0




  17748




   1250




    464




 219771

    669




      1

2000000
   2




4473




4473

1475


1474




   0
   0




   2
   1




   2




   1




   1




   4




1535




   0
4955




2464




   1




 172
   172

     0




  6991
254134




   600




  1785
180
  9
 18




 16




  4




  0




  1


  1
    1070

    6150




y      4




    5384


       0
       0




       0




    1884




y      0




       0
        0




y       0
      702




    34527




    30042




        0
0




0




0
   0




1000

   0




   0


   0




   0


   0
   0

 739




1934


   0




   0

2573
      822

       52

       12


     2967

      520
y       2

       45

        4

       20




       15




      348


      525

      348




     1000


    10604

        0

        0
0




5




5




1
1




5




1




5
5




0




0




0
 0




20




 5
64




41
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - ISSUES




As UVM Extension enters the 21st century, there is a need to have in-depth knowledge on the
state's dairy industry for program direction. In Vermont, the dairy industry historically
accounts for more than 80% of the states agricultural income. But the dairy industry has been
undergoing dynamic changes. Today, Vermont has fewer than 1500 dairy farms which are
larger, more productive, but still facing pressures of growing in the future to remain
economically viable.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 76 million cases of food borne
illness occur annually in the United States and claim approximately 5,000 lives each year.
Given the thousands of food service establishments in the state of Indiana, food sanitation
education, to prevent the outbreak of a food borne illness is a priority. State law requires at
least one person per establishment to be knowledgeable and certified in food sanitation.




Missouri citizens are concerned with the amount of nutrients and bacteria entering water
systems from improper on-site sewage systems. Many soil types and new home sites in
environmentally sensitive areas are not suited to traditional on-site systems. System failure
pollutes the environment, causes water degradation and creates habitat for bacteria and
vectors that cause human sickness. Newer technologies for proper on-site sewage disposal
can add between $8,000 and $20,000 to home cost.




Much of the area surrounding lakes and streams that support tourism is environmentally
sensitive. Nutrient and bacterial loading in Missouri's waters from on-site sewage systems has
destroyed aquatic habitat and increased the potential for human health risk. Water
degradation can reduce overall aquatic diversity and habitat and can destroy tourism and
recreational activities associated with water sports. On-site sewage education is important to
protect the environment and the economic baseline.
Many agency personnel are responsible for ensuring water bodies are protected. Improper on-
site sewage systems have the potential to pollute water bodies. Bacteria and nutrients enter
the water bodies and destroy aquatic habitat and increase algae growth. Bacteria can cause
disease and make water unfit for consumption and recreation. Increasing the knowledge of
agency personnel is one way to help protect water quality.




Real estate professionals, on-site sewage installers and Department of Natural Resources
personnel have an interest in what type of system needs to be installed to meet
environmental standards. In land and home transfers, having to replace an on-site system can
increase the cost of a home. For installers, knowing the proper system to install to stay in
compliance saves money for consumers. DNR personnel want to see the environment
protected and water quality improved.


Real estate professionals and agency personnel involved in water quality protection are very
concerned with on-site sewage systems in environmentally sensitive areas. Missouri has a
variety of soil types and Karst materials that do not allow for proper wastewater treatment.
These conditions create a high potential for contaminated wastewater to enter the
environment and destroy water quality for humans and aquatic life unless alternative systems
are used.




Private citizens and agency personnel are concerned with how human health may be affected
by improperly treated wastewater. The improperly treated water can rise to the surface and
create human health issues or may enter groundwater, where it may get into private water
supplies.




Home inspectors, realtors and agency personnel need to recognize the importance of
reducing environmental and health risk from on-site sewage. As water quality and human
health become everyone's responsibility, providing a consistent message to the general public
will tend to increase proper selection and installation of on-site sewage systems.
Agency personnel involved with human and environmental health are concerned with
untreated wastewater and the effects that wastewater nutrients can have on surface and
ground water quality. New criteria for on-site systems require more stringent testing of soils
to guarantee water quality is protected and that human health risks are kept to a minimum.


It is critical for local citizens to take responsibility for their actions and for strategies to correct
water quality issues. Agency professionals are beginning to understand the importance of
local participation in developing and implementing watershed plans. There is an accepted
process to be used in getting community involvement and empowering local people. The
process creates a group of citizens who are responsible and willing to carry out activities to
reach a desired outcome.




Local citizens want to have input in watershed planning but many times lack the skill. Agency
personnel have recognized the importance of local participation and input and encourage
citizens to become involved. Citizens are reluctant to provide input without having a better
understanding of what they are doing and what is expected of them.




Private citizens and agency personnel recognize the importance of safe water for human
health, economic growth and regulatory compliance. Drinking water that is free from
contaminants is vital for human health. The economic impact of clean water supplies for
industry, tourism, and agriculture cannot be overstated. Water quality standards have been
set at the federal level based on intended use for those water resources. These standards
must be met to ensure a healthy and safe environment.




Approximately 93 percent of Missouri's land is privately owned. Missouri DNR believes local
leadership is important in identifying local concerns and establishing a long-term plan for
watershed protection. Citizens want input in watershed activities. A local advisory group
establishes citizens' role in decision making and establishing criteria for implementing
practices to improve or protect water quality.
Missouri citizens and agency personnel recognize the importance of a clean, safe water supply
that supports human and environmental health. Regulatory limits for certain pollutants can
have an adverse effect on the economic base of some watershed communities. These
communities must understand the role that citizens play in addressing an environmental
concern that can affect the economic growth and health of the community and the health of
the environment.


It is important to agency personnel that local citizens be involved in developing and
implementing watershed plans. These plans become the basis for activities, implementation
of management practices and monitoring pollutant loads to show how volunteer efforts in a
watershed help meet water quality goals. Local citizens want to have input in the decision
making process for their area. Development of a watershed plan shows local input and
decision making to accomplish locally driven goals.




Missouri DNR is mandated to complete total maximum daily load (TMDL) documents on 75
water bodies. These documents have a public participation component and identify all but the
implementation component of watershed protection. If the TMDL is not addressed,
implementation of mandated practices may be detrimental to the local watershed economy.
This gives local citizens a desire for input in the decision making process and helps improve
environmental and economic viability for the watershed.




Citizens of the state and agency personnel are directly involved in trying to improve state
water resources through locally developed watershed plans. DNR, NRCS and DoH are working
with Extension to identify priority watershed areas on the state 303 (d) list.
The need for advanced food research to support Arkansas' vast food processing industries
remains paramount to improving the state's economy. The types of food research include
harvest, storage, processing and nutritional quality.




Perry County is one of Arkansas' larger sod-producing counties. In late 2006, USDA APHIS
added Perry County to the Federal Imported Fire Ant Quarantine. This quarantine was
implemented to minimize the unnatural spread of imported fire ants to non-infested areas.
Sod growers within the quarantine area needed solutions to treat sod before selling and
shipping the sod.
Montana people say they want to improve conditions for their families and communities
which is not easy in a large and diverse state. The major initiatives that have been identified
through the stakeholder input process include business retention and expansion, tourism and
leadership development as well as practicing good governance and community strategic
planning to address concerns related to competence of new government employees and
volunteers serving on boards, councils and committees.




Agricultural crops are grown on more than 40,000 farms and 400 million acres of land in
Virginia, and make a major contribution to Virginia's economic vitality. Timely and effective
pest management of insects, diseases, and weeds is critical to the successful production of
most of the important crops such as corn, soybeans, cotton, small grains, peanuts, potatoes,
and vegetables. Rapid and direct delivery of real time pest information is a key but
challenging element of IPM.
Over the last decade there has been a growing national concern about childhood exposure to
pesticides. Many states have mandated the adoption of IPM for use in schools. In Virginia,
there are 1,836 public schools, servicing 1.2 million students and employing over 200,000
staff. In 1999, Virginia schools were treated monthly with insecticides regardless of need and
no pesticide use records were kept. While IPM was not mandated in Virginia, there was a
critical need to improve pest management practices. In addition, it was critical to reach
pesticide applicators with IPM information in agriculture and specialty areas including urban
pest management.




Federal and state pesticide laws and regulations require pesticide applicators to be certified
to use restricted use pesticides. In addition, Virginia law requires all commercial applicators to
be certified to use any pesticide. Without pesticide safety and integrated pest management
(IPM) education to enable these individuals to do so, many would suffer economic hardships
and violate the law. A lack of knowledge in pesticide safety and IPM practices threatens
human health and the environment.

Federal and state pesticide laws and regulations require applicators to follow the pesticide
label directions. Pesticide safety education incorporates integrated pest management (IPM)
methods into training programs to encourage reduced risk and reduced use of pesticides.
Pesticide safety education is mandatory for workers and handlers who must comply with
federal worker protection standards. Without pesticide safety and IPM education there is an
increased risk of human exposure and environmental from pesticide misuse.
Trainers are critical educators who transfer pesticide safety and IPM knowledge directly to
pest managers and pesticide applicators. Without properly trained trainers, applicators would
be limited in their ability to comply with pesticide laws and regulations. It is crucial to help
these individuals update their knowledge of pesticide regulations, IPM, and
safety/environmental issues to transfer this information to the public.




Pesticide drift is one of the most volatile issues associated with pesticide application. When a
pesticide drifts off target, crops can be damaged, non-target species can be affected, and the
issue of chemical trespass activates regulatory actions and anxiety for communities,
neighbors, landowners, and the applicator.




The federal and state pesticide laws and regulations require pesticide applicators to be
certified to use restricted use pesticides. In addition, Virginia law requires all commercial
applicators to be certified to use any pesticide. It is mandatory that applicators renew their
pesticide licenses through continuing education every two years. Without pesticide safety and
integrated pest management (IPM) education to enable these individuals to do so, many
would suffer economic hardships and violate the law. A lack of knowledge in pesticide safety
and IPM practices threatens human health and the environment.
The federal and state pesticide laws and regulations require pesticide applicators to be
certified to use restricted use pesticides. In addition, Virginia law requires all commercial
applicators to be certified to use any pesticide. It is mandatory that applicators renew their
pesticide licenses through continuing education every two years. Without pesticide safety and
integrated pest management (IPM) education to enable these individuals to do so, many
would suffer economic hardships and violate the law. A lack of knowledge in pesticide safety
and IPM practices threatens human health and the environment.




The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) impacts all acreage and pest control business
employing the use of registered pesticides. USDA and EPA share benefit data for various food
and non food crops through the efforts of IPM Centers and states to work with IPM
Stakeholders. Without this effort stakeholders and consumers would be impacted by
regulatory decisions not based in actual stakeholder feedback and needs. A means to
measure that feedback and needs is paramount to implement a transition strategy to allow
growers to control pests on their crops effectively.


Golf course superintendents representing 8% of the industry were surveyed about
troublesome weeds. Ninety-two percent identified perennial grass weeds such as nimblewill,
bermudagrass, dallisgrass, perennial ryegrass, quackgrass, and creeping bentgrass as the most
troublesome species. Although perennial grasses remain a serious problem, numerous
attempts by turfgrass scientists in the past 50 years have failed to produce selective
herbicides to control these weeds in turfgrass.
The disposal of canceled, banned or unwanted agricultural and commercial pesticides poses a
significant challenge to agricultural producers and other pesticide users. Pesticide wastes are
a public health and financial threat. Many waste products end up in local waste systems. Since
1990, the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, the Virginia Pesticide
Control Board and Virginia Cooperative Extension have worked together to collect and
destroy 1,407,415 pounds of pesticide wastes.




The disposal of pesticide containers poses a significant challenge to agricultural producers and
other pesticide users. Improperly rinsed containers are a public health and financial threat.
Many containers end up in local waste systems. Since 1993, the Virginia Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, the Virginia Pesticide Control Board and Virginia
Cooperative Extension worked together to collect and recycle 853,730 plastic pesticide
containers.




Although we typically look at disease and social ills as the greatest threat to our youth, the
fact remains that accidents are responsible for more calls to the emergency room and deaths
than any other factor.
Increased knowledge in health education impact, in areas such as diabetes, is important if
medical interventions are to provide maximum benefit to the individual.




Prostate and bladder cancers are significant health problems. Prostate cancer represents the
most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in US men. Bladder
cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in men and the ninth most common type of
cancer in women in the US.
The National Restaurant Association has estimated that the average cost of a foodborne
illness outbreak to an establishment is about $75,000. Food handlers should be trained in
safe food handling techniques.


The National Restaurant Association has estimated that the average cost of a foodborne
illness outbreak to an establishment is about $77,550. Food handlers should be trained in
safe food handling techniques.


The National Restaurant Association has estimated that the average cost of a foodborne
illness outbreak to an establishment is about $75,000. Food handlers should be trained in safe
food handling techniques. According to the Food and Drug Administration, an estimated two
to three percent of all foodborne illnesses lead to secondary long-term illnesses.




The National Restaurant Association has estimated that the average cost of a foodborne
illness outbreak to an establishment is about $75,000. Food handlers should be trained in
safe food handling techniques. According to the Food and Drug Administration, it is estimated
that two to three percent of all foodborne illnesses lead to secondary long-term illnesses.

Volunteers are needed to extend Extension's outreach in the area of food safety.

The National Restaurant Association has estimated that the average cost of a foodborne
illness outbreak to an establishment is about $75,000. Food handlers should be trained in
safe food handling techniques to meet HACCP standards.
Participants need to make healthy food choices, develop skills in the procurement of food for
good health, and demonstrate skills in healthy food preparation.
Aflatoxin is one of the most potent naturally occurring toxins known. Presence of aflatoxin is
closely associated with liver cancer in animals that ingest contaminated feed. A close
epidemiological association with human liver cancer has also been proposed. Taxol has great
potential for the
treatment of breast, lung, skin, and colon cancers. A
major limitation of taxol use as a drug is its short supply because its commercial source is the
slow-growing yew tree, so developing alternative systems for taxol production is needed.

Safety and Health Extension works with business and industry to prevent injuries and
illnesses, and increase safety and health knowledge in the workplace. Employers need up-to-
date employee training to help keep their work sites safe and healthy for all employees.

Workplaces in West Virginia and the region present numerous workplace hazards leading to
significant workplace injuries, illnesses, lost time, and producitivity for workes, and loss of
profitability for employers. Workers and supervisors are in need of training to recognize and
control such hazards resulting in decreased injuries and costs
The presence of workplace hazards leads to occupational injuries, illnesses and loss of
economic viability for employing companies.

Employers are responsible for complying with safety and health standards, both as a method
for reducing hazards and as a matter of law, subject to fine, shut down, and/or imprisonment.




Rotavirus (RV) in infants is the most common cause of severely dehydrating diarrhea. In the
U.S., RV was responsible for 20 to 40 deaths, 55,000 hospitalizations and 500,000 physician
visits in 2000. Currently, there is no safe vaccination available against rotavirus. Thus, the
development of dietary means to prevent and/or reduce the severity of rotavirus infection
would provide a safe and cost effective means to reduce infant morbidity.


The U.S. still has one of the safest if not the safest food supply in the world. However,
outbreaks of foodborne illness continue to plague this country and represent not only a
serious threat to public health, but a huge economic burden. Each year, an estimated 76
million cases of foodborne illness occur in the U.S., including 325,000 hospitalizations and
5,000 fatalities. The estimated cost of foodborne illness from the five leading bacterial
foodborne pathogens is $6.9 billion annually.
Food allergies account for more than 200 deaths and 30,000 emergency room visits in the
United States each year. Because there is no cure for food allergies, the best course is to
prevent problems by strictly avoiding allergy-causing food. One of the biggest problems is
verifying whether a particular product contains an allergenic agent. Although protocols are in
place to ask questions about the allergy-causing possibilities of genetically engineered crops,
no validated test is available to offer definitive answers.




Escherichia coli are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are
harmless, others pose human health hazards. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while
others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses.
The most commonly identified Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in North America is E. coli
O157:H7. News reports about outbreaks of "E. coli" infections are usually talking about E. coli
O157.
While processed food has taken much of the work and worry out of meal preparation, it has
largely shifted the responsibility for food safety from the consumer's kitchen into the hands of
food processors and food service providers. To help ensure that their products are safe, food
processors must use methods that meet food safety regulations set forth by the federal
government.

With more than 200 known diseases capable of transmission through food, there are no
simple approaches to diagnose foodborne illness. More than 350 million episodes of diarrhea
are estimated to occur annually in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. Approximately 75 million of these are thought to be due to
foodborne disease, accounting for an estimated 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths.

Michigan residents are exceptionally vulnerable due to chromic exposure to complex mixtures
of endocrine disruptors that include legacy environmental contaminants within the Great
Lakes basin (e.g. dioxin, PCBs, DDT), numerous pesticides and herbicides from the diverse and
intense agricultural activities within the state, and the broad range of industrial activities that
contribute to the overall pollution burden.




Tobacco use by rural youth is higher than for urban youth.

The rapid detection of toxic food agents and the development of strategies to reduce their
presence in food are problems that need to be addressed to improve the safety of the food
and water supply in South Carolina.
All citizens of the United States care about the safety of their food system. It is important that
the US put in place proper protections and procedures to respond rapidly in the event of a
threat to our agriculture and food systems. To protect our agriculture and food systems, the
President of the United States issued the Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD 9.




Increased concern of US citizens for the safety of the food system requires that appropriate
protections be assured and procedures created to address potential threats to the food and
agricultural systems. The Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD9) was issued to
help protect the agricultural and foods systems of the US.




Rapid and accurate diagnosis of a threat is key to response and recovery. Action agencies
require a new suite of tools to augment existing capacity to respond to emerging threats.




The 2003 Hawai'i health survey reveals that more than half of Hawaii's adults are overweight
or obese. In some Hawai'i communities, the rate of obesity in children ages 6 to 11 is twice
the national average. About 75% of Hawai'i residents don't eat enough fruits and vegetables,
and many suffer from diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure. Hawai'i‚s people, food
and water supply pose serious challenges to Hawaii‚s health, economy, and ecosystem.
The 2003 Hawai'i health survey reveals that more than half of Hawai'is adults are overweight
or obese. In some Hawai'i communities, the rate of obesity in children ages 6 to 11 is twice
the national average. About 75% of Hawai'i residents dont eat enough fruits and vegetables,
and many suffer from diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure. Hawai'is people, food
and water supply pose serious challenges to Hawai'is health, economy, and ecosystem.




The 2003 Hawai'i health survey reveals that more than half of Hawaii's adults are overweight
or obese. In some Hawai'i communities, the rate of obesity in children ages 6 to 11 is twice
the national average. About 75% of Hawai'i residents don't eat enough fruits and vegetables,
and many suffer from diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure. Hawaiis people, food
and water supply pose serious challenges to Hawai'i's health, economy, and ecosystem.




Research indicates that low income families, women, and children are at increased risk of
poor nutrition and chronic diseases because of a higher incidence of obesity; lower fruit and
vegetable consumption due to perception that those food items are more costly;
consumption of high fat and calorie dense foods; lack of understanding of nutrition
information; and difficulty maximizing food stamp resources.


Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death for children 14 and under, and the annual cost
of motor vehicle occupant-related death and injury exceeds $25.8 billion. Properly used safety
belts and child restraints are the single-most effective tool to reduce these deaths and
injuries.
The EFNEP program is designed to assist limited-resource audiences in acquiring the
knowledge, skills, attitudes, and changed behavior necessary for nutritionally sound diets, and
to contribute to their personal development and the improvement of the total family diet and
nutritional well-being.




It is primarily other scientists in the discipline and some industry researchers that attend
scientific conferences to learn about new and ongoing research and recent discoveries.
Workshops are generally attended by end-users interested in application of research results.




The project PI, AES, college and university administration, other funding agencies.




Foodborne diseases continue to be a major concern in food safety and public health world-
wide. Botulinum toxin is the most toxic natural compound known and has been listed as a
dangerous bioterrorism agent by the Center of Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne
diseases, including those caused by botulinum and cholera toxin continue to pose a threat to
our society. No sensors are currently available that allow a rapid and inexpensive screening of
our food prior to consumption, during preparation and during production.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are required for normal human health. In particular,
dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have effects on diverse physiological processes
affecting normal health and chronic disease, such as the regulation of plasma lipid levels
cardiovascular and immune function, insulin action, neuronal development and visual
function.

Several of the projects are of interest to NH Department of Environmental Service. Project 8
looked at reovirus detection in biosolids and specifically listed NH DES as its target audience.
UMass Extension has a memorandum of understanding with the Massachusetts Department
of Agricultural Resources, the United States Department of Agriculture and the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency to provide initial and continuing education to pesticide
users. Pesticides are important tools for the management of pests that threatened the food
supply, public health and natural resources. Unfortunately, these chemicals can also pose a
threat to the human health and the environment if they are not used properly.


Lead (Pb) contamination in soils and lands from abandoned mining and smelting areas in
Missouri, has been identified as a human health and ecological threat. In the southwest and
southeast Missouri, there are thousands acres of land and urban soils that have been lead
contaminated by disposal of Pb, Cd, Zn-rich mine tailings and smelting operation. The residual
lead content in the tailings materials is about one to half percent (10,000-5,000 ppm), and
cadmium and zinc are also present. A survey conducted by the Missouri Department of
Health showed that 17% of children under 7 years of age near the mining areas had elevated
blood-Pb level exceeding the health-based standard of 10 ug L-1. The blood-Pb level was
directly related to Pb concentration in soil. The Missouri Department of Conservation
indicated that the Pb contamination had also created barren or sparsely vegetated lands and
elevated metal concentrations in surface and ground waters in the mining areas.

In situ phosphate treatment that immobilizes Pb in soil and reduces its bioavailability is
emerging as a potential cost-effective remedial alternative for safeguarding human and
environment from Pb-contamination. The treatment efficacy of phosphates, particularly
H3PO4, is being tested and evaluated in smelter-contaminated urban soil for Pb
immobilization and reduction in Pb risk to human health. Preliminary results of the studies
have shown that the H3PO4 treatment effectively immobilized soil Pb by transforming soil Pb
from bioaccessible forms to non-bioaccessible forms and lowered the risk to human health as




The purchase of prescription drugs has been identified as a key stressor by older adults who
frequently under-utilize their prescribed drugs due to cost, and resort to drug sharing, drug
stretching, or drug neglecting. In response the federal government instituted a prescription
drug program commonly known as Medicare Part D.


Tractor and lawn tractor rollovers continue to claim the lives of their operators.
Modern farming is physically, emotionally, and economically challenging, especially for
farmers with disabilities. Farmers and farm workers often do not obtain needed medical and
rehabilitation services to aid in recovery and return to work due to a variety of factors.

Innovations in textile materials and technologies can address the important issues that face
the US, in terms of protecting public and healthcare personnel from the biological hazards. It
can also protect people and property from fire hazards and provide better uniforms to the fire-
fighters and first responders so they can perform their duties efficiently.

There are a large number of households who reside elsewhere and close their homes in
Florida for 3 to 5 months during hot and humid seasons. These not only include seasonal
residents from either other states or other cooler locations in Florida who come to spend
winter time in warmer Florida locations but also include Florida residents who temporarily
leave Florida to spend hot summer time in other cooler locations. However, it is a challenge
for the seasonal residents to keep their unoccupied Florida homes free from mold and other
potential during the hottest and most humid seasons. So, one of the greatest roles of UF IFAS
County Extension FCS faculty members is to provide information on how to close Florida
homes.




The goals of this work on soil management practices and N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes are: i) to
improve our understanding of the relationship between static and dynamic soil variables and
greenhouse gas fluxes in various ecosystems and ii) to improve methods to measure, monitor,
quantify and predict greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties. Specific objectives of this
study are to investigate (i) how soil pore space and thermal properties indices (pore tortuosity
factor, relative gas diffusion coefficient and thermal conductivity, diffusivity and resistivity)
relate to greenhouse gas fluxes from soils under agricultural fields, forest and pasture, (ii) how
pore space indices vary in these soils with different vegetation types, (iii) how pore space
indices, soil thermal properties (thermal diffusivity, conductivity and resistivity), greenhouse
gas fluxes and other dynamic soil properties relate to static soil characteristics such as texture
and bulk density in soils under agricultural fields, forest and pasture, and finally (iv) how the
use of geo-spatial technologies (GPS, GIS and Geostastics) in our sampling strategies improve
the estimation of greenhouse gas fluxes, static soil characteristics and dynamic soil properties.

Ridding human habitat of pests - Of Florida's 250,000 hotel rooms, about 1 percent--or 2,500
rooms--are infested with bedbugs. Treatment requires that adjacent rooms be treated, for a
total cost of $6.25 million. Each treated room is out of service for three days, for an
additional loss of $1.25 million. Lawsuits for bedbug bites cost $5 million per year.
New disease prevention - Dengue Fever has now reached the Carribean and it is only a matter
of time before it enters the United States. Because of the international shipping and
international air travel Florida is a prime location for the introduction of this serious disease.
IFAS medical entomologists are working to prevent introduction of antibiotic resistant dengue
fever as well as other vector-borne diseases.

A direct economic impact on soybean farmers as well as a health and environmental impact
for the country. Billions of candles are sold each year to people to enjoy inside the home for
look and beauty. Many are unaware of the harmful emissions and products concentrated
indoors and inhaled. Certain brands of candles may cause skin irritation as well as exposure
to smoke which cause illnesses. Soybeans are a renewable and biodegradable resource and a
prime source for candle wax.




Environmental hazzards in housing affect the quality of life and add billions to health care
costs annually. Family budgets may be strained due to costs associated with health and safety
problems coused from defects in or improperly maintained home systems and use of
hazardous products. Health hazards include allergens, mold, toxic materials, dangerous
gasses, fire safety and other health concerns.

Farmers markets are traditionally looked at as a way to maket locally grown produce in an
effort to generaly more income for producers, this also provides an opportunity for producers
to educate consumers on food safety and food preservation practices. Also, research has
shown that the more rural areas of the state have less access to fresh fruits and vegetables
and available at affordable prices.


Proper hand washing is the best defense against spreading germs and causing infectious
diseases.
Nutrition education and exercise reduce the incidences of chronic diseases, including youth by
25%. As chronic diseases increase the quality of life decreases and health care costs increase
by billions of dollars. American Cancer Society fundraising efforts lessen fears and provide
inspiration to those affected by cancer.
Proper hand washing is the best defense against spreading germs and causing infectious
diseases.
Nutrition education and exercise reduce the incidences of chronic diseases, including youth by
25%. As chronic diseases increase the quality of life decreases and health care costs increase
by billions of dollars. American Cancer Society fundraising efforts lessen fears and provide
inspiration to those affected by cancer.


Indoor Air Quality

According to a recent estimate from EPA, Americans spend 90% of their time indoors,
increasing risk to indoor air pollutant exposure and subsequent illness such as asthma or sick
building syndrome. NJAES researchers have been creating models to measure indoor, outdoor
and personal exposure to air particulate matter to provide evidence-based information for
public health assessment and regulatory guidance. These models are important so that public
health officials and regulatory agencies can more affectively assess the exposure to air
pollutants and create strategies to reduce exposure to these pollutants. In addition to
improved models, improving the air-cleaning process of biofiltration, which traditionally was
used to remove odors, but recent research at NJAES demonstrated its effectiveness at
removing several types of air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds and ammonia
from agriculture production, which is of particular concern according to pollution regulations
stated in the Clean Air Act.
Aside from organized QA sessions the youth in the state of Ohio that come to the state fair
are challenged in the area of QA through activities that are presented to them during the
State Skillathon Competitions during the Ohio State Fair. Youth that truly comprehend this
information excel in this are of the Ohio State Fair confirming that the Ohio QA program is
impacting the way that youth think about responsible livestock production. .
The labor movement is facing a number of changes on both a state and national level. Not
only are labor unions and organizations faced with ideological questions, but the face of the
workforce and even the nature of work are changing. With this in mind, labor groups will need
to maintain a sense of continuity while simultaneously addressing new issues that arise. It will
also be important to foster an atmosphere of solidarity so that labor groups are able to pool
their resources.


There is a high incidence of asthma amongst District of Columbia residents.




Food safety is of critical concern to processors and consumers. Minimization of the economic
and health impacts from food safety crises requires testing methods that are robust, sensitive
and rapid.
Low resource families frequently run out of food before the end of the month.

UI Researchers participate in the Northwest Regional Center of Excellence for Biosecurity. The
expertise in immunology and Gram-negative pathogenesis at the UI is being directed toward
vaccine development for Class A Biosecurity agents which present significant risks, particularly
if administered via aerosols. Currently, there is no widely available vaccine for organisms such
as Yersinia pestis (plague) and Francisella tularensis (tularemia).
A recent study reported that only 10% of Americans got foodborne illness in the past year.
However, current published statistics indicate that over 25% of Americans suffer from
foodborne illness. There is a need for education to reduce the risks associated with foodborne
illness.




Food safety, from farm to table, is a complex issue with vast implications.
This new knowledge is required for the advancement of science-based management
strategies which prevent or mitigate unacceptable adverse impacts on human and
environmental health.




Results of this research program will contribute to the development and validation of new
models for toxicity testing, to the identification of underlying molecular mechanisms of
toxicant action, and to the ability of other chemicals to prevent or mitigate the toxic effects of
environmental chemicals. Results from the model toxicants subprogram have already had a
significant impact on understanding the role AHR activation and signaling cross-talk
mechanisms. For the first time, there are tools to look beyond the simple AHR activation, and
instead focus on the events that are actually involved in producing adverse responses to
exposure to persistent environmental contaminants.
Results of this research program will contribute to the development and validation of new
models for toxicity testing, to the identification of underlying molecular mechanisms of
toxicant action, and to the ability of other chemicals to prevent or mitigate the toxic effects of
environmental chemicals.
Thirty-five percent of all cancers may be prevented by diet. Epidemiology studies confirm that
individuals consuming diets with high amounts of fruits and vegetables can reduce their risk of
many cancers in half. However, many individuals do not consume this level of phytochemicals
in their diet. For these individuals, supplementation with these phytochemicals in pill form is
an option and has become a multi-billion dollar industry. Little or no information is available
on the risks/benefits of such supplemention for pregnant women with respect to the health
of the fetus.




These studies are providing insights into gene expression by eukaryotic ribosomes, as well as
explaining expression mechanisms used by positive strand RNA viruses. Crown gall is a
problem world-wide and causes damage to commercial crops. Data demonstrates that the
cell based biosensor has applications for the detection of bacterial pathogens and chemical
toxicants in food products as well as in food production environments.




Smallpox virus is one of the most significant pathogenic threats. Baculoviruses are used as
vectors for the production of proteins for biomedical research.




By elucidating the specific survival and adherence mechanisms displayed by Vibrio species in
shellfish, specific treatments could be devised to disrupt that interaction.
This work will help to bring chitosan dressings into new markets including veterinary
medicine.
Research and development activities for our reactive filtration technology, including some
that are cooperative with a small business and a larger Fortune 500 company, have assisted in
the commercial advancement of the technology developed by this work. The communities of
interest include municipalities, agencies, engineers working in water treatment, and water
resource managers and interest groups.




Drying of sugar-rich food products like berries is ordinarily problematic and novel methods for
preservation are crucial for this industry. One component of these foods is anthrocyanins
which have beneficial health properties. Quantifying the level of anthocyanins in dehydrated
fruit products is beneficial to US consumers because it will help them in making informed
choices on foods that have potential to provide more health benefits. The information will
support the processing and marketing of Northwest berry products that satisfy consumers'
needs.
Older workers are staying in the workforce longer because they (1) wish to continue to
contribute their expertise and/or (2)simply cannot afford to retire. Many are delaying
retirement because of the downturn in the stock market and their diminished nest eggs.

Radon in the Home

A home can be a family's greatest asset, yet many homeowners do not know why and how to
take the necessary measures for maintaining the integrity and value of their home, as well as
ensuring the safety of its occupants - poor indoor air quality can be a serious health risk. The
majority of counties in Colorado fall into EPA Zone 1, which means that these counties have a
predicted average indoor radon (odorless, colorless and deadly gas) screening level greater
than 4 pCi/L (pico curies per liter), the level at which EPA recommends mitigation to reduce
the risk of lung cancer.
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - WHAT WAS DONE




UVM Extension conducted a survey of dairy farm operators. A mail survey instrument was
developed to include questions on farmer and farm demographics, uses of technology, future
plans, labor practices, satisfaction, and future needs. The mail survey followed the Dillman
(1978) method. The mailing list included all Vermont dairy farmers. A total of 870 completed
surveys were returned for analysis, for a response rated of 60.0 percent.
The ServSafe curriculum was adapted by Purdue Extension for restaurant establishments in
the state of Indiana. Essentials of Food Safety & Sanitation is a two day course with 16 hours
of instructional time taught by Extension educators using PowerPoint modules, activities,
demonstrations, and concluding with an exam. Upon passing the exam, the ServSafe Food
Protection Manager Certification is granted by the National Registry of Food Safety
Professionals. Certification is valid for five years.




Educational programs are offered to real estate professionals, installers, home inspectors and
lenders on the design and selection of on-site sewage systems and new technologies being
implemented for environmental protection. On-site sewage system demonstrations are used
to show installation and effectiveness of new technologies for wastewater removal for proper
environmental and human health.




Classes are offered to increase knowledge of soil systems and their role in wastewater
disposal. Demonstrations for real estate professionals, home inspectors, installers and
homeowners have been used to show maintenance of on-site sewage systems and how
proper soil characteristics can be part of the treatment system for wastewater or act as a
barrier to nutrient and bacteria treatment. Mini-grants have been used to do demonstrations
and cost-share for septic tank cleaning and maintenance.
Agency personnel have attended classes and demonstrations on the function of on-site
sewage systems. The classes give attendees an opportunity to see how various systems work
and how to identify when a system may not be working properly. Demonstrations on
maintenance and water flow through a system show participants the importance of
maintenance and how to identify structurally sound components in the system.




Class participants received educational materials and resource notebooks comparing the
different systems and landscape and soils characteristics to determine which system works
best based on these characteristics. A field tour of the Bradford Farm on-site sewage training
site shows the different alternative systems.




Demonstrations have been done to show the different types of alternative systems that work
effectively in environmentally sensitive areas. A new pamphlet lists alternative systems,
explains when they work most effectively, and summarizes their cost and maintenance
requirements.




A class that discusses the components and functions of an on-site system describes the role of
both the septic tank and the soil in treating bacteria. Displays have been used to increase
awareness of the importance of testing private water wells and doing wellhead protection.

Demonstrations of proper pumping and maintenance of an on-site sewage system have been
used to teach participants how to discuss the human and environmental health consequences
when on-site systems are not properly maintained. Brochures are distributed describing the
need to protect human and environmental health through proper maintenance and system
selection. A grant providing cost-share for pumping septic tanks has been used to increase
participation.
Classes have been offered to increase awareness and knowledge of the purpose of on-site
septic systems and their ability to reduce wastewater contamination. Installers are working
effectively with county health departments to ensure appropriate systems are selected and
properly installed. Training sessions for installers and agency personnel have been offered to
provide the latest information on types of systems available and the soils best suited for the
different types.


Workshops have been used to create awareness and to promote local decision making. Local
citizens must become engaged in the decision making process and develop understanding of
the issues and their role and responsibility in addressing them. Surveys showed that few
citizens understand what is required and their role in watershed planning. After attending the
workshop, citizens and agency personnel understand the importance of local decision making
in watershed planning.


Education classes have been held with selected groups to develop an understanding and
increase knowledge of watershed management planning and the role it plays in long-term
watershed health. The classes focused on basics of watershed planning, how to identify local
needs, the role of agency personnel, selection of practices and implementation strategies for
engaging citizens and improving water quality.




A course for water quality education and planning was held to emphasize the importance of
using science-based information and developing locally led groups. In selected communities
representing different watersheds, meetings have been held and groups have developed a
structure to produce a watershed plan. Displays and presentations at state conferences and
local activities have promoted the need for watershed planning and the role of local citizens
and agency personnel.




Watershed community meetings have been held where people were identified as wanting to
work on a watershed committee. One-on-one consultation with local leaders has helped to
establish a core working group as the advisory committee that included local landowners and
agency personnel. Meetings have been held to identify potential resource personnel and
sources of funding and to establish criteria for watershed planning.
Watershed planning has occurred in response to local- and state-identified concerns for water
quality. Local agency personnel have identified cost-share opportunities for implementing
management practices and demonstration sites have been developed to show management
techniques and the rationale for specific management practices. Application has been made
for grants to support, outreach, cost-share and implementation of watershed plans.


Meetings have been held with local watershed groups to identify the components of a plan
and where they can find the information and people to assist them. A template has been
established for the criteria necessary for a watershed plan. Agency personnel have provided
information on watershed characteristics and how they affect pollution in the watershed.
Informational meetings have been held to keep the watershed community involved in the
components of the plan.




DNR has worked directly with Extension to establish a link with local citizens to develop a
watershed plan. Community meetings have been held, including informational sessions on
TMDLs and programs on source water protection to reduce the input of pollutants into water
bodies.




Extension is working with agency personnel to establish criteria for determining priority
watersheds that are found on the state 303 (d). Modeling and GPS data layers of watershed
characteristics are used to determine critical areas that have high potential for water quality
degradation. These areas are targeted for watershed plan development and funding
opportunities.
The University of Arkansas Food Science Department of the Bumpers College and the Division
of Agriculture was recently ranked fourth nationally for faculty scholarly productivity by
Academics Analytics.




As a result of the quarantine, sod producers had to treat all sod destined for shipment to non-
quarantined areas. Only two insecticides were approved by APHIS and labeled by EPA for
treatment of sod at the application rates required by APHIS. Perry County sod producers
identified logistical or mixing problems associated with these options. Because of these
concerns, UA Extension faculty led efforts with USDA APHIS, Etigra and the Arkansas State
Plant Board to identify an alternative formulation of the same active insecticide ingredient
that would be effective, less expensive and easier to mix.
An estimated 30 workshops/trainings on practicing good governance have been conducted.
Community strategic planning and community visioning programs have also been provided to
towns and cities across the state that are working to address population and economic
changes. Helping residents develop a common view of the future for their communities is vital
to their very existence. While there are several communities engaged in the visioning
process, 6 have had on-going efforts and positive results

The Virginia Ag Pest Advisory (http://www.sripmc.org/virginia/), developed in cooperation
with the Southern Region IPM Center, is a database driven website that compiles pest
updates from VCE specialists. Weekly e-mails go to agents, growers, and crop consultants
across the state. In 2007, the Advisory was discovered by AgFax Media, Brandon, MS, who
route information throughout the eastern U.S. through three electronic newsletters
PeanutFax, Ag Southern Grain, and Southeast Cotton Report. IPM information was also
included in the pesticide safety education curriculum statewide. The pesticide regulatory
program works closely with the Southern IPM Center to communicate critical issues to the
public and to decision-makers.
To meet this need, a School IPM training program was developed in 2000. The program
teaches Extension agents, pest management professionals, and school personnel how to help
local schools convert from monthly pesticide applications to an IPM program. In 2007, the
School IPM Training program was presented in four sessions to personnel and contract pest
management professionals in the Albemarle County and Roanoke City Schools (135
participants total). IPM training was also included with all pesticide safety education
programs.




In 2007, VCE agriculture and natural resource Extension agents and specialists conducted
certification preparation programs in pesticide safety and IPM in 107 localities throughout
Virginia. These programs assisted agricultural producers and commercial pesticide applicators
comply with the law and protect the environment and human health through safe and
efficient use of pesticides and adoption of alternative pest control tactics.


In 2007, agriculture and natural resource Extension agents and specialists for VCE conducted
programs in pesticide safety and IPM in 107 localities throughout Virginia. The program(s)
assisted agricultural producers and non-certified workers and handlers to comply with
pesticide laws and regulations, and to protect the environment and human health through the
safe and efficient use of pesticides and alternative pest control tactics.
In 2007, VT offered three online courses for trainers across the U.S. The largest course was
the USDA Pesticide Recordkeeping Training Course. Another course was held for Virginia
Master Gardeners. A third course was offered to participants in the Northeast Regional
Pesticide Safety Education Center course. VCE also held the annual train the trainer workshop
for faculty and VCE staff taught in the onsite northeast region pesticide safety education
center short course.




Virginia Tech in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services and the Virginia Pesticide Control Board implemented a drift prevention education
program. That program has existed for over 10 years and most recently included a new
campaign to communicate the importance of protecting sensitive areas from drift. When the
public asked for help with drift issues, Extension and state regulators partnered to work with
communities to resolve conflicts and to educate applicators and the public on drift
prevention. Drift and personal protective education became mandatory for every program
and tied those parameters into all program evaluation and reporting templates.




In 2007, agriculture and natural resource Extension agents and specialists for Virginia
Cooperative Extension (VCE), worked with the Virginia Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services and the Virginia Pesticide Control Board to conduct programs in pesticide
safety and IPM throughout Virginia. The programs assisted agricultural producers and
licensed pesticide applicators to comply with the law and protect the environment and
human health through the safe and efficient use of pesticides and alternative pest control
tactics. The program made pesticide safety education mandatory for every Extension
agricultural agent and tied the issue of applicators being certified as required by state and
federal law to educational programs. One of the most prominent violations by applicators is
being cited for not being certified to apply pesticides in Virginia. VCE increased efforts to offer
training and to inform the public that certification is mandatory for all commercial and many
private (farmers) pesticide applicators in Virginia.
In 2007, agriculture and natural resource Extension agents and specialists for VCE, worked
with the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the Virginia Pesticide
Control Board to conduct programs in pesticide safety and IPM throughout Virginia. The
programs assisted agricultural producers and licensed pesticide applicators to comply with the
law and protect the environment and human health through the safe and efficient use of
pesticides and alternative pest control tactics. The program made pesticide safety education
mandatory for every Extension agricultural agent and tied the issue of applicators being
certified as required by state and federal law to VCE educational programs. One of the most
prominent violations by applicators is being cited for not being certified to apply pesticides in
Virginia. VCE increased efforts to offer training and to inform the public that certification is
mandatory for all commercial and many private (farmers) pesticide applicators in Virginia.




Crop pest profiles (ginseng, honeybees, turfgrass), pest management strategic plans (pepper,
potato, honeybees, tomato) and 26 different responses to EPA and USDA requests for input
data on needs for various crops involved direct stakeholder input in 2007. This direct input
data was published on the USDA Southern IPM Center website. This information was shared
with USDA and EPA Benefits Use Division. In addition, direct feedback was given to EPA and
USDA directly and specifically for establishment of methyl bromide critical use exemptions for
2008.




Over 100 field research trials related to perennial grass weed control were conducted since
2001. It was discovered that mesotrione, a herbicide commonly used in agronomic crops,
could safely control such weeds without harming common turfgrass species. Specialists are
working with the manufacturer to refine use rates and pursue registration with EPA, expected
in 2008.
An inexpensive and efficient solution to disposing of waste products eliminates a potential
threat to health and the environment and saves money. To identify and collect pesticide
wastes in 2007, Agriculture and Natural Resource Extension agents for Virginia Cooperative
Extension, in partnership with the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
and the Virginia Pesticide Control Board, conducted a pesticide waste disposal program in 22
Virginia localities. The program(s) helped agricultural producers, licensed pesticide dealers
and pest control firms, golf courses, and homeowners properly dispose of unwanted
pesticides.




An inexpensive and efficient solution to disposing of containers eliminates a potential threat
to health and the environment and saves money. To identify, collect and recycle pesticide
containers in 2007, agriculture and natural resource Extension agents for Virginia Cooperative
Extension, in partnership with the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
and the Virginia Pesticide Control Board, conducted a pesticide container recycling program in
19 localities in Virginia. The program(s) helped agricultural producers, licensed pesticide
dealers and pest control firms, golf courses, and homeowners properly recycle waste
pesticide containers.

In an effort to help youth learn safety practices many county Extension programs include a
youth Safety Education Day. Programs are typically structured around practical living skills
and everyday dangers youth face. A review of the core content of county programs showed
that youth are exposed to: Safety and Health Agencies in the community, the importance of
using safety equipment such as helmets for ATV's, bicycle safety, life jackets and watercraft
safety as well as helping youth understand safety practices that help to prevent injuries and
provide a safe environment.
The purpose of the study was to determine the association between glycemic control and self-
management skills and to identify specific areas of educational need based on gender, age,
insulin delivery method, level of diabetic control and years since diagnosis.




An OARDC study of enzymatic synthesis of prostaglandins was undertaken as basic research
to assess if further studies are warranted.
Agents taught 879 programs reaching 6,437 people. EFNEP agents taught 11,311 people.
Through the ServSafe training, participants learned where contaminations starts, the
components for good personal hygiene and how every employee can be a safe food handler.
Participants discovered how to prevent cross-contamination and how to utilize time and
temperature control effectively.




Extension trained food handlers from 421 food establishments and taught 155 programs
reaching 2,386 people. Of this number, 840 persons were managers and supervisors of eating
establishments.




Agents taught 884 food handlers representing 429 food establishments.




Food handlers representing 464 food establishments attended safe food handling educational
programs.
A total of 669 volunteers were trained and taught food safety programs, contributing over
576 volunteer hours.




One restaurant was evaluated and met HACCP standards.

News articles for newspapers and trade magazines, television shows and radio were utilized.
Research to develop of practical solutions to the aflatoxin problem; and to evaluate the
specificity and the structure/function of taxol biosynthesis acyltransferases isolated from
taxus plant cultures.


In 2007, Safety and Health Extension conducted safety and health training classes for 4,473
employees in West Virginia and surrounding states.


Safety and Health Extension trained 4473 workers and supervisors in a variety of occupational
health and safety topics with an expectation that this training will result in decreased injuries
and illnesses at the workplaces these trainees represent.
Safety and Health Extension represent 1,474 workplaces. It is hypothesized that skills learned
in classes will be applied at work, resulting in decrease in hazards.
Four thousand four hundred seventy-three workers were trained in general OSHA regulations
(rights and responsibilities) as well as OSHA standards related to their particular place(s) of
employment.




One promising candidate is soy protein and the flavonoid class compounds called isoflavones
contained in soy. Preliminary work in our lab has shown that piglets fed formula with mixed
isoflavones or genistein reduced the duration of diarrhea.




Research to better characterize the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination and subsequent
disease associated with the consumption of deli-sliced ready-to-eat meats; and to understand
the structure and function of the protein secretion apparatus responsible for the secretion of
toxins in V. cholerae and E. coli.
An MAES researcher has developed a mouse-based model to determine the allergenic
potential of genetically engineered crops.The model also provides the opportunity to better
understand how the immune system makes its decision to react as it does to a non-toxic
substance in food and why this happens only in certain people.




Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been shown to be unusually acid resistant, which could account
for their low infectious dose and ability to contaminate acidic foods. These genes are unusual
among the Enterobacteriaceae in that they occur only in E. coli and Shigella. The nucleotide
sequences of the gadA and gadB in 16 strains of pathogenic E. coli were studied to determine
acid resistance ability. Another goal is to understand the process of E. coli chromosomal DNA
replication and its regulation at the biochemical level.

MAES and MSU researchers are creating and verifying computer models that can predict how
pathogenic bacteria are affected by food characteristics and food processing methods. Pilot
studies began last spring in a newly constructed bioisafety processing plant at MSU to validate
many of the models developed over the past five years.

The goal of this research is to assess the risk of foodborne trichothecenes to humans and
ameliorate this risk by dietary intervention. The two primary objectives of this project are to:
(1) determine the molecular mechanisms by which trichothecenes induce inflammatory gene
expression and immune cell death and (2) develop prophylactic and therapeutic approaches
to prevent trichothecene toxicity by nutritional supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids.


Comprehensive omic approaches will be integrated with complementary existing tests to
elucidate the mechanistic linkages between molecular phenotype and toxicity
outcomes.Emerging technologies (e.g., microarrays, metabolomics) will be used to assess the
toxicity of endocrine disruptor mixtures.

Towards No Tobacco, a 10 session, best practice program was delivered in nine rural counties
to youth in grades three to five. Teams of youth were also trained to support tobacco law
enforcement, how to provide awareness activities for younger children, write articles for local
papers, participate in radio interviews, and report results to their county officials.
Researchers are utilizing nanotechnolgy to develop rapid and simple biosensors to detect the
presence of intentional and ubiquitous toxic agents in food and water. Additionally, active
antimicrobial and antioxidant packaging films are being developed to reduce the risk from
these toxic agents by using natural materials.
Extension provides solutions to Food and Agriculture Safety and Security issues for individuals,
families, farms, businesses, and communities. Educational interventions through best
management practices, educational training and exhibits, research trials, laboratory sampling,
and awareness campaigns provide a comprehensive program plan to mitigate, respond to,
and/or recover from incidents that have the potential to affect the safety and security of our
food and agriculture system.




Cooperative Extension provides solutions to food and agricultural safety and security issues
through sharing of best management practices, educational training and exhibits, research
trials, laboratory sampling, and awareness campaigns that help individuals, families, farms,
businesses and communities avoid, respond to, and/or recover from events that may have
potential impact on the safety and security of our food and agricultural system.




Previous chemical ecology research has documented the ability of insect antennae to respond
to a wide range of unexpected chemical volatiles. Refinement to the computer algorithms
that classify odorants and to the integrated anemometer on the detection device lead to
improved discriminatory capacity. Several select agent chemicals are produced by Fusarium
fungi. Fusarium chemotypes can be characterized by molecular methods, increasing
diagnostic capacity.




CTAHR conducted integrated research, extension and education projects to improve the
health and wellness of Hawai'i's families and communities. Outreach programs focused on
efforts to educate the people of Hawaii on the role of nutrition and lifestyles in health and
disease, food safety concerns, recommendations for health, and effective prevention of
contaminant release and management of contaminants and chemicals found in communities
and households.
CTAHR conducted integrated research, extension and education projects to improve the
health and wellness of Hawai'i's families and communities. Outreach programs focused on
efforts to educate the people of Hawaii on the role of nutrition and lifestyles in health and
disease, food safety concerns, recommendations for health, and effective prevention of
contaminant release and management of contaminants and chemicals found in communities
and households.




CTAHR conducted integrated research, extension and education projects to improve the
health and wellness of Hawai'i's families and communities. Outreach programs focused on
efforts to educate the people of Hawaii on the role of nutrition and lifestyles in health and
disease, food safety concerns, recommendations for health, and effective prevention of
contaminant release and management of contaminants and chemicals found in communities
and households.




County FCS Educators used Body and Soul, Cent$ible Nutrition, and Search Your Heart
curricula to teach older adults and adults without children about choosing different forms and
kinds of healthy fruit and vegetables. The older adults were taught at 8 senior meal sites
where the majority of seniors are low income; and the parents of children were reached at
WIC clinics. There were 11 lessons taught once a week at each site.
Project trained, certified technicians hold check up events and check-up stations where
parents/caregivers can bring their children in their vehicles with the seats installed to have
them checked for proper installation. Parents are taught correct installation, and then
demonstrate their ability to do so themselves. New seats are given to those needing them at
no cost.
Each child participant was given a refrigerator thermometer to continue monitoring the family
refrigerator and a personal hand sanitizer to use at home. At graduation, each youth had a
simple resolution which was a plan on how to choose nutritious foods, sample at least 8
unfamiliar fruits and vegetables in the following year and be more active in their daily lives.
The program intent was to help them to discover that, physical activity could be anything that
gets their bodies moving, including dance.




Sixteen conference and workshop presentations were made.

PI have been encouraged by NH AES and college administration to use AES funding to address
immediate issues in agriculture and to conduct research that will increase their ability to
attract additional funding for synergistic studies from other sources.




The research has developed a rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection method for botulinum
toxin in food and farm samples. It will thus improve the safety of our food, from farm to table,
and will enhance the safety and health of humans and livestock.

Research was conducted on mice models to expand the understanding of the relationship
between diet, health and disease prevention with particular focus on dietary lipids and to
better elucidate the human health benefits associated with functional properties of food
constituents.

The project use integrated cell culture and real time PCR to compare Reovirus detection in
alkaline stabilized and anaerobically digested biosolids.
The UMass Extension Pesticide Education works closely with the Massachusetts Department
of Agricultural Resources to insure that pesticide users are provided with opportunities to
obtain necessary information about the regulation and proper use of pesticides in the state.
The team conducts workshops throughout the state for users of pesticides including farmers,
landscapers, turf and lawn managers, municipal and state employees, indoor pest
management professionals and the general public. Additional education and information are
made available in publications, newsletters, conferences, lectures, and websites.




The column leaching of P-treated mine wastes were simulated using an integrated approach,
including simulated precipitation leaching procedures (SPLP), toxicity characteristic leaching
procedures (TCLP), and leaching procedures at presence of plant growth. The stability of
formed lead phosphates in treated wastes was evaluated against solution pH and root
interactions, in context of metal leachability and plant metal uptake.

Plant and water samples were collected from P-treated plot of contaminated site in a
interval of 3-4 months. The samples were analyzed for metals to determine metal
accumulation in plant tissues and aqueous metal level.

A sequential extraction procedure was conducted to determine chemical speciation of soil Pb
and identify metal species responsible for Pb immobilization and risk reduction. The chemical
species was extracted from the most soluble to the least soluble fraction, including water-
soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, Fe/Mn-oxide, organic, and residues. Phosphate speciation
was also performed by the selective extraction procedures.




With the support and assistance of CSREES and collaboration with Centers for Medicare and
Medicaid Services (CMS), National Council on Aging (NCOA), The University of Florida's
College of Pharmacy and Florida Extension faculty from 27 counties, a program was devised
and implemented to meet the primary objective which was to provide unbiased information
about choosing among myriad Medicare Part D plans to older Floridians through county
Extension faculty. Educational materials for county faculty were posted on a website to be
accessed during and after an 8 hour webinare and included 11 PowerPoint slide sets, 13
distinct web-pages, and 9 links. An up-date training was held the following year. Materials
written in Spanish were accessed from CMS. County faculty data was gathered monthly using
a monthly electronic survey to determine the number of groups and individuals they had met
with and how many of those were limited income beneficiaries.

We conducted rollover field tests on lawnmowers and revised the modeling component to
accurately predict the continuous roll tendency.
We educated and networked with agricultural and health professionals on potential solutions
for farmers and farm workers with disabilities and provided direct assistance to disabled farm
individuals.




We have improved breathable, cotton-surfaced spunbound nonwovens (CSNs) fabrics that
can be adopted for military use.


It was reported that in 2007 there were over 580 participants in diverse group teaching
events on closing Florida home in three Florida counties. Palm Beach County Extension
faculty members reached approximately 160 residents through Closing Florida Your Florida
Home classes, and distributed Closing Your Florida Home booklets that were developed by the
County Extension faculty. Their classes and booklets were featured in local newspapers.
Many more residents were also reached through various outlets including media campaigns,
individual consultations to clients who visited their county Extension office or via e-mails and
telephone calls.

Sampling sites for this project were Freeman Farm (Agricultural site) where corn and soybean
are grown; Carver Farm (Grassland site) where a field plot was set on a permanent pasture,
Busby Farm (forest site) where two plots were set inside the forest, and Lincoln University-
Lilbourn research site and in a farmer cotton field in the Bootheel. However, for 2006-2007,
studies were mainly conducted at Lincoln University 's farms. Experimental plots at each of
Lincoln University sampling sites were mapped using global positioning sites (GPS). Thermal
properties were directly measured and soil samples were collected for analysis of initial soil
chemical and physical properties. At Freeman Farm, corn and soybeans were planted in the
two experimental plots. Corn was fertilized with NPK at 60, 120 and 180 lb/acre but soybean
was not. Corn and soybean growth and yield were monitored. Thirty two sampling chambers
were installed in the cornfield and twenty chambers in the soybean field at Freeman Farm,
twenty at each Carver and Busby Farm. We collected air samples from June to December and
analyzed them for CO2, CH4 and N2O at the Dickinson Research Center Laboratory. We also
collected soil samples for determinations of chemical and physical properties.




IFAS research has devised a two-hour, non-chemical treatment which doesn't take rooms out
of service.
IFAS scientists at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory developed new computer
models that enable predictions of mosquito-borne disease transmissions around the world
thus protecting Florida from economically debilitating outbreaks of disease.




Test are underway to see if candles from soybean products could replace parafin wax, in
order to produce better and safer products.




The Healthy Homes and Communities curriculum is used with adults and youth in various
settings. Programs are focused on fire safey, smoke detectors, carbon dioxide and poisonous
gas and its detection, radon and lead issues, safe storage and use of pesicides, mold and mold
abatement as well as other related topis.


Extension Agents supported 112 Farmers Markets in 87 counties with 1732 local producers
taking advantage of this opportunity to provide local shoppers with farm fresh, "Kentucky
Proud" produce. Most of these markets accepted food vouchers and food stamps from low
income and senior customers.


To improve health and wellness among participants in ETP 21H Metropolitan Health, Nutrition
and Wellness, 40 hand washing demonstrations, 20 exercise groups for older adults, 35
interactive, nutrition, health and exercise classes, 10 health conferences, summer health
camp for obese girls, 25, 30-minute radio program on chronic diseases, and disseminated
35,000 pieces of health literature, and participated in walk-a-thon.
To improve health and wellness among participants in ETP 21H Metropolitan Health, Nutrition
and Wellness, 40 hand washing demonstrations, 20 exercise groups for older adults, 35
interactive, nutrition, health and exercise classes, 10 health conferences, summer health
camp for obese girls, 25, 30-minute radio program on chronic diseases, and disseminated
35,000 pieces of health literature, and participated in walk-a-thon.




Researchers analyzed ambient outdoor, residential indoor and personal exposure
measurement data to better characterize community exposure to airborne particulate matter
of outdoor and indoor origin. Through lab experiments, chemical modeling and collaborative
chemical transport modeling, has increased the understanding of the atmospheric formation
of organic particulate matter through cloud processing.

Studies were performed to increase the range of contaminants for which biofiltration can be
used, especially for ammonia. Also, research on the effectiveness of rinsing of biofilters for
removal of inorganic nitrogen compounds was completed.
Youth are challenged through Skillathons as to there comprehension of the subject matter.
In 2007 ILSR faculty taught eighty-seven classes that represented 440.5 hours of instruction
time. Throughout the year, this educational initiative reached 2,614 participants. Included in
this initiative were five week-long residential training programs and one three-day residential
program for various international labor organizations. Additionally, we also coordinated and
conducted three multi-day issue-oriented conferences that focused on women‚s issues, labor
law and leadership capacity building.
Experiments have been conducted via techniques to include use of basic cell culture
methodology, cell counting, cell freezing, protein extracting and quantitation, and Western
blotting.


Rapid detection methods using immuno-PCR-magnetic bead technology to detect toxins and
real-time PCR to detect DNA from allergen causing foods are under development. Research
has demonstrated the efficacy of the magnetic bead technology and efforts are under way to
expand that research into other important food toxins. Enhanced sensitivity has been
demonstrated using real-time PCR in soy products. Robustness of the method to detect soy
DNA (both intact and severely degraded) has been demonstrated in a variety of highly
processed soy products. Tests are currently underway to determine if there is a matrix effect.
Participants are taught (knowledge and skills) to stretch their food dollar.
Experiments were conducted to elucidated how the direct manipulation of the mammalian
innate immune response can provide protection against plague and tularemia and enhance
antibiotic therapy in otherwise immunologically naive individuals. This work was reported at
two international meetings and in two peer-reviewed publications, and also trained
technicians and graduate students in the use of Category A microorganisms under BioLevel
Safety 3 conditions.




Four hundred three participated in ServSafe training and took the certification exam.




The focus on microbial food safety continues to be on methods development and validation
studies. That work continues to be transferred to end users through efforts such as the Rapid
Methods and Automation in Microbiology Workshop. The chemical food safety effort
continues to attract recognition because of work on ammonia contamination, heterocyclic
amines and methods for measuring irradiation of beef. Additionally the economics, policy,
and trade implications of food safety as well as food security are also reported.
The subprogram Fate of Bioavailable Agrichemicals and Environmental Contaminants seeks to
develop sampling devices and methods to measure contaminants and effects on
bioavailabilty. The subprogram Biomarkers for persistent contaminants in aquatic ecosystems
seeks to identify proteins that are potential new biomarkers for exposure to and effects of
persistent contaminants in fish. Investigators studying the Ecotoxicology of Pesticides in order
to more effectively advance and transfer science to agricultural and regulatory stakeholders,
will employ a variety of procedures. Investigators studying ecological risks to aquatic and
terrestrial arthropods exposed to IPM practices will review and analyze existing risk
assessment procedures. The subprogram Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of
Agricultural Chemicals to Remote ecosystems seeks to identify, develop, and or validate trace
analytical methods for agricultural chemicals and other contaminants, as well as biomarkers.




The investigator has identified interactions between Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR)
activation and other signal transduction pathways. The investigator is also working to screen a
wide range of commonly manufactured nanomaterials to determine their potential
interactions with biological systems. Ultimately, many relationships between nanomaterial
composition and effects will be defined; a first step in being able to predict nanomaterial-
biological interactions. In the immune supression subprogram, the researcher has
investigated the underlying mechanisms of immune suppression by which natural bioactive
chemicals in food protect against human diseases such as cancer, inflammation and microbial
infection, specifically focusing on the ability of three phytochemical groups: chlorophyll and
its derivatives, indole-3-carbinol, and tea polyphenols.


Investigators worked to identify biomarkers that are expressed in response to a set of
relevant model toxicants, to generate stable reporter animals using gene regulatory elements.
Investigators in the maternal diet subprogram have examined the potential for three of the
major phytochemicals known to prevent cancer in the fetus by maternal exposure to chemical
carcinogens. They are using a mouse model to study the potency and efficacy of the
phytochemicals groups, I3C, green tea and chlorophyllin, as transplacental chemoprotective
agents.




Activities include studying the roles of the untranslated regions (UTRs) of the genomic RNAs of
the positive strand RNA viruses Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and the mosquito-borne
flaviviruses dengue virus and West Nile virus and development of an agrobacterium oncogene
silencing strategy to produce plants resistant to crown gall. In the food and water safety
subprogram, research sought to characterize and evaluate the probiotic potential of
exopolysaccharide (i.e. biopolymer) producing Lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains.




Activities include development of an effective anti-poxvirus drug for use in treating or
preventing human disease caused by pathogenic poxviruses and investigation on proteins
involved in baculovirus DNA replication and structure.




Investigating the different cellular processes that are activated in bacteria when they
associate with shellfish
development and testing of new uses for chitosan formulations and other planned studies
include veterinary uses of bandages and bioabsorption studies in animals
An exploratory trial of catalytic oxidation was conducted using a flow pre-reactor without the
serial acoustic array that will be in the final assembly. Operated at a 10-GPM flow rate with
secondary treated, non-chlorinated municipal wastewater at the Hayden Wastewater
Research Facility, the trial used a venturi to dose 5 mg/L dissolved ozone prior to a ferric iron
dose of 10 mg/L with a flow pre-reactor time of 2 min. The mixture then passed through a gas-
liquid separator system and into an up-flow HFOCS moving bed filter. Oxidation-reduction
potentials measured 750 mV for post pre-reactor samples and 350 mV for post HFOCS reactor
samples.




Three drying methods (spray drying, freeze drying, and Refractance Window drying) were set
with the objective of successfully producing blueberry powder. Blueberry juice concentrate
with 64.5% dissolved solids was dried by the three three methods. Various amounts of drying
aids such as corn maltodextrin were added to the juice concentrate before being diluted with
deionized water to a consistency that could either be applied on the belt of the RW dryer or
pumped into the atomizer of the spray dryer. The freeze-dried product was prepared in a pilot-
scale freeze-dryer with the heating plate temperature set at 20 degrees Celcius and 3.3kPa
chamber absolute pressure. The samples were collected after drying for analysis of
anthocyanins.
Four counties joined together to plan and hold the first Rocky Mountain Conference on Aging
in the Workplace with 102 participants from 3 states representing employers, human
resource professionals, gerontology experts, Extension professionals and others.




CSU Extension in Archuleta County received a 2006 state grant for free home radon testing
kits to distribute to its residents. A public awareness campaign through the local media
regarding the risks of radon in the home was launched to promote the availability of the free
kits. In 2007 testing reports began coming in - 60 percent of the homes tested had radon
levels of immediate concern; 31 percent needed retesting and mitigation.
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - RESULTS




Farmers were least satisfied with time away from farm and profits. Milk prices and real estate
taxes were greatest future concerns. Survey results directed UVM Extension staff to respond
by offering 90 workshops for farmers in how to increase profits through a variety of means. As
a result,
   127
•	 farmers made at least one change to address farm profits, 	
   87
•	 reported making a change in on-farm production, marketing, financial management, legal
or human resource aspects of their business
   104
•	 farmers had soil tested to reduce fertilizer used for amendments	
   11
•	 farmers showed a 5% or more increase in farm profitability after implementing
recommended changes
One farm family said, "UVM Extension's VT Ag Profitability Team has been a very valuable
asset in helping us get where we are today. In 6 short years we have gone from a rented
conventional dairy, milking 9 animals, to a beautiful organic dairy that we own with 80
healthy and hearty cows…	
As a result of the educational outreach through Purdue Extension, a total of 383 out of 433
(88%) participants successfully passed the ServSafe Food Protection Manager Certification
course and exam. A three month follow-up survey indicated that participants and their staff
washed hands more frequently during food preparation, kept raw foods separate from ready-
to-eat foods to prevent cross contamination, and increased the amount of time the
temperature was taken from food to ensure proper cooling to safe temperatures. Overall,
after completing the course, food service staff were more aware that safe food practices are
key strategies to reducing the risk of food borne illness to foodservice employees and the
citizens of Indiana




More than 500 people have attended educational classes or demonstrations concerning new
technologies for on-site sewage systems and wastewater disposal. The classes have increased
awareness and knowledge of the new technology, cost of alternative systems, cost of
installation and maintenance requirements.

There has been an increase in the number of alternative systems put into place based on the
new technology to improve wastewater effluent. The Missouri Department of Health has
increased the number of on-site inspections for installation of alternative new technologies by
30 percent over the last two years. It is anticipated this will increase as people become more
aware of the environmental and water quality protection offered by the alternative systems.


More than 30 people attended the "Soil Percolation Requirements for On-site Sewage course"
and over 300 people have taken the beginning installers class in the last two years. With
increased understanding of how on-site systems work and the role of soil, more landowners
are installing systems that will reduce the potential for wastewater contamination. The
classes emphasize the function of on-site sewage system components, the role of soil in
protecting water quality and identification of soils that are not acceptable for wastewater
treatment by conventional drainage systems. As more people have become familiar with the
role of soils, county ordinances are being written to require a soil morphology report before
an on-site sewage system can be installed. Septic tank pumpers in demonstration areas have
seen an increase in business in more environmentally sensitive areas as they learn the
importance of maintenance and the function of a septic tank.
After classes, agency personnel have a better understanding of how on-site sewage systems
function to protect human health and environmental integrity. Personnel from the
Department of Health, Department of Natural Resources (DNR)and the Natural Resources
Conservation Service have received the training to increase their understanding and be able
to offer assistance to residents and landowners. A change in the state regulations for on-site
sewage has occurred reflecting information presented at these classes. The state Department
of Health has established minimum guidelines for all new systems being installed, and water
quality degradation from on-site sewage wastewater in environmentally sensitive areas has
decreased.

Department of Health personnel have used the information from the training to establish
baseline criteria for on-site inspections. The Natural Resources Conservation Service has used
the information gained to update the Missouri publication of on-site sewage systems and soils
suitability. The Department of Natural Resources relies on the knowledge learned when
reviewing watershed plans and soil characteristics. Real estate professionals and home
inspectors use this knowledge when working directly with clientele concerning inspections for
land transfers and property sales. One southwest Missouri county has developed a "sunset"
law to require residents with older non-working systems to be replaced or brought into
compliance.

County ordinances have been developed that require a soil morphology report before
installing an on-site system. The report shows those soils that would be classified as
environmentally sensitive and provides criteria for determining what type of system will
function properly. Approximately 56 percent of Missouri's counties only allow soil
morphology reports for determining if an area needs an alternative system. Real estate
professionals are better equipped to respond to the needs of clientele when discussing the
hidden cost of home building on lands in environmentally sensitive areas.

County health departments routinely provide water test bottles to check water quality of
drinking water wells. In targeted areas, there has been an increase in request for bottles to
check for bacteria in wells. Wellhead protection assessments have been done by extension
specialists to prevent surface water contamination, and shock chlorination has been
performed. County health department personnel have worked with assessments and
demonstration of on-site sewage systems and provided information on the potential for
disease from contaminated surface and groundwater from improper wastewater treatment.

Information by Department of Health personnel has increased awareness of private well
water testing for bacteria. In one selected area, more than 20 individuals signed up for cost-
share assistance to get septic tanks pumped and inspected to determine if their wells were at
risk from wastewater. This program also provided residents with an opportunity to see if their
tanks were functioning properly or if there was leakage occurring to surface or ground water.
Realtors are using this information to assist clients when negotiating home contracts.
Under recently changed state and county ordinances, all new systems going in and all older
systems requiring repair must be brought up to meet the latest environmental criteria. These
criteria have been set to ensure new systems will provide proper treatment of sludge and
wastewater. Educational activities have provided information about the new systems and
how to maintain them.


As a result of the workshops, local citizens were more likely to participate in the leadership of
watershed planning. They had a better idea of what was expected of them and why citizen
involvement was encouraged in the planning process for watershed management. Agency
personnel and local citizens have been working together as partners in planning watershed
activities and actions. Local citizens are excited about their role in developing a plan that can
address environmental concerns.

Class participants increased their knowledge of watershed planning and had a better
understanding of what is expected of them and how the watershed plan can be used to
promote long-term water quality and community-based decision making. After the training,
local watershed leaders were willing to participate in all phases of watershed planning and
take responsibility for creating committees and providing leadership. Participants became
stronger advocates in recruiting other citizens to work on the watershed plan.

Five groups are actively developing watershed plans to respond to environmental degradation
in their areas. Numerous planning meetings have been used to identify local concerns and
establish priorities for corrective measures. More than $75,000 in planning grants has been
awarded by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to assist with the watershed
planning process. Resource materials have been developed and distributed to group leaders
on how to establish a watershed group and what are the components of a watershed plan.
Extension was instrumental in developing a template for watershed plans that DNR found
acceptable for watershed groups to use when developing the first component of their
watershed plan. This template has been adopted by agency personnel who are assisting
watershed groups with preparing their plans.

Three watersheds, Big River, Elkhorn Creek and North Fork of the Spring, have established
advisory committees to promote local leadership and action in developing watershed plans. A
series of events has been offered to increase public awareness of the situation and get more
active citizen involvement. The advisory groups have received resource materials to assist
them with capacity building and buy-in by local citizens. Advisory groups have looked to local
agency personnel to assist with technical, educational and financial assistance and have
identified other local citizens with skills or services that will be useful in developing a
watershed plan.
Outreach events have occurred to inform more local residents of what is going on in the
watershed. A list of practices to improve water quality has been prioritized. Educational
classes have been offered to promote understanding of management practices and how these
practices can be implemented and how they will improve water quality. Grants have been
received through EPA/DNR 319 and SWCD/SALT for cost-sharing the implementation of
management practices. Through cost-share, practices have been installed to reduce or control
soil erosion, nutrient and pesticide runoff, and streambank degradation. By implementing
practices identified by local residents, regulatory compliance for the watershed is close to
being met.

Locally led watershed groups have been formed to work with agency personnel to develop a
watershed plan that has local input and criteria. A template for a watershed plan has been
developed and approved for watershed committee use. Watershed plans from three
watersheds have been submitted for approval. A web site has been established to help
identify critical map layers for the general information within watersheds. Several grants have
been submitted for implementation of the watershed practices once the plan has been
approved by DNR.

Through informational sessions, local groups have focused their watershed plan development
on addressing TMDLs. This has been done through newsletters, news articles and displays at
local events. With input from local citizens and advisory board members, management
practices have been identified that effectively mitigate the TMDL concern. Grants totaling
more than $1.4 million have been received to implement practices that will address the TMDL
for the watersheds. Management practices have been installed that reduce or control
pollutant loading. Load reduction determinations are made based on the practices being
implemented. Source water protection for drinking water reservoirs with TMDLs have been
developed in two watersheds to directly address contaminants that adversely affect drinking
water quality. Citizen groups are actively engaged in working with agency personnel in
providing information, education and technical support in implementing plans to address
TMDL issues.

Meetings were held with agency personnel to develop criteria for selection of watersheds
that need to develop plans. A set of input criteria was used to determine the potential success
within these watersheds to respond to pollutant loading and water quality degradation. Many
of these watersheds are listed on the state 303 (d) list of impaired bodies and will be required
to develop a watershed plan to address water quality concerns. Once the list of watersheds
was compiled, meetings were held in the watersheds to discuss the criteria for their ranking
as a priority watershed and what pollutants have been targeted by state agencies. Local
groups have been formed to discuss the goal for the local area. Advisory groups and
watershed committees have been formed to start developing a watershed plan with the nine
elements required by DNR. Several groups have applied for planning grants to assist with
writing the watershed plan.
The UA Food Science Department's ranking testifies to its productivity in food research in
aiding food processing in Arkansas. In addition, the well-trained Food Science Department
graduates are hired by food processors in Arkansas assuring the continued success of
Arkansas food processing industries. Peer-review articles appeared regularly in the Journal of
Food Science and Journal of Food Protection.




During 2007, a 24-C application was submitted and approved for an insecticide to treat the
sod. This alternative reduced mixing problems and saved approximately $125.00 per treated
acre of sod, while allowing sod producers to sell sod and comply with the federal quarantine.
On going visioning programs have powerful results: one community reports wages are
increasing as new manufacturing businesses locate to the area and others expand, current
unemployment rate of 3.6% is the lowest since the closure of the smelter in 1980, grants have
been secured to develop a new industrial and commercial park, parks have been built, trees
planted and streets repaired. Leadership/governance education has resulted in new leaders,
who are well prepared for their positions, to step forward to serve on county boards and
committees. All are working to achieve a desired and agreed upon vision. One town realizes
tourism helps to sustain existing businesses and encourage business expansion. As a result of
wind energy education, one county erected a 100-ft wind-monitoring tower. The data
received caused a wind energy company to do further testing resulting in the development of
a wind generation farm with 13 towers generating approximately 20 mw


In 2007, the number of local e-mail recipients, by request, grew to over 400, the number of
pest alerts posted increased from 119 in 2006 to 134, and the number of web hits increased
from 8,562 to 12,761. AgFax Media quoted or referenced Virginia cotton IPM information
7,600 times, peanut IPM information 4,000 times, and grains IPM information 1,200 times. A
recent survey of the advisory recipients indicated that 87% of respondents accessed the
Virginia Ag Pest Advisory. Virtually all of them found it useful and educational, and most
stated that it favorably impacted their agricultural production. Extension agents reported
that 6,814 individuals gained knowledge on IPM through pesticide safety education programs.
By Dececember 2007 both the Albemarle and Roanoke school districts adopted the IPM
program. By adopting IPM the health and safety of the work environment was improved for
1,988 employees and 13,037 students in Roanoke City Schools (41 buildings), and 2,026
employees and 12,491 students in Albemarle County Schools (28 buildings). To date, the
school IPM training program has resulted in 18 school districts adopting IPM and reducing
their pesticide use by 79%. This reduction has increased the environmental quality of over
960 school buildings, and improved the work environment for over 66,000 school employees
and 455,500 Virginia students. There were 554 production units reporting adoption of IPM
practices through this program and pesticide safety education in 2007.




During 2007, 672 private pesticide applicators (farmers) were trained for certification through
educational workshops and self study of Extension training manuals, 570 private applicators
gained knowledge in pesticide safety and IPM through certification training and passed the
state certification exam(s), and 672 private applicators attended programs, which included
IPM related topics for selected commodities and/or farms.

During 2007, 1,303 commercial pesticide applicators were trained for certification through
educational workshops and self study of Extension training manuals, 1,318 commercial
applicators gained knowledge in pesticide safety and IPM through certification training and
passed the state certification exam(s), and 1,303 commercial applicators attended programs,
which included IPM related topics in their area of pest management.

As a result of VCE pesticide safety and IPM education programs, 1,888 applicators
successfully obtained pesticide applicator certification to legally apply pesticides in Virginia.


During 2007: 3,598 non certified pesticide applicators (those not seeking certification) were
trained in Virginia; 3,598 applicators, farmworkers, and the general public gained knowledge
in pesticide safety and IPM; 3,598 applicators, farmworkers, and the general public attended
events, programs, and meetings on IPM related topics for selected commodities and/or at
selected sites farms.
VCE trained 482 pesticide regulatory inspectors from across the U.S. in the pesticide
recordkeeping course. Those individuals taught colleagues about pesticide recordkeeping and
helped applicators comply with USDA pesticide recordkeeping requirements in their states,
territories, and tribal jurisdictions. Seventy VCE agents updated their qualifications to conduct
training and gained knowledge to train applicators in over 100 Virginia localities at the annual
Pesticide Safety Educators Workshop. Fifty Virginia Master Gardeners were trained online to
share their pesticide safety knowledge to home gardeners. Forty pesticide safety educators
were trained at the Northeast Region Pesticide Safety Education Center short course. As a
result, regulators, agents, specialists and Master Gardeners were qualified as trainers to help
the public comply with pesticide laws and regulations, protect themselves and their
neighbors, and remain profitable if they were in business.

A measure of the success of the program is to directly tie drift violations prosecuted by the
state pesticide regulatory agency to educational efforts. This benchmark was set at a
maximum of 10 drift violations prosecuted in any given year. In 2007, the number of drift
violations prosecuted in Virginia was four. The efforts to work together as two state agencies
dealing with pesticide safety education and compliance assistance and with the public and
applicators so they gain knowledge on how to prevent drift appears to be working. When an
Extension agent or state pesticide inspector reports drift problems the program focuses on
those localities to step-up educational efforts in that region. In 2007, the program included
meeting with two communities and growers in those regions where drift was a concern. In
both localities conflicts were resolved and work continued to protect those communities from
drift and to protect applicators from violating the law by knowing how to prevent drift. These
efforts are in addition to an extensive statewide drift prevention education program
During 2007: Extension with private and commercial for certification through educational
conducted by1,975 pesticide applicators were trainedpesticide applicators annually.
workshops and self study of Extension training manuals; 1,858 applicators gained knowledge
in pesticide safety and IPM through certification training and passed the state certification
exam(s); 1,975 applicators attended programs, which included IPM related topics for selected
commodities and/or farms and pest management businesses.
As a result of VCE pesticide safety and IPM education programs, 1,888 applicators
successfully obtained pesticide applicator certification to legally apply pesticides in Virginia.
During 2007: 4,797 pesticide applicators (farmers) were trained for recertification; 4,797
applicators gained additional knowledge in pesticide safety and IPM through re certification
training and attended programs, which included IPM related topics for selected commodities
and/or farms and areas of pest management.
As a result of pesticide safety education and IPM programs, according to state certification
statistics, 11,823 applicators successfully maintained their pesticide applicator certification to
legally apply pesticides in the Commonwealth. Another 1,888 were added to the total
applicators holding certifications in Virginia a total of 13,711.

In addition, VCE promoted awareness and the availability of pesticide safety education and
regulatory compliance through the VIrginia Tech Pesticide Programs website. The use of that
website continued to grow in 2007 with 4,760,323 hits with an estimated 35,000 users.
During 2007: 1,975 pesticide applicators were trained for certification through educational
workshops and self study of Extension training manuals; 1,858 applicators gained knowledge
in pesticide safety and IPM through certification training and passed the state certification
exam(s); 1,975 applicators attended programs, which included IPM related topics for selected
commodities and/or farms and pest management businesses.
As a result of VCE pesticide safety and IPM education programs, 1,888 applicators
successfully obtained pesticide applicator certification to legally apply pesticides in Virginia.
During 2007: 4,797 pesticide applicators (farmers) were trained for recertification; 4,797
applicators gained additional knowledge in pesticide safety and IPM through re certification
training and attended programs, which included IPM related topics for selected commodities
and/or farms and areas of pest management.
As a result of pesticide safety education and IPM programs, according to state certification
statistics, 11,823 applicators successfully maintained their pesticide applicator certification to
legally apply pesticides in the Commonwealth. Another 1,888 were added to the total
applicators holding certifications in Virginia a total of 13,711.

In addition, VCE promoted awareness and the availability of pesticide safety education and
regulatory compliance through the Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs website. The use of that
website continued to grow in 2007 with 4,760,323 hits for an estimated 35,000 users.

As a result of these publications and meetings/contacts with stakeholders associated with the
efforts to document priorities and pest management needs, over 10,000 acres were impacted
by providing EPA and USDA with important stakeholder feedback on pest management
priorities and needs. Policymakers were able to make more informed decisions and
producers were able to provide direct input into the process to protect their pest
management tools. Crops impacted include: tomato, honeybees, turfgrass, potato, pepper,
ginseng, sweet corn, lettuce, peanuts, swine, livestock, tobacco, cucurbits, pecans, cowpeas,
grapes and cherries (representing over 10,000 acres impacted). During 2007, there were 26
requests in from USDA/EPA/IPM Centers for stakeholder input to potential changes in
regulations that could impact the grower's ability to maintain viable pest management and
IPM programs on various high value crops. Stakeholders were contacted and detailed
responses were provided to each of the requests, either on behalf of growers or directly from
growers as a result of the contacts. The results of an agent survey were published as an IPM
Priorities database and made available to the public through the program website. Virginia's
IPM stakeholder network was formalized and published on a password protected website to

This herbicide will be the first selective chemical for controlling perennial grass weeds in
lawns, sod farms, golf courses, and recreational areas. Use of mesotrione could save Virginia
Golf Courses over $5 million in lost golf revenue if just 10% of courses employ its use rather
than renovating areas infested with perennial grasses, assuming a typical eight week down
time during renovation. By replacing renovation of infested home lawns, mesotrione can save
homeowners an estimated 25 human hours and $400 per acre by eliminating the need for
subsequent seed establishment after renovation.
During 2007: 92,097 pounds of waste pesticides were reported to have been collected and
disposed of 22 localities through the work of Virginia Extension agents in cooperation with
the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the Virginia Pesticide
Control Board; 112 participants who improved the safety of their property and environment
by participating in the pesticide waste disposal program; 112 individuals, farms, businesses,
and other organizations that positively benefited from the pesticide disposal program by
eliminating the costs of disposal themselves and removing potential exposure to toxic wastes;
112 applicators who gained knowledge of how to properly dispose of unwanted pesticide
products and wastes.
As a result of the pesticide waste disposal program, pesticide wastes were collected from 112
farms, licensed pesticide dealers and pest control companies, golf courses, and homeowners
in 22 southwest counties in Virginia.




During 2007, 10,300 pesticide containers were collected and disposed of in 19 localities
through the work of Virginia Extension Agents in cooperation with the Virginia Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the Virginia Pesticide Control Board. Participants
improved the safety of their property and environment through cooperation with the
pesticide container recycling program. Individuals, farms, businesses, and other organizations
that positively benefited from the pesticide container recycling program. As a result of these
pesticide container recycling program, 10,300 properly rinsed containers were collected from
farms, licensed pesticide dealers and pest control companies, golf courses, and homeowners
in 19 localities in Virginia. According to the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, eight pesticide dealers sponsored recycling sites which increased the number of
plastic containers recycled statewide to 36,135 (this figure includes those 10,300 containers
reported by Extension agents).




Program evaluations reveal that most youth could identify at least four unsafe practices or
situation in their own home, each youth had corrected at least one of the concerns, and youth
reportedly had used for or more of the safe practices learned.
KA 703 The revised Diabetes Self-Management Profile was used to measure self-
management practices. Glycemic control was assessed as Hemoglobin A1C. Additional
information was obtained from medical records. Mean HbA1c levels for male and female
subjects were above the American Diabetes Association guidelines for children and
adolescents. Lower scores on the rDSMP and multiple daily injection insulin delivery, or
individual items on the rDSMP were predictive of higher HbA1c levels. Conclusions and
Implications: Youth need encouragement to practice good self-management skills in order to
maintain recommended HbA1c level. Those with longer duration of disease may particularly
need support and advice to be compliant with skills they have already been taught.

KA 702 New data from this study show that the enzymatic synthesis of prostaglandins does
have a pivotal role in bladder carcinogenesis by regulating the expression of specific patterns
of gene expression. Because dietary fatty acids play an important role in the modulation of
prostaglandin synthesis, they may affect bladder carcinogenesis. Whether dietary
intervention with the anti-inflammatory activity of fish oil inhibits bladder carcinogenesis in
BK5.COX2 mouse model warrants evaluation.
The approximate economic value of the trainings in South Carolina was $31,575,000 due to a
reduction of incidence of foodborne illness, which reduces the likelihood of medical costs that
are incurred due to food-borne illness. ServSafe Certification is accredited by the American
National Standards Institute (ANSI)-Conference for Food Protection (CFP). The training is
provided at no cost to restaurants and other food service agencies. As a result of the
trainings, there was a potential savings of about $3400 per year.

The approximate economic value of the trainings in South Carolina was $31,578,375 due to a
reduction of incidence of foodborne illness, which reduces the likelihood of medical costs that
are incurred due to foodborne illness.

Another potential 130 people would be trained by those who participated in Extension
programs.




A total of 769 (87%) people gained knowledge and received a course certificate.
The approximate economic value of the trainings in South Carolina was $31,577,550 due to a
reduction of incidence of foodborne illness, which reduces the likelihood of medical costs that
are incurred due to food-borne illness.
A total of 219,771 people are served by food establishments represented by participants in
the training.

Volunteers donated time valuing at $9,682 to teach food safety programs.
The approximate economic value of the trainings in South Carolina was $31,575,000 due to a
reduction of incidence of food-borne illness, which reduces the likelihood of medical costs
that are incurred due to food-borne illness.


There was the potential of reaching over 2,000,000 people through media.
In recent work, a series of natural products synthesized by Aspergillus and/or by plants that
control aflatoxin synthesis in culture and on plant materials were identified. The current focus
is to determine the mode of action of these natural product inhibitors so they can be
developed into effective products that can be used in agriculture to control aflatoxin on
economically important products including tree nuts, grains, and groundnuts. Research
findings could facilitate the preparation of second generation Taxols that are more effective.
Findings have been disseminated via seminars and research proposals.

Attainment of defined knowledge competencies in occupational safety and health by training
participants following participation in trainer classes was demonstrated by 100% of
participants passing a post test designed to measure attainment of these course defined
competencies.




Injury/illness data not available.

Data on hazard control not available.

All employees passed post tests indicating satisfactory knowledge of OSHA regulations and
standards following training by WVU.

Using a cell culture screening assay, all isoflavones at concentrations present in soy-based
infant formulas were tested individually and as the complete mixture (MIX) for the ability to
inhibit RV infectivity. We found that the MIX or genistin alone significantly reduced RV
infectivity by 66-74% and 33-62%, respectively, compared with the control and across a wide
range of RV concentrations. When tested without genistin, the MIX lost its anti-RV activity,
suggesting that genistin is the biologically active isoflavone in our model. This was the first
study showing the inhibition of RV infectivity by isoflavones present in soy infant formula. The
modulation of SBIF isoflavone composition and concentration represents novel nutritional
approaches to potentially reduce the severity of RV infection in human and production
animals.




Research findings are being used to develop scientifically-based best consumed by dating for
deli meats and to develop risk communication and education strategies for consumers and
deli workers.
The model was used to test for reaction to two key allergenic foods -- hazelnuts and sesame
seed protein. The test produced allergic responses similar in feature to human allergic
reactions. If this model proves effective, it could be available commercially in about five years.

The results indicate that E. coli O157:H7 strains have superior ability to survive simulated
gastric acidity compared to the non-O157 EHEC, and become acid resistant rapidly upon entry
into stationary phase, which may underlie the low infectious dose of this pathogen.

A genetic method was developed to select recombinant plasmids containing genes that
regulate DNA-a activity.




The central goal over the next three years is to create a tool for the meat processing industry
so they can plug in their product and verify whether it's safe.


Research findings provided new mechanistic data on how foodborne ribotoxic chemicals act
and how their toxicity can be prevented. This data was disseminated in presentations at
several conferences and shared with students in undergraduate and graduate courses at
Michigan State University.

Results from this study will provide valuable data to assist with the risk assessment of
endocrine disruptors on the health of Michigan residents. Beneficiaries of this research will
not only include the regulatory agencies that assess this potential problem, but also Michigan
industry and agriculture that may be economically affected as a result of regulation resulting
from risk assessments based on questionable practices.




At the conclusion of the 10 sessions, 1,535 participating youth signed contracts indicating they
were not going to use tobacco.




Research is continuing.
Program impacts include increased awareness and knowledge gained in new and emerging
diseases, benefits of a herd biosecurity plan, vaccination protocols, symptoms of infectious
diseases, factors leading to antibiotic resistance and the resulting threat to human health,
testing options for animal diseases, quality assurance certification, and infectious disease
control measures. Participants in Serv-Safe learned HACCP protocol for group food
preparation. Family food preparers learned correct food purchase, cooking, and storage
techniques to minimize exposure to harmful organisms. The role and responsibility of Penn
State Extension in Food and Agriculture biosecurity is better understood. Intrastate and
interstate agencies and producers have become better prepared to work as a team during an
incident.

Six times as many pre-purchase animal biosecurity diagnostic kits have been used by
producers and veterinarians since the start of the program in 2002 (52 in 2002, 297 in 2007).
The kit contains collection and shipping vials for milk, feces, and blood. The milk is sampled
for mastitis pathogens, and the serum sample is examined for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD),
infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), and bovine leukosis virus (BLV). The fecal samples are
examined for Salmonella and Clostridium perfringens. There was a 47 percent increase in the
use during the last year. The purpose is to isolate the potential for disease pathway through
purchased animals coming onto the farm. Land O Lakes milk cooperative has duplicated and
distributed the Penn State BioSecurity poster to their co-op members
(http://vetextension.psu.edu/biosecurity/docs/biosecuremain.jpg). The sign identifies the
farm facility as a restricted biosecurity area.

A sensor comprised of 4 insect antennae (a quadraprobe) has been demonstrated to detect a
variety of chemical odors with high specificity and sensitivity. The quadraprobe showed
promise for detection of plant volatile chemicals, chemicals associated with explosives, and
various illicit drugs. Further research on the composition of odor plumes and the manner in
which the insect antenna processes these plumes suggested improvements to the
quadraprobe and associated software that could take further advantage of the bio-inspired
design of this sensor system. Improvements to the anemometer of the quadraprobe led to
wind direction information synchronously with the sampling of each odor strand. The
quadraprobe with these improvements is able to indicate the location of an odor source from
a distance. A sequence database for more than 2000 Fusarium clinical isolates comprises
most species associated with human infections; this database was used to resolve a case of
contact lens keratitis.

Over 300 adults and 1200 youth in one extension program increased their knowledge of the
benefits of physical activities and healthy eating habits. Members of the FCE acknowledge the
aging population and have agreed to look out for one another and assist one another at all
opportunities.
Of the over 5000 people seeking information on catchment water systems 718 requested
additional information. The Urban Garden Center continued to be a popular place to learn
about urban gardening with over 4400 completing non-formal educational programs held on
a variety of topics. Plant sales, gardening displays, open houses, and other outreach activities
also attracted an additional 4,000 persons.
Over 50% (675) of those participating in a healthy living program adopted better eating
habits, increased their physical activity, and practiced proper hand washing techniques. Over
60 persons joined the Hawai'i Rainwater Catchment Systems Association (RCSA), 318
purchased water test kits (92% indicated they will purchase kits again), over 100 national and
international representatives attended the 2007 American RCSA held in Volcano, HI. Its
success motivated them to hold the conference annually instead of biannually. Of 789 adults
screened for hemoglobin A1c resulted in 40% with levels indicating a diabetic condition and
encouraged to seek further tests and treatment as necessary. The Pearl City UGC has a core of
over 80 volunteers that donate over 9000 hours of their time to maintain, improve, and
sponsor educational events at the facility. The PCUGC has evolved into a valuable resource for
over 800,000 living on the highly urbanized island of Oahu.




Over 300 adults and 1200 youth in one extension program increased their knowledge of the
benefits of physical activities and healthy eating habits. Members of the FCE acknowledge the
aging population and have agreed to look out for one another and assist one another at all
opportunities.
Of the over 5000 people seeking information on catchment water systems 718 requested
additional information . The Urban Garden Center continued to be a popular place to learn
about urban gardening with over 4400 completing non-formal educational programs held on
a variety of topics. Plant sales, gardening displays, open houses, and other outreach activities
also attracted an additional 4,000 persons.




Through analysis of pre and post surveys as well as self reported testimonials, changes
indicated that 75 percent graduates wished to demonstrate positive healthy food habits. In
addition, only 32 percent of graduates now ran out of food for families by the end of the
month and 39 percent report that their children ate healthy breakfast more often. Program
participants learned the proper way to feed their families in order to promote good health
and to plan and budget their food dollars so their family won't go hungry at the end of the
month. Samples of participants' comments are: "I learned that the best form or kind of fruits
and vegetables really depends on the time of year, but all forms are healthy," "it depends on
what you are going to use it for and when you want to use it; if it is in season and what you
like to eat," "I still like canned fruits and vegetables, they are convenient. However, I will now
rinse them before I eat them, but now I will try fresh ones"




1,795 seats were checked. 99% had been installed incorrectly. 1,095 new child safety seats
were given to attendees, at no cost to them, in 2007.
Seventy-six percent of youth participants knew they should be active for at least 1 hour each
day; 81 percent agreed that bike riding is a weight-bearing activity and anything that gets
their bodies moving can be considered as physical activity. Through snack foods preparation
activities, youth identified various ways to include fruits and vegetables in daily eating and
cutting down fruit juices. To help make their bones stronger, participants started eating foods
high in calcium and including weight-bearing activities in even play. During and after
graduation, youth made decisions to drink more 2% milk and at least be encouraged to try
skim milk. 80 percent of youth indicated that they were going to start ordering small orders of
fries instead of large to help reduce fat in their daily diet.




The audiences gained up-to-the-minute knowledge in their respective disciplines.

Submission of proposals to competitive programs in the USDA and other funding agencies is a
way of leveraging AES formula funds. It has allowed us to find additional resources to solve
issues that are central to the mission of the AES.


Sensors developed in this project provide food producers and consumers with the ability to
determine the safety of their products. Formats available include a lateral flow assay for the
simple analysis and a microfluidic sensor for more sensitive a refined analysis in food
production plants and doctors' offices. Biosensors and microanalytical systems for pathogens
such as E. coli, C. parvum, have been developed. These biosensors address problems related
to specificity, speed of analysis, sensitivity and costs. A molecular biological approach for the
recognition of the pathogens is combined with engineering of microchannel systems in order
to provide these bioanalytical Microsystems that are truly portable biosensors. A good
example is the C. parvum biosensor. It can detect as few as 1 oocyst in only 4 hours. Current
technology requires about 7 days of detection time, since water treatment plants have to
send their sample to a testing lab and have to pay about $400 per analysis (in comparison to
an estimated $25 per analysis with the biosensor if carried out in house of the water
treatment plant.

Considerable progress has been made in understanding how n-3 PUFAs affect cell function.
Many mechanisms have been described through this research and new mechanisms are likely
to be discovered that will better define how these unique lipids impact human health and
disease.


When the study is complete, a final report will be sent to NH DES.
1)Leaching experiments show that phosphate treatment effectively immobilized soil Pb and
significantly reduced leachable Pb and plant uptake, which potentially lowered the ecological
risk to water quality and plant community. The lead phosphates were chemically and
biologically stable under the surface soil conditions, resistant to alteration of soil acidity and
pant root influences.
2)Data of plant tissue and water analyses indicated that metal uptakes by plants were
reduced and surface & ground water quality improved in terms of aqueous Pb and ecological
toxicity, as a result of the soil treatment.
3)Chemical fractionation analyses revealed that the phosphate treatment induced soil Pb
transformation from labile species to less bioaccessible and less leachable forms, which may
account for soil Pb immobilization and risk reduction.
This study is to address environmental concerns by Missouri the residents living in or near
contaminated mining areas. The outcome of the study will ultimately lead to a cost-effective
and environmental-safe remedial technology or best land management practice that reduces
health and ecological risk of soil Pb and restores contaminated site, which would safeguards
human and environment from the contaminations and sustains natural resources. Over
thousands residents in State of Missouri will benefit from this study in term of improvement
of their quality of life and environmental quality.




As a result of this project County faculty assisted 3,248 individuals understand choices with
Medicare Part D. Of those, approximately 2,000 were limited resource beneficiaries. Although
the exact figures are not yet know, CMS conservatively estimates that limited resource
beneficiaries will experience a lifetime savings of at least $4,000 yielding an economic impact
of this program in 27 counties exceeding $8,000,000. Based upon the early success of this
program AARP Florida provided $20,000 to fund a Spanish speaking para-professional to serve
Pasco and Hillsborough. Building on the success of that program, the national AARP office
provided $108,000 to fund similar programs in counties with high percentages of limited
resource beneficiaries.
The ROPS height required for preventing continuous roll is much higher than the original
model predicted and too high for practical application, so new standards are being developed
to protect the operator during a roll instead.
Farming clients report increased independence following implementation of Tennessee
AgrAbility Project plans.




CSNs could increase the use of cotton and provide more comfortable and protective medical,
industrial, and military apparel




Extension faculty members in Lake County and Sarasota County reached more than 100
clients and 290 clients, respectively through various education outreach classes. Especially,
more than 99% of the class participants in Sarasota County who completed the follow-up
survey responded that they had made one or more behavioral changes after the classes.
Overall, CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes showed strong variability between months and sampling
sites. The forest and pasture sites acted a sink for CH4, but a source for CO2 and N2O.
Sporadic uptake of N2O were observed across site. Soil thermal properties were correlated
with gases fluxes across sampling sites. The results of this project were presented in form of
abstracts at the Fourth USDA Greenhouse Gas Conference, American Society of Agronomy
Annual meetings, The Association of Research Directors Annual Meetings, Missouri GIS
Conference, The National Conference on Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, at
the Missouri Academy of Science Annual Meetings, at the Moonson Asia Greenhouse Gas
Conference (Japan) and at the Global Carbon Project Symposium in South Africa. Three
graduate students joined the project as graduate research assistants: two working on their
master degree in forestry and one working on his doctoral degree in soil sciences at the
University of Missouri-Columbia. Ten undergraduate students enrolled in Fundamentals of
Geographic Information Systems (GIS 316) and Applications of Geographic Information
Systems (GIS 416) either directly participated in field sampling or used the data from this
project for scientific presentations at various national meetings. Three prizes were won by
students (first place oral or poster presentations) using data from this project: at Lincoln
University Symposium, Missouri GIS Conference and at Missouri Academy of Science
Conference.




For hotels alone, this treatment will save $5 million.
A mosquito-borne disease outbreak with 100 to 1,000 cases would severely affect Florida's
health infrastructure with an estimated cost to the tourist industry of $100 million. Based on
the current budget situation in the state this type of incident would be devastating.




Research is on-going.


In FY 07, 21 Kentucky counties reported participating in Extension's Healthy Homes and
Communities Program with 2163 clientele improving their knowledge and skills related to
home safety and causes of environmental hazards in housing. Actions most frequently taken
by clientele as a result of participation in Healthy Homes and Communities training were:
*Posting emergency numbers by the phone
*Eliminating one or more identified safety hazards
*Installation of smoke detectors
*Safe storage and usage of home pesticides and hazardous household products
*Testing homes for radon




Extension agents assisted markets with 579 media campaigns and 287 educational programs
assisting customers with information on nutrition, food preparation, food safety, storage and
preservation, thereby making fresh, locally grown produce available and affordable to more
Kentucky families.

65% of the participants improved their hand washing techniques; 95% of older adults who
walked or stepped improved their mobility, strength, weight, blood pressure, and reduced
their intake of medication; 1400 youth learned how to properly eat and exercise for better
health; 800 women gained hands-on knowledge of good nutrition practices and food
preparation; Relay for Life team raised $2,660, doubling their team members and funds;
99.5% among 107 girls that attended a summer camp lost a total of 354 lbs., while a 3-month
follow-up found that 26% continued to lose 1-36 additional lbs.; and 90 diabetic kits were
distributed to newly diagnosed diabetics.
65% of the participants improved their hand washing techniques; 95% of older adults who
walked or stepped improved their mobility, strength, weight, blood pressure, and reduced
their intake of medication; 1400 youth learned how to properly eat and exercise for better
health; 800 women gained hands-on knowledge of good nutrition practices and food
preparation; Relay for Life team raised $2,660, doubling their team members and funds;
99.5% among 107 girls that attended a summer camp lost a total of 354 lbs., while a 3-month
follow-up found that 26% continued to lose 1-36 additional lbs.; and 90 diabetic kits were
distributed to newly diagnosed diabetics.




It is now understood that a large majority of residential indoor airborne particulate matter is
organic. Also, penetration of outdoor particles into indoor environments and the persistence
of these particles in indoor spaces generate exposure errors that warrant further
consideration in epidemiological studies understanding the associations between air pollution
and health. To remedy indoor air pollution, biofiltration has many advantages over more
traditional physical or chemical air filtration systems. Biofiltration requires only ‚½ to ‚¼ the
cost to operate versus physical or chemical filtration of air pollution, and has the advantage of
being able to clean different types of air pollutants at a time, with little to no waste stream.
The Skillathon QA stations across all food producing species have resulted in the highest
scores when compared to other production based stations that are in each of these
skillathons.
Due to the training we provided, union members and leaders developed increased capacity to
address specific issues in the workplace and in their communities. A number of our Central
Labor Councils are performing more community outreach in order to strengthen their
organizations and improve collaborative opportunities.

In addition to developing our constituents through our programming, ILSR‚s reputation as a
leader has resulted in an invitation to the program to join a coalition, West Virginians United
for Change and ILSR faculty have been asked to serve on the Board and as members of the
new West Virginia Center for Budget and Policy.

A pro-inflammatory control needs to be added to our original research protocol. The change
will be made.




Magnetic bead coupled with immuno-PCR can effectively detect enterotoxin in foods. Real-
time PCR can effectively detect soy DNA regardless of the degree of processing.

98 % of those surveyed followed the advice of food safety experts.
822 individuals indicated their intent to adopt new behaviors that reduce risk of food-borne
illness.




Eighty-four percent of EFNEP participants seldom or never ran short of food before the end of
the month.

A protective vaccine has been developed for pneumonic plague using a rat and mouse model.
These findings have initiated steps in testing the vaccine efficacy in a nonhuman primate
model. The efforts of this work have a key societal benefit in protection against illicit or
accidental exposure to these biological agents. Our dissection of the basic pathogenesis of
these organisms has also shown that pathogenesis is due to genetic loss in Y. pestis.




Three hundred forty-eight passed the certification exam.
Five hundred twenty-five individuals participated in entry level ServSafe classes. Seventy-
seven percent of 2006 EFNEP participants showed improvement in one or more food safety
practices.
Four hundred three people participated in training and took the certification exam; 348
passed the certification exam.




This farm-to-table, information and transfer approach—covering food safety as well as
security—including integration of the economic, trade and policy aspects, has positioned the
Food Safety Consortium to lead to the future in a comprehensive way relative to scientific
discovery, technology transfer and education.
Data not being collected.
Work in the Fate of Bioavailable Contaminants subprogram has resulted in development of
technology to measure rates of reductive chlorination, which can be used to determine the
feasibility of remediating contaminated groundwater. This technology has been put to use by
the Environmental Restoration Office at Hickam Air Force Base to design an long-term
remediation action plan. Another outcome is the finding that surrogates, or chemicals very
similar to groundwater contaminants, can be used to measure in situ rates of contaminant
transformation, which a technological break-through in field experiments. In addition, this
technology can be extended to identify a wide range of organic contaminants in subsurface
environments. Other work has indentified that fish exposed to low, environmentally realistic
levels of copper had an impaired sense of smell and were less responsive to the chemical
alarm signal. The current study is an example of how contaminants can disrupt the chemical
ecology of aquatic organisms. In the case of salmon, a sublethal loss of sensory function may
increase predation mortality in urbanized watersheds. The influence of copper on predator-
prey interactions is the focus of ongoing research, with the eventual aim of linking individual
survival to the productivity of wild salmon populations. Investigators studying Ecological Risks
to Arthropods have identified that sublethal levels of pyrethroid, a common household
insecticide, may disrupt the life cycles of caddisflies and increase rates of predation on the
larvae by other aquatic insects and fish even at doses as minute as 2 parts per billion.




Results suggest that modulation of the AHR by environmental chemicals could impact
environmental and human health by the misregulation of key signaling pathways. This will be
a completely new way to evaluate the role that the environment exposure to halogenated
aromatic hydrocarbons plays in numerous human diseases. A related line of work that has
emerged from these studies is that there are opportunities to discover novel pharmaceuticals
that can be used to affect tissue regeneration.

the investigator has demonstrated that the zebrafish is an outstanding model to unravel
interactions between Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) activation and other signal
transduction pathways.
Work in the maternal diet subprogram has demonstrated that chemoprotection against
transplacental cancer, which has important implications for human health.




Studies on the translational expression of Turnip yellow mosaic virus have shown the ability of
AUG initiation codons to be recognized in a simultaneous way by ribosomes. The team has
coined this modality "initiation coupling," and expects it to be significant in the expression of
non-viral eukaryotic mRNAs. Investigators developed a method to create apple and grape
rootstocks resistant to crown gall. Investigators discovered a novel Agrobacterium virulence
protein that transports foreign DNA into the nucleus of plant cells and functions more
efficiently than alternative Agrobacterium-encoded nuclear import proteins. Data generated
indicates that environmental conditions as well as a genetic orientation controls the synthesis
and characteristics of lactococcal exopolysaccharides, thus impacting the probiotic potential
of LAB strains. Research has led to the discovery of a bacterial polymer, composed of simple
sugars and which thickens liquids. Mutational analysis provided genetic evidence for a model
of exopolysaccharide gene organization and evolution in Lactococcus.




Research will develop anti-poxvirus drugs. Research provides fundamental data on how the
virus can replicate its DNA and how it is able to recombine during the infection cycle, which is
critical for understanding how the virus is able to function and for assessing its safety as an
insecticide.




It is likely that, in nature, vibrios encounter a variety of stimuli (including self-generated
quorum sensing signals) that trigger differential gene expression.
research continues to provide much needed information on chitosan based dressings.
With a total process time of 7 min, this work demonstrated 97% total phosphorus removal
(the key nutrient in algae growth), 68% total organic carbon removal (a surrogate for micro-
pollutant removal), 3.4 log removal of fecal coliform (from 3000 to 0 cells/100 mL), 93%
removal of total viral nucleic acids (a surrogate for virus removal), and effluent turbidity at the
low levels of 0.1-0.3 ntu. These are very promising initial results. A tangential but very
important finding was a greater than 5% increase in P removal with the addition of an oxidant
from our typical reactive filtration process. The reactive filtration process (described in the
WER publication of this activity period), has demonstrated reliable 90% P removal. The
additional P removal demonstrated with oxidation suggests this approach is suitable for non-
reactive phosphorous and may allow dischargers with severe P limits on their discharge water
to come into compliance. The contaminant and pathogen removal water treatment
technologies developed in this work have had three major impacts: 1) removal of nutrient P
to level below natural background which can limit or reverse eutrophication from discharges
into natural waters; 2) reduced contaminant loads in finished waters can be used to enhance


Total anthocyanin contents were from 41.2 to 46.3 Abs/g for RW dried blueberry with and
without drying aid and 47.52 Abs/g for freeze dried counterparts. A spray-dried blueberry
powder that was formulated with rice oligodextrin showed an absorbance of 61.7 Abs/g. The
anthocyanin content of blueberry concentrate powders prepared using RW were similar with
and without use of drying aids. Anthocyanins are more stable when concentrated or
dehydrated and their recovery during the spray drying process most likely improved due to
the encapsulating effect of the rice polysaccharide. The conclusions are that RW is a relatively
inexpensive alternative to freeze drying for preparation of blueberry juice concentrate
powder without addition of drying aids. Investigations are continuing to further improve this
process to retain anthocyanin pigments and other antioxidants in Northwest berries.
Post conference evaluation demonstrated program effectiveness with intergenerational
understanding and communication being cited by 66% of respondents as something they plan
to use in the workplace, and just under half planning to seek further education about
conference topics. Between 36-40% stated they will look into their workplace policies
concerning older workers, as well as retention and recruitment of older employees. A little
over 25% will look into adaptation of the physical work environment.




Other county agencies were engaged which resulted in changes to the Archuleta County
building code. Statewide an increased number of homes were tested for radon. Throughout
Colorado 4,521 people participated in an educational program in one year; close to half
tested their home for radon and 853 received assistance to deal with a radon problem.
Changes to building codes have led to new homes being built with passive radon resistant
systems.

				
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