Development and Socialization To the Best of Your Knowledge, Where were You Sleeping as a 2-Year old? • Own Bedroom (or shared with siblings) • Own Bed, in Parent‟s Bedroom • Parents‟ Bed Infants Live in Different Cultures Too • Sleeping arrangements vary across cultures. • What are some arguments for why it would be good for infants to be provided with their own room? • What are some arguments for why it would be good for infants to share the bed with their mothers? • Study by Shweder et al. (1995) asked Indian and American adults to decide how various combinations of family members could be arranged in the bedrooms of a house. • In one version, they were told the house had 3 bedrooms, and the family included a mother, a father, two daughters (aged 14 and 3), and three sons (aged 15, 11, and 8). Cultural Differences in Preferred Sleeping Arrangements • Participants were asked to justify their decisions, and their justifications revealed some common underlying moral concerns. • One moral concern emerged for both Indians and Americans: “Incest Avoidance.” • Other key Indian concerns were “Protection of the Vulnerable,” “Female Chastity Anxiety,” and “Respect for Hierarchy.” • Other key American concerns were “Sacred Couple,” and “Autonomy Ideal.” Study by Keller (2007). • Contrasted parenting interactions with 3-month-old infants in five cultural contexts: urban middle-class Germans, urban middle-class Greeks, urban lower-class Costa Ricans, rural Indian Gujarati, and rural Cameroonian Nso. • Researchers made 20 unannounced visits with mothers and infants over a one week period and videotaped them for 15 minute intervals. Within these 15 minute intervals, detailed behaviors were coded for interspersed 10-second intervals. Percent of Time in Bodily Contact with Infant • All mothers show much bodily contact. • The Nso mothers were observed carrying the infants in every observed instance. • Greeks and Germans showed the least amount of bodily contact. Percent of Time in Face-to- Face Contact with Infants • All mothers made much face-to-face contact. • Greeks and Germans made considerably more face-to-face contact than those from other cultures. Warmth Shown in Response to Infant‟s Positive Signals (Z- scores) • Compared with other mothers, Greek mothers showed the warmest response to infant‟s positive signals, and Gujarati mothers showed the least warm response. Warmth Shown in Response to Infant‟s Negative Signals (Z- scores) • Compared with other mothers, Costa Rican mothers showed the warmest response to infant‟s negative signals. • Early experiences of infants differ dramatically around the world. People‟s minds develop in highly different circumstances. • Although longitudinal research has yet to be conducted to directly link early infant experiences with adult preferences and behaviors, it is not unreasonable to expect that these early experiences are critical to shaping people‟s development. • How might some of these early experiences affect people‟s development? Cultural Variation in Children‟s Psychology • Attachment Styles • Western researchers proposed three kinds of attachment styles common among parents (esp. mothers) and children. • Secure Attachments: • Infants have warm relationships with parents, and are comfortable and explorative in their presence. Although they get upset to see their parents leave, and are happy to see them upon their return, they become comfortable in their absence. • Avoidant Attachments • Infants have a detached style around their parents, and are not particularly upset when their parents are not around. • Anxious-Ambivalent Attachments • Infants show frequent distress either in the presence or absence of parent. They oscillate between wanting the parent to be closer and pushing them away. Cultural Variation in Frequency of Attachment Styles Some Aspects of Culture are Learned in a Sensitive • In particular,Window of language some aspects are learned in a sensitive window. • A sensitive window indicates a biological preparation for the acquisition of the information. • Humans have evolved such that they learn a language in a particular period of life (from very early, and the sensitivity declines markedly after puberty). Study of Phoneme • Study compared Discrimination infants from English speaking and Hindi speaking parents (Werker & Tees, 1984). • Task was whether infants could discriminate between two Hindi phonemes that are indistinguishable to adult non-Hindi • Some aspects of language learning (phoneme perception) start to be acquired in a very early window. • Some other aspects of language learning, in particular, accent, are learned poorly after puberty. • Militaries have made use of this by asking suspicious people to pronounce shibboleths. Hong Kong Immigrants Acquiring Canadian Culture • We looked at immigrants from Hong Kong to the lower mainland who had immigrated at varying ages (Cheung, Chudek, & Heine, 2009). • They completed an acculturation scale which assessed both their identification with Chinese and with Canadian culture. Age at Immigration Matters Most Degree of Identification Degree of Identification Age at Immigration Years in Canada What might we learn about human‟s ability to acquire culture by observing feral children? Developmental Transitions • “Terrible Twos” Developmental Transitions • “Terrible Twos” Developmental Transitions • “Terrible Twos” • Turbulent Adolescence Socialization Through Education • One of the primary sources of socialization is the school. • Aside from the specific content that people learn at school (e.g., learning about facts, and techniques), how does school shape the ways that people think? Schooling Affords Categorization • Alexander Luria, a founder of the Russian-Historical School of cultural psychology, interviewed Russian peasants with no formal education. • The participants were given a list of four objects and they were to identify the one that didn‟t belong. • Often participants focused on concrete and practical aspects of how the objects could be used together, and did not create any categories. • Example question - “Hammer, saw, log, hatchet. Which one doesn’t belong?” • “They‟re all alike. I think all of them have to be here. See, if you‟re going to saw, you need a saw, and if you have to split something you need a hatchet. So they‟re all needed here.” • “Which of these things could you call by one word?” • “How‟s that? If you call all three of them a „hammer,‟ that won‟t be right either.” • “But one fellow picked three things - the hammer, saw, and hatchet- and said they were alike.” • “A saw, a hammer, and a hatchet all have to work together. But the log has to be here too!” • “Why do you think he picked these three things and not the log?” • “Probably he‟s got a lot of firewood, but if we‟ll be left without firewood, we won‟t be able to do anything.” • Another subject. “Hammer, saw, log, hatchet. Which one doesn’t belong?” • “It‟s the hammer that doesn‟t fit! You can always work with a saw, but a hammer doesn‟t always suit the job, there‟s only a little you can do with it.” • “Yet one fellow threw out the log. He said the hammer, saw, and hatchet were all alike in some way, but the log is different.” • “If we‟re getting firewood for the stove, we could get rid of the hammer, but if it‟s planks we‟re fixing, we can do without the hatchet.” • “If you had to put these in some kind of order, could you take the log out of the group?” • “No, if you get rid of the log, what good would the others be?” • “Suppose I put a dog here instead of the log?” • “If it was a mad dog, you could beat it with the hatchet and the hammer and it would die.” • In 1912, H. H. Goddard assessed the IQ of incoming immigrants to the US. Most of the immigrants had no schooling. • Results of his tests: 83% of Jews, 80% of Hungarians, 79% of Italians, and 87% of Russians were classified as “morons” - (Goddard‟s term for IQ scored below 70) • In sum, many cognitive skills and habits that we are often not aware of, emerge as the product from formal schooling.
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