What is the main goal of training?
Make sure the new employee learns how to
perform their functions in the organization
Learning is defined as "a relatively permanent change in
behavior that takes place as a result of experience."
Most relevant concepts:
Operant learning theory: reinforcement of correct behaviors,
punishment of incorrect behaviors
Social learning theory (Bandura): learning by watching
Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
attention = getting the learner to focus on the behavior
retention = getting the information into memory
reproduction = engaging in the behavior oneself
motivation = having a reason to learn the behavior
Transfer of training
maximized by making the training situation as similar
as possible to the actual work setting
What should training consist of?
1. Identify training needs
a. organizational analysis: broad overview
b. task analysis: what does the trainee need to know?
c. person analysis: what does the trainee know?
2. Establish training objectives: specify measurable goals of the
3. Develop Instructional materials
EX: classroom lectures, OJT, vestibule training, job
rotation, audiovisual, modeling, CAI, games
4. Test & Refine Materials: use the materials on a group of
employees, get their feedback.
5. Implement the Training Program
6. Evaluate the Program
a. someone other than training staff should perform it
b. information to evaluate should be related to actual
knowledge and/or behaviors
pretest - posttest: knowledge or behaviors at the beginning
of training are compared to measures after
the end of training.
pretest - posttest with a control group
random assignment and posttest only
Lectures lots of info to no hands-on,
large #s; cheap passive,
OJT hands-on, low costs, few low incentives for
transfer problems "instructors"; depends
on presenter's skill
Vestibule no workplace disruption; expensive;
professional trainers some transfer
Job Rotation learn overall org. fit; identify lost productivity; job
careers that appeal pressures; wasted time
Audio-Visual mat'l can be presented many expensive to produce; no
times; more interesting than feedback; can't
lectures; cheap to present change it
Modeling very effective depends on skill
CAI training tailored to trainee; high developmt.
esp. good in high tech costs; trainees must
Games allows practice; interesting transfer problems;
not always taken