Personnel Development

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					Personnel Development
     What is the main goal of training?

          Make sure the new employee learns how to
          perform their functions in the organization

Learning is defined as "a relatively permanent change in
behavior that takes place as a result of experience."

Most relevant concepts:

Operant learning theory: reinforcement of correct behaviors,
punishment of incorrect behaviors

Social learning theory (Bandura): learning by watching

     Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation

attention = getting the learner to focus on the behavior

retention = getting the information into memory

reproduction = engaging in the behavior oneself

motivation = having a reason to learn the behavior

Transfer of training

     maximized by making the training situation as similar
     as possible to the actual work setting

What should training consist of?
1. Identify training needs

     a. organizational analysis: broad overview
     b. task analysis: what does the trainee need to know?
     c. person analysis: what does the trainee know?

2. Establish training objectives: specify measurable goals of the

3. Develop Instructional materials

     EX: classroom lectures, OJT, vestibule training, job
     rotation, audiovisual, modeling, CAI, games

4. Test & Refine Materials: use the materials on a group of
employees, get their feedback.

5. Implement the Training Program

6. Evaluate the Program

     a. someone other than training staff should perform it
     b. information to evaluate should be related to actual
     knowledge and/or behaviors
c. Methods:
      pretest - posttest: knowledge or behaviors at the beginning
of training are compared to measures after
      the end of training.

           pretest - posttest with a control group

           random assignment and posttest only

                                           Benefits                         Costs
Lectures                                   lots of info to                  no hands-on,
                                           large #s; cheap                  passive,
                                                                    depends on
                                                                            presenter's skills

OJT                              hands-on, low costs, few                      low incentives for
                                 transfer problems                             "instructors"; depends
                                                                               on presenter's skill

Vestibule                        no workplace disruption;                   expensive;
                        professional trainers                       some transfer

Job Rotation            learn overall org. fit; identify                       lost productivity; job
                                 careers that appeal                           pressures; wasted time

Audio-Visual              mat'l can be presented many                       expensive to produce; no
                          times; more interesting than                      feedback; can't
                lectures; cheap to present                           change it

Modeling                         very effective                                depends on skill
                                                                    of model

CAI                              training tailored to trainee;                       high developmt.
                                 esp. good in high tech                    costs; trainees must
                                                                    know PCs

Games                            allows practice; interesting                          transfer problems;
                                                                                       not always taken