Development and Socialization by pzs15406

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									Development and
  Socialization
    To the Best of Your
Knowledge, Where were You
      Sleeping as a
        2-Year old?
 • Own Bedroom (or shared with siblings)
 • Own Bed, in Parent‟s Bedroom
 • Parents‟ Bed
Infants Live in Different
     Cultures Too
         •   Sleeping arrangements vary
             across cultures.
         •   What are some arguments for why
             it would be good for infants to be
             provided with their own room?
         •   What are some arguments for why
             it would be good for infants to
             share the bed with their mothers?
• Study by Shweder et al. (1995)
  asked Indian and American adults
  to decide how various
  combinations of family members
  could be arranged in the bedrooms
  of a house.

• In one version, they were told the
  house had 3 bedrooms, and the
  family included a mother, a father,
  two daughters (aged 14 and 3),
  and three sons (aged 15, 11, and
  8).
Cultural Differences in
 Preferred Sleeping
    Arrangements
•   Participants were asked to justify their decisions, and their
    justifications revealed some common underlying moral
    concerns.

•   One moral concern emerged for both Indians and Americans:
    “Incest Avoidance.”

•   Other key Indian concerns were “Protection of the Vulnerable,”
    “Female Chastity Anxiety,” and “Respect for Hierarchy.”

•   Other key American concerns were “Sacred Couple,” and
    “Autonomy Ideal.”
     Study by Keller (2007).
•   Contrasted parenting interactions with
    3-month-old infants in five cultural
    contexts: urban middle-class Germans,
    urban middle-class Greeks, urban
    lower-class Costa Ricans, rural Indian
    Gujarati, and rural Cameroonian Nso.

                              •   Researchers made 20
                                  unannounced visits with mothers
                                  and infants over a one week period
                                  and videotaped them for 15 minute
                                  intervals. Within these 15 minute
                                  intervals, detailed behaviors were
                                  coded for interspersed 10-second
                                  intervals.
Percent of Time in Bodily
   Contact with Infant
•   All mothers show
    much bodily contact.

•   The Nso mothers were
    observed carrying the
    infants in every
    observed instance.

•   Greeks and Germans
    showed the least
    amount of bodily
    contact.
    Percent of Time in Face-to-
     Face Contact with Infants

•   All mothers made
    much face-to-face
    contact.

•   Greeks and Germans
    made considerably
    more face-to-face
    contact than those
    from other cultures.
 Warmth Shown in Response
to Infant‟s Positive Signals (Z-
             scores)
•   Compared with other
    mothers, Greek
    mothers showed the
    warmest response to
    infant‟s positive
    signals, and Gujarati
    mothers showed the
    least warm response.
Warmth Shown in Response to
 Infant‟s Negative Signals (Z-
            scores)

•   Compared with other
    mothers, Costa Rican
    mothers showed the
    warmest response to
    infant‟s negative
    signals.
•   Early experiences of infants differ
    dramatically around the world.
    People‟s minds develop in highly
    different circumstances.

•   Although longitudinal research has
    yet to be conducted to directly link
    early infant experiences with adult
    preferences and behaviors, it is not
    unreasonable to expect that these
    early experiences are critical to
    shaping people‟s development.

•   How might some of these early
    experiences affect people‟s
    development?
 Cultural Variation in
Children‟s Psychology
     •   Attachment Styles
     •   Western researchers proposed three kinds
         of attachment styles common among
         parents (esp. mothers) and children.
     •   Secure Attachments:
         •   Infants have warm relationships with
             parents, and are comfortable and
             explorative in their presence. Although
             they get upset to see their parents
             leave, and are happy to see them upon
             their return, they become comfortable in
             their absence.
• Avoidant Attachments
 • Infants have a detached style
    around their parents, and are
    not particularly upset when their
    parents are not around.

• Anxious-Ambivalent Attachments
 • Infants show frequent distress
    either in the presence or
    absence of parent. They
    oscillate between wanting the
    parent to be closer and pushing
    them away.
  Cultural Variation in
Frequency of Attachment
         Styles
 Some Aspects of Culture
are Learned in a Sensitive
• In particular,Window of language
                some aspects
  are learned in a sensitive window.
• A sensitive window indicates a
  biological preparation for the acquisition
  of the information.
• Humans have evolved such that they
  learn a language in a particular period
  of life (from very early, and the
  sensitivity declines markedly after
  puberty).
 Study of Phoneme
• Study compared
    Discrimination
  infants from English
  speaking and Hindi
  speaking parents
  (Werker & Tees,
  1984).
• Task was whether
  infants could
  discriminate between
  two Hindi phonemes
  that are
  indistinguishable to
  adult non-Hindi
•   Some aspects of language learning (phoneme perception) start
    to be acquired in a very early window.

•   Some other aspects of language learning, in particular, accent,
    are learned poorly after puberty.

•   Militaries have made use of this by asking suspicious people to
    pronounce shibboleths.
  Hong Kong Immigrants
Acquiring Canadian Culture



•   We looked at immigrants from Hong Kong to the lower
    mainland who had immigrated at varying ages
    (Cheung, Chudek, & Heine, 2009).
•   They completed an acculturation scale which
    assessed both their identification with Chinese and
    with Canadian culture.
                           Age at Immigration Matters
                                     Most
Degree of Identification




                                                Degree of Identification
                           Age at Immigration                              Years in Canada
What might we learn
about human‟s ability
to acquire culture by
   observing feral
      children?
 Developmental Transitions

• “Terrible Twos”
 Developmental Transitions

• “Terrible Twos”
 Developmental Transitions

• “Terrible Twos”
• Turbulent
  Adolescence
Socialization Through
     Education
    • One of the primary sources of
      socialization is the school.
    • Aside from the specific content
      that people learn at school
      (e.g., learning about facts, and
      techniques), how does school
      shape the ways that people
      think?
Schooling Affords
 Categorization
  • Alexander Luria, a founder of the
        Russian-Historical School of cultural
        psychology, interviewed Russian
        peasants with no formal education.
    •   The participants were given a list of
        four objects and they were to
        identify the one that didn‟t belong.
    •   Often participants focused on
        concrete and practical aspects of
        how the objects could be used
        together, and did not create any
        categories.
•   Example question - “Hammer, saw, log,
    hatchet. Which one doesn’t belong?”

    •   “They‟re all alike. I think all of them have
        to be here. See, if you‟re going to saw,
        you need a saw, and if you have to split
        something you need a hatchet. So
        they‟re all needed here.”

•   “Which of these things could you call
    by one word?”

    •   “How‟s that? If you call all three of them
        a „hammer,‟ that won‟t be right either.”
•   “But one fellow picked three things -
    the hammer, saw, and hatchet- and
    said they were alike.”

    •   “A saw, a hammer, and a hatchet all
        have to work together. But the log has
        to be here too!”

•   “Why do you think he picked these
    three things and not the log?”

    •   “Probably he‟s got a lot of firewood,
        but if we‟ll be left without firewood, we
        won‟t be able to do anything.”
•   Another subject. “Hammer, saw, log,
    hatchet. Which one doesn’t belong?”

    •   “It‟s the hammer that doesn‟t fit! You can
        always work with a saw, but a hammer
        doesn‟t always suit the job, there‟s only a
        little you can do with it.”

•   “Yet one fellow threw out the log. He
    said the hammer, saw, and hatchet were
    all alike in some way, but the log is
    different.”

    •   “If we‟re getting firewood for the stove,
        we could get rid of the hammer, but if it‟s
        planks we‟re fixing, we can do without
        the hatchet.”
•   “If you had to put these in some
    kind of order, could you take the
    log out of the group?”

    •   “No, if you get rid of the log, what
        good would the others be?”

•   “Suppose I put a dog here instead
    of the log?”

    •   “If it was a mad dog, you could
        beat it with the hatchet and the
        hammer and it would die.”
• In 1912, H. H. Goddard
  assessed the IQ of incoming
  immigrants to the US. Most of
  the immigrants had no
  schooling.

• Results of his tests: 83% of
  Jews, 80% of Hungarians,
  79% of Italians, and 87% of
  Russians were classified as
  “morons” - (Goddard‟s term for
  IQ scored below 70)
• In sum, many cognitive skills and habits
  that we are often not aware of, emerge
  as the product from formal schooling.

								
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